One more time- How do you motivate employees
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One more time- How do you motivate employees

Course Number: JMSB COMM 210, Winter 2009

College/University: Concordia Canada

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. 33 'I. : / ' , . - i pp. 5- 'C .Qp.4-2- P* I j 1 HBR CLASSIC -. -l r - .. lm - -. , I One More.Time: How Do You Motivate 3 I Employees. I 1 j i I I ; I by Frederick Herzberg How many articles, books, specchcs, and workshops have plcaded plaintively, "How do I get an employee to do what I want?" The psychology of motivation is tremendously complcx, and what has bccn unraveled with any...

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'I. : . 33 / ' , . - i pp. 5- 'C .Qp.4-2- P* I j 1 HBR CLASSIC -. -l r - .. lm - -. , I One More.Time: How Do You Motivate 3 I Employees. I 1 j i I I ; I by Frederick Herzberg How many articles, books, specchcs, and workshops have plcaded plaintively, "How do I get an employee to do what I want?" The psychology of motivation is tremendously complcx, and what has bccn unraveled with any degree of assurance is small indced. But the dismal ratio of knowledge to speculation has not dampened the cnthusiasrn for ncw forms of snake oil that arc constantly coming on the market, many of them with acadcmic testimonials. Doubtless this article will have no depressing impact on the market for snake oil, but sincc the ideas expressed in it have been tested in many corporations and other organizations, it will help -I hope -to redress the imbalance in the aforementioned ratio. i ! i plcxity and difficulty involved insetting up and adi ministering an incentive system. Show the person? : This means a costly uaining propram. We need a I ; simple way. Every audience contains thc "dircct action" manj ager who shouts, "Kick the person!" Arid this t p e i . of manager is right. The surcst and lelst circumioi i cuted way of getting someone to do s o n e t k g is to i administer a kick in the pants -to give what nicnt I ; be called the K.ITA. i There are various forms of.U T A , a d here arc I ; some of them: . Negative physical KIT*. This is a Lirera! applicai tion of the term and was frequently used in the I past. It has, however, three major drawbacks: (1) it is inelegant; (2)i t contradicts the precious image oi benevolence that most organizations cherish; and 'Motivating' with KITA (3) since it is a physical attack, it directly stimui / Ln lectures to industry on the problem, I have lates the autonomic nervous system, and this often found that the audiences are anxious for quick and practical answers, so I will begin with a straightfor- To mark the 65th birthday of the Harvard Business Review, it's appropriate to republish as a "Classic" one of ward, practical formula for moving people. What is the simplest, surest, and most direct way its landmark articles. Frederick Herzberg's contribution of someone to do something? ~ ~ ~~t if has sold more than 1.2 million reprints since itspublicak ! the person responds that he or she does not want to tion in the January-February 1968 issue. BY some 300,000 copies over @ runner-up,that is the largest sale the do then that for P ~ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ of any o f fie *ousands of dcles that have ever t' deternine the reason lorsuch the pemed between HBRoScovers. Frederick Henberg. Djs. person? The response that he Or she tinguished Professor of Management at &e University of understand You1 aild now an expert in communicaUtah, was head of the department of psychology at Case tion methods has to be brought in to show you how Western Reserve University when he wrote this article. to get through. Give the person a monetary incen- H s writings include the book Work and the Nature of i tive? I do not need to remind the reader of thc corn- , h5m (World, 1966). ' j i I : I ' j I : , 1 ; j I i / j j I I I HARVARD BUSINESS R E M W September-October 1987 Copyright 8 1987 by the President and Fellows of Hannrd College. AU rights reserved. $ MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES I / I I I ! i I I j j I I ! , , : i \ ; 1 I / I results in negative feedback - the cmployee may just kick you in return. These factors give rise to certain taboos against negative physical KITA. In uncovering infinite sources of psychological vulnerabilities and the appropriate methods to play tunes on them, psychologists have come to the rescue of those who are no longer permitted to use negative physical KITA. "He took my rug away"; "I wonder what she meant by that"; "The boss is always going around me" - these symptomatic expressions of ego sores that have been rubbed raw are of: the result of a~ulication -Negative psyehologieal KITA. This has several advantages over negative physical KITA. First, the cruelty is not visible; the-bleeding is internal and comes much later. Second, sincc it affects the higher cortical centers of the brain with its inhibitory powers, it reduces the possibility of physical backlash. Third, since the number of psychological pains that a person can feel is almost infinite, the direction and site possibilities of the KITA arc increased many times. Fourth, the person administering the kick can manage to be above it all and let the system accomplish the dirty work. Fifth, those who practice it receive some ego satisfaction (one-upmanship), whereas they would find drawing blood abhorrent. Finally, if the employee does complain, he or she can always be accused of being paranoid; there is no tangible evidence of an actual attack. Now, what does negative KITA accomplish! Lf I kick you in the rear (physically or psychologically), who is motivated? I am motivated; you move! Negative KITA does not lead to motivation, but to movement. So: Positive KITA. Let us consider motivation. If I say to you, "Do this for m e or the company, and in return I will give you a reward, an incentive, more status, a promotion, all the quid pro quos that exist i n the industrial organization," am I motivating you? T h e overwhelming opinion I receive from management people is, "Yes, this is motivation." fhave a year-old Schnauzer. When it was a small puppy and I wanted it to move, I kicked i t in the rear and it moved. Now that I have finished its obedience training, I hold up a dog biscuit when I want the Schnauzer to move. In this instance, who is motivated - I or the dog? The dog wants the biscuit, but it is I who want it t o move. Again, I am the one who i s motivated, and the dog is the one who moves. In this instance all I did was apply KITA frontally; I exerted a pull instead of a push. When industry wishes to use such positive KITAs, i t has available an