Chapter 16
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Chapter 16

Course Number: ISP 205, Fall 2007

College/University: Michigan State University

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Chapter 16 Basic Skills/ Definitions A: Which of the following best summarizes what we mean by dark matter? Matter that we have identified from its gravitational effects but that we cannot see in any wavelength of light. B: Which of the following best summarizes what we mean by dark energy? It is a name given to whatever might be responsible for causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate with time. C: The...

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16 Chapter Basic Skills/ Definitions A: Which of the following best summarizes what we mean by dark matter? Matter that we have identified from its gravitational effects but that we cannot see in any wavelength of light. B: Which of the following best summarizes what we mean by dark energy? It is a name given to whatever might be responsible for causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate with time. C: The text states that luminous matter in the Milky Way seems to be much like the tip of an iceberg. This refers to the idea that: The unseen dark matter represents much more mass and extends much further from the galactic center than the luminous matter in the Milky Way. ** Dark matter might make up 90% of the galaxy's mass** D: What is a rotation curve? A graph showing how orbital velocity depends on distance from the center for a spiral galaxy E: What do we mean when we say that the rotation curve for a spiral galaxy is "flat"? Gas clouds orbiting far from the galactic center have approximately the same orbital speed as gas clouds located further inward. F: What is the main way that we determine the mass distribution of a spiral galaxy? Constructing its rotation curve, which we make by looking for Doppler shifts in the 21 cm emission from atomic hydrogen in its disk. G: Although we know less about dark matter in elliptical galaxies than we do in spiral galaxies, what does current evidence suggest? Elliptical galaxies probably contain a similar proportion of their mass in the form of dark matter as do spiral galaxies. H: Which of the following is NOT one of the three main strategies used to measure the masses of galaxy clusters? Measuring the speeds of galaxies orbiting the cluster's center Measuring the temperatures of stars in the halos of the galaxies ** Stellar temperatures do not indicate the mass of a galaxy cluster. Observing how the clusters bend light as gravitational lenses Studying the X-ray emission from hot gas inside the clusters I: When we say that a cluster a galaxies is acting as a gravitational lens, what do we mean? It bends or distorts the light coming from galaxies located behind it. J: Which of the following statements best summarizes what studies of the masses of individual galaxies and of clusters of galaxies have told us about dark matter? Dark matter is the dominant form of mass in both clusters and in individual galaxies K: What is the distinguishing characteristic of what we call ordinary of baryonic matter? It consists of atoms of ions with nuclei made from protons and neutrons. ** Protons and neutrons are both classified as baryons.** L: Some dark matter may consist of what astronomers call Machos (massive compact halo objects). Which of the following would NOT be considered a type of MACHO if it were found in the halo of the galaxy? Brown Dwarfs, Neutrinos, Planet sized objects that do not orbit a star, or Dim low mass stars? ** Neutrinos are subatomic particles with very low mass, so they certainly are not massive compact objects. M: What do we mean when we say that particles such as neutrinos or WIMPs are weakly interacting? They interact with other matter via the weak force but do not interact with the electromagnetic force hence cannot emit light. N: Which of the following best sums up current scientific thinking about the nature of dark matter? We have been able to rule out the possibility that most dark matter is made of a known form of matter, meaning that it must be made of some as-yet-undiscovered type of particle. O: What do astronomers mean by the large-scale structure of the universe? The overall arrangement of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and super clusters in the universe. P: What do we mean by the critical density of the universe? The average density the universe would need in order for its gravity to ultimately win out over the current rate of expansion (if it weren't accelerating). Q: Evidence from distant supernovae suggests that the universe is doing something that goes against what nearly all astronomers expected just a decade ago. What is this phenomenon, which is variously attributed to things called dark energy, the cosmological constant, or quintessence? The expansion of the universe seems to be getting even faster. R: What exactly is dark energy? We really don't know, but since it's not a form of matter, we use "dark energy" as the all purpose explanation for the acceleration observed of the expansion of the universe. Chapter 17 Basic Skills. Concepts A Based on our current understanding of physics, it would seem that we can understand the conditions that prevailed in the early universe as far back in time as: One ten-billionth of a second after the Big Bang B What happens when a particle of matter meets its corresponding antiparticle of antimatter? The combined mass-energy of the two particles is completely transformed into radiation-energy (two photons) C What is the significance of the Planck time? Before it, conditions were so extreme that our current understanding of physics is insufficient to predict what might have occurred. D: The four fundamental forces that operate in the universe today are: Strong force, weak force, electromagnetic force, gravity E A "GUT" refers to theories that: Unify the strong force with the electromagnetic and weak forces. F: What do we mean by inflation? We mean a sudden a rapid acceleration of the universe that went on for a tiny fraction of a second at the time the strong force froze out from the GUT force. G Of the statements below which one correctly summarizes the events in the early universe according to the Big Bang theory? The universe began with the forces unified. During the first fraction of a second, the forces separated and there was a brief but important episode of inflation. Subatomic particles of both matter and anitmatter then began to appear from the energy present in the universe. Most of the particles annihilated to make protons, neutrons, electrons, and neutrinos. The protons and neutrons underwent some fusion during the first three minutes, thereby determining the basic chemical composition of the universe. H Which statement about the cosmic microwave background is NOT true? It is the result of a mixture of radiation from many independent sources, such as stars and galaxies. I The Big Bang theory is supported by two major lines of evidence that alternative models have not successfully explained. What are they? (1) the theory predicts the existence of and the specific characteristics of the observed cosmic microwave background; (2) the theory correctly predicts the observed overall chemical composition of the universe. J-Measuring the amount of deuterium in the universe allows us to set a limit on _________. the density of ordinary (baryonic) matter the universe K- Based on the Big Bang theory, what do observations of the cosmic microwave background and of chemical abundances in the universe suggest about dark matter? Much of the dark matter must be made of non-ordinary (nonbaryonic) matter, such as WIMPs. L- Which of the following observations cannot be explained by the Big Bang theory unless we assume that an episode of inflation occurred? The fact that the temperature of the cosmic microwave background is almost the same everywhere M-The idea of inflation makes one clear prediction that, until quite recently, seemed to contradict the available observations. What is this prediction? The universe should be geometrically "flat" (in the four dimensions of spacetime). N- Olbers's paradox is an apparently simple question, but its resolution suggests that the universe is finite in age. What is the question? Why is the sky dark at night? Fate of the Universe Tutorial: 1. If Earth's mass were half its actual value but its radius stayed the same, the escape velocity of the Earth would be: 2- lower than its actual value 2. If the actual mass density of the universe is greater than the critical density and there is no dark energy, then the universe would: 3- eventually stop expanding and begin contracting 3. If gravity is the only force that plays a role in the evolution of the universe, and the mass density is less than the critical mass density, which plot correctly shows the evolution of the universe? 2- plot B 4. If gravity is the only force that plays a role in the evolution of the universe, and the mass density is greater than the critical mass density, which plot correctly shows the evolution of the universe? 3- plot C 5. For which model would the universe begin eclipsing the soonest? A universe with no dark energy and two times the critical mass density. 6. If the expansion of the universe is accelerating, then the rate at which galaxies were moving apart in the past was 2- less than the rate at which they are moving apart today.

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