American-Culture-in-the-1960s
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American-Culture-in-the-1960s

Course Number: PHIL 7777, Spring 2010

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TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICAN C U LT U R E TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICAN C U LT U R E Series Editor: Martin Halliwell This series provides accessible but challenging studies of American culture in the twentieth century. Each title covers a specic decade and oers a clear overview of its dominant cultural forms and inuential texts, discussing their historical impact and cultural legacy. Collectively the series...

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U TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICAN C LT U R E TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICAN C U LT U R E Series Editor: Martin Halliwell This series provides accessible but challenging studies of American culture in the twentieth century. Each title covers a specic decade and oers a clear overview of its dominant cultural forms and inuential texts, discussing their historical impact and cultural legacy. Collectively the series reframes the notion of decade studies through the prism of cultural production and rethinks the ways in which decades are usually periodised. Broad contextual approaches to the particular decade are combined with textual case studies, focusing on themes of modernity, commerce, freedom, power, resistance, community, race, class, gender, sexuality, internationalism, war, technology and popular culture. American Culture in the 1960s American Culture in the 1960s American Culture in the 1960s Sharon Monteith Just when it seems as if there might be nothing new to be said about the 1960s, Sharon Monteith has crafted an original and highly valuable new take on the decade and its legacies. She combines perceptive cultural analysis and shrewd aesthetic judgements with a rm grasp of historical and social context. The result is a smart, engaging and persuasive introduction to the decades complex cultural politics. Brian Ward, Professor of American Studies, University of Manchester This book charts the changing complexion of American culture in one of the 20th centurys most culturally vibrant decades. It provides a vivid account of cultural forms music and performance; lm and television; ction and poetry; art and photography and inuential gures of the 1960s: from Norman Mailer to Susan Sontag; Tom Lehrer to Muhammad Ali; and Bob Dylan to Rachel Carson. The volume as a whole looks to the West and most particularly to the South in the making of the Sixties as myth and as history. Key Features: Sharon Monteith Focused case studies featuring key texts, genres, writers, artists and cultural trends Detailed chronology of 1960s American culture Bibliographies for each chapter Over thirty black-and-white illustrations Sharon Monteith is Professor of American Studies at the University of Nottingham. Her books include Advancing Sisterhood? (2000) and Film Histories (2006) and, as co-editor, Gender and the Civil Rights Movement (1999; 2004) and South to a New Place (2002). ISBN 978 0 7486 1947 4 Cover image: In the Heat of the Night, Norman Jewison, Director. Mirisch/United Artists/The Kobal Collection. Edinburgh Cover design: Cathy Sprent Edinburgh University Press 22 George Square Edinburgh EH8 9LF www.euppublishing.com Sharon Monteith American Culture in the 1960s Twentieth-Century American Culture Series editor: Martin Halliwell, University of Leicester This series provides accessible but challenging studies of American culture in the twentieth century. Each title covers a specic decade and offers a clear overview of its dominant cultural forms and inuential texts, discussing their historical impact and cultural legacy. Collectively the series reframes the notion of decade studies through the prism of cultural production and rethinks the ways in which decades are usually periodised. Broad contextual approaches to the particular decade are combined with focused case studies, dealing with themes of modernity, commerce, freedom, power, resistance, community, race, class, gender, sexuality, internationalism, technology, war and popular culture. American Culture in the 1910s Mark Whalan American Culture in the 1920s Susan Currell American Culture in the 1930s David Eldridge American Culture in the 1940s Jacqueline Foertsch American Culture in the 1950s Martin Halliwell American Culture in the 1960s Sharon Monteith American Culture in the 1970s Will Kaufman American Culture in the 1980s Graham Thompson American Culture in the 1990s Colin Harrison American Culture in the 1960s Sharon Monteith Edinburgh University Press Sharon Monteith, 2008 Edinburgh University Press Ltd 22 George Square, Edinburgh Typeset in 11/13 pt Stempel Garamond by Servis Filmsetting Ltd, Stockport, Cheshire, and printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wilts A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 0 7486 1946 7 (hardback) ISBN 978 0 7486 1947 4 (paperback) The right of Sharon Monteith to be identied as author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Published with the support of the Edinburgh University Scholarly Publishing Initiatives Fund. Contents List of Figures List of Case Studies Acknowledgements Chronology of 1960s American Culture Introduction: The Intellectual Context 1. Music and Performance 2. Film and Television 3. Fiction and Poetry 4. Art and Photography 5. New Social Movements and Creative Dissent Conclusion: The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy Notes Bibliography Index vi viii ix xi 1 37 73 99 123 151 185 205 225 237 Figures I.1 I.2 I.3 Dr Martin Luther King Jr, March on Washington (1963) Anti-war demonstrators at the Pentagon (1967) A boy reads President Kennedys inaugural speech at his grave site I.4 Bonnie and Clyde (1967) I.5 Demonstration against segregated facilities, Memphis (1963) I.6 Easy Rider (1969) 1.1 Andy Warhol with his 1962 double portrait of Marilyn Monroe (1971) 1.2 Bob Dylan (1967) 1.3 Norman Mailer arm-wrestling Muhammad Ali (1965) 1.4 Memphis State University production of Hair (1970) 1.5 Protests against the staging of Hair, Memphis (1970) 1.6 Citizens Against Busing (1972) 1.7 The Monkees (1967) 1.8 The Supremes (1969) 1.9 Woodstock (1970) 2.1 Cleopatra (1963) 2.2 Barbarella (1968) 2.3 Star Trek 3.1 Medgar Evers grave site 3.2 A Study in Black book display (1969) 4.1 Andy Warhol (1968) 4.2 Vietnam Victory Parade, Memphis (1970) 4.3 US Army helicopters, Vietnam (1966) 4.4a Paul Fuscos RFK: Funeral Train, (1968/2000) 4.4b Paul Fuscos RFK: Funeral Train, (1968/2000) 5.1 Freedom Summer Murders marker, Mississippi 5.2 Mrs Fannie Lou Hamers grave, Mississippi 9 15 17 21 28 33 38 42 50 52 53 56 62 67 69 79 84 87 115 119 131 140 142 148 148 155 159 Figures vii 168 174 190 195 197 5.3 5.4 C.1 C.2 C.3 Stonewall memorial statues, New York City A hippie, San Francisco (1970) Doughboy Statue, Memphis (1967) Walter Gadsen and police dog, Birmingham (1963) James Drakes memorial sculpture, Birmingham Case Studies Introduction Dr Martin Luther King Jr and the Turn of the Sixties Norman Mailer and Adversarial Cultural Critique Lifes America in Transition 1. Music and Performance Bob Dylan Muhammad Ali The Motown Sound 2. Film and Television Pauline Kael and Film Culture Star Trek: Spatial and Racial Frontiers Norman Jewisons In the Heat of the Night (1967) 3. Fiction and Poetry Leslie Fiedler and Literary Culture Where Is The Voice Coming From?: Eudora Welty and the Murder of Medgar Evers Willam Styrons The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967) 10 13 29 43 48 65 76 85 92 106 113 116 4. Art and Photography Susan Sontag: Self and Sensibility 128 Nothing Personal? Sixties Portraiture and The American Family 137 RFK: Funeral Train (1968/2000) 146 5. New Social Movements and Creative Dissent SNCC and Freedom Summer Vine Deloria and the Indian Rights Movement Rachel Carsons Silent Spring (1962) 156 162 169 Acknowledgements This book is dedicated in memoriam to Dennis Brown (19402006) who lived through the sixties in the UK, Nigeria and Canada, and who travelled to California for the Summer of Love and returned to the era in The Poetry of Postmodernity (1992) and in many of our conversations. Excelsior! I would never have written this book if Martin Halliwell hadnt asked me to contribute to this series so thanks go to him and to Nicola Ramsey and Eddie Clark at Edinburgh University Press for their support. I would like to take the opportunity to acknowledge colleagues and friends in the School of American and Canadian Studies at the University of Nottingham, especially on this occasion those with whom I tend to talk about the 1960s Tony Hutchison, Richard King, Peter Ling, Pete Messent, Dave Murray, Roberta Pearson and Graham Thompson and those colleagues and friends who have travelled with me on research trips or supported me in other ways, including Tina Galloway, Allison Graham, Sharon Horne, Heidi Levitt, Alison Marsh, Judie Newman, Celeste-Marie Bernier, Ann McQueen, Helen Taylor, Jacqui Clay and Stuart Wright. Some research that has found its way into this book was undertaken at the end of my period as a Rockefeller Humanities Fellow (Race and Gender in the Mississippi Delta) at the University of Memphis. I am also grateful for support at Nottingham, both in the School and particularly from the Head of School Judie Newman and from the Humanities Research Center which funded research trips to Birmingham, Alabama and to New York City. x American Culture in the 1960s Of the helpful staff in the libraries I visited during the course of this books preparation, I would like to acknowledge Ed Frank and Chris Ratcliffe in the Special Collections in the McWherter Library at the University of Memphis and Wendy Murphy and Alison Stevens at the Hallward Library at the University of Nottingham, as well as staff at Memphis Public Library and the Museum of Radio and Television in New York. Thanks go to Jim Burton (Salisbury University, Maryland), a friend as well as my former Ph.D. student, whose assistance over 20045 was invaluable. For library and computer assistance in Memphis, I acknowledge Jonathan Cullum and Manish Kubal. I thank Francisca Fuentes for allowing me to include a beautiful photograph taken at Arlington. I would also like to note my almost-student Daniel McKay and his father for copies of Life magazine so assiduously saved since the 1960s. My love and thanks for putting up with me across the different decades goes to Nahem Yousaf. Chronology of 1960s American Culture xii Date 1960 Events President Eisenhower signs Civil Rights Act. John F. Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon in Presidential election by small margin. Kennedy emphasises a cultural New Frontier on inauguration. Four black students from North Carolina A & T stage a sit-in at Woolworths segregated lunch counter, Greensboro, NC. The Student Nonviolent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC) founded, Raleigh, NC. Oral contraceptive approved for sale. Caryl Chessmans execution. Alan Shepard rst American in space; Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin rst person to orbit earth. President Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps. Kennedy requires federal contractors to take afrmative action to ensure individuals treated without regard to race. CORE organises Freedom Rides. Birth-control pill comes into general use. Music Stax Records founded in Memphis. John Hammond signs Dylan to Columbia. Alan and John Lomax, Folk Songs of North America Bob Thompson, Gardens of Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance Kennedy and Nixon participate in rst televised debates between Presidential candidates Edward Albee, The American Dream The Fastasticks, OffBroadway Bye-Bye Birdie, on Broadway Literature John Barth, The Sotweed factor Richard Yates, Revolutionary Road John Updike, Rabbit Run Harper Lee, To Kill A Mockingbird Robert Lowell wins National Book Award for Life Studies 1961 Ray Peterson, Tell Laura I Love Her Motown signs The Supremes Ben E. King, Stand By Me I Fall To Pieces by Patsy Cline is crossover hit Camelot on Broadway Edward Albee, Whose Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Tennessee Williams, Period of Adjustment How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying Joseph Heller, Catch-22 Henry Miller Tropic of Cancer unbanned and published in US Kurt Vonnegut, Cats Cradle Walker Percy, The Moviegoer Chronology Film Psycho Primary The Apartment Sergeant Rutledge The Alamo Television Andy Grifths Show The Ed Sullivan Show disallows Dylan from singing Talking John Birch Paranoid Blues Hanna-Barberas The Flintstones Route 66 premieres on CBS Art Museum of Modern Art, Art of Assemblage Jasper Johns, Painted Bronze Robert Ryman, White Paintings including Untitled Allan Kaprow, Car Crash: Happening Jim Dine, The Car Crash Andy Warhol, Dick Tracy Criticism xiii John F. Kennedy, Strategy of Peace Paul Goodman, Growing Up Absurd Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative Leslie Fiedler, Love and Death in the American Novel Daniel Bell, The End of Ideology Wallace Stegner, Wilderness Letter C. Wright Mills, Listen Yankee Shadows Breakfast at Tiffanys A Raisin in the Sun The Mists West Side Story Newton Minnow refers to television as a Vast Wasteland President Kennedy holds rst televised press conference Mr Ed debuts Car 54 Where Are You? on NBC William Anders photograph of earth from moon: Earthrise Martha Jackson gallery, Environments, Situations, Spaces (including Allan Kaprows Yard) Cy Twombly, Bay of Naples Dennis Hoppers photograph Double Standard Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture Lewis Mumford, The City in History William F. Buckley, Up From Liberalism Wayne Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction xiv Date 1962 Events The Soviet Missile Crisis. US intervention in Cuba known as the Bay of Pigs invasion fails. US explodes nuclear device near Christmas Island. Kennedy sends Special Forces troops to Vietnam to ght alongside ARVN troops. US Air Force rst uses Agent Orange. SDS holds rst national convention, Port Huron, Michigan. James Meredith desegregates University of Mississippi. Richard Nixon announces departure from politics. Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance Edward Albee, Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? on Broadway A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum Cole Porters Anything Goes revived OffBroadway Literature Philip Roth, Letting Go Edward Albee, Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest Flannery OConnor, Wise Blood Bob Dylan, Bob Dylan (debut album) Carla Thomas; Gee Whiz Ray Charles, I Cant Stop Lovin You Booker T. and the MGs, Green Onions Chronology Film Advise and Consent Marilyn Monroe dies To Kill A Mockingbird The Manchurian Candidate Promises! Promises! That Touch of Mink Days of Wine and Roses Television Launch of the satellite Telstar Adam Clayton Powell, Sidney Poitier, Dick Gregory and others testify to racial discrimination to House Committee on Labor and Education The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson The Beverly Hillbillies premieres on CBS Hanna-Barberas The Jetsons Art Artforum inaugurated Castelli Gallery, Roy Lichtenstein Roy Lichtenstein, Masterpiece The New Realists Andy Warhol, Marilyn Gold and Marilyn Diptych Diane Arbus, Child With a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, New York City Criticism xv Rachel Carson, Silent Spring Michael Harrington, The Other America The Port Huron Statement Dwight MacDonald, Against the American Grain: Essays on the Effects of Mass Culture James Baldwin, Letter From a Region of My Mind, New Yorker Robert F. Williams, Negroes With Guns xvi Date 1963 Events Voter-registration drive begins in Mississippi. NAACPs Medgar Evers murdered in Mississippi by Byron de la Beckwith. