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for Outline Test 3 Before the theory of evolution Questioned the notion that species were of a complete set Thought the Earth was a few 1000 years old Some said if took 2 of all species (on land), volume occupy far exceeds Noah's Ark Questioned fossilized animal remains Questioned the fundamental scientific assumption, people believed creation of species came from God Erasmus Darwin Proposed life is probably created by God (source of life and physical force is God) Published theory in verse, in a poem, very general base Interested in natural phenomenon Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Interest in nature Arrange plant sequentially, see variation in plant, can be minuet distinction o Plant changes over time Theory: Methamorphous of parts o Originally talks about plants Jean baptiste pierre Antoine de monet de Lamarde Proposed theory of evolution that Darwin accepted Change is due to response in shifts of environment One single animal will undergo slight physical change due to change in environment Theory: Inheritence of Acquired Characteristics o Acquired traits get passed on George Johan Mendal Theory of genetics Invents the term gene Published the paper Principles of Inheritance o o Talks about genetics Drew no attention and was easily forgotten, was later rediscovered Charles Darwin Took humans away from everything, its not about us, we're part of the bigger picture Member of upper class, best culture on planet, living in England.. family married a lot of Wedgewood Was to be a medical student, didn't like clinical, went into the Church, was to be a minister but was invited to go on a boat The captain of the boat was Robert Fitzroy, the name of the boat was H.M.S. Beagles o o Proposed the trip to make map of S. America (of east and west coast) Lasted 5 years, went around the world During the voyage read the book Principles of Geology (Charles Lyell) o o o o Lyell proposed that the Earth is older than the estimated age predicted in Bible (said the Earth was created on October 23, 4004BC) Lyell proposed that Earth is million years old Significance to the theory of evolution is time Suggest geological features are result of long-term natural forces (moving plates, islands, volcanic erosion, mountain ranges, etc) - Tierre del Fuego: observed tribal humans in natural environment, drew parallels to appearance and behaviors of primates, said humans in natural state are not different from primates Galapagos Islands: studied finches; identified 13 species; the appearance of finches vary with habitat; the point was physical features of animals are correlated to environment Wrote origin of species; published after lifetime because didn't want to be center of havoc During that time o Thomas Malthus Wrote the book Essay of Principal of Population Looked at growth of British economy during 100 years, correlated to growth of population Suggested humans are going to be faced with deprivation Proposed notion of struggle for survival o Some of population not going to survive Alfred Russel Wallace Naturalist Came up with theory of evolution, ask for Darwin for getting in journal Said the forces at work, species change throughout time - There was to be a compromise between the two where present both theories Darwin's Origin of Species Outline theory in simple terms, set up the assumptions of the basis of theory o Overproduction Everything can reproduce itself, in about 200years can increase by 25folds, all species are capable of doing this o Struggle for survival Observed from Malthus o Random variation Most life forms vary from one another. Set of differences aren't fixed o Natural selection Said if can artificially select, can do it naturally. o Inheritance of random variation Variability of individual can pass onto offspring o Development of new species Survival of fittest; species cannot be fixed Herbert Spencer Coined the term "survival of the fittest" Darwin and psychology 2 things happened o Comparative psychology o New field of psychology; invested human mental life by study mental life of animals Human mind is innate and distinct Looked at animals and humans Said large part is emotional is inheritance Intellect is inheritance Darwin and emotion is inheritance Published book On expression of emotion in Man and Animal Notion that human emotion life is inherent, genetic basis o o - Emotion shouldn't be cultural distinct Inherit from ancestors, would see emotional in other animals as well what makes emotions clear o o emotions are subjective inner experience emotions as an action where there is behaviors - premise of theory o emotion is based on physical process; premise of direct action of nervous system o talks about parts of nervous system that's active and the contraction of muscles principle of antithesis opposite emotional experience, based upon opposite physical processes muscles that acts and relaxes o principle of serviceable associated traits do voluntary reaction to a situation, if the behavior worked, if encounter that similar situation o it, would do reaction again, eventually that behavior (being automatic and habitual) would be passed on to offspring similar to Lamarde's inheritance of acquired characteristics today, we engage in involuntary behavior response have involuntary subjective experiences - in the book, talks about various emotions about human expression such as disgust, expressionless, dejection, despair, surprise and horror psychological traits is compelling evidence for evolution theory, as well as physical traits Francis Galton looked at intellect as inheritance wrote the book : hereditary genius measured intelligence by operationally defining it to be of having higher achievements in life, will be well recognized and evaluated on eminence o o more fame, more intelligence looked at standard works and see many times name was written o known for developing statistical procedure to this research his cut off was .03% which meant 1 out of 4000 people - devised a list of eminent people and looked at their family trees (geneology) o eminence of occurrence in geneology found people in family trees were far greater to be famous than those not in