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Petrucci, Gases Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass, temperature Microscopic Properties at the molecular level Not readily observable Mass of molecules, molecular speed, energy, collision frequency CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 2 1 Macroscopic Properties Our aim is to look at the relationship between the macroscopic properties of a gas and end up with the gas laws CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 3 Pressure To contain a gas you must have a container capable of exerting a force on it (e.g. the walls of a balloon). This implies that the the gas is exerting a balancing force Normally we talk about the pressure (force/area) rather than force CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 4 2 Measuring Pressure The simplest way to measure gas pressure is to have it balance a liquid pressure. Therefore we need to quantify the liquid pressure CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 5 Consider a cylinder of liquid with area A and height h The force exerted at the bottom of the cylinder is its weight F = m.g h The pressure exerted is P = F/A = m.g/A The density of the liquid is d=m/V and m = d.V but V=A.h So P = m.g/A = g.V.d/A = g.A.h.d/A = g.h.d CHEM 1000 3.0 A Gases 6 3 Barometer To measure Atmospheric Pressure On the left the tube is open On the right the tube is closed and a liquid column is supported by the atmospheric pressure: Air pressure equals the liquid pressure CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 7 Barometer (continued) So for a barometer P=g.h.d P=atmospheric pressure h = height of liquid column d = density of the liquid CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 8 4 Atmospheric Pressure By definition the average pressure at sea level will support a column of 760 mm of mercury. (760 torr) What is this in SI units? P=g.h.d g = 9.81 m.s-2, h = 0.76 m, dHg = 13.6 g.cm-3 = 13.6 kg.L-1 = 13.6x103 kg.m-3 P = 9.81x0.76x13.6x103 = 1.013x105 Pa (N.m-2) CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 9 If we made a barometer out of water, what would be the height of the water column if the pressure is 745 torr? The problem calls for the relationship between P and h P = g.h.d 745 1.013 105 Pa 760 d = 1.00 g cm -3 = 1.00 103 kg m -3 P= g = 9.81 m s -2 P = g.h.d 745 1.013 105 = 9.81 h 1.00 103 760 CHEM 1000 3.0 h = 10.1 m Gases 10 5 Measuring Gas Pressures Gas pressures can be measured with a manometer. This is similar to a barometer but measures pressure differences using a liquid. CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 11 When one side of the manometer is open to the atmosphere P = g.h.d CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 12 6 Gas Laws The aim is to determine the relationship between the gas observables (pressure, volume, mass, temperature). These were determined experimentally CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 13 Boyles Law Boyle (~1622) kept the mass of gas and the temperature constant and studied the relationship between pressure and volume Volume of gas P CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Law 14 7 Boyles Boyle found that pressure and volume were inversely proportional. (double the pressure and the volume goes to one half). This is usually expressed as P.V = constant or P 1V 1 = P 2V 2 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 15 Charless Law Charles (1787) and Gay-Lussac (1822) kept the mass of gas and the pressure constant and studied the relationship between temperature and volume V(100 C ) They found = 1.375 V( 0 C ) o o CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 16 8 Charless Law Further experiments showed that volume and temperature were linearly related and that the temperature intercept (when volume is zero) was at 273.15oC. This temperature is now defined as absolute zero and the Kelvin temperature scale given by T(K) = t(oC) + 273.15 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 17 Charless Law Graphically: CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 18 9 Charless Law/Combined Gas Law Charles' s Law can be expressed as V = constant T Combining Boyle's Law and Charles' s Law V P.V = constant and = constant T gives P.V P .V P .V = constant or 1 1 = 2 2 T T1 T2 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 19 Avogadros Law From Gay-Lussacs experiment on reacting gases Avogadro concluded Equal volumes of different gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules Extending this to a consideration of adding volumes of gases- one concludes that gas volume is proportional to number of molecules and subsequently to number of moles. V%n or V/n = constant CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 20 10 Gas Law Given that : P.V = constant (Boyle' s Law) V = constant (Charles' s Law) T V = constant (Avogadro's Law) n leads to P.V = constant n.T Usually written PV = nRT (Where R is a constant) CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 21 Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law can be written in terms of moles or molecules PV = nRT n=number of moles R= Gas constant PV = NkT N=number of molecules k= Boltzmanns constant CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 22 11 Ideal Gas Law Values of the constants R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 (Pa m3 K-1 mol-1, kPa L K-1 mol-1) R = 0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1 k = 1.38x10-23 J K-1 (really J K-1 molecule-1 but molecule is just a number) CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 23 Other useful forms of the ideal gas law m PV = RT m = mass of gas M M = molar mass (molecular weight) d gas = m PM = V RT CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 24 12 Daltons Law In a gas mixture each component fills the container and exerts the pressure it would if the other gases were not present. Alternatively, each component acts as if it were alone in the container CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 25 Daltons Law Thus for any component i PiV = niRT We call Pi the partial pressure of component i The total pressure is given by the sum of the partial pressures P = P1 + P2 + P3 +. Also note that the mole fraction in the gas phase i = n i Pi = nP Gases 26 CHEM 1000 3.0 13 Daltons Law CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 27 Daltons Law A common use of Daltons Law is when gases are collected over water Psample + Pwater= Pbar CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases 28 14 ... View Full Document

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