incredible number and varicty of dog biscuits (jelly beans for humans) to wave in front of employees to get them to jump. 6 Why is it that managerial audiences are quick to see that negative KITA -is- not motivation, while -. - 1 t h c y ~ ~ m 3 ~ a n i m in their judgment that o u s positive KITA is motivation. It is because negative IUTA is rape, and positive KlTA is seduction. But it is infinitely worse to be seduced than to be raped; the latter is an unfortunate occurrence, while the former signifies that you were a party to your own downfall. This is why positive KITA is so popular: i t is a trdition; i t is the American way. The organization does not have to kick you; you kick yourself. i I MythS About Motivation Why is RITA not motivation? If I kick my dog (from the front or the back], he will move. And when I want him to move again, what must I do? I must kick him again. Similarly, I can charge a person's battery, and then rechargc it, and recharge it again. But it is only when one has a generator of one's own that we can talk about motivation. One,then needs no outside stimulation. One wants to do it. With this in mind, we can review some positive KITA personnel practices that were developed as attempts to instill "motivation": I. Reducing time spent at work. This represents a marvelous way of motivating people to work getting them off the job! We have reduced (formally and informally) the time spent on the job over the last 50 or 60 years until we are finally on the way to the "65-day weekend." An interesting variant of this approach is the development of off-hour recreation programs. The philosophy here seems to be that those who play together, work together. The fact is that motivated people seek more hours of work, not fewer. 2. Spiraling wages. Have these motivated people? Yes, to seek the next wage increase. Some medievalists still can be heard to say that a good depression will get employees moving. They feel that if rising wages don't or won't do the job, reducing il them w l . 3. Fringe benefits. Industry has outdone the most welfare-minded of welfare states in dispensing cradle-to-the-grave succor. One company I know of had an informal "fringe benefit of the month club" going for a while. The cost of fringe benefits in this country has reached approximately 25% of the wage dollar, and we still cry for motivation. People spend less time working for more money. and more security than ever before, and the trend cannot be reversed. These benefits are no longer rewards; they are rights. A 6-day week is inhuman, a 10-hour day is exploitation, extended melcal coverage is a basic decency, and stock options are the HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September.Octobcr 1987 I1 : i i i j i j I ~ . , i ; i I ; / / , I I i 1 i 1 , 1 - 7. Two-way communication. Management orI salvation of American initiative. Unless the ante dered morale surveys, suggestion plans, and group is continuously raised, the psychological reaction participation programs. Then both employees and of employees is that the company is turning back management were communicating and listening to the clock. When industry began to realize that both the eco- each other more than ever, but without much imnomic nerve and the lazy nerve of their employees I provement in motivation. had insatiable appetites, it started to listen to the The behavioral scientists began to take another behavioral scientists who, more out of a humanist look at their conceptions and their data, and they took human relations one step further. A glimmer of tradition than from scientific study, criticized management for not knowing how to deal with people. truth was beginning to show through in the writings of the so-called higher-order-need psychologists. The next KITA easily followed. People, so they said, want to actualize themselves. 4. Human relations training. Over 30 years of Unfortunately, the "actualizing" psychologists got teaching and, in many instances, of practicing psychological approaches to handling people have re- mixed up with the human relations psychologists, and a new KlTA emerged. sulted in costly human relations programs and, in the end, the same question: How do you motivate 8. Job participation. Though it may not have been workers? Here, too, escalations have taken place. the theoretical intention, job participation often beI Thirty years ago it was necessary to request, came a "give them the big picture" approach. For "Please don't spit on the floor." Today the same ad- example, if a man is tightening 10,000 nuts a day on monition requires three "pleases" before the cm- an assembly line with a torque wrench, tell him he ; ployee feels that a superior has demonstrated the is building a Chevrolet. Another approach had the I 1 psychologically proper attitude. goal of giving employees a "feeling" that thcy are I The failure of human relations training to produce determining, in some measure, what thcy do on the motivation led to the conclusion that supervisors or job. The goal was to provide a sense of achievement I managers themsclvcs were not psychologically true rather than a substantivc achievement in the task. / to themsclvcs in their practice of interpersonal de- Real achievement, of course, requires a task that cency. So an advanced form of human relations makes it possible. I KITA, sensitivity training, was unfolded. But still there was no motivation. This led to the II I I 5. Sensitivity training. Do you redly, really uninevitable conclusion that the employees must be I I sick, and therefore to the next KITA. , derstand yourself? Do you rcally, really, rcally trust ' other people! Do you really, rcally, really, really co- . 9 . Employee counseling. The initial use of this I operate? The failure of sensitivity training is now form of KlTA in a systematic fashion can be credited being explained, by those who have become oppor- to the Hawthorne experiment of the Western Elcctunistic exploiters of the technique, as a failure to tric Company during the early 1930s. At that time, really (five times) conduct proper sensitivity train- it was found that the employees harbored irrational ing courses. feelings that were interfering with the rational operWith the realization that there are only temporary ation of the factory. Counseling in this instance was gains from comfort and economic and interpersonal a means of letting the employees unburden themKITA, personnel managers concluded that the fault selves by talking to someone about their problems. lay not in what they were doing, but in the employ- Although the counseling techniques were primiee's failure to appreciate what they were doing. This tive, the program was large