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom featuring Kings I Have A Dream speech. Nuclear test-ban treaty signed by US, UK and USSR. Bomb kills four black schoolgirls at church in Birmingham, AL. President Kennedy assassinated, Dallas, Texas. Jack Ruby murders Lee Harvey Oswald, jailed for Kennedys murder. National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence established. Buddhist monk selfimmolates in Saigon to protest antiBuddhist policies. University of Alabama desegregated while George Wallace stands in schoolhouse door. Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance Dylan duet of We Shall Overcome with folk hero Pete Seeger at the Newport Folk Festival Dylans Blowin in the Wind performed at March on Washington Cassius Clay, The Greatest Oliver! Broadways most popular show Literature Sylvia Plath, Ariel Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar Norman Mailer, An American Dream Sylvia Plath, America! America! Howard Nemerov is poet laureate Dylans rst album, The Freewheelin Bob Dylan Nina Simone, Mississippi Goddamn James Brown, Live at the Apollo John Coltrane, Live at Birdland Chronology Film Cleopatra Hud Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment PT-109 Shock Corridor The Thrill of It All Television President Kennedys address to the nation on civil rights WLBT-TV in Jackson, Mississippi, brought before Federal Communications Commission Jack Ruby murder of Lee Harvey Oswald captured live on TV Shindig! premieres on ABC Art The Foundation for Contemporary Arts established by Jasper Johns and John Cage Pasadena Museum, Marcel Duchamp retrospective Guggenheim Museum, Six Painters and the Object (Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Andy Warhol) Andy Warhol, Death and Disaster series Ed Ruschas 26 Gasoline Stations Criticism xvii Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time Martin Luther King Jr, Letter from Birmingham Jail Martin Luther King Jr, Why We Cant Wait: Chaos or Community? New York Review of Books begins publication xviii Date 1964 Events Dr Martin Luther King Jr awarded Nobel Peace Prize. Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater in Presidential election. Warren Commission report on President Kennedys assassination nds Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone. President Johnson signs Civil Rights Act which outlaws all segregation practices. Freedom Summer voter-registration project. Civil rights workers James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman murdered during Freedom Summer. Free Speech Movement founded UCLA, Berkeley. The Wilderness Act passed. Equal Opportunity Comission established. Congress of Italian American Organizations (CIAO) formed. The ship USS Maddox is destroyed by the North Vietnamese. Congress resolution known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allows Johnson to retaliate with force. President Johnson inaugurates Great Society programmes and declares War on Poverty. Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance The Beatles rst tour of the US Cassius Marcellus Clay defeats Sonny Liston for heavyweight boxing title and becomes Muhamad Ali Yoko Ono, Cut Piece premieres in Japan Hello Dolly! premieres on Broadway Literature Saul Bellow, Herzog Thomas Berger, Little Big Man Robert Lowell, For the Union Dead Amiri Baraka, Dutchman and The Toilet Shirley Ann Grau, The Keepers of the House James Baldwin, Blues for Mister Charlie The Supremes Where Did Our Love Go? is their rst Billboard no. 1 The Supremes, Baby Love Dylan, The Times They Are A-Changin Meet the Beatles (released in US) Chronology Film Mary Poppins Dr Strangelove Goldnger My Fair Lady Nothing But A Man Cheyenne Autumn Television The Beatles debut on The Ed Sullivan Show NBCs I Dream of Jeannie (196570) Soap opera Days of Our Lives begins on NBC That Was The Week That Was begins in US Art Richard Avedon and James Baldwin, Nothing Personal Sidney Janis Gallery, Four Environments by Four New Realists Andy Warhol, 16 Jackies Rauschenberg wins International Grand Prize at Venice Biennale Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive I and II Edward Keinholz, Back Seat Dodge-38 Criticism xix Susan Sontag, Notes on Camp, Partisan Review Leslie Fiedler, Waiting for the End Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Herbert Marcuse, One Dimensional Man James W. Silver, Mississippi: A Closed Society Howard Zinn, The Southern Mystique Ralph Ellison, Shadow and Act xx Date 1965 Events Malcolm X assassinated at Audubon Ballroom, New York City. Democrat Party refuses to seat Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegation at the Convention, Atlantic City. Bloody Sunday attacks in Selma, Alabama. Voting Rights Act signed into law. SDS protests Vietnam War in Washington DC. Racial disturbances in Watts, Los Angeles followed by protests in Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit and other cities. Operation Rolling Thunder authorised to allow aerial bombardment of North Vietnam. American ground troops sent to ght the North Vietnamese Protests against the draft begin. Federal law passed to make destroying draft card illegal. Federal Aid to the Arts Act institutes National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and for the Arts (NEA). Music Dylan goes electric at Newport News folk festival in July Jimi Hendrix, Purple Haze Tom Paxton, Lyndon Johnson Told the Nation Phil Ochs, Draft Dodger Raag Malvina Reynolds, Napalm Rolling Stones, Satisfaction American Culture in the 1960s Performance Ken Kesey and Pranksters hold rst public Acid Test Radio stations ban Rolling Stones Satisfaction as too suggestive Literature Ronald L. Fair, Many Thousand Gone William Denby, The Catacombs James Baldwin, Going to Meet the Man Flannery OConnor, Everything That Rises Must Converge (posthumous) Chronology Film The Good, the Bad and the Ugly The Greatest Story Ever Told The Sound of Music wins Academy Award for Best Picture The Cincinnati Kid Television That Was the Week That Was (NBC) NBCs Get Smart satirises spy genre The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour Art National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) founded Archives of American Art founded Susan Sontag, On Style James Rosenquist, F-111 Andy Warhol, Four Campbells Soup Cans Warhol, Electric Chair Warhol, Jackie Sister Mary Corita (Frances Elizabeth Kent), enriched bread Wallace Berman, Youve Lost That Loving Feeling Criticism xxi Mary McCarthy, Vietnam Truman Capote, In Cold Blood Malcolm X with Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X xxii Date 1966 Events Warren Commission report on Kennedy assassination. James Merediths March Against Fear. National Organization of Women (NOW) founded, Washington DC. Human Be-In, San Francisco. Black Panther party founded, Oakland, California. Battle of Sunset Strip, LA. Medicare Act passed to support citizens over 65 with medical needs. Film American Culture in the 1960s Performance Lenny Bruce dies of heroin overdose Dylan goes into seclusion for year and a half Warhols lm Chelsea Girls opens Literature Truman Capote, In Cold Blood Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49 Margaret Walker, Jubilee John Lennon states The Beatles are now more popular than Jesus Christ The Beatles farewell concert, San Francisco Police attempt to shut down James Brown concert because dancing is obscene Chronology Film Hollywood adopts age-based lm ratings Walt Disney dies The Chase What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? Khartoum Seconds Television Star Trek begins on NBC Batman (19668) William F. Buckley hosts The Firing Line Art The Artists Tower of Protest, Los Angeles Noah Purifoy and Judson Powells 66 Signs of Neon Robert Smithson, Tar Pool and Gravel Pit Larry Burrows photograph Reaching Out Robert Smithson, Entropy and the New Monuments, Artforum Criticism xxiii Allan Kaprow, Assemblage, Environments and Happenings Susan Sontag, Against Interpretation Richard Dyer McCann, Hollywood in Transition Charlotte Perkins, Women and Economics (1898) republished xxiv Date 1967 Events Martin Luther King Jrs Riverside speech in which he openly condemns war in Vietnam. The March on the Pentagon anti-war demonstrations. Astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chafee killed during test launch, Cape Canaveral. The Summer of Love. Inner-city riots Newark, NJ and Detroit. Loving and Loving vs. State of Virginia. Muhammad Ali refuses the draft. Senator Robert Kennedy calls for halt to bombing of Vietnam. Thurgood Marshall is rst African American appointed Associate Justice of Supreme Court. George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of American Nazi Party, assassinated. Music Rolling Stone magazine founded Monterey Pop Festival Beatles White Album and Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band The Monkees wins Emmy American Culture in the 1960s Performance Hair premieres on Broadway Tom Lehrers nal concert Muhammad Ali stripped of heavyweight boxing title by World Boxing Association for having refused draft and boxing licence revoked. First Human Be-In staged in San Francisco. Literature William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner John A. Williams, The Man Who Cried I Am Richard Brautigan, Trout Fishing in America Wallace Stegner, All the Little Live Things Chronology Film Bonnie and Clyde The Graduate In The Heat of the Night Medium Cool Planet of the Apes Dont Look Back Monterey Pop Cool Hand Luke The Dirty Dozen Television Stones asked to change lyrics for The Ed Sullivan Show to Lets spend some time together Franceso Rosis The Odyssey Art Art in Public Places Program established by the NEA Los Angeles County Museum, American Sculpture of the Sixties David Rockefeller funds Business Committee on the Arts Claes Oldenburg, Placid Civic Monument Chicagos Wall of Respect Dennis Oppenheim, Cut in Oakland Mountain John McCracken, Blue Column Michael Fried, Art and Objecthood, Artforum Sol LeWitt, Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, Artforum Criticism xxv Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Message Roland Barthes The Death of the Author published in the US Maurice Tuchman, American Sculpture of the Sixties William F. Peppers The Children of Vietnam Susan Sontag, The Aesthetics of Silence John Galbraith, How To Get Out of Vietnam Arthur Schlesinger Jr, The Bitter Heritage: Vietnam and American Democracy, 19411966 xxvi Date 1968 Events Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr in Memphis. Assassination of Senator Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles. Democratic Convention, Chicago, Hubert Humphrey nominated, disturbances break out. Kerner Commision Report on Civil Disorders. Richard Nixon elected President. Poor Peoples March on Washington. Vietcong Tet Offensive. National Student Strike. Fair Housing Act passed. Shirley Chisolm rst African American woman elected to Congress. Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance Tommie Smith and John Carlos Olympic Protest Hair premieres on Broadway Neil Simon, Plaza Suite The Boys in the Band, OffBroadway Literature Norman Mailer, Armies of the Night William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner John Updike, Couples Gwendolyn Brooks, Come to Mecca Tom Wolfe, Electric Cool-Aid Acid Test Otis Redding, Sitting on the Dock of the Bay The Beatles, Hey Jude James Brown, Say It Loud, Im Black and Im Proud Alan and John Lomax, Folk Song Style and Culture Chronology Film The Green Berets 2001: A Space Odyssey Finians Rainbow Night of the Living Dead Wild in the Streets Story of a Three-Day Pass Television Elvis 68 Comeback Special on NBC Of Black America on CBS Rowan and Martins Laugh-In begins Art Musuem of Modern Art, The Art of the Real 19481968 Valerie Solanis shoots Andy Warhol Dwan Gallery, New York City, Earthworks (including Oppenheim, Oldenburg, Smithson, De Maria, LeWitt) Rauschenberg, Autobiography Edward Kleinholz, The Portable War Memorial Criticism xxvii Joan Didion, Slouching Toward Bethlehem Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice Walter Benjamins Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936) translated and published in the US Lucy Lippard and John Chandler, Dematerialization of Art, Art International Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle Eliot Porter, In Wildness is the Preservation of the World (Sierra Club) Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catolog Ronald Berman, America in the Sixties John Barth,The Literature of Exhaustion xxviii Date 1969 Events US astronauts land on moon; Neil Armstrong the rst to walk on moon. Stonewall riots, Greenwich Village, New York City. Friends of the Earth founded. Massive anti-war demonstrations, Washington DC. The Manson family murders actress Sharon Tate and friends, Los Angeles. My Lai massacre of March 1968 exposed in New York Times and Life. Nixon announces rst withdrawal of troops. Music American Culture in the 1960s Performance Neil Simon, The Last of the Red Hot Lovers Butteries Are Free on Broadway Literature Philip Roth, Portnoys Complaint Symposium The Black Artist in America N. Scott Momaday, House Made of Dawn Woodstock Festival Altamont Festival Diana Ross leaves The Supremes Chronology Film Easy Rider Medium Cool Midnight Cowboy Alices Restaurant Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid The Wild Bunch Marooned Television Sesame Street on PBS ABC Movie of the Week The Johnny Cash Show The Bill Cosby Show Art Leon Golub, studies Napalm I, II and III Metropolitan Museum, Harlem on my Mind, 190068 Formation of Art Workers Coalition (AWC) Formation of Women Artists in Revolution (WAR) Robert Smithson, Asphalt Rundown, Rome Walter De Maria, Las Vegas Piece, Tula Lake, Nevada Criticism xxix Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture Vine Deloria, Custer Died for your Sins Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual Parker Tyler, Underground Film Introduction The Intellectual Context C. Van Woodward described the 1960s as a twilight zone, caught between living memory and written history. This region of the mind and of record is the site where mythology is forged.1 It is axiomatic to love or hate sixties culture but it is much more of a problem to dene a decade about which myths and images often masquerade as cultural history. Superlatives and provocative statements abound. The 1960s has been described as the most dynamic and icon-shattering decade of the twentieth century when everything seemed possible for a brief shining moment as well as the decade in which murder became an accepted form of political discourse.2 Music producer Jerry Wexler, the face of Atlantic Records since 1953 and its foremost promoter in the 1960s, dismisses the idea of the decade itself as a rhetorical impulse: We didnt know we were at some cosmic threshold . . . You never know that. I think thats all literary, all this business about decades. I think its part of the bullshit rhetoric of rock . . . you know, the conuence of certain things, the myth period, the golden period . . . 