family tree eminence descends in family tree - problems with this theory and book o o o o correlation doesn't equal causation possible you can be eminent but not due to IQ (by pol influence, $, monarchy, member of correct culture) list includes nationality of British includes males, from father side (only one side from female side of family). Does not include women called this the divine (the female side of family). Usually confident in their works, don't question it just accept it as is o book interprets what people thought was true, (ex: men smarter than women) Adolpe Jacques Quentlet Galton wrote the journal Biometrika statistics applied to living systems regression towards the mean o the relation of the correlational, corelational coefficient, symbol is "r", named Pearson's r because he mathematically developed expression of degree of correlation coined the term statistics home moyen average is the ideal normal distribution curious law of average deviation interested in individual differences o research marks the beginning of psychology dealing with things such as IQ, aptitude tests - the concept of eugenics o o means to be born well encourage the small to be together and reproduce o established the first eugenics lab at the Universal College in London measures individual differences that would be reliable - worked with fingerprints, said officers (Scotland Guard was the first) can benefit from prints naturalists; made maps of Africa, received highest honor of royal geographic society weathermapping: coined various weather terms antropometric methods o o see strengths and weakness of people goal was the see the occurrences of how people differ - composite photographic portrait o o depiction of the average types of people suggest way to look at identify people - looked at the inheritance of twins who were separated and reared differently o nature versus nurture comes from Galton Cyril Burt colleague of Burt did numerous series on twins reared differently published findings that twins ability depends upon genetics, not the environment accused of fraud for falsification of data o o o Arthur Jensen research in head start programs 1st to determine the effective of the program; wanted to see it's academic success Trend of research in head start program o Robert Graham first he establish sperm bank designed for higher frequency of benefits trait in populations do better than those who did not have head start; compared to same population in later years, benefits of head start fades away discovered by a student of his found in 1943, of 15 twins the correlation was.77, 12 years later, in 21 twins the correlation was .771, 196, with 53twins would the correlation of .771 the student found that there was no possible way, the incidence rate, was too low for separated twins - took donations only from particular groups repository for germinal choice o one of his customers was William Shockley George John Romanes wrote the book Animal Intelligence animals can do mental operations his method was anecdotal evidence successful in helping people believe that have animals a mental life C Lloyd Morgan critic of Romanes advocate of comparative psychology wrote introduction to comparative psychology Lloyd's canon o William James Father paid attention to education Was very neurotic like his father (father wanted them to be proud of their American heritage Psychology was practical, pragmatic psychology Value the point of view should be judged on effectiveness, not reason or from previous theories; but what it does Attended Harvard o o First entered as a chemistry major Influenced by teacher Louis Agassiz, who during a trip to the Amazon showed James why he would like science but James hated doing scientific research, etc If can interpret behavior due to greater psychological faculties or due to simple psychology ability; it's best to pick the simpler one Not an advocate of anthropomorphism Give the example of the dog and the gate latch Returned to Harvard, took 4 years to complete degree o Became suicidal after graduation, traveled to Europe for 2 years and was exposed to the new physiological psychology - Returned to Harvard, was offered to teacher the new psychology o - Established the first lab in American at Harvard in 1875 Wrote the book Principles of Psychology o Critics of his book say that the book isn't systematic, that it's a reflection of James' work and interpretation - his lab was different from Wundt's o he never had a lot of grad students and majority of his students became devoted to James and the pragmatic psychology - known for coining the "stream of consciousness" o describes what the mind is like; says the mind is fluid, dynamic and not molecular (which is different from Wundt) - lost patience with people who study the pieces of mind, called their works brass instrument psychology advocate of instrumentation and self-reports advocate of the use of "mental tests" working with Karl Lange o developed the James-Lange theory of emotion emotion isn't purely mental or material, emotions are of physical processes - the nature of emotion is physical, so you can train your behaviors; can develop emotion reaction that we want practical theory of habit o o animals are habitual, same as humans the notion is once develop habits, carry on in practical way develop habits by changing nervous system; once this happens it becomes automatic - theory of the self (personal identity if complex) o 3 types of selfs o Spiritual Social self Material self Deals with aspects of maturity - Proposed various points of view that's relative, and useful to various aspects of life Interested in spiritualism o o o People believed that spiritual world is with us and that we can get in contact with the dead The magician Houdini wanted to get in contact with dead mom Found no evidence of legitimate contact with spirits Granville Stanley Hall Went to Williams College Went away for training, chose ministry, had an interest in religion but was never attached to it o Attended Union Theological Seminary Interested in modern philosophy theory Taught at Ohio for a little while after reading Wundt's book Went to Harvard and worked with James o Got the 1st PhD in psychology in