indeed. opened up the field of communications, a whole The counseling approach suffered as a result of new area of "scientifically" sanctioned IUTA. experiences during World War II, when the pro6. Communications. The professor of communigrams themselves were found to be interfering cations was invited to join the faculty of manage- with the operation of the organizations; the counment training programs and help in making em- selors had forgotten their role of benevolent listenployees understand what management was doing ers and were attempting to do something about the for them. House organs, briefing sessions, supervi- problems that they heard about. Psychological sory instruction o n the importance of comrnunicacounseling, however, has managed to survive the tion, and all sorts of propaganda have proliferated negative impact of World War I1 experiences and until today there is even an International Council today is beginning to flourish with renewed soof Industrial Editors. But no motivation resulted, phistication. But, alas, many of these programs, and the obvious thought occurred that perhaps like all the others, do not seem to have lessened the management was not hearing what the employees pressure of dcrnands to find out how to motivate I were saying. That led to the next IUTA. workers. I ' I / I / ' I 1 I i I HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 7 Exhibit I Factors affecting job attitudes as reported in 12 investigations ~ a c t o characterizing 1,844 events k on the job L.at led l o extreme dlssatistaction . . . . . . . . 2 Fadors characlerizlng 1,753 events on the job that led to extreme satlsfaclion . . Percentage frequency , ,. . , . . . . . . . . . 5We . , ' .. < 40 30 .. 20 10 . 0 . 10 20 30 40 50% . 7 . - . . . .. - . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . , " . . . . . . . ,. .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . ' I -. . . ... , . . . p :. : . . . . , I Respmibility Advancement - Achieve. . . ' Recognition ..-... ..self . . Company PO~~CY and adm~nlstnlon Supervision Relationship &h supervisor Work conditions . . sahv All factors contributing to . . . .. . All factors contributing to job satisfadon .. . . . . . ,.~: . " . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . , . . 81 . .. . . . . . . . . .. " . . . I. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. ..^ . ._ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;.,.,. .."'.... .. i........ ;!,/;,.>. :<..: v . . i:,;;.: :. ,;,-. .... . . . * ,? ; ; > ::",.,;,:..;,, ~+c,>.i;.:;&.:,+i.-,.. . . . . . . . ?: . ....'. . , ..*!+<$$. .;,., , .? : *,":: <,-..i:~ . .... h... .> ; +,)>> .;; . : : , , y.::. ,.,:. c.,. <:, . .*". ::'.$;:. 5 . ..? . ... ;".cr..;;r..-<. . . ,.. i -. .i -. . . ' .... . . ..,. . . . ,.. ... . -,*;-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...... . . . . . .... .. . . . . ., _ . ,.. . . ., , , . ..,.. '. .. . . .. . ., . ., . .,.AC,.;.,. . .. ,. .. j .. .. . . . . . * , ..,.,; . -* -..- , ,:' *.~;.?;;~~? . -$;,,,$.;~.~.:u>i,~$.;j .:;-:,'. . ;.. % ..: ,+, .,* ! .. . ,. ,$. .?,*.!.J.",..-+z . 7 . . .+,-: 3 . . . , ;. <: : : . , . .,: . - . . . . . , . .. . . . ,-' . . . , . ' " ,,., ..-. , . . . . . . . . :. : ..:... . -! ,, '.k.....?2,....h .:".;...' .><:*: : .,:PL: . : : . ; :>:' ... . . .. ,. ., , h-:.."7.:.;,a..,,. . , . . . ., . . . .. . . _ . . . ., . . . .. . . . .. ,,. ., .: . .. . , .. ., .. . . .:... ; . " . . . , . . . -, . . . ' . . . . . . Relationship with subordinates . . . .. -? .; 3 . <-.... . r . , * . ....A. ' 7 ,,,,....,, , ... 8.. . . , ......... . ., ... ..' . . . . . . : ,%>, . ,.... ., :.:..-* . i . attitudes is required before theoretical and practical suggestions can be offered. The theory was first drawn from an examination of events in the lives of engineers and accountants. At least 16 other investigations, using a wide variety of populations (including some in the Communist countries), have since been completed, making the original research Hygiene vs. Motivators one of the most replicated studies in the field of job I 1 Let me rephrase the perennial question this way: attitudes. How do you install a generator in an employee? A The findings of these studies, along with corroboI ration f o many other investigations using differ- I rm 1 brief review of my motivztion-hygiene theory of job 8 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 Since RITA results only i n short-term movement, it is safe to predict that the cost of these programs will increase steadily and new varieties will be developed as old positive RITAs reach their satiation points. MOTIVATING EiMPLOYEES 1 ent procedures, suggest that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation)are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction. Since separate factors need to be considered, depending on whether job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction is being examined, it follows that these two feelings are not opposites of each other. The opposite of job safisfaction is not job dissatisfaction but, rather, no job satisfaction; and sirmlarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, but no job &ssatisfaction. Stating the concept presents a problem in semantics, for we normally think of satisfaction and dissatisfaction as opposites - i.e., what is not satisfying must be dissatisfying, and vice versa. But when it comes to understanding the behavior of people in their jobs, more' than a play on words is involved. Two different needs of human beings are involved here. One set of needs can be thought of as stemming from humankind's animal nature -the built-in drive to avoid pain from the environment, plus all the learned drives that become conditioned to the basic biological needs. For example, hunger, a basic biological drive, makes it necessary to earn money, and then money becomes a specific dnve. The other set of needs relates to that unique human characteristic, the abllity to achieve and, through achievement, to experience psychological growth. The stimuli for the growth needs are tasks that induce growth; in the indusmal setting, they are the job content. Contraziwise, the stimuli inducing pain-avoidance behavior are found in the job environment. T h e growth or motivator factors that are intrin1 ! sic t o t h e job are: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and I growth or advancement. The dissatisfaction-avoidI ance or hygiene (KITA)factors that are extrinsic to the job include: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, and security. A composite of the factors that are involved in causing job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, drawn from samples of 1,685 employees, is