3 Looking back to the moment just before conglomerates controlled all mass cultural forms, Wexler reiterates the rhetoric of rock even as he debunks it.4 There is a signicant difference between a rhetorical sixties and a historical 1960s but if it is difcult to escape reaccentuating those images legitimated by continual retelling in a set sequence of events, it is important to examine their persistence. The most important domestic crises the ght for civil rights and the Vietnam War and domestic policies such as the War on Poverty and the space race are examined here in some detail in the plethora of forms through which they found, and continue to nd, representation. This book also seeks to emphasise ways in which the local and the regional contribute to dominant images of the national. Rather than explore the global unbinding of energies that Fredric Jameson 2 American Culture in the 1960s summarised as the sensibility of the sixties, it looks to the South and also to the West in the making of the 1960s as myth and as history. It shows how often regions were the scourge of national faults. As the nations mirror, its national conscience and the site of quintessentially American dilemmas, the South was the primary testing ground for sixties ideology. The region would be demonised as Americas counterpoint with white southerners and African Americans conceptualised as the South within the North when residing outside the region eluding assimilation into American culture.5 But it would also be mythologised as the hopeful site in which a national racial peace could be forged. Ellen Douglas stories Black Cloud, White Cloud (1963) set in Mississippi were written, she says, against this background: corrosive hatreds, the crippled loves, the confusions, the ashes of nobility and heroism, the ways of making do, making room . . . 6 In the South ordinary people were grassroots participants in what would become the most signicant new social movement of the decade: the Civil Rights Movement. Other ordinary southerners formed the backbone of the conservative backlash that would help the Right of the Republican Party to successfully exploit what in 1968 Robert Sherill described as the gothic politics of the Deep South, epitomised in the persons of southern Dixiecrats such as George Wallace, James Eastland and Strom Thurmond. In Birmingham, Alabama a city whose symbolism is explored in the Conclusion white clergymen wrote an open letter entitled A Call For Unity in an effort to resolve a racial stand-off at the local level when Martin Luther King Jr was arrested on 9 April 1963 but they found their words read and responded to as a national statement when King replied with his Letter from Birmingham Jail. It was published in The Christian Century and in his book Why We Cant Wait (1963) as a measured defence of non-violent campaigning for black civil rights and has become one of the most famous documents of the new social movements, the cluster of mass protests that characterised the eras politics. Local events were never only that when Dr King was present. In 1967 when Chicago police confronted black children who had opened a water hydrant to refresh themselves on a hot day, the riots that ensued were linked to King having nailed his measures for improvement to the door of City Hall and cited as proof that nonviolent principles could not be applied to the national (that is, northern) racial situation. The opening image in the photographic collection The Movement (1964) is indisputably southern: the road from Jackson to Yazoo City in Mississippi is the way in to the Deep South, the heart The Intellectual Context 3 of Movement territory. But organisers would also endeavour to break racial deadlock in northern cities, as the racialised battles in Chicago demonstrate so acutely. When Wendell Berry began writing poetry and ction about environmental concerns in the late 1950s, his lens was intensely local, a smallholding in the border state of Kentucky, and his ideas were considered marginal. In a very few years with the publication of Rachel Carsons Silent Spring (1962) as a spur, the same ideas were news and Berry has repeatedly stated that the view from his window on the South encompassed not only the nation but also the world. The possible meanings of the decade have been buffeted about on a sea of culture wars, in the media as well as in academe, and its legacy continues to be debated. This book is synedochic in its contribution in that it explores the ways in which selected events, texts and gures represent broader issues and trends. Sixties culture is explored through movies, ction, photography, performances (musical, comedy, sporting, political), collective rituals and memorialisation. No case is made for a canon of representative texts or contexts. On the contrary, this book claims that what was often seen as marginal or socially peripheral can prove symbolically central to the cultural shifts of the 1960s. Although the aphoristic statement that history is made by the winners might seem a safe guide to enumerating the major events of any decade, especially one already subject to a wealth of analysis, it does not adequately illuminate local ashpoints. Nor is it adequate to expect that biographical study of only those gures at the forefront of the decades politics will stand in for a more nuanced cultural narrative. Presidents and government are often the least likely or reliable barometers of wider cultural concerns. To borrow Slavoj iz eks phrase, the way to dene the gist of an epoch is not to pay attention only to the most explicit features that dene its social and ideological edices but to investigate the disavowed ghosts that haunt it.7 Memory plays an important role in ghosting and mediating events that occurred half a century ago, in ction, lm and especially in memoirs where an individuals past is linked to the nations history, because, as W. James Booth argues, memory time can have a framework of seminal events and people but it is also an uneven topography of the past where seminal does not mean necessarily as a historian would rank them but rather ordered according to their felt importance in the ongoing life of the group.8 Paul Austers memoir The Invention of Solitude (1982), for example, does not emphasise 1960 as the year of John F. Kennedys election, but because Bill Mazeroski won the World 4 American Culture in the 1960s Series for the New York Yankees. A New York moment supersedes any other decisive moment in (national) history. The idea of a group or collective memory is itself subject to debate. For Joseph Roach, for example, culture exists in the social recesses of memory and forgetting and as performed in vernacular forms.9 The vernacular form and the social margin were spaces of choice and invention rather than only default positions in the 1960s. The signicance of spectacular subcultures, as Dick Hebdige dened them, is their expression of socially forbidden content consciousness of class, consciousness of difference in forbidden social forms transgressions of sartorial and behavioural codes, law breaking and as seemingly profane articulations when rst raised as social critique.10 Youth movements in particular showed that a culture can be most expressive at its boundaries. However, critique was not only initiated by the disenfranchised but also by established intellectuals such as economic sociologist John Kenneth Galbraith whose critique of consumerism, notably in The Afuent Society (1958), made him a member of the Kennedy White House. As Ambassador to India he was also voluble in his criticism of government policy, doubting Kennedys course of action in Vietnam and the rightness of his advisors on defence and national security. By mid-decade, Galbraith was an anti-war activist. Dissent from within as well as without was a feature of 1960s intellectual life such as James W. Silvers Mississippi: A Closed Society (1964) in which the history professor exposed the persistence of white supremacist orthodoxy in a personal and social history. As Assistant Secretary of Labor under President Johnson, academic Daniel Patrick Moynihans report The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965) was a liberals criticism of traditional welfare policy that would prove a rallying cry for a conservative counter-offensive. Moynihan left the White House in the same year and would become a senator in 1976 and remain a Democrat, but he continued to cross party lines, advising the Nixon White House and speaking out against Clintons policies more than once in the 1990s. While Moynihan was re-elected senator in the 1980s and 1990s, persons who failed in their bids for public ofce were sited more decidedly in the radical margins and their shot at the mainstream reveals much about the changing political landscape. When former student activist Tom Hayden ran for the California Senate in 1976 he failed. His slogan, The radicalism of the 1960s is becoming the common sense of the 1970s, for some connoted the bitter ends of an already long-lost ideal and, for others, the statement was synonymous The Intellectual Context 5 with a false utopia. The 1960s would be re-made according to platform issues that both liberals and radicals advanced, but Haydens mistake was to seem to believe that the 1970s was only a modish antique store of a decade that pilfered issues and styles from more vital times.11 Hayden would nally be elected to the California State Assembly in 1982, the decade in which conservative reaction to the 1960s took political hold with Ronald Reagan and in which the Woodstock Nation was declared to have nally and quietly transformed middle America.12 A glance at well-known gures who wanted to be President and failed, or who ran for Congress or Mayor in major cities, is to view the decade through the aspirations of not only George Wallace or Barry Goldwater, politicians who tried to advance from senator to President, but also gures who were politicised in the 1960s rather than politicians. Dr Benjamin Spock ran for President on a third-party ticket in 1972 and Ralph Nader, whose stand against corporate corruption and battles as a consumer watchdog led to the founding of an NGO called Public Citizen in 1971, ran for President three times in the 1990s and 2000s. Controversial writers Gore Vidal and Norman Mailer each ran for ofce, Vidal for Congress in 1960 (and again in 1982 for the California Democrat nomination) and Mailer in 1969 as mayor of New York City on a Democratic platform to re-map the city as a series of villages to create a deregulated, or indeed, from a different point of view, segregated, city. Mailer even suggested the city secede from the state, a libertarian position that also gained him support from the Right and indicates how closely he read US culture even as he railed against its soft centre. His opposition to the state was, it could be argued, more conservative than William F. Buckleys platform in 1965 when he vowed to discharge a debt to black Americans and published his statement in his own National Review. Community activist and Yippie (Youth International Party) Jerry Rubin ran for mayor of Berkeley on an anti-war platform, espousing Black Power politics and promising to legalise marijuana, and gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson ran for sheriff of Pitkin County, Colorado also promising the decriminalisation of drugs. While few celebrities had any chance of winning ofce, the media hook reinforced an image of a society in which dissent coincided with a certain braggadocio. Comedian and civil rights activist Dick Gregory began a campaign in 1968 to enter the Black House, a measure of the rhetorical as well as political leverage that a bid for President could engender. He was followed by a far more controversial Presidential candidate, former prisoner Eldridge Cleaver 6 American Culture in the 1960s whose Soul on Ice (1969) included the confession that he had used rape as a weapon of racial hatred. Alongside Cleaver, fellow Black Panthers Huey Newton and Bobby Seale ran for Congress as Peace and Freedom candidates. On the Far Right, George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party and coiner of the slogan White Power as a counter to the Black Power movement, failed to attract more than 200 members to his cause by his assassination in 1967 and other reactionaries were equally unconvincing. General Curtis LeMay, reputedly the inspiration for Dr Strangelove in the 1962 lm, ran for Vice-President to George Wallace but once he made it known he advocated using nuclear weapons in Vietnam their already doubtful double act was doomed. It has become impossible to understand the 1960s without examination of the groundswell that animated left-wing dissent or the decades conservative legacy which has inuenced culture wars debates ever since. By the mid-twentieth century, with the wide acceptance of mass cultural forms, culture was designated ordinary, as in Raymond Williams 1958 celebration of lived experience over guardianship of elite culture.13 Examining the ordinary exposes the ways in which imaginative acts and representational objects dene as well as interpret the quotidian. Cultural anthropologist Clifford Geertz was progressively aware through the 1960s that the line between mode of representation and substantive content is as undrawable in cultural analysis as it is in painting and that culture is the informal logic of life.14 Williams formulation of cultural practices as dominant, residual or emergent succeeded in apprehending the alternative and oppositional.15 Culture, always already as syncretic as it is declarative, began to change as legitimate arena the theatre, the university, the art gallery transformed in relation to supposedly transgressive spaces such as Off-Off Broadway, comedy clubs, or tenement walls such as Chicagos Wall of Respect (1967). Culture became a buzzword largely because the rebarbative counterculture forced a re-evaluation and because the paperback revolution and the demise of the increasingly contentious Moving Picture Association seal of approval signalled that boundaries between high and low culture had indeed crumbled. The counterculture contained the tension between democratic ideals and undemocratic practices, a disillusion with a national or ofcial culture as signied by government, the military and the establishment in all its forms from stiing parents to party politics. It also contained optimism about the idea of renewing that same culture by reinvigorating as well as condemning the status quo. T he Intellectual Context 7 The Turn of the Sixties Exactly when the 1960s begin and when the decades salient preoccupations end continues to provoke debate. Should the long 1960s end around 19724, as Fredric Jameson argues in Periodizing the Sixties, in order to allow for the withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam in 1973? Should the end be tied to a key individual, such Lyndon Johnson who died in January 1973 just as the last rounds of America gunre were red in the war? Or do the 1960s run on until the symbolic Saigon Airlift of 1975 and indeed should the war in Vietnam gure signicantly as the end-stop to an eventful decade? The Roe vs Wade decision of 1973, legalising abortion as intrinsic to the right to privacy of any woman, was a result of women pushing issues into the foreground in the 1960s. Yet pro-life vs pro-choice antagonism has never ended; if one measures the decade according to attempts by the disenfranchised to take possession of their histories, it is not yet over. Or does the political and social impact end with attempts to roll back gains when Afrmative Actions programmes came under attack? There is no denitive answer to such questions; much more important is the ways in which the 1960s remain high on agendas where these issues feature. Many important inroads into understanding tensions between public and private in the 1960s were made in the 1950s. Galbraith argued in The Afuent Society that the public sector was approaching crisis because private consumer wealth dominated as the measure of social success and hence public service funding was diminishing. Mike Davis argues that the 1960s should be read as a n-de-sicle decade because the postwar economic boom reached the height of its success then prior to slumps in the mid-1970s.16 C. Wright Mills posited in The Power Elite (1956) that the nature of public life was decided by the military machine and the corporate power base, as critics of the war would reiterate, and that government could not be trusted to resolve social inequities in the way of Roosevelts New Deal. In his chronicle of representatives of ve million African Americans who made the Great Black Migration South to North, Nicholas Lemann showed they were sustained by New Deal-initiated programmes that Eisenhower or Truman put in place, their lives largely unchanged by under-funded federal programmes such as the War on Poverty. Nevertheless, poverty underwent sustained review in the era. Anthropologist Oscar Lewis coined the culture of poverty in his 1959 study of Mexican families and reinforced his denition in the US 8 American Culture in the 1960s context in 1966.17 Like Michael Harringtons The Other America (1962) in which he claimed complacency over technological progress was a contributory factor in the number of Americans living below the poverty line, Lewis emphasised chronic unemployment and the systemic low expectations of the underclass. The supremely controversial Moynihan report took its cue from both theses, as explored in Chapter 3. While the 1950s is described as more conservative than the 1960s, quiescent, or even tranquillized to borrow poet Robert Lowells epithet, as Steve Whiteld, Pete Daniel, Brian Ward, Martin Halliwell and others have shown, that is far from the whole story. Leaning too heavily on the idea of the fties as a conformist foil for the effervescent sixties serves only to detach the era from all it built upon, as if Kennedys inauguration initiated a new cultural frontier as surely as his rhetoric. It was, after all, Kennedys advisor Arthur Schlesinger Jr who, following Lewis Mumfords depiction of suburbia in The City in History (1961), compared the Eisenhower era to a genuinely benevolent but bland company town. In contrast, it could be claimed that Allen Ginsbergs Howl (1956) already connoted the radical cultural shifts popularly believed to characterise the 1960s. Or, as Morris Dickstein maintains, Dean Moriarty in Jack Kerouacs On the Road was the patron saint of the counterculture, an idea espoused by student activist Tom Hayden for whom Moriarty was the cowboyexplorer as rebel, breaking out of the new suburbia that now occupied the once-vast American frontier.18 Ginsbergs focus on dropping out, losing oneself in drugs, and chaining oneself to causes contains the seeds of despair and anomie that would tear apart the counterculture, even as he speaks of the generation that preceded it. Similarly, in the 1950s parents and governments were caught up in a moral panic around juvenile delinquency, a fear that would be revisited throughout the 1960s. In 1957 Cosmopolitan launched a special issue asking Are Teenagers Taking Over?, describing them as bluejeaned storm troopers, forcing us to do exactly as they dictate.19 Youth revolt was the subject of an intellectual tour de force which advocated breaking out of the mind-forgd manacles of the middle-class American family. Herbert Marcuse, Norman O. Brown and Paul Goodman, philosophers, a sociologist and neo-Freudians all, conated a newly permissive erotic liberation with cultural and political radicalism as the fties turned into the sixties writing, respectively, Eros and Civilization (1955, rev. 1962), Life Against Death (1959) and Growing Up Absurd (1960). Each emphasised youth forging beyond consensus The Intellectual Context 9 by enacting what Marcuse called The Great Refusal, an act of revolutionary will explored in terms of movement culture in Chapter 5. The Civil Rights Movement had conservative roots in middle-class black respectability, as is made very clear by the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 19556 and the Southern Christian Leader Conference (SCLC) founded in 1957. The 1950s was a much quieter decade, in terms of civil rights successes. The Supreme Court decision to begin racial integration of schools in 1954 and the local decision to bring two of Emmett Tills killers swiftly to trial in Mississippi in 1955 were harbingers of cultural change that would gather force only in the 1960s. Figure I.1 Dr Martin Luther King Jr acknowledges the crowd at the Lincoln Memorial for his I Have a Dream speech during the March on Washington DC, 28 August 1963. Associated Press. Courtesy PA Photos. 10 American Culture in the 1960s Dr Martin Luther King Jr and the Turn of the Sixties Dr Kings political career was framed by social movement goals and local struggles, from the Montgomery Bus Boycott that brought him to national prominence to the sanitation workers strike that brought him to Memphis in April 1968 where he was assassinated. Rev. Ralph Abernathys eulogy at the funeral emphasised Kings status as a signier of hope denied, his death often seen as ushering in a period of declension: Let us slay the dreamer, and see what shall become of his dream. While I Have a Dream is probably the best-known speech in or about the US, and its delivery was a bitter marking of the centenary of the Emancipation Proclamation, it is typically recalled as the hopeful highground from which the movement descended. Statements in Why We Cant Wait (1963) and Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community (1967) are more illustrative of the complex American dilemma that continues to inform US culture in which attention to race has been obsessive. Kings essays like John F. Kennedys speeches are renowned and revered. Down the decades they are a staple of school and college courses, The Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) often the text through which students are introduced to racial tensions in the 1950s and 1960s South. The open letter is a distinctive form of the radical essay and the short form was expedient for King who honed his rhetorical skills so that he might retain the oral and aural qualities of the sermon from the pulpit in the scribal form. When King writes, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here, as the reader pauses with him, it is possible to imagine an assenting Amen rising against the dark dungeons of complacency to light the bright hills of creative protest.20 King presented Birmingham as the nations racial crucible and the larger signicance of the city is explored in the Conclusion to this book. Kings Letter, written during one of the twenty or so occasions he was imprisoned for non-violent agitation, was, he hoped, a creative psalm of brotherhood, but it was also a condemnation of the silence and/or gradualism of good people, in the persons of the churchmen to whom he directed his words. The white moderate was a primary recipient of Kings disdain for the paternalism according to which he feels he can set the timetable for another mans freedom. Why We Cant Wait was published to coincide with the March on Washington and the paperback capitalised on Dr King winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. It documents the hopes and ideals of the civil rights struggle as it warns of the rising anger that James Baldwins The Fire Next Time (1963) also articulated. Polemical yet diagnostic, the publication of Kings speeches in mass-market paperbacks ensured sales in the multimillions and helped to secure his reputation as the greatest black leader the nation has produced. However, African Americans on the radical Left and the conservative Right could be critical of the strategies King had made his own in the 1950s. In Tear This Building Down, Julius Lester challenged Kings espousal of agapic love in stark terms, declaring the March T he Intellectual Context on Washington nothing but a giant therapy session, and asking, What is love supposed to do? Wrap the bullet in a warm embrace? Caress the cattle prod?21 Anne Moody working for voter-registration in Mississippi remembered that at the March on Washington, I sat there thinking that in Canton we never had time to sleep, much less to dream.22 Conservative George Schuyler was the most scathing in response to King becoming the youngest Nobel winner: Dr. Kings principle contribution to world peace has been to roam the country like some sable Typhoid Mary, infecting the mentally disturbed with perversions of Christian doctrine and grabbing fat lecture fees from the shallow-pated.23 In the three years before his death, Kings philosophy of reform encompassed poverty at home and American foreign policy and international relations. His condemnation of the war in Vietnam maintained an emphasis on racial minorities barely considered citizens at home but deemed sufciently American to die for their nation abroad. In the aftermath of the Watts disturbances when King began to urge Lyndon Johnson to withdraw from Vietnam, he made his most controversial speech, A Time to Break Silence (1967) against the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today my own government.24 King believed he was cowardly in having feared that speaking against the war would weaken his position as national spokesman on civil rights yet in Why We Cant Wait he was already asking, Why has our nation placed itself in the position of being Gods military on earth, and intervened recklessly in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic? 25 It was his avowed patriotism, to inject new meaning into the veins of the nation, that rst stirred King to ask the difcult questions that return in chilling echoes in the speech he delivered in Memphis the night before he died. It is infused with tragic prescience of his death that also recalls a statement when he rst became a reluctant leader in 1955: Tell Montgomery they can keep on bombing and Im going to stand up to them. If I had to die tomorrow morning, I would die happy because Ive been to the Mountaintop and Ive seen the Promised Land, and its going to be here in Montgomery. 26 Dr King was the embodiment of moral integrity despite FBI attempts to discredit that image and in 1961 he was invited to be a star, playing a senator from Mississippi in Otto Premingers Advise and Consent (1962) in which Charles Laughton played the senator from South Carolina based on Strom Thurmond. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) administrative committee voted unanimously that King should play the part and that the $5,000 offered should fund SCLC. Kings image was the organisations primary concern. King would y to California for one day to lm but a caveat was included: When the picture is nished, the producers have agreed to permit Dr. King and a Committee of three of his choosing to preview the picture and if it is thought to be too reactionary and damaging to Dr. Kings image, then Dr. King will be eliminated from the picture.27 In the end, he never took an acting role but the attention paid to his image is indicative of how precious it was to the movement he spearheaded and how prized it still is. King has rarely been portrayed on screen as if to dramatise is to pastiche, rendering his 11 12 American Culture in the 1960s messiah status less reverent. In 2001 the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) gave an Image Award to Boycott! In the lms coda Dr King (Jeffrey Wright) is resurrected; as Wright walks through the streets of Montgomery still dressed as King, the public does not commend the actor on his performance but experiences a shock of recognition: the implication is that King could walk again down one of the 500 US streets named in his honour if only his moral suasion could be recovered in contemporary society. Dr King remains the yardstick against which other activists have been measured, despite Ella Bakers warning that The Movement made Martin and repeated calls at the time for him to catch up with the masses. Kings career was also, as Peter Ling has argued in his biography, shaped by the counter-movement: not only the Dixiecrats who taxed him but also the liberals who thwarted or appeased him and the anti-war movement to which he nally added his not insubstantial voice. The age and class of participants infused the Movement with the image of responsible integrity that followed those experienced in civic duties whose participation in the culture, were they granted full citizenship rights, could only benet the nation. To begin with, black public gures who chose not to conform were replaced, as when the unorthodox Rev. Vernon Johns was superseded at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church by the more traditionally respectable Dr Martin Luther King Jr, and when King was elected leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) instead of veteran activist E. D. Nixon. The rise of social movements after 1960, on the other hand, usually emphasised the youth and militancy of participants. The reication of youthful social protest risks denying a more complex picture, as argued in Chapter 5. In June 1963 when John Doar advised Vivien Malone, You should dress as if you were going to church, modestly and neatly, to integrate the University of Alabama, his words recalled the same index of black progress that underpinned the Montgomery movement in the 1950s.28 Vernon Johns died in 1965 but his talent for shocking congregants out of complacency would have served him well in movement culture in the 1960s. Speaking out is a key motif in this book. It is explored with regard to powerful phrasemakers as different as Norman Mailer, Susan Sontag, Leslie Fiedler, Pauline Kael, Rachel Carson, Wallace Stegner, Vine Deloria and Norman Podheretz. Novelists too acted as public speakers, so much so that John W. Aldridge would opine in Celebrity and Boredom (1966), It sometimes seems that a Kilroy was here sign hangs over the literary life of our age.29 The expressive self was a cultural force in