This preview has intentionally blurred parts. Sign up to view the full document

View Full Document

Unformatted Document Excerpt

Endocrine System There are three general classes of hormones Lipid soluble derivatives steriods- derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the smooth ER sex hormones- estrogen, progesterone, testosterone eicosanoids- derived from fatty acids leukotrienes- has mostly local action and is involved in tissue inflammation prostaglandins-has local action and is involved in inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, blood flow, intensify pain, and promote fever. (Aspirin and ibuprofen [Motrin] inhibit prostaglandin synthesis.) Water soluble derivatives Amino acid derivatives Peptide and Proteins Endocrine Glands The body has two types of glands Exocrine glands- secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities or on to body surfaces. Sweat glands (sudoriferous glands) oily glands (sebaceous glands) mucous glands digestive galnds Endocrine glands- ductless glands that secrete their products (hormones) into the extracellular space around the secretory cells (local action) which then diffuse into the blood vessels (distant action) Endocrine System Endocrine glands of the body that constitute the endocrine system Pituitary gland Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal Pineal Tissues that contain cell that secrete hormones but not considered endocrine glands exclusively Hypothalamus Thymus Pancreas Ovaries Testes kidneys Stomach Liver Small intestine Skin Heart Adipose tissue placenta Circulating and Local Hormones Circulating hormones- hormones that pass into the blood stream and act on distant target cells. Linger in the blood and exert their effects for a few minutes or a few hours Are inactivated by the liver and excreted by the kidney Local hormones- those that act locally without first entering the bloodstream. Paracrines- hormones that act on neighboring cells Autocrines- those that act on the same cell that secreted them. Are usually inactivated quickly Ex: nitric oxide (NO)- released by endothelial cell which causes relaxation of nearby vascular smooth muscle, in turn causing vasodilation and increased blood flow Chemical Classes of Hormones Water soluble Hormones Monoamine (biogenic amines) hormones- synthesized by modifying certain amino acids Catecholamines- (made from tyrosine) epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine Histamine- from histadine by mast cells and platelets Serotonin and melatonin- from tryptophan Peptide and protein hormones- synthesized on the rough ER and consist of chains 3-200 amino acids Ex: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Chemical Classes of Hormones Eicosanoid hormones- chemical mediators derived from arachidonic acid (a 20-carbon fatty acid) located in the phospholipids in the plasma membrane leukotrienes- mediates allergic reactions derived from the enzyme lipoxygenase action on arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase converts arachidonic acid to three other types of eicosanoids... View Full Document

End of Preview

Sign up now to access the rest of the document