shown 'in Exhibit I. The results indicate that motivators were the primary cause of satisfaction,- a e factors the primary cause of unhappiness on the iob. TliFFmplo~ees,studied 12 in different investigations, included lower level supervisors, professional women, agricultural administrators, men about t o retire from management positions, hospital maintenance personnel, manufacturing supervisors, nurses, food handlers, military officers, engineers, scientists, housekeepers, teachers, technicians, female assemblers, accountants, Finnish foremen, and Hungarian engineers. ~-~ - - - - - ~ - They were asked what job events had occurred in their work that had led to extreme satisfaction or extreme dissatisfaction on their part. Their responses are broken down in the exhibit into percentages of total "positive" job events and of total "negativeu job events. (The figures total more than 100% on both the "hygiene" and "motivators" sides because often at least two factors can be attributed to a single event; advancement, for instance, often accompanies assumption of responsibility.) To illustrate, a typical response involving achievement that had a negative effectfor the employee was, "I was unhappy because I didn't do the job successfully." A typical response in the small number of positive job events in the company policy and administration grouping was, "I was happy because the company reorganized the section so that I didn't relonger to the guy I didn't get along.with." port As the lower right-hand part of the exhibit shows, of all the factors contributing to job satisfaction, 81% were motivators. And of all the factors contributing to the employees' dissatisfaction over their work, 69% involved hygiene elements. 4 Eternal triangle. There are three general philosophies of personnel management. The first is based on organizational theory, the second on industrial engineering, and the third on behavioral science. Organizational theorists, believe that human needs are either so irrational or so varied and'adjustable to specific situations that the maior hc-proper mann~~t~e~go~~n,the~result-will be the most efficientjob.stmerurer;?nd-themostfavorabie job attitudes will follow as a matter of course. Industrial ennineers hold t h a t humankind is I mechanisticallvvoriented and economicallv rnoti- I vated and that human needs are best met b; attun- 1 inn the individual to the most efficient work pro- 1 cess. The goal of personnel management thereiore should be to c o n i o c t e most --i p p ~--.-.t - - i n c e n l .F i a _e -----. tive system and to design the specific working con.... , ...-.--.--___-. -d'i'u&i' -. ---i.,l...I. . _ efklifif _ --_.. __ i~"a'~'"~:j;::t~~?'_7acd1tat~st"he most-._ ,.. use ofihe human machine. By structuring jobi Pi -ri~fiXeitlia-i I e i X T o X i o s t efficient operation, engineers believe that they can obtain the optimal organization of work and the proper work attitudes. _ I . . 5 -*---- _?%. ._ I ( - -^ - 1. nel management is generally to emphasize some --- form of human relations education, in the hoyzof j n . stilli-n&gdthy_em&oyecatti+s and7Gorganiza\ _ - ./ HARVARD BUSINESS IEVTEW September-October 1987 9 tional climate that is considered to be felicitous to human values. The belief is that proper attitudcs will lead to efficient job and organizational structure. There is always a livcly debate about the overall effectiveness of the approaches of organizational theorists and industrial engineers. Manifestly both have achieved much. But the nagging question for behavorial scientists has been: What is the cost in human problems that eventually cause more expense to the organization - for instancc, turnover, absenteeism, errors, violation of safety rules, strikes, restriction of output, higher wages, and greater fringe benefits! On the other hand, behavioral scientists are hard put to document much manifest improvement in personnel management, using their approach. he three philosophies can be depicted as a triangle, as is done in Exhibit II, with each persuasion claiming the apex angle. The motivation-hygiene theory claims the same angle as industrial enginecring, but for opposite goals. Rather than rationalizing the work to increase efficiency, the theory suggests that work be enriched to bring about effective utilization of personnel. Such a systematic attempt to motivate employees by manipulating the I motivator factors is just beginning. Thc term job enrichment describes this embyj. on$ movement. An older term, job enlargement, should be avoided because it is associated with past / failures Stemming frcm a misundcrstanhg of the ! problem, Job enrichment provides the opportunity for the employee's psychological growth, while job en1argem"et merely makes a job structurally bigger. Since scientific job enrichment is very new, this article only suggests the principles and practical steps that have recently emerged from several successful experiments in industry. Job loading. In attempting to enrich certain jobs, management often reduces the personal contribution of employees-rather than giving them opportunities for growth in their accustomed jobs. Such endeavors, which I shallm horizontal loading (as opposed to vertical loading, or providing motivator factors], have been the problem of earlier job enlargement programs. Job loading merely enlarges the meaninglessness of the job. Some examples of this approach, and their effect, are: Challenging t h e employee by increasing the amount of production expected. If each tightens 10,000 bolts a day, see if each can tighten 20,000 bolts a day. The arithmetic involved shows that multiplying zero by zero still equals zero. Adding another meaningless task to the existing one, usually some routine clerical activity. The arithmetic here is adding zero to zero. Exhibit II 'Triangle' of philosophies of personnel management A. A B Organhational theory woh Row Industrial engineering jobs Behavioral scknce ,' anitudes Exhibit Ill Principles of vertical job loading Ii Principle Motivators involved Responsibilityand achievement Responsibility and recqnition * ,emo,ng ,, , Of control, retaining amuntabilily iMividua" 'o' B Increasing the accountability I I I c dl~sion. area. and so on) recognit~on achievement, and ~ ~ \ , $ ~ ~Respons~bility,~ ~ ~ ~ , $ " Respo?sibility, achievement, and e recognn~on S 1 Granting additional authority to 3 ~ ~ in lheir activ'y; Job ~ ~ , Ma_g pe.dic direly available to the workers lhemselves rather than supervison Internal recogn~tion new and ; f ' i ~ ~ ~ ~ n o t previously ~ m w t and learning h ~ ~ ~ $ i themtobecomeeqe*s ~ Responsibility, grwrlh, and ~ advancement ~ ~ , ~ , " " ~ $ ~ 1 I Rotating the assignments of a