art, in position pieces such as Thomas Pynchons A The Intellectual Context 13 Journey into the Mind of Watts (1966), new journalism and stand-up comedy. Comedians were particularly adept at catching the political Zeitgeist and hurling it back as acerbic satire, as explored in Chapter 1. The most controversial of cultural commentators worked hard to preserve a sense of speaking from the radical sidelines while situating themselves at the cultural centre; no one more than Norman Mailer. Norman Mailer and Adversarial Cultural Critique Mailer published The Naked and the Dead in 1948 when he was 25 but really set out his writerly stall in the 1950s as an adversarial commentator on contemporary culture. In The Village Voice (the paper he helped found), he dened what it was to be Hip, an ideology he argued could be traced back into all the undercurrents and underworlds of American life, back into the instinctive apprehension and appreciation of existence which one nds in the Negro and the soldier, in the criminal psychopath and the dope addict and jazz musician, in the prostitute, in the actor, in the if one can visualize such a possibility in the marriage of the call-girl and the psychoanalyst.30 In the 1960s he visualised stories of these characters in his novels and promulgated these ideas in essays and journalism. Author of the audaciously entitled Advertisements for Myself (1959), he conjured the character Norman Mailer in The Armies of the Night (1967) in a sleight of hand he attributed to reading The Education of Henry Adams (1918) as a high-school student.31 Mailer exhibited a knack for ferreting out and commenting on the nations psychoses. In The Making of a Counter Culture (1969) Theodore Roszak returns to Mailers The White Negro (1957) as still one of the best evaluations of youthful dissent and Mailers assertion that the use of chemical weapons in Vietnam might be the index of our collective instability was a memorably provocative statement at the height of the war.32 His instincts about readers were nely tuned so he inserted himself into each signicant cultural event but projected a mock-modest impression of never having been at the centre: Mailer had an instinct for missing good speeches at the Civil Rights March in Washington in 1963 he had gone for a stroll just a little while before Martin Luther King began I have a dream .33 More than any other public intellectual, Mailer moved between factions whose social visions clashed. He portrayed himself as a political Everyman with his private mixture of Marxism, conservatism, nihilism, and large parts of existentialism, the kind of concatenation of afliations that spans the political ages but privileges sixties ideology.34 In Mailers version of the anti-war March on the Pentagon in Armies of the Night, different shades of political opinion unite in common cause as citizens converge across generations, religions and classes. Mailer was a publicity hound. Time condemned him as an anti-star spewing obscenities as he performed the role of irascible know-it-all 14 American Culture in the 1960s addressing demonstrators from the stage at Washingtons Ambassador Theater.35 The radical shift towards the use of bad language and obscenities epitomised by comedian Lenny Bruce found its way into the mainstream via his feisty commentary: Mailer never felt more like an American than when he was naturally obscene.36 Mailer followed Marcuse in yoking together sex and violence, the unspoken territories of sex, in novels such as An American Dream (1963). Having stabbed his wife some years earlier, Mailer shocked readers by making the apocalyptic orgasm the murder of a wife and rape of her maid, the protagonist a suicidal war hero friend of Kennedy, and the novel a dark disquisition on Kennedys New Frontier. Topicality, the ruin of an otherwise good novel for many writers, was Mailers primary tool and led to his appearances on TV shows such as Outrageous Opinions hosted by Helen Gurley Brown. His opinion pieces were renowned, including An Evening with Jackie Kennedy (Esquire, 1962), in which he described her hosting a television tour of the White House like a starlet who is totally without talent in a phony voice designed for selling gadgets to the grim. Mailer was monitored by the FBI and CIA, receiving 364 pages of his FBI le in 1975.37 Re-reading The Armies of the Night, one is struck by the prescience of his commentary. Mailers coruscating indictment of Lyndon Johnsons bad war resonates with twenty-rst-century criticisms of the war against Iraq. It is a reminder that George W. Bush was made in the crucible of the 1960s even as he modelled himself against presidential and almost-presidential gures Bill Clinton and John Kerry. Taking to the university lecture circuit in his eighties, Mailers excoriation of Bush in Why Are We at War? (2003) derived much of its ideological shadowing from techniques he honed in the 1960s. Mailer once threw out the observation that Once History inhabits a crazy house, egotism may be the last tool left to History38 and while Kate Millett deemed him megalomaniacal and masculinist in Sexual Politics (1970), others celebrated his audacious intellectual presence. Diana Trilling compared him to the prophet Moses and Richard Poirier followed Mailer himself in arguing, men who become Presidents or champions of the world are . . . men very much like Mailer.39 His facility for catching the Zeitgeist and courting controversy made him a cultural phenomenon who is returned to in this book for the moments he intersects with the decades key events. The Myth of the New Frontier In 1960 President John F. Kennedy declared he would get America moving again and his campaign and inauguration speeches forged the myth of an Arthurian Camelot, in which the youngest American president would serve in cold war-enforced peace and prosperity: And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of The Intellectual Context 15 Figure I.2 Anti-war demonstrators run up against military police at the Pentagon in Washington DC on 21 October 1967, the events that Mailer describes in Armies of the Night. Courtesy PA Photos. power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. All this will not be nished in the rst 100 days. Nor will it be nished in the rst 1,000 days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.40 By his death, having served the county for only 1,037 days, the Kennedy legend had taken shape. It was the image against which subsequent presidents would be measured and the Kennedy dynasty emerged as the nations home-grown aristocracy. The governments image of a New Frontier emphasised personal and political courage with Kennedy the charismatic liberal gurehead. He was a magnetic media personality and in the 1960s the politician, like other celebrities, became an art form as depicted by Andy Warhol and Robert Rauschenberg. Kennedys star status was underlined by Arthur Schlesinger Jr and Theodore Sorenson in speeches they wrote for him and of direct popular inuence was his own best-selling Proles in Courage, awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1957. Kennedy argued the challenges to political courage loomed large and celebrated US politicians he believed extraordinary in meeting them. The captain of a 16 American Culture in the 1960s PT-109, Kennedy had served with valour in Word War II and rescued marines, one of whom Victor Krulak he placed in charge of the special forces he called the Green Berets and sent to Vietnam in 1963. On 6 March 1960 Eisenhower announced the government planned to send 3,500 troops to Vietnam. Only a few months later, with Kennedy in power, the lm PT-109 (1963) dramatised his military courage and underscored in the run-up to war that what he might expect of others, he had been willing to undergo himself. The Peace Corps may seem the obverse of the secret troubleshooting Green Berets, but in their personication of Kennedys rhetoric Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country the young volunteers were equally the outward face of a cold war President around the world. Kennedy was most traditional, however, in his espousal of established liberal tenets. At the opening of the Robert Frost Library in 1963 Kennedy celebrated poets as disinterested observers, tellers of basic human truths standing outside of ideology. The Presidents Romantic separation of culture from society, albeit couched in literary terms, would prove ironic in a decade when poets as different as Robert Lowell, Gwendolyn Brooks and Denise Levertov would engage specifically with contemporary issues, including the war precipitated during his Presidency, in avowedly political ways. Different events have been proffered as the moment in which America lost its so-called innocence: the assassination of Kennedy or that of Dr King, the extinguishing of the last liberal hope with the death of Robert Kennedy, or the death of hope in a peoples ability to change government policy and prevent the continual escalation of the Vietnam War. In Don DeLillos novel Libra (1988), President Kennedys murder is described as seven seconds that broke the back of the American century.41 On 22 November 1963 he was shot in Dallas and died within minutes. Lee Harvey Oswald, arrested the same day, was described by the press as a lone assassin despite conspiracies arguing the contrary and by 24 November he too was dead, shot by Jack Ruby, owner of a striptease club in Dallas and there was no doubt this time. Television cameras captured the crime and Ruby declared, I did it for Jackie Kennedy. Kennedys Camelot had spiralled into violence. His widow returned to the Broadway show Camelot again in the role of his Guinevere: At night, before wed go to sleep, Jack liked to play some records; and the song he loved most came at the very end [of Lerner and Loewes musical]. The lines he loved to hear were: Dont let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief shining moment that was known as Camelot.42 T he Intellectual Context 17 Figure I.3 A boy reads Kennedys inaugural speech at his grave site, Arlington Cemetery, Virginia. Courtesy Francisca Fuentes. 18 American Culture in the 1960s Lighting the eternal ame to burn over his grave reinforced the image of the President as hero in power for only 1,000 days. In the weeks after his death, Jackie Kennedy declared: You must think of him as this little boy, sick so much of the time, reading in bed, reading history, reading the Knights of the Round Table, reading Marlborough. For Jack, history was full of heroes. And if it made him this way if it made him see the heroes maybe other little boys will see.43 One such boy would seize the folk dream she narrated; Bill Clinton used a clip of himself shaking hands with Kennedy and although he was not the rst to align himself with the man and the posthumous myth, he would become the rst Baby Boomer sixties President, as explored in the Conclusion. Others fell foul of comparison with Kennedy from Dan Quayle to George W. Bush but none more than President Johnson.44 At his inauguration parade a young man could not unx the image of Kennedy, dead or alive: a melancholy impulse had taken me back to the spot on Pennsylvania Avenue . . . where I had stood for the funeral procession the year before. When I try now to picture a triumphant LBJ going by, I see instead the riderless black horse. Same bands, different music.45 The inability to respond to Johnson in his own right is symptomatic of a wider cultural problem with which Johnson had to contend, suffering for his failure to be JFK and for his image as an elderly statesman.46 Youthfulness had been focal in dening the New Frontier and brother Robert took up the call, arguing, This world demands the qualities of youth; not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of the imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease in the world.47 He located President Kennedy squarely in the vanguard when he had actually been slow to act on civil rights, trying to contain unrest and maintain relations with the southern bloc of Democratic voters. When Jackie Kennedy Onassis died in 1994 aged 64, her image remained, despite her second marriage, that of the First Lady gracefully carrying the nations grief and upholding the Kennedy legend, not least via her silence on his romantic affairs. Even those who quickly became disaffected could identify with the utopian image embodied in the youngest President. Hunter S. Thompson argued, Student radicals may call Kennedy a phony liberal and a glamorous sellout, but only the very young will deny that it was Kennedy who got them excited enough to want to change the American reality, instead of just quitting it.48 Yippie activist Abbie Hoffman took up the same theme: Kennedy The Intellectual Context 19 often lied to our generation, but nevertheless he made us believe we could change the course of history.49 Despite Kennedy sending some 15,000 military advisors to Vietnam, engaging with the internal politics of the Diem regime, and co-opting the nation into an unwinnable war, cold warriors return to his Presidency as a moral highground. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara resigned in 1966 but in the revisionist return to Vietnam that began with his 1991 memoir and continued in The Fog of War (2003), he looks back to the Kennedy Administration as the best years of our life. In 2007 McNamara declared: I will tell you what leadership is . . . Its Jack Kennedy refusing to risk nuclear war when nearly everyone in the room is telling him to . . . Kennedy listened to the overwhelming advice of his so-called experts McNamara pauses, leaning back to add a touch of drama and then he ordered the blockade instead.50 In returning to the Cuban Missile Crisis, McNamara recalls the ubiquitous, if oxymoronic, Iron Curtain, the nal frontier between life and nuclear apocalypse. Kennedys frontier metaphor was sufciently mobile to signify across real and imagined geographies; it could be America saving South Vietnam from the horrors of Communism by policing the 17th parallel, or even the terrain of North Vietnam which Mary McCarthy described as still pioneer county.51 It could be the gay liberation movement breaking the heterosexual frontier. It could be rediscovered in the Native American past in N. Scott Momadays House Made of Dawn (1969) or in outer space. The space race secured its dollars and democratic script from the ideology of the New Frontier, as in Kennedys 1961 speech to Congress: I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth.52 Lynn Spigel has described the space race as a way to transform the doldrums of national complacency and sell the public on a sense of the future, as in the issue of Look entitled Soaring into the Sixties.53 For most of the decade space ights orbited the moon and from the summer of 1969 to the end of 1972 lunar landings dominated the popular imagination. Astronauts featured in cultural productions as different as Hanna-Barberas cartoon The Jetsons (196288), Disneys Moon Pilot (1962), NBCs I Dream of Jeannie (196570), Planet of the Apes (1968), 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Star Trek, as discussed in Chapter 2. 