13 Lec 13 Fungi
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13 Lec 13 Fungi

Course Number: ESPM 131, Spring 2010

College/University: Berkeley

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Soil Fungi Soil I. Classification, morphology.. II. Fungi distribution in soil III. Survival and propagation IV. Important roles of fungi in soil 1. Organic matter degradation 2. Importance in soil foodwebs 3. Parasites and pathogens 4. production of mycotoxins 5. Mutualistic associations 5. Soil aggregation IV. Application of soil fungi 1. Fermentation 2. production of antibiotics 3. Biological control 4....

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Fungi Soil Soil I. Classification, morphology.. II. Fungi distribution in soil III. Survival and propagation IV. Important roles of fungi in soil 1. Organic matter degradation 2. Importance in soil foodwebs 3. Parasites and pathogens 4. production of mycotoxins 5. Mutualistic associations 5. Soil aggregation IV. Application of soil fungi 1. Fermentation 2. production of antibiotics 3. Biological control 4. Bioremediation Reading: Textbook: Sylvia et al., 2004. Chapter 6, pages 141-161. Eukaryotes Fungi Eukaryote Nuclearmembrane Multiplechromosomes Mitochondria,organelles Polysaccharidetypewall(cellulose, chitin) Twotypesofribosomes(80S,70S) Multicellularanddifferentiated Sexualreproduction Cells>5 mindiameter Structuraldiversity From Coyne, Soil Microbiology Bacteria Prokaryote Nonuclearmembrane Singlechromosome Fewinternalstructures Peptidoglycanwalls 70Sribosomesonly Usuallyunicellular Asexualreproduction Cells<5 mindiameter Metabolicdiversity Heterotrophs Saprotroph Parasite Symbiont Hyphae Filaments: 3-10 m in Mycelium Nature 356(2) 428-431, 1992 2003: Armillaria ostoyae, Oregon - 0.15 km2 (37 acres) - 1500 years old - 8.9 km2 (2,200 acres) - 2000-8650 years old Filamentous Fungi Single-cell yeasts Fungal cell wall Eukaryotes Heterotrophs Almost all aerobic 80.000 species described but much more exist Fungal distribution Organism Plantroots Fungi Bacteria Actinomycetes Protozoa Nematodes Earthworms Biomass(kgper hectare) 20,00090,000 2,500 1,0002,000 02,000 0500 0200 02,500 Relative contribution of soil organisms to the biomass of a temperate grassland soil Fungal distribution Determined by: - Availability of organic C (most are saprobes) - Vegetation composition - pH (tolerant to acid pH) - Temperature (mesophile) - Water - Oxygen (most are strictly aerobes in top 15 cm of soils) Fungal distribution: mutualism Endophytic association Neotyphodium coenophialum in Festuca arundinacea Mycorrhizal association (see next lecture) Survival and propagation - sexual and asexual spores - survival from weeks to years in soil conidia: asexual spores ascospores: result of sexual fusion sclerotia: aggregated hyphae, easily dispersed Survival and propagation Active dispersion Fairy rings Survival and propagation 2.5 m Pilobolus (ballistospores) Ascomycetes Survival and propagation ascus Max 0.5 m ascospores Ascomycetes Survival and propagation spore basidia 0.5-1 mm Basidiomycetes Survival and propagation Passive dispersion by wind or water Earthstar Puffball spore dispersal dry wet Survival and propagation Passive dispersion by animals Truffle Stinkhorn From Van Elsas et al., Modern