number of jobs that need to be enriched. This means washing dishes for a while, then washing silverware. The arithmetic is substituting one zero for another zero. Removing the most difficult parts of the assignment in order to free the worker to accomplish more of the less challenging assignments. This traditional industrial engineering approach amounts t o subtraction in the hope of accomplishing addition. These are common forms of horizontal loading that frequently come up in preliminary brainstorming sessions of job enrichment. The principles of vertical loading have not all been worked out as yet, and they remain rather general, but I have furHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 10 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES nished seven useful starting points for consideration in Exhibit Ill. A successful application. An example from a highly successful job enrichment experiment can illustrate the distinction between horizontal and vcrtical loading of a job. Thc subjects of this study were the stockholder corrcspondcnts employed by a very large corporation. Seemingly, the task required of these carefully selected and highly trained correspondents was quite complex and challenging. But almost all indexes of pcrformance and job attitudes were low, and exit interviewing confirmed that the challenge of the job existed merely as words. A job enrichment project was initiated in the form of an expcrimcnt with one group, designated as an achieving unit, having its job enriched by the principles described in Exhibit III. A control group continued to do its iob in the traditional way. (Thcrewerc also two ';uncommitted" groups of co>respondents formed to measure the so-called Hawthorne Effect - that is, to gauge whether productivity and attitudes toward the job changed artificially merely because employees sensed that the company was paying more attention to them in doing something different or novel. The results for these groups werc substantially the same as for the control group, and for the sake of simplicity I do not deal with them in this summary.) No changes in / hygiene were introduced for either group other than i those that would have becn made anyway, such as . normal pay increases. The changes for the achieving unit were introduced in the first two months, averaging one per week of the seven motivators listed in Exhibit III. At the end of six months the members of the achieving unit were found to be outperforming their counterparts in the control group, and in addition indicated a marked increase in their liking for their jobs. Other results showed that the achieving group had lower absenteeism and, subsequently, a much higher rate of promotion. Exhibit IVillustrates the changes in performance, measured in February and March, before the study period began, and a t the end of each month of the study period. The shareholder service index represents quality of letters, including accuracy of information, and speed of response to stockholdersf letters of inquiry. The index of a c u r r y t month was averaged into the average of the two prior months, which means that improvement was harder to obtain ifthe indexes of the previous months were low. The "achievers" were performing less well before the six-month period started, and their performance service index continued to decline after the introduction of the motivators, evidently because of unHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 Exhibit IV Shareholder service index in company experiment Three-month cumulative average Performance Index / ' I" Feb Mar ,Apr May Jun Jut Aug Sept, . . six-month m t d y period I , , certainty after their newly granted responsibilities. In the third month, however, performance irn- , proved, and soon the members of this group had , reached a high level of accomplishment. Exhibit V shows the two groups' attitudes toward , their job, measured at the end of March, just beforc I the first motivator was introduced, and again at the end of September. The correspondents were asked 16 questions, all involving motivation. A typical one was, "As you see it, how many opportunities do you feel that you have in your job for making worthwhile contributions!" The answers were scaled from 1 to 5, with 80 as the maximum possible score. The achievers became much more positive about their job, while the attitude of the control unit remained about the same (the drop is not statistically significant). How was the job of these correspondents restructured! Exhibit VI lists the suggestions made that were deemed to be horizontal loading, and the actual vertical loading changes that were incorporated in the job of the achieving unit. The capital letters under "Principle" after "Vertical loading" rcfcr to , 11 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES vator words have ncvcr left industry; the substancc has just bccn rationalized and organized out. Words like "responsibility," "growth," "achievement," and "chafienge," fo; cxamplc, have bccn elcvatcd to the lyrics of the patriotic anthem for all organizaJob readon mean score tions. It is the old problem typified by the pledge of ' . . . . allegiance to the flag being more important than 60 contributions to the country - of following the form, rather than the substancc. .. . . .. . . 6. Screen the list to eliminate any horizontal loading suggestions. 7. Avoid dircct participation by the employees whose jobs are to be enriched. Ideas they have expressed previously certainly constitute a valuable source for recommended changes, but their direct involvement contaminates the process with human relations hygiene and, more specifically, gives them only a sense of making a contribution. The job is to be changed, and it is the content that will produce the motivation, not attitudes about bcing involvcd or the challenge inherent in setting up a job. That process will be ovcr shortly, and it is what the employees will be doing from then on that will determine thcir motivation. A sense of participation wl result only in short-term movcmcnt. il March September iime between surveys 8. In thc initial a t t e m ~ t s job enrichment, set at up a controlled expcnrnent. ~t ieast two equivalent groups should be chosen, one an experimental unit I the corresponding letters in Exhibit Ill. Thc rcadcr ; in which thc motivators are systcmatically introI will note that the rejected forms of horizontal load- , duced ovcr a pcriod of time, and the othcr one a coning correspond closely to the list of common manitrol group in which no changes are made. For both festations I mentioned earlier. : groups, hygicnc should be allowed to follow its natural course for the duration of