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sychology P 100 Exam 3 Spring 2009 A 1 . An essay exam is most similar to the __________ method of measuring retention. a. recognition b. recall c. relearning d. production 2. If a child of age 10 made a mental age score of 8 on the Binet test, his IQ would be a. 80 b. 100 c. 125 d. 75 3. Interference effects on retention are greatest when the interfering learn ing is a. similar to the material to be remembered b. dissimilar to the material to be remembered c. unrelated to the material to be remembered d. similarity of the materials does not seem to affect retention 4. Which level of processing should result in the longest lasting memory codes? a. structural encoding b. mnemonic encoding c. semantic encoding d. phonemic encoding 5. The memory system that contains words, definitions, events, and ideas is the a. episodic memory system b. declarative memory system c. procedural memory system d. assimilative memory system 6. Terman's longitudinal study of gifted individuals has shown that gifted children a. tend to be below average in physical and emotional health b. tend to be above average in physical and emotional health c. become adults who are no more successful than average d. tend to conform to society's traditional view of the gifted 7. Research has related which of the following physiological processes to memory functioning? a. alterations in synaptic transmission b. the creation of localized neural circuits in the brain c. hormonal fluctuations d. all three of these physiological processes 8. If a test accurately measures what it was designed to m easure, we would say that the test is a. valid b. empirical c. normative d. consistent 9. The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is a. time-based memory b. long-term memory c. working memory d. auditory sensory memory 10. Loftus' work on eyewitness testimony has clearly demonstrated that a. memory errors come mostly from erroneous original encoding b. most memory errors are constructive c. information given after an event can alter a person's memory of the event d. most memory errors are simply omissions of details of the event 1 1. A retrieval cue is a. a brain structure stimulus used to locate a particular mem ory b. the same thing as an elaboration encoding variable c. a stimulus associated with a memory that is used to locate that memory d. always based on the mood you were in when a memory was first encoded 12. Focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events involves a. encoding b. attention c. elaboration d. clustering 13. Larry tells you that his 10-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Larry knows that his cousin's score was 120, but he is not sure what this means. You should tell him that his cousin a. scored below the mean for 10-year-olds b. answered 120 questions correctly on the test c. scored above the mean for 10-year-olds d. scored at the mean for the average 12-year-old 14. If you suffer from an inability to recall old memories as a result of brain trauma, you have a case of a. anterograde amnesia b. retrograde amnesia c. Korsakov's syndrome d. limbic system inversion 15. Which of the following appears to be the most responsible for ethnic differences in IQ? a. genetic differences between ethnic groups b. culturally biased tests c. poor rapport between a nonminority test giver and a minority test taker d. the cultural disadvantages associated with a lower-class upbringing 16. A spelling test is an example of an a. intelligence test b. analytical test c. aptitude test d. achievemen t test 17. In studies of long-term memory, researchers have found that a. the mere passage of time is the sole cause of forgetting b. the passage of time is more influential than what happens during the time interval c. the passage of time is not as influential as what happens during the time interval d. subjects who sleep during the retention interval forget more than those who remain awake 18. The process of making attributions about the origins of memories is referred to as a. reality monitoring b. source monitoring c. buffering d. a contraindication 19. If environment affects intelligence, you should predict that the IQs of children who stay in understaffed orphanages will a. gradually decline as they grow older b. show the normal increases with development c. start out low, but gradually increase as they reach puberty d. be fairly normal until they reach puberty, when there will be a sharp decline 20. The vast majority of retarded people are classified as a. mildly retarded b. moderately retarded c. significantly retarded d. severely retarded 2 1. Wh at do intelligence tests actually measure? a. only knowledge b. only potential c. a blend of knowledge and potential d. test-taking expertise 22. Krista is 28 years old. Sh e was burn ed quite badly in a kitchen accident when she was seven years old. Today, even though her parents still sometimes mention the kitchen accident, Krista has no memory of ever being burned. According to Freud, Krista may be a. showing signs of proactive interference b. experiencing retrograde amnesia c. experiencing the misinformation effect d. using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious 23. Saying that the heritability of intelligence is 70 percent would mean that a. 70 percent of a person's intelligence is due to heredity b. 70 percent of the variability of intelligence scores in a grou p is accounted for by genetic variation c. 30 percent of a person's intelligence is due to environmental factors d. the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins should be approximately +0.70 24. Brenna took a test designed to measure her creativity. She tells you that her final score on the test was 70. She knows you are taking a psychology class, so she asks you what this score means. You should tell Brenna a. that you can't interpret her score without knowing the norms for the test b. 70 is probably a high score since most tests have a maximum score of 80 c. she will need to take the test again before her score can be accurately interpreted d. 70 is probably a low score since most tests have an average score of 100 25. The consensus among m ost researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is a. close to 100 percent b. approximately 80 percent c. around 60 percent d. less than 40 percent 26. The process of deciding on whether a memory is based on an external source or an internal source is referred to as a. reality monitoring