Soil Microbiology, 2007 1. Organic matter decay Role of Fungi in soils Role of Fungi in soils 2. Importance in soil foodwebs Food source for invertebrates Predators of nematodes SEM of a nematode caught in the constricting rings of Arthrobotrys anchonia Adhesive net nematodes by trapped the adhesive nets of the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Role of Fungi in soils 3. Parasites and pathogens 70% of crop diseases are caused by fungi Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) From Van Elsas et al., Modern Soil Microbiology, 2007 Role of Fungi in soils 4. Production of mycotoxins (reported as early as 1861) Poisonous mushrooms responsible for 95 % of the fatal cases of mushroom poisoning throughout the world Amanita muscaria Amanita phalloides Role of Fungi in soils 4. Production of mycotoxins (reported as early as 1861) Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) Ergotism (St Anthonys fire) Role of Fungi in soils 5. Mutualistic associations Mycorrhizae (cf next lecture) Lichens Role of Fungi in soils 6. Enhanced soil aggregation Applications of soil Fungi 1. Fermentation (yeasts) Penicillium species yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis Aspergillus oryzae Applications of soil Fungi 2. Production of antibiotics Penicillin discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming Isolated from a mold, Penicillium notatum First drug against syphilis and Staphylococcus 1945 Nobel prize Staphylococcus aureus Penicillium Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control About 20 fungal products sold commercially Competition for space and for nutrients, predation and antibiotics Myrothecium verrucaria as biocontrol of weed species Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Fungi to Control Plant Diseases: Root rot of Conifers Root rot of pine caused by the bracket fungus Heterobasidium annosum Phlebiopsis gigantea prevents invasion by the pathogen Heterobasidium annosum Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Fungi to Control Plant Diseases: Post-harvest rot of citrus fruits Fruit rot of citrus showing the effectiveness of biocontrol with Pichia guillermondii (U.S.-7) Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Biocontrol of insects: Control of cabbage loopers with Noumorea rileyi Control of coakroach with Metarrhizium body cavity full of spores Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Biocontrol of Nematodes: a) Nematode-trapping fungi: Arthrobotrys irregularis, Dactylella spp. Monacrosporium spp. Dactylella drechsleri Monacrosporium robustum Anthrobotrys dactyloides Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Biocontrol of Nematodes: b) Endoparasitic fungi: Drechmeria coniospora, Catenary anguillulae, Hirsutella rhossiliensis sinuous fungal hyphae inside the nematode conidia Drechmeria coniospora Applications of soil Fungi 3. Biological control Biocontrol of Nematodes: c) Parasitic fungi attacking sedentary stages of nematodes: Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus P. chlamydosporia infected Meloidogyne incognita egg Applications of soil Fungi 4. Bioremediation - White-rot fungi - PAHs - Chlorophenols - Nitrotoluenes - Polychlorinated biphenyls - Azo dyes Applications of soil Fungi 5. They are delicious