thc experiment. Prcand post-installation tests of performance and job Steps for Job Enrichment attitudes are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness Now that the motivator idea-has been described in of the job enrichment program. The attitude test practice, here are the steps that managers should take must be limited to motivator items in order to diin instituting the principle with their employees: vorce employees' views of the jobs they are given 1. Select those jobs in which (9)the investrnertt in from all the surrounding hygiene feelings that they industrial engineering does not make changes too might have. costly, (b] attitudes are poor, (c) hygiene is becom9. Be prepared for a drop in performance in the exing very costly, and (d)motivation will make a dif- perimental group the first few weeks. The changeference in performance. over to a new job may lead to a temporary reduction 2. Approach these jobs with the conviction that in efficiency. they can be changed. Years of tradition have led 10. Expect your first-line supervisors to experimanagers to believe that the content of the jobs is ence some anxiety and hostility over the changes sacrosanct and t h e only scope of action that they you are making. The anxiety comes from their fear have is i n ways of stimulating people. that the changes will result in poorer performance 3. Brainstorm a list of changes that may enrich for their unit. Hostility will arise when the employthe jobs, without concern for theirpracticality. ees start assuming what the supervisors regard as 4. Screen the List to eliminate suggestions that in- their own responsibility for performance. The suvolve hygiene, rather than actual motivation. pervisor without checking duties to perform may 5. Scrccn the list for gcncralitics, such as "givc then bc left with little to do. them more responsibility," that are rarely followed After successful experiment, however, the superin practice. This might seem obvious, but the moti- visors usually discover the supervisory and manExhibit V Changes in attitudes toward tasks in company experiment Changes in mean scores over six-month period I' j I 1 I I - : 1 ; 1 , I I I1 # I , ' 1' i I i 12 HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 1 Exhibit VI Enlargement vs. enrichment of correspondents' tasks in company experiment Horizontal loeding suggestions rejected Vertical loading suggestions adopted Principle Firm quotas could be set for letters to be answered each day, using a rate which would be hard to reach. The secretaries could type the letters themselves, as well as compose Ihem, or take on any other clerical functions. All difficult or complex inquiries could be channeled to a few secretaries so that the remainder could achieve high rates of output. These jobs could be exchanged from time to time. The secretaries could be rotated through units handling different customers, and then sent b a a to their own units. Subjecl matter experts were appointed within each unit for other members of the unit to consutt with before seeking supervisory help. (The supervisor had been answering all specialized and difficult questions.) Conespondents signed their own names on letters. (The supervisor had been signing all leners.) The work of the more experienced correspondents was proofread less frequently by supervisors and was done at correspondents'desks,dropping verification from 100% to 10%. (Previously, all correspondents'letters had been checked by the supervisor.) Production was discussed, tut o n 4 in terms such as 'a full day's work is expected.' As t~me went on, this was no longer mentioned. (Before. Ihe group had been wnstanuy reminded of the number ol letters that needed to be answered.) Outgoing mail went directly to the mailroom without going over supervisors'desks. (The leners had always been routed through the supervisors.) Correspondents were encouraged to answer letters in a more personalized way. (Reliance on the fon.lener approach had been standard practice.) Each correspondents was held personally responsible for the quality and accuracy of leners. (This responsibility had been the province of the supervisor and the verifier.) G B A D A C B. E , ivcre ncvcr theirs because all their time was given j ; j I I j OThose who have still more ability eventually will ! be able to d e m P m e t t c r and win promotion ! over to chccking thc work of thcir subordinatcs. For i to higher level jobs. i example, in the Re;D division of onc large chemical he very nature of motivators, as opposed to hycompany I know of, the supervisors of thc laborato- I gicnc factors, is that they have a much longer term ry assistants were theoretically rcsponsible for effcct on employees' attitudes. Perhaps the job will I thcir training and evaluation. These functions, have to be enriched again, but this will not occur as I however, had come to be performed in a routine, I hequently as the need for hygiene. unsubstantial fashion. After the job enrichment ~ oall jobs cAn be enriched, nor do all jobs need t program, during which the supervisors were not to be enriched. If only a small percentage of the merely passive observers of the assistants' perfor- time and money that is now devoted to hygiene, mance, the supervisors actually were devoting their however, were given to job enrichment efforts, the time t o reviewing performance and administering return in human satisfaction and economic gain thorough training. would be one of the largest dividends that industry What has been called an employee-centered style and society have ever reaped through their efforts a t of supervision will come about not through educa- better persomel management. tion of supervisors, but by changing the jobs that The argument for job enrichment can be summed they do. up quite simply: if you have employees on a job, use them. If you can't use them on the job, get rid of them, either via automation or by selecting someConcluding Note f one with lesser ability. L you can't use them and fob enrichment will not be a one-time proposiyou can't get rid of them, you will have a motivation, b u t a continuous management function. The tion problem. 8 initial changes should last for a very long period of Reprint 87507 time. There are a number of reasons for this: O T h e changes should bring the job up to the levcl of challenge commensurate with the skill that was hired. , [ ~ c Ret:ospcctive Commentary on following page.] c agcrial functions they have ncglectcd, or which i I HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1987 13

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Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