20 American Culture in the 1960s Just as the space odyssey Star Trek returned to Shakespeare in its allusions to civilisation and culture, there was a return to Frederick Jackson Turners frontier thesis of the 1890s in Kennedys New Frontier, as there was in revisionist Western ction and lm. If Turner declared the Western frontier closed in 1893, Kennedy sought to re-open it by making a decade synonymous with a new cultural frontier. Turners modern myth would be subject to new ideological scrutiny. In his Wilderness Letter (1960), Wallace Stegner campaigned to ensure preservation of the California wilderness as the genetic reserve . . . against which our character as a people was formed.54 In Little Big Man (1964) Thomas Berger compared the attempted genocide of American Indians with US intervention in Vietnam. While the 1960s also saw the demythologising of the Western lm in Cheyenne Autumn (1964), Cat Ballou (1965), Paint Your Wagon (1969) and Little Big Man (1970), Warren French argued that it continued to shape national mythology until Easy Rider (1969) ushered in the more problematic Southern. It is an idea with which this study contends.55 Bonnie and Clyde (1967) is a central plank in any discussion of myth and revisionism, its retro style a component of its success, as made manifest when Theadora Van Runkles versions of Faye Dunaways costumes made their way into high-street stores. Like Hud (1963) and Hombre (1967), it rejected the image of an innocent America and the nostalgia (albeit self-consciously reiterated) that would texture lms such as Sergio Leones Once Upon a Time in the West (1968). Instead, petty and ruthless killers Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker, mock-heroic poor whites in the Depression Southwest, burn with a resentment that chimes closely with countercultural concerns. Comparing 1960s social unrest with Depression-era social upheavals, Arthur Penn could convey his fear that new social movements would fail to transform American life. The myth of New World innocence was demolished in ction too, including Richard Brautigans Trout Fishing in America (1967) and Wallace Stegners All the Little Live Things (1967), discussed in Chapter 5, which exposed the regenerative myth of the Western wilderness insofar as, like any other American place, it could be corrupted. Easy Rider (1969), a countercultural celluloid statement made on a shoestring budget of $375,000, grossed some $50 million worldwide on rst release by tapping into the same archetypal American dreams via the mythos of the frontier, with violence the consequence for any American who failed to conform to conservative mores on The Intellectual Context 21 Figure I.4 Bonnie and Clyde (1967). Courtesy Warner Bros./The Kobal Collection. crossing the Mason-Dixon line. Instead of lighting out for the [western] territory, the protagonists travel from the West to the Deep South and their murder by southern rednecks added the force and controversy that a tale of hippie bikers might not otherwise have had. The anarchic if laconic Captain America (Peter Fonda) and Billy 22 American Culture in the 1960s the Kid (Dennis Hopper) are countercultural Adams. The lms legend, A man went looking for America and couldnt nd it anywhere, is not only a eulogy for a paradise enlivened by drugs and lived out in rural places. The lms symbolic notion of freedom also fails to imagine how black and white might live together even at the end of the decade. Sena Jeter Naslunds epic novel Four Spirits (2003) set in Birmingham in 1963 returns to the same impossible dreams when it opens with black children imagining that the gigantic cast-iron statue of Vulcan that presides over Birmingham might have a romance with the Statue of Liberty. As early as Democracy in America (183540), French commentator Alexis de Tocqueville had asserted that the danger of conict between white and black would perpetually haunt the American imagination and the protracted struggle for racial harmony reached its apotheosis in the 1960s on the southern frontier. Historian Charles Payne even describes SNCCs (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) entry into southern towns as reminiscent of the Old West, with one or two marshals coming to clean up Dodge City.56 The South: The Eye of the Sixties Hurricane An idea that was hot in the 1960s was cultural mythopoesis, as posited by Richard Slotkin, which traces the ways in which stories, sometimes apocryphal, become accepted with repetition and solidify into myths and archetypes. President Kennedy, already mythologised in Mailers The Presidential Papers (1963), fullled the tenets of Slotkins myth-narrative: a protagonist hero with whom the audience is presumed to identify . . .; a universe in which the hero may act which is . . . a reection of the audiences conception of the world . . .; and a narrative in which the interaction of hero and universe is described.57 Archetypes have helped to x cultural ideas into decades. Myths were re-inscribed through structuring antinomies, to borrow Claude LeviStrauss terms, such as public vs private, individual vs community, Nature vs culture, garden vs wilderness and the US vs Russia as re-produced in political speeches and movies. New social movements would engage with such myths in their campaigns to change society; the frontier West and exceptionalist South would be especially tested and challenged. The sixties was synonymous with the South, the region in which the Civil Rights Movement took its stand. As described by novelist Ellen Douglas: The separate black and white societies of the South and the The Intellectual Context 23 country were grinding against each other with the agonized crunch of continental plates, preparing the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions of the sixties.58 Literary critic Fred Hobson remembers that as a southern student travelling West following a trail lit by The Grapes of Wrath, he was suddenly and ironically aware of going in the wrong direction: The nations action and passion in 1964 . . . was to be found not in the West but in the South we were leaving behind.59 The eye of the Civil Rights hurricane was the South and as Freedom Summer played out in 1964 the nation would be confronted by evidence of massive resistance to racial integration in its most violent form. While African Americans were being killed for ghting for their rights, the murder of white northerners come south for the summer would create the media shock-stock that had eluded black southerners, as explored in Chapter 5. The national model of a north-south binary was particularly acute in the 1960s and has been described as both a second Civil War and a second Reconstruction. In The Southern Mystique (1964), Howard Zinn asserted the South represented the nation in its most concentrated form, functioning as a mirror in which the nation can see its blemishes magnied.60 Images of a savage South ensured the region could be read as the nations backward cousin with southern whites huddled together according to an enduring proto-Dorian bond, as W. J. Cash had described in The Mind of the South (1941). The South was estranged from the nation, the image of the urban, liberal North dependent on a foreign alien South. When Attorney General Robert Kennedy failed to nd a discourse in which to convince George Wallace of the rightness of federal support of civil rights, he feared the South was like a foreign country. Robert Drews documentary lm Crisis (1963) sets up a dichotomy between Robert Kennedy and Wallace, cutting from the Kennedy home where the children eat with their father and are persuaded by him to drink their breakfast milk to Governor Wallaces Alabama mansion where a black maid is left to care for his little daughter. Wallaces demagogic racism, descending from Herman Talmadge, Theodore Bilbo and James K. Vardaman, was a language that Drew presents Kennedy as unable to penetrate. The editors of Time-Life argued that The rest of the United States has been almost as ready to explain itself by contrast with Mississippi as by contrast with Russia and African American comedian Dick Gregory remembers that when he worked for the Chicago postal service, he intentionally put mail to Mississippi in the foreign mail sack.61 In Talking Birmingham Jam, folk singer Phil Ochs sang: 24 American Culture in the 1960s So I asked em how they spent their time With segregation on their mind. They said, If you dont like to live this way, Get outa here. Go back to the USA . . . And he lambasted The State of Mississippi: The calender is lyin when it reads the present time . . ./ Mississippi nd yourself another country to be part of! Turners frontier thesis had argued the West was the nations true point of view and supposedly regional points of view began to dominate in the 1960s as local grievances mapped on to national anxieties. In the West grassroots organisations including the Industrial Workers of the World united workers across racial and ethnic lines in the 1920s and played a pivotal role in San Franciscos General Strike of 1934. The West Coast was focal for the Beat Movement with landscapes such as Big Sur and the Mohave Desert central to ideas of individual freedom, as they were to the American Indian Movement. In 1960 California students led anti-HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) demonstrations and UCLA Berkeley was the centre of the Free Speech Movement (FSM), while in the Bay Area the National Farmworkers Union, Black Panther Party and the hippie movement were all pioneered. The Watts rebellion of 1965 ensured that those who still deemed American race relations a southern problem were shocked into recognition that there were separate black and white cultures throughout the US, strained and at odds. As Thomas Pynchon described, Watts is a country which lies, psychologically, uncounted miles further than most whites seem at present willing to travel62 and rebellions followed in Newark and Detroit in 1967. This book pays special attention to the West as well as the sea changes in American culture that began in southern places. When the Kerner Commission in 1968 reported our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white separate and unequal63, a government-funded body nally announced the southern problem was intrinsically national, as had been reiterated repeatedly across different cultural forms. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, for instance, sees the southern racial nightmare played out in rural Oklahoma when Klan nightriders threaten Malcolms father and burn the family home to the ground. The movie Love Field (1992) critiques Kennedys America in terms of Kerners separate black and white worlds. A devotee of Jackie Kennedy (Michelle Pfeiffer) is condent that all black people must be devastated by Kennedys death. He did The Intellectual Context 25 so much for your people she informs an African American mechanic at a gas station in rural Tennessee. His response is cutting: Take a look around, maam. Look like he done much here? Watching Kennedys funeral on the television, a well-meaning white southern woman is visibly affected. Her character fulls Dr Kings description of good people who remained silent on racist violence; she is shocked: I dont know when we started killing people to solve things. The African American protagonists rejoinder is as swift and sharp as the mechanics: I didnt know we stopped. The savage South acted as a synonym for larger social concerns, notably the nations obsession with the ction of racial purity. It is important to understand how the South was represented in order to apprehend the myriad ways in which it persists in sixties mythology.64 In the rhetoric of the southern freedom struggle could be found the moral centre of the liberal nation, as in the freedom song We Shall Overcome. Historian Sara Evans claims, The sit-in movement and the freedom rides had an electrifying impact on northern liberal culture65 and the inux of northern liberals into the conservative South in 1964 was itself an indication that conservative and liberal are functional if nebulous terms. The assumption that citizenship was normatively white began to be dismantled in the South as African Americans represented themselves as the litmus test of the viability and reality of American democracy.66 Demands to tackle Jim Crow in the South and its residual forms in the North exposed a solipsistic racial blindness on the part of government and the extent to which Kennedy, Johnson or Nixon addressed race relations is one measure of their success in ofce. The dominant iconography was of good black folk versus evil white racists: rabid segregationist politicians, White Citizens Councils and Klansmen conspiring to ensure massive resistance to gains made by blacks, inarticulate redneck mobs stirred to violence, and corrupt tobacco-chewing sheriffs an image explored in In The Heat of the Night (1967) and discussed in Chapter 2. In order to understand an ideology one has to make it visible and mass demonstrations by black southerners showed in stark terms that protestors could not wait much longer for their civil rights to be enshrined in federal legislation. The role of newspaper journalists and television in reporting civil rights was essential. Until the mid-1950s events in the region had received sporadic coverage in the national press. The New York Times appointed Virginian John Popham southern correspondent in 1947, the rst to ll that position for a national newspaper, but it was only in 1955 with the murder of Emmett Till that 26 American Culture in the 1960s journalists such as William Bradford Huie ensured the South would receive national attention.67 By 1961, it would be impossible for any paper to cover the nations crises without a newsman on the southern beat as the crisis in race relations came to represent America for news agencies around the world. Strong moral claims were made by the civil rights and anti-war protesters but the conservative backlash fomenting in the 1950s was heightened in the 1960s. While scholars following Lionel Trilling and Richard Hofstadter believed conservative thought had atrophied, the decline of liberalism was simultaneously the rise of the conservative right. The South and the West were signicant both in the faltering of liberal ideals and the success of conservative opposition. Federal support of civil rights, slow in coming under Kennedy, was foregrounded by Johnson and the Democrats loss of the solid South was capitalised on by George Wallace whose courting of blue-collar middle America, in the North as well as the South, would help split the vote between Democrat Humphrey and Republican Nixon in 1968 and pregure Nixons Southern Strategy. Therefore, it is all the more ironic that the Democrats blocking of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) in 1964 rst signalled the failure of the liberal democratic establishment. While the MFDP was loyal to Johnson, the all-white Mississippi delegates the Convention validated actually supported Goldwater. Mrs Hamers famous statement that if the Democrats would not seat her Party, I question America, was the turn of the political tide. Southern conservatives successfully blocked integration of schools and Gallop polls about the pace of change in southern civil rights swung decisively between 1964 and 1966 so that more than half the whites polled across the nation