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Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Mycorrhizal Symbioses MycorrhizalI. Introduction and history II. Types and distribution of mycorrhizae1. Endomycorrhizae: Arbuscular 2. Ectomycorrhizae 3. Orchidaceous mycorrhizae 4. Ericaceous mycorrhizae 5. Changes of mycorrhizal types with latitude/a
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Rediscovering the original methods of soil microbiologyCatherine OsborneBeijerinck, the first environmental microbiologist1888Conn, the first soil microbial ecologistThe microscopicallydetermined size of the soil bacterial population is at least 20 t
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Molecular analysis of soil microbial communities1. Diversity, structure and quantity Eoin BrodieLawrence Berkeley National Lab elbrodie@lbl.gov 510-486-6584Complexity of soil Physical heterogeneityParticle size distribution And aggregate formation Re
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Molecular analysis of soil microbial communitiesII. Function of soil microbial communities Eoin Brodie, LBNL elbrodie@lbl.govSummary Whos there? Biomarkers: DNA extraction PCR amplification clone libraries / microarrays How many? Relative abundance:
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Soil FaunaI. Classification II. Groups of soil fauna 1. Macrofauna: earthworms 2. Mesofauna: collembolans and nematodes 3. Microfauna: protozoa III. Effects of soil fauna on soil and soil microorganisms 1. Grazing 2. Fragmentation of soil organic matter
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Viruses in soilViruses are molecular sharks, a motive without a mind. Richard Preston I. Introduction II. General properties of viruses 1. Size and morphology 2. Types of viruses 3. The structure of viruses 4. General features of virus replication III. V
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Applications of Ecological ConceptsJennifer Pett-RidgeS curve of population growth # of animalstimeEcology &amp; Microbial Ecology Historical disconnect between ecologists and microbiologists Microbes difficult to observe in nature Tools and disciplines
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Part 1: Nature of organic materials added to soilSoil Organic MatterI. C cycle and significance of microorganisms to C cycling II. Nature and ease of decomposition of organic materials added to soil 1. Plant residues a) cellulose b) hemicellulose c) sta
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Part 2: Mineralization and residue decompositionI. Factors controlling the rates of decomposition and mineralization 1. Location and size of residues 2. C/N of residues 3. Importance of soil fauna 4. Lignin content of residues 5. Environmental conditions
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Soil Organic Matter Soil3: Humification and CompostingI. Humus formation and characteristics 1. Humus formation 2. Humus characteristics a. Composition b. Chemical fractionation c. Humus-clay complexes b. Adsorptive properties 3. Beneficial properties i
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Degradation of xenobiotics Degradation(part 1)I. Xenobiotics 1. Definition 2. Types of compounds 3. Pesticides II. Processes affecting xenobiotics cycle in soils 1. Volatilization 2. Adsorption/desorption 3. Leaching/runoff 4. Abiotic transformations 5.
Berkeley - ESPM - 131
Degradation of xenobiotics Degradation(part 2)I. Xenobiotics 1. Definition 2. Types of compounds 3. Pesticides II. Processes affecting xenobiotics cycle in soils 1. Volatilization 2. Adsorption/desorption 3. Leaching/runoff 4. Abiotic transformations 5.
University of Phoenix - FIN - 324
Week 3Individual Quiz (Albrecht et al, chapters 14; and Brealey et al, chapter 17) Directions: Choose the correct answer by highlighting the answer with yellow marker from the MS Word program (You can also use a separate sheet, but make sure to number you
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6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 4, 2009Lecture 1Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Mergen Nachin1Administrative Information Lecturer: Madhu Sudan (madhu@mit.edu) TA: Brenden Juba (bjuba@mit.edu) Website: http:/courses.csail.mit.edu/6.841/ The grading
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFebruary 9, 2009Lecture 2Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Sam McVeetyToday, we will study diagonalization and Ladners Theorem, which states roughly that: P = NP NP-intermediate Problem Later, we will look at relativization
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 11, 2009Lecture 3Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Debmalya PanigrahiIn todays lecture, we will focus on non-uniform models of computation. In non-uniform computation, we have a dierent gadget/program/machine for each i
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 17, 2009Lecture 4Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Adam Spanbauer1IntroductionTodays lecture will focus on the proof of Barringtons Theorem: Barringtons Theorem: All polynomial-size formulas have an O(1) width brachin
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 18, 2009Lecture 5Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Yang Cai1Overview P ARIT Y AC 0 . / Random Restriction Switching Lemma DN F CN F2Introduction AC k : Class of functions computable by polynomial size and O(log n)k
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 23, 2009Lecture 6Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Michael ForbesThe goal of this lecture is to give alternate proof of PARITY AC0 , following the outline of Razborov / and Smolensky.0.1Probability ReviewProbability
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryFeb 7, 2005Lecture 7: Communication Complexity and Lower BoundsLecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: David ChenThis lecture gives an introduction to Communication Complexity. We go over the properties and examples of Communicat
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMar 04, 2009Lecture 09Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Jeremy HurwitzIn this lecture, we introduce a new model of computation and a set of corresponding complexity classes which sit between N P and P SP ACE . This model is
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMarch 9, 2009Lecture 10Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Asilata BapatMeeting to talk about nal projects on Wednesday, 11 March 2009, from 5pm to 7pm. Location: TBA. Includes food.1Overview of todays lecture Randomized c
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMar 11, 2009Lecture 11Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Colin Jia Zheng1RecapWe dened RP as the class of languages accepted by PPT machine with one-sided error bounded below 1/3, BPP with two-sided error with gap 1/3. RP
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMarch 18, 2009Lecture 13Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Alex Cornejo1Overview of todays lecture Todas Theorem: PH :=k N P k P#P , steps: Prove some properties concerning C , C , C , BP C Do some operator calculus to
MIT - CS - 6.841
6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMar 30, 2009Lecture 14Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Huy Nguyen1Admin Interactive proofs The complexity classes IP and AMThe topics for today are:Please see Madhu if you have not been assigned a project.2Theorems v
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
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6.841 Advanced Complexity TheoryMay 11, 2009Lecture 25Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Rishi GuptaWrite your feedback for the course at https:/sixweb.mit.edu/student/evaluate/6.841-s2009. It will help future students decide whether they should take the c
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
MIT - CS - 6.841
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MIT - CS - 6.896
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