The Bases of Social Power J. French t B. Raven, 1959. In D.CmWight, Studies in Social Power, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan [excerpts]By the basis of power, we mean the relationship between P (the Person) and 0 (the Other), whichi
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
,ITHE R O A DTO DAVY'S BARIIIThe Wicklow Mountains lie just outside Dublin, Ireland. It is an area of wild beauty, a place to which, as an Irishman born near there, I return as ofteri as I can. It is still a bare and lonely spot, with unmarked road
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Critical Business Thinking Comm 210IntroductionCritical Business Thinking Comm 210 Robert HurtubiseCritical Business Thinking Comm 210CourseSo why critical thinking?Brainstorm groups of 5Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Cou
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 2: Organizations and Global SuccessWHY MEXICANS DON'T DRINK MOLSON (intro &amp; chpt 1) CHANDLER: THE ENDURING LOGIC OF INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS DYER: CLAIMSCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Unders
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 2: Organizations and Global SuccessWHY MEXICANS DON'T DRINK MOLSON (intro &amp; chpt 1) CHANDLER: THE ENDURING LOGIC OF INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS DYER: CLAIMSCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Understand why growth is a primary objecti
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Objectives of BusinessDrucker - Purpose and Objectives of a Business Dyer - Quality of Evidence Mandel-Campbell - Chapters 2-3Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Mind map a type of concept map Start planning the team project Develo
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 4Drucker Purporse and Objectives of a Business AND Leadership Mintzberg Managerial Roles Mandel-Campbell Chapters 4 and 5Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Drucker on Purpose and Objectives of Business Recognize the key role
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Objectives for today Recognize the key role of upper management in setting a direction for the organization Understand why vision plays a role in a company's success Be able to reconcile the need for stability with the need for change Uncover &amp; critique
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Class 6:K NOWL EDGE AND POWER Power and t he effect s on leader ship M andel-Campbell Chapt er 8 Review for t he mid-t er mCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Object ives for t oday Apply Fr ench &amp; Raven's t axonomy of power r elat ionships Be able t o
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
Entrepreneurship and GrowthProject Review Greiner Stages of Growth Dyer Causal Claims Burlingham Chapters 1-2 Mid-term ReviewCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Project ProgressCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Questions about t
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 9 THE COMMUNITY CONTEXTREVIEW GREINER CAUSAL CLAIMS K &amp; P BALANCED SCORECARD TECHNIQUES OF PERSUASION BURLINGHAM CHAPTERS 3 AND 4Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Greiner and Burlingham Causal Claims Recognize the variety o
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 10 Employees and MotivationTECHNIQUES OF PERSUASION Herzberg How Do You Motivate Employees Drucker on Picking People BURLINGHAM CHAPTERS 5 AND 6Critical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Critical thinking skills: Techniques of persu
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 11CHANGE Finish up How to Pick People - Drucker CHARLES HANDY : THE SIGMOID CURVE Mandel-Campbell Chap 9 and 10 Burlingham ReflectionsCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Finish up `How to Pick People' Describe ways that manag
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 12 COMPREHENSIVE EXERCISESCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Hand in project and review posters Understand the role of COMM 210 as providing a &quot;tool kit&quot; of ideas for your future courses Review the range of concepts in the to
Concordia Canada - JMSB - COMM 210
CLASS 12 COMPREHENSIVE EXERCISESCritical Business Thinking Comm 210Objectives for today Hand in project and review posters Understand the role of COMM 210 as providing a &quot;tool kit&quot; of ideas for your future courses Review the range of concepts in the to
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 1Financial Statements and Business DecisionsCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited1-1What is Accounting?Copyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited1-2What is Accounting? Accounting is a system that collects and processes (analyzes, meas
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 2Investing and Financing Decisions and the Balance SheetCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited2-1The Conceptual FrameworkAssumptions Separate entity: Transactions of the business entity are separate from transactions of owners. Continuity
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 3Operating Decisions and the Income StatementCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited3-1A = L + SEASSETS Debit for Credit for Increase Decrease LIABILITIES Debit Credit for for Increase DecreaseNext, let's see how Revenues and Expenses aff
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 5Reporting and Interpreting Cash FlowsCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited5-1Business BackgroundPositive cash flows permit a company to . . .pay dividends to owners take advantage of market opportunities expand its operations replace n
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 6Communicating and Interpreting Accounting InformationCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited6-1Players in the Accounting Communication ProcessManagement Preparation CFO, CEO, Accounting Staff Guided by GAAP Independent Auditors Verificati
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 7Reporting and Interpreting Sales Revenue, Receivables, and CashCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited7-1Reporting Net SalesCompanies record sales discounts, sales returns and allowances, and credit card discounts separately to allow mana
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 8Reporting and Interpreting Cost of Goods Sold and InventoryCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited8-1Costs Included in Inventory PurchasesThe cost principle requires that inventory be recorded at the price paid or the consideration given.