believed the Democrats were moving too fast and too far. Also in 1966 SNNCs Julian Bond, elected to the Georgia House of Representatives in 1965, was subject to a 18212 vote against seating him because SNCC had opposed US policy in Vietnam. It took the Supreme Court to ensure Bonds seat and rightwinger Lester Maddox would be elected Senator the following year. The desire to voice opposition to Dixiecrats drew Bill Clinton into politics when in 1966 segregationist Justice Jim Johnson campaigned for the governorship of Arkansas and Nixons appeal to forgotten Americans was a variation on George Wallaces populist electoral rhetoric. It would be reprised in 1980 when Ronald Reagan opened his election campaign in Mississippi associating the South with the place where Morning in America would break were he elected to ensure The Intellectual Context 27 special interest groups would no longer be privileged and to restore states rights. Brink Lindsey returns to the South as the distillation of the countermanding of the counterculture when he demonstrates in The Age of Abundance (2007) that conservative Protestantism in the form of old time Christian fundamentalism helped to forge audiences receptive to the proselytising that would underpin the New Right in subsequent decades. In the West, the John Birch Society amassed its strongest inuence in Southern California. Only once Republicans had severed ties to such groups and shaken off the beleaguered, hostile and right-wing image they fostered would they capture lost ground and the Grand Old Party. In the 1990s George Lipsitz argued that California had become the new Mississippi. Where white segregationists had failed to uphold racially exclusive politics in the 1960s, the presence of Mississippis Trent Lott and of Haley Barbour at the head of the Republican Party in the 1990s was, he argued, the deferred triumph of their possessive investment in whiteness. In the same period California successfully perpetuated the same racial exclusivity via Propositions 187 and 209.68 Media Culture Television came of age during the 1960s, providing a cultural soundtrack for Kennedys New Frontier, replete with his familys dramatisation as early as 1962 in The First Family and the series based on his book Proles in Courage that aired on NBC in 19645. Kennedy enjoyed a special relationship with the media, though one young man seeing his rst transistor radio at Kennedys inauguration remembers it as more of a marvel even than Kennedys speech.69 When he lost the battle for the Democratic nomination for Vice-Presidential running mate on Adlai Stevensons ticket in 1956, Kennedy was beaten by Senator Estes Kefauver who honed his presentation skills in the televised Kefauver hearings tackling organised crime. Therefore, in the run-up to the 1960 elections, a photogenic Kennedy was very much aware of the importance of being seen regularly on television. Bright and cool, in contrast to Richard Nixon who sweated under the lights and whose complexion made him seem unshaven, in 1960 voters responded to Kennedy as they would to a famous athlete or popular movie star.70 This idea is underlined in Robert Drews documentary lm Primary and journalist James Conaway remembers that when Kennedy was inaugurated, He and the First Lady had about them a lightness associated with the new menthol cigarettes ads . . . caught up 28 American Culture in the 1960s in reports of Kennedys youth and enthusiasm, I had dreamily imagined myself working in some way to help fulll his dream without knowing what that dream was or what Kennedy represented . . .71 Nixon would only learn the media lesson later when in 1968 he remade himself as the leader who could reunite the nation. The instant book, or Extra, was a direct reponse to news. In September 1964 Bantam and the New York Times published The Report of the Warren Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy as an 800-page paperback within four days of the reports release, even appending notes and an index, and We Reach the Moon was on news stands almost immediately after Apollo 11 returned to earth. The archiving of media images began as soon as television and news reporting began shaping collective memories. The Nielsen viewing ratings recorded that John Glenns ight of 20 February 1962 was watched for more than ve of its total ten-hour coverage by most of Americas television audience. There was four-day coverage of Figure I.5 One of many demonstrations against segregated facilities, Memphis, September 1963. Memphis Commercial Appeal, photographer unspecied. Courtesy Mississippi Valley Collection. The Intellectual Context 29 President Kennedys funeral on all channels and the 1969 moon landings enjoyed wall-to-wall coverage around the world.72 Packaging news as history is obvious in such cases but the representation of new social movements is revealing. Julian Bond, SNCCs communications director, has written repeatedly of the reciprocal impact of the Movement and the media. His task was to ensure that demonstrations against civil rights violations were reported, but under J. Edgar Hoover the FBI recruited around 300 agents to discredit the liberal press and to prejudice coverage of civil rights demonstrations.73 While Movement drama harnessed the media despite Hoover, such media events have also come to stand in for a more complex understanding of the extent to which grassroots organising made the Movement. Lifes America in Transition In 1964 Life was summarily dismissed by one critic as a supermarket publication; everything glossily packaged and presented without emphasis and distinction.74 Throughout its history Life was more usually admired for its superb photo-journalism and its facility for reecting middle American opinion. Pierre Bourdieu declared photography a middle-brow art that (re)afrms the continuity and integration of the domestic group, and Life can be seen as conforming to this model for much of its history. The white nuclear family was foregrounded as the dominant model of cold war consensus. Wendy Kozol, for example, examines the ways in which President Eisenhower was represented as husband, father and grandfather in photo-journalism underlining the connection between his political and domestic roles and Vice-President Richard Nixon was photographed by Hank Walker in 1958 playing with his daughters in the family garden.75 The emphasis on middle-class white families had to be adjusted when social schisms apparent in the 1960s became news. In 1955 Life had condemned the verdict that exonerated Emmett Tills killers for a racist hate crime but the photo-essay contained no images of the victim, his mother or his extended family, although it did include photographs of white defendants with their families: Apparently, Life found no way to represent the black family in the story of Emmett Tills murder trial that did not contradict its message of middle-class domestic life.76 Life was renowned for its rollcall of famous staff photographers from Margaret Bourke-White and Alfred Eisenstaedt to Lee Miller. When Gordon Parks started work at Life in 1948, the rst African American to be employed by the company, he was expected to photograph the America that Life had failed to penetrate. Throughout his tenure in the 1960s he would do just that: his photo-essays of rebellion in Watts, Elijah Muhammads Nation of Islam and Dr Kings 30 American Culture in the 1960s funeral were stark messages about a changing America, delivered in the images and the words of one of the polymaths of 1960s culture. Photojournalism remained a dominant narrative of the era but its subjects would change along with photo-journalists views. Freelance Jill Freed, for example, recalls that seeing photographs of Holocaust victims in Life made her a photojournalist; she would publish her rst pictures not of foreign atrocities but of domestic victims of poverty in Life as Resurrection City, at the conclusion of Kings Poor Peoples March.77 In Life photographs remained the structuring principle that drove a phased feature article, whether on moral panics over teenagers, the warfare in Vietnam, or a Presidential day in the White House. However, the magazine saw signicant ideological changes as in the case of Larry Burrows, whose photography of Vietnam is explored in Chapter 4, who moved from being a hawk in support of the war to an acerbic critic of it with each phase represented in Life. Charles Moores photograph Local Lawmen, Getting Ready to Block the Law, taken on the afternoon of 27 September 1962, is specic in context James Merediths attempt to integrate the University of Mississippi but it is a documentary in miniature that also depicts the nation in transition. The white sheriff at the centre of the image smiles as he clenches a cigarette between his teeth and swings a baseball bat in menacing fashion while his associates encircle him. The picture is the subject of Paul Hendricksons 400-page investigation Sons of Mississippi (2003) in which he traces these seven faces of Deep South apartheid because the storytelling clarity of Moores image compelled his search.78 Any understanding of a catastrophic history of the 1960s has its cultural roots in photo-journalism which was far more daring than Lifes history had promised or than its founder Henry Luce might have liked. Life featured proles of Jimi Hendrix and it published a special edition on Woodstock. However, as John Gennari demonstrates, after achieving a $10 million prot in 1966, Life lost $40 million over the next four years as publication costs rose and subscriptions dropped.79 Lifes position at the centre of photo-journalism lasted from 1936 to 1972 by which time it had lost ground to television. Due to slow production time, it could not cover breaking news in the way that television could nor compete with the immediacy of agship documentary series such as CBS Reports and NBC White Paper. It was rededicated in 1972 as a semi-annual publication. While specialist publications could ride out the changes, the news reportage that TV stations provided was a more signicant rival for Life although, as argued in Chapter 4, the still photograph would remain one of the most visceral records of the era. National television was timorous in creating popular screen images of a changing nation, especially of racial integration outside of news coverage. When we remember that Peyton Place wasnt integrated until the 19689 season and the black Jeffersons didnt move into white Archie Bunkers neighbourhood until 1975, we gain a sense of how The Intellectual Context 31 mainstream television advanced cautiously. In 1963 ABC even refused to screen the 1958 lm The Deant Ones in its lm season. A close examination reveals that programmes with plots incorporating civil rights struggles began to nd place in popular genres in what Richard Schickel called the year of the problem: 19634. TV dramas including CBSs The Defenders (19615) and NBCs Mr Novak (19635) began to deal with race relations. I Spy (19658) was a breakthrough show for openly dealing with civil rights themes and Americas reputation around the world. While it engaged with a cold war theme of espionage, as did many other programmes from Get Smart to Mission Impossible, its interracial heroes (Bill Cosby and Robert Culp) set it apart from all other shows. Musical and theatrical performances were often signature events in their own right. Individual performances could be public statements and news. Muhammad Alis refusal of the draft, Lenny Bruces arrest for obscenity, the musical Hair and the music festival Woodstock were all revealing of the adversary culture of the 1960s, to borrow Lionel Trillings phrase, and each is explored in this book. Public spectacle became an important, even expected or necessary, means of communicating strong political feelings. Politicians, often promoting a rhetoric of success and excess, expressed a politics of personalism on the Left and the Right, from Kennedys speeches to George Wallaces demagogy, and Nixons polarising rhetoric to Bring Us Together by speaking for the Great Silent Majority. The charismatic leader as visionary was represented as spectacle, as when Dr King addressed the masses from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. A politics of confrontation was interdependent on media performances of social crisis: Kennedy using national television to announce the discovery of nuclear missiles in Cuba or Johnsons 1964 campaign advertisement Daisy or the Peace Girl, which implied opponent Barry Goldwater might initiate a nuclear war endangering Americas children; and Nixon, of course, entitled an autobiography Six Crises (1962). The image of the nation was the paramount consideration in a politics of spectacle, explored in media forms from Primary (1960) to Medium Cool (1968). By the end of the decade, however, a utopian belief that acts of the political imagination could inspire social change was dissolving into media frenzy. Even as early as 1960, New Orleans Mayor Delesseps S. Morrison proposed a three-day moratorium on media coverage of school integration because he believed press reports were exaggerated and he had witnessed cameramen setting up demonstrators to yell on cue.80 The pseudo-event was part of the cultural 32 American Culture in the 1960s self-hypnosis that Daniel Boorstin described in The Image or What Happened to the American Dream (1961) and the tendency to create pseudo-events only increased. During the Battle of Sunset Strip in November 1967 when around a thousand people protested in orderly fashion against curfews police action designed to prevent juveniles from loitering in downtown Los Angeles TV crews were seen shouting to the youths to climb onto the buses and wave their placards so that they could be seen, and encouraging them to do something for the cameras.81 The desire to be famous would be characterised by Irving Howe as part of the psychology of unobstructed need that he saw as irreverent and ironic but which by the end of the 1960s he feared had become socially corrosive.82 Indian Rights activist and intellectual Vine Deloria called for an examination of movement tactics, arguing that the medias role in triggering and reporting events has been responsible for the rise in irrational fear experienced by our society.83 By the 1980s Michel de Certeau could write that society measures everything by its ability to show or be shown, an idea Don DeLillo explored in Americana (1971) in which culture has given way to images. The cancerous growth of vision de Certeau identied was a long-term product of the symptoms that Guy Debord explored in The Society of the Spectacle (1968) and that Christopher Lasch deemed fatal in The Culture of Narcissism (1979). Legacy: Heritage, Retro and Branding In August 2003 when the hundredth birthday of the Harley Davidson motorcycle was celebrated, it was hippie Peter Fonda as Captain America in Easy Rider who marked the centenary. The bike was championed by Elvis Presley and Evel Knievel and on screen by Marlon Brando, James Dean and Steve McQueen, yet Easy Rider trumped all other iconic representations for its riders American dreams. The Stars and Stripes is clearly visible on the gas tank of Captain Americas motorcycle and repeated in a striking motif on his jacket. Capitalism and the counterculture were always interdependent; advertisers on Madison Avenue appropriated day-glo colours and psychedelic graphics and Stewart Brands The Whole Earth Catalogue (1968) co-opted the space race as well as the counterculture as its launching pad. Branding sixties heritage began early. Freedomland opened in June 1960. This theme park in the Bronx incorporated a space-themed city in which visitors could take a simulated ride in a space rocket. By 1964, however, Freedomland had closed. In 1960s The Intellectual Context 33 Atlanta, Stephens Mitchell, brother of best-selling author of Gone With the Wind (1936), the late Margaret Mitchell, fended off real-estate developers who had bought the lm set of the Tara plantation from Desilu Productions and a plot of land south of the city on Tara Road, named after the ction. As the centenary of the end of Civil War neared, and segregationists cited the Lost Cause as a metaphor for massive resistance, developers hoped to recreate the ction to attract tourists to visit Tara for a $1.50 entrance fee. Despite Mitchell, in spring 1963 Stone Mountain Plantation opened and without any direct allusion to Gone With the Wind successfully harnessed its image, achieving its $1.50 entrance fee.84 As early as April 1967, the Gray Line Bus Company began tours through San Franciscos Haight-Ashbury district so that even before the year of the hippie was over, it was being commemorated. A heritage industry has grown up around the Civil Rights Movement that includes tours of places where racist atrocities were committed. Such tours promote history as peristaltic; events pulse through time as places are examined through a historical lens, whether romanticised, revered, reviled or researched.85 Figure I.6 Easy Rider (Columbia Pictures, 1969). Courtesy the Kobal Collection. 34 American Culture in the 1960s As time passes, the era is both more commodied and more highly prized, as John F. Kennedys golf clubs sell for $772,000 at auction, far more than Sothebys estimate, and Norman Mailers literary archive is bought by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center for $2.5 million. However, the branding of the era was not only recognised but also critiqued by contemporary cultural critics. In 1959 poet Randall Jarrell described celebrities as a disposable consumerist phenomenon, not kings . . . but Representatives with only the qualities that we delegated to them. In the cold war context he argued celebrities were bought as any other commodity to make Americans feel better: One imagines as a characteristic dialogue of our time, an interview in which someone is asking of a vague gracious gure, a kind of Mrs. America: But while you waited for the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles what did you do? She answers: I bought things.86 If the threat of nuclear war inuenced consumerism, in the early 1970s US News and World declared that Americans, increasingly disturbed by the frenzy of the space age, were looking back at the nations past with fascination and longing.87 Don McLeans song American Pie (1971), which begins with the death of fties icon Buddy Holly in 1959, traces popular music through a representative of the generation lost in space when in the streets/ the children screamed/ The lovers cried, and the poets dreamed. A retro style was created almost immediately. In the movie American Grafti (1973), over a single night in the summer of 1962 California teenagers say farewell to childhood to a soundtrack of fties rock and roll. Bob Dylan quickly became the voice of a generation, and Ray Charles and James Brown competed for the title of The High Priest of Soul. The musical revolution was managed by record executives as part of what would be a billion-dollar industry by 1968 but, nevertheless, conservatives worried that music could be harnessed to ridicule religion, morality, patriotism, and productivity while glorifying drugs, destruction, revolution, and sexual promiscuity largely because advertising images were so successful in selling the idea of a counterculture.88 Now, Revolution 9 by the Beatles is a Nike advertisement and as one character moans in Christopher Buckleys novel Boomsday (2007), The anthems of my revolution are now background music in TV commercials for cholesterol pills, onboard navigation systems for gas-guzzling SUVs, and hedge funds. Everyone sells out. Boomers just gured out how to make it an industry.89 The Intellectual Context 35 In 2005 the widow of Black Panther Party founder Huey Newton was accused of exploiting the Panthers legacy by producing Burn Baby Burn Revolutionary Hot Sauce, a taste of the 60s, under the aegis of the Black Panther Foundation, the guardian of the true history of the Black Panther Party. The phrase Burn Baby, Burn recalled the Watts rebellion of 1965 which left thirty-four people dead and although the Foundation protested that the sauce was a fundraiser for community drives, former Panthers and Los Angeles residents lodged complaints. Contestation over ownership and curatorship of images can be bitter when the sixties remains an experiential channel that can be mined, revised or looted. Malcolm X, for example, is commodied as a bristling separatist militant when in the nal year of his life his adherence to a racially inclusive Islam rather than to ideologue Elijah Mohammad is overlooked. Computer game Battleeld Vietnam (2004) has so far received criticism from Vietnamese veterans in Birmingham in the UK and from journalists in the US but is a hit with game players who want a rst-person shootout.90 The game provokes ironic contemplation, especially when representing the Vietnam War can be a psychic morass patrolled by historian cops. In the 1990s, for example, lm critic Michael Medved became exercised over the ways in which the era was represented, believing leftwing crusaders bashing America were taking the place of John Wayne-styled heroes in the ag-waving lms of his childhood.91 Conservative cultural forces such as Walt Disney and Wayne inuenced young people who had grown up with The Wonderful World of Walt Disney providing a moral centre and Waynes lms evoking patriotic zeal for ghting good wars. Medveds criticism recalls the Department of Defense press release of 1966 ordering that movies and television productions should be made in the national interest, following the Departments directive on two counts: (1) Authenticity of the portrayal of military operations, or historical incidents, persons or places depicting a true interpretation of military life; and (2) Compliance with accepted standards of dignity and propriety in the industry.92 Waynes The Green Berets (1968), discussed in Chapter 2, followed such a script. He wrote to President Johnson for endorsement in December 1965, just seven months after troops began ghting, stating that the lm would help our cause throughout the world and would inspire a patriotic attitude on the part of fellow Americans.93 Medveds concerns are illustrative of a wider backlash that distinguished the culture wars of the late 1980s and the 1990s. Oliver Stone was criticised, for instance, for depicting a student anti-war demonstration at Syracuse that did not 36 American Culture in the 1960s happen in Born on the Fourth of July when 200 other campus revolts around the country provide dramatic licence. The inuence of the Baby Boomers born between 1945 and 1964 and especially those who came of age during the 1960s and in Vietnam as Stone did is unprecedented in its cultural impact on how the decade is represented and remembered. The intellectuals who have drawn and policed cultural boundaries and the media practitioners who have worked across culture industries to render the decade in autobiographical detail are usually Boomers. Todd Gitlin asserted that the 1950s expired in 1960 between the sit-ins in February in Greensboro, North Carolina and the anti-HUAC demonstrations in San Francisco in May.94 In other words, he privileges the chain of events in which direct action taken by young people like him established the era as a culture of dissent. The mix of autobiography and history privileges where Boomer authors stand not only politically but also personally a central trope of the decade in which the personal supposedly became political as indicated in the very titles of books such as Mary Kings Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (1984) and James Farmers Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement (1985). The feeling of emotional continuity with the decades concerns is continually emphasised, as when Andrew Young describes watching footage of the march in Chicagos Gage Park, when bottles and bricks were hurled at Dr King, himself and others, thirty years later and still feeling frightened.95 A desire to know more about it compels us to revisit the decade through each available cultural and political lens and to assess its legacies. This books title American Culture in the 1960s holds parenthetically within its spurious clarity a multiplicity of cultural forms that locate the decade within a network of discourses that are continually evolving new emphases. Wallace Stevens once observed that the end of an era is a peculiarity of the imagination and Frank Kermode declared the sense of an ending a recurring cultural myth. 1960s American culture was not decided in the era but continues to ignite debate; with each revision the era becomes more compelling. Chapter 1 Music and Performance This chapter considers the cultural signicance of music, comedy and other types of performance including theatrical and sporting. It explores the idea that a culture can be dened according to those performers and performances that initially seem to violate its norms. The formative phase of celebrity culture developed out of the emergence of mass culture, as the silent-movie star Rudolph Valentino made clear. Women fainted in the aisles during movies in which he appeared and thousands attended his funeral in New York in 1926. In the 1960s celebrity culture was celebrated and, as this chapter will explore, celebrity status could have serious political consequences. The cultural emphasis on fame can be seen in Andy Warhols commercial realism whereby he reproduced celebrities as artifacts and both memorialised and commodied them as the wallpaper against which future images of fame would be measured. From Elvis Presley to Marilyn Monroe and Jackie Kennedy, Warhol made celebrities into myths, replicating their image as he did mass-market products such as cans of Campbells soup. Shortly after Monroes death in 1962, his Marilyn Gold and Marilyn Diptych ensured her image would be idolised and consumed just as the actress had been in life. Situating himself between images of Marilyn Monroe, as in Figure 1.1, Warhol became as iconic as the icons he assembled; a Svengali-like creator in the way that Hollywood had perfected star-making in the 1920s.1 With The Factory in New York City his artistic headquarters, his discoveries were showcased in musical reviews called Up-Tight and Exploding Plastic Inevitable, art installations that combined dance and lm with light shows. They included Nico and The Velvet Underground and their orchestration by Warhol was what endowed them with celebrity status at least for a while while his own fame escalated, with Susan Sontag dening taste in ways that personied 38 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 1.1 Americas pop-art painter and lmmaker, Andy Warhol with his 1962 double portrait of Marilyn Monroe, The Tate Gallery, London, 15 February 1971. AP Photo. Courtesy PA Photos. Warhols style in Notes on Camp (1964) and a single screen print of Marilyn Monroe selling for $17 million in 1998. In 1968 Warhol famously declared, In the future everyone will be famous for 15 minutes, a prescient comment that looked forward to the disposable media-made celebrities of late twentieth- and early twenty-rst-century popular culture. However, established icons could also remake themselves quickly and effectively using media such as television. Neither adversarial nor countercultural, in the 1950s Elvis Presley was a musical style-setter but had neglected R&B to become one of the most highly paid actors in Hollywood in the 1960s. He remade himself on the NBC 68 Comeback Special. The live television audience is young and cool and when he snarls, If youre lookin for trouble/ Youve come to the right place, their reaction helped to transform 1956s biggest-selling single Heartbreak Hotel for a new generation. Elviss fashion sense had been forged early in his career during trips to Memphiss Lansky Brothers on Beale Street which marketed what kids wanted to wear but on the 1968 show a gure-hugging black leather suit marked a turn in fashion as the way to brand a new sound. This statement echoed another departure in musical style when Bob Dylan dressed in leather motorcycle gear to Music and Performance 39 signal his independence from the folk scene at the Newport News folk festival of 25 July 1965. Celebrity status would become an important focus of new social movements striving for media platforms, as when folk-singer and Yippie activist Phil Ochs famously quipped that If theres any hope of a revolution in America, it lies with getting Elvis Presley to become Che Guevara. Such quips were trumped by John Lennons famous comment that the Beatles were more famous than Jesus which incensed middle America as well as the Christian right but which may be acknowledged now as social commentary on the excesses of populism that the music scene fuelled in the 1960s, so that Lennon could state later I dont believe in the Beatles in an attempt to extend the metaphor. By the 1990s, philosopher Richard Rorty would have thoroughly intellectualised Lennons comment about the Beatles, whose members had originally come together at a church fte in Liverpool. When Rorty argued that the novel, the movie, and the TV program have, gradually but steadily, replaced the sermon and the treatise as the principle vehicles of moral change and progress, he might have more accurately included the importance of popular song and its performers, or sport and its heroes.2 For example, the political impact of singer Aretha Franklin and a song such as R.E.S.P.E.C.T is neatly summarised by comedian Dick Gregory, You heard her three or four times an hour. You heard Reverend King only on the news.3 While the emphasis on self-expression was a cornerstone of new social movements, this chapter also focuses on gures whose performances blazed a trail, and whose meaning derives from the eras key sounds. The decade was a musical rollercoaster in which different sounds came to prominence as others receded. Folk and blues traditions are paramount in understanding where sixties music began and the excesses of psychedelic rock help us to understand where the decades music ended up. At the beginning of the decade, music integrated audiences before desegregation laws made that possible in the South, as Attorney General Robert Kennedy quickly realised, gathering performers including Harry Belafonte and Lena Horne at his New York apartment to discuss how he might best address southern segregation. In 1961 to 1964 as she toured the South, Joan Baez refused to sing to segregated audiences and when she performed at the traditionally all-