America - Offered a job at Johns Hopkin o o Established the first psychology journal in America "American Journal of Psychology" (it was the first scientific psychological journal) Establish the first lab at Johns Hopkin to pattern the Leipzig model Believe his lab was the first in America because Hopkins fund the lab - After Johns Hopkin, was contacted by Jonas Clark who founded Clark University o Offered to be the president of Clark University There found the first professional organization for psychology in America Called it American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892 Found a lab at Clark Found the Journal of Genetic Psychology Originally called it Pedagogical Seminary - Found the journal of Religious Psychology Found the journal of Applied Psychology Interested in developmental psychology o Called it the recapitulation theory Ontogeny: stages organisms go through out life Phylogeny: stages species go through out life - Recapitulation means restatement Notion is we go through predictable develop stages in life, reenact the emergence of human mend Referred to as genetics psychology Wrote the book Adolescence o o Depiction of psychological traits of adolescence See how adolescent is unique phase of human development - Wrote the book Senescence o The unique psychology of the elderly - Organized the 20th year commemoration of Clark's opening o o Freud was there (1st and only trip to America) Carl Jung was there as well Mary Calkins At 19 years old, took college entrance exam and entered as sophomore Attended Smith College o o after a year there, sister got sick, dropout and took care of her later returned, took exam again and entered as a senior offered Wellesley in the language department (Greek department) o was later offered to teach the new psychology, but felt as if she need personally more training in it - contacted James at Harvard for grad school o after hassles, was admitted into school, male students dropped out of James' lectures after being told she was in the class as well - returned to Wellesley, taught the new psychology o established a lab there in 1891 - went to Europe and communicated with Hugo Munsterberg, joined his group (he was there to take over at Harvard) o Munsterberg told Harvard she had did everything required to receive a PhD but she never received one from Harvard - Returned to Wellesley Did research in psychology and philosophy 1st woman to be president of APA (1905) and of American Philosophical Association in 1918 - Worked with learning o Pair-associated learning. - Given honorary PhDs from Columbia (1910) and Smith Christine Ladd-Franklin Attended Vassar College Specialized in math 1st woman to complete doctoral requirements at Johns Hopkins o They didn't give her the PhD initially, but did give it to her a few years before her death In Germany, formulated the theory of color vision o Now it's not accepted - Later in life, repeated to write letters to Titchner to join his group the Experimentalists o Told no, help correspondence with him, eventually went to the press to show their exclusion and objection to her Margaret Washbun First women to get PhD in psychology Went to Vassar College Worked with Cattel at Columbia; was eventually recommended to Titchner at Cornel o Accepted as Titchner's first woman graduate student Became president of APA in 1921 First woman to join Experimentalist after Titchner's death Edward Bradford Titchner Coined the names structuralism and functionalism o Structuralism: interested in what elements of mind are (the components of it) went to Leipzig and worked with Wundt was offered a job at Cornell o established a lab there - did research at Oxford offered to join APA o eventually resigned because accused a member of plagiarizing Wundt's work - had molecular state psychology of the mind wrote the textbook Experimental Psychology said psychology should be the study of normal adult human mind o o this excludes animals, children, everything but the mind other domains of psychology rejected his psychology because it was too strict, other psychologies broadened their domains John Dewey founder of functionalism did undergrad and grad at University of Vermont went to Johns Hopkins for doctoral taught at University of Michigan recruited to teach at University of Chicago o o functionalism was founded her in 1896 published the article Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology says if look at simple form of behavior (a reflex) you cannot describe it from molecular point of view, the stimulus-response point of view o did the Child and candle flame example said that people need to move away from faculty psychology the norm was mind is made up of mental operations called it mental calesthetics (Dewey was opposed to this) - his program was to specialize what you teach the children is not as important as teaching them adaptive, problem-solving skills o he was an advocate of curriculum that involved critical analysis - after 10 years at University of Chicago, left and went to Columbia o o moved into the education department was replaced by one of his students James Angell to take over Chicago Functionalism Authors and their works 1. Goethe : Methamorphus of parts 2. Lamarck: Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics 3. Mendel : Principles of Inheritance 4. Charles Lyell: Principles of Geology 5. Malthus : Essay of Principal of Population 6. Charles Darwin: Origin of Species 7. Charles Darwin: On expression of emotion in Man and Animal 8. Francis Galton : Hereditary genius 9. Francis Galton: Biometrika 10. Georges John Romanes: Animal Intelligence 11. C Lloyd Morgan: Introduction to Compartive Psychology 12. William James: Principles of Psychology 13. G. Stanley Hall: "American Psychological Association" 14. G. Stanley Hall: Journal of Genetic Psychology 15. G. Stanley Hall: Journal of religious Psychology 16. G. Stanley Hall: Journal of Applied Psychology 17. G. Stanley Hall: Adolescence 18. G. Stanley Hall: Senescence 19. Titchner: Experimental Psychology 20. John Dewey: Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology 21. Baldwin: 22. Ladd: 23. ... View Full Document

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