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 9Reporting and Interpreting Property, Plant, and Equipment; Natural Resources; and IntangiblesCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited9-1Classifying Long-Lived AssetsActively Used in OperationsExpected to Benefit Future PeriodsTangible Ph
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 10Reporting and Interpreting Current LiabilitiesCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited10-1Business BackgroundThe acquisition of assets is financed from two sources:Debt - funds from creditorsEquity funds from ownersThe mix of debt and
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 11Reporting and Interpreting Long-term LiabilitiesCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited11-1Types of Long-Term DebtLong-term debt is available to companies in various forms: Bank loans Notes Mortgages Bonds and DebenturesCopyright 2008 M
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 12Reporting and Interpreting Owners' EquityCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited12-1Ownership of a CorporationShareholders (Owners of voting shares)Appointed by directorsVice President (Production)Board of Directors Internal (managers
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Chapter 13Analyzing Financial StatementsCopyright 2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited13-1Understanding The BusinessFINANCIAL STATEMENT USERSMANAGEMENT EXTERNAL DECISION MAKERS. . . uses accounting data to make product pricing and expansion decisions.
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCYFINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSMID-TERM EXAMINATION Winter 2008 Duration: 3 hours Instructions: 1. This examination paper consists of 8 pages including this page. Please make sure your paper has a
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCYFINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSMID-TERM EXAMINATION Fall 2007 Duration: 3 hours Instructions: 1. This examination paper consists of 8 pages including this page. Please make sure your paper has all
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCYFINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSMID-TERM EXAMINATION Fall 2008 Duration: 3 hours Instructions (very important): 1. This examination paper consists of 7 pages including this page. Please make sure y
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY FINAL EXAMINATION FALL 2007FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSIntroduction (READ THIS PAGE IT CONTAINS IMPORTANT INFORMATION) 1. This examination consists of Five (5) Questions printed on nine (9) pa
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY FINAL EXAMINATION Fall 2008 Duration: 3 hours Instructions (very important):FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONS1. This examination paper consists of 10 pages including this page and the present value
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCYFINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSFINAL EXAMINATION Winter 2008 Duration: 3 hours Instructions: 1. This examination paper consists of 9 pages including this page. Please make sure your copy has all p
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
1CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL ACCOUNTINGDEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY COMM 217 ALL SECTIONS MIDTERM EXAMINATION Winter 2009 Duration: 3 hours Instructions: 1. This examination paper consists of 8 pages including this page. Please make sure your paper ha
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Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
COMM 217 Fall 2007 Solution to the Final Exam Question 1 (27 marks; 1.5 mark each) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. C C A B B D D C C D A A A A B A D CQuestion 2 (18 marks) Req. 1(6 marks) SCORESBY, INC. Income Statement For
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COMM 217 Winter 2008 Solution to the Final Exam Question 1 (24 marks; 1.5 mark each) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14. 15. 16. B C D D C A D B D C A B D B C D1Question 2 (18 marks) 1. Total acquisition cost = $320,000 + $5,000 + $2,000 = $32
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
SUGGESTED SOLUTION TO MID-TERM EXAM COMM 217 Fall 2007 QUESTION 1 (1.5 mark each) 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. B 8. D 9. C 10. CQUESTION 2 (14 marks) Part A 6 marks 1. Amount of note receivable = 50,000 20,000 = 30,000 Cash Note Receivable Sales Cost
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY SUGGESTED SOLUTION MID-TERM EXAMINATION Fall 2008 Question 1 (21 marks)(1.5 marks per correct answer)FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING COMM 217 ALL SECTIONSMultiple-choice1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.c c c d a a b b b1
Concordia Canada - JMSB - Comm 217
Fall 07 final exam Req. 1 SCORESBY, INC. Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2007 Case A FIFO Sales revenue1 . Cost of goods sold : Beginning inventory . Purchases . Cost of goods available for sale2 Ending inventory3 . Cost of goods sold. Gr
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