b. transmogrification c. either an internal or external attribution the d. locus of causality 27. The correlation between a group's scores on an industrial aptitude test and actual performance on the indu strial job w ould describe th e test's a. content validity b. construct validity c. criterion-related validity d. reliability 28. The environmental hypothesis suggests that m ental retardation is a. best defined as the inability to adjust satisfactorily to one's environment b. a label used to direct slow learners into special education programs c. caused by environmental deficiencies in about 50 percent of cases d. caused by various unfavorable environmental factors 29. If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a 2-month interval, the test is said to be a. valid b. reliable c. significant d. standardized 30. Roland is an architect wh o can design dream hom es based on vague ideas and images that his clients bring to him. According to Howard G ardner's theory of multiple intelligences, Roland is likely to score high in which of the following? a. intrapersonal intelligence b. interpersonal intelligence c. spatial intelligence d. logical-mathematical intelligence 3 1. Diagnosticians are ab le to pin down an organic cause for retardation in a. fewer than 25 percent of all cases b. approximately 40 percent of all cases c. 50 to 60 percent of all cases d. more than 85 percent of all cases 32. When you listen to a lecture, the information is held in ___ _______ mem ory until you write it in your notes. a. trace b. sensory c. short-term d. long-term 33. __________ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information. a. Retroactive interference b. Proactive interference c. Retrograde amnesia d. An terograde amnesia 34. The idea that when you think about a word it triggers related words is referred to as a. a conceptual hierarchy response b. clustering c. elaborative rehearsal d. spreading activation within a semantic netw ork 35. If you're thinking about your plans for the weekend while you are reading your psychology textbook, the reason you will probably forget most of w hat you read is that you've used __________ encoding, which is inferior to __________ encoding for retention of verbal material. a. phonemic; semantic b. semantic; reconstructive c. phonemic; proactive d. proactive; semantic 36. Mem ory of "chronological" and "dated" personal experiences is referred to as a. semantic memory b. declarative mem ory c. implicit memory d. episodic mem ory 37. A tentative answer to the heredity versus environment question with respect to intelligence is that a. heredity is the major factor b. environment is the major factor c. the environm ent puts limits on the effects of heredity d. heredity may set certain limits on intelligence, and environmental factors determ ine where we fall within those lim its 38. Which of the following is N OT o ne of the parts of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence? a. contextual subtheory b. general mental ability subtheory c. experiential subtheory d. componential subtheory 39. A student's organized set of expectations ab out how a college professor is supposed to act is an example of a a. schema b. chunk c. semantic netw ork d. script 40. The encoding specificity principle states that a. forgetting is due only to the passage of time b. forgetting is usually due to interference from competing memories c. retrieval failure is often due to a mismatch between the available retrieval cues and the memory code d. forgetting involves purposeful suppression of memories 4 1. Which of the following statements regarding heredity and intelligence is L EAST a ccurate? a. Siblings reared together have higher correlations on IQ than do siblings reared apart. b. Identical twins show higher correlations on IQ than do fraternal twins. c. Fraternal twins reared together have higher correlations on IQ than do identical twins reared apart. d. Fraternal twins reared together have higher correlations on IQ than do non -twin siblings reared together. 42. In which of the following countries are IQ tests L EAST l ikely to be used? a. China b. Britain c. France d. Au stralia 43. An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether or not she should be placed in a class of "gifted " children . The test is probably a. an intelligence test b. an achievem ent test c. a personality test d. a vocabulary test 44. Damage to which of the followin g is m ost likely to cause deficits in long-term m emory? a. limbic system b. hippocampal region c. sympathetic nervous system d. Broca's area 45. According to Badd ely, short-term or working m emory does N OT i nclude which of the following components? a. a rehearsal loop b. a feature-detection element c. a visuospatial sketchpad d. an executive control system 46. The long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses of a specific neural pathway is referred to as a. spreading cortical activation b. long-term potentiation c. transfer-appropriate excitation d. an engram process 47. Because he believed that all cognitive abilities, including specific ones like num erical reasoning and memory, depend heavily on general intelligence, __________ contributed to the view that intelligence is a sin gle general ability. a. L. L. Thurstone c. Robert Sternb erg b. Howard Gardner d. Charles Spearman 4 8. The Binet-Simon scale of intelligence expressed a child's score in terms of a. mental age b. a potential score c. a percentile score d. an intelligence quotient 49. Ivan's bank assigned him a personal identification number (P IN) of 8624 when he was first issued his credit card. Last week a different company bought out the credit card division and Ivan was issued a new PIN of 9317. If Ivan experiences proactive interference when he enters his PIN, you would expect that he will enter the digits a. 9317, his new PIN b. 9324, using the last two digits of his old number in error c. 8617, using the first two digits of his old number in error d. 8624, his old PIN 50. Most tests using the deviation IQ set the mean at a. 10 points and the standard deviation at 5 points b. 50 points and the standard deviation at 10 points c. 100 points and the standard deviation at 15 points d. 120 points and the standard deviation at 20 points e3 A Answer Section 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. B A A C B B D A B C C B C B D D C B A A C D B A C A C D B C A C A D A D D B A C C A A B B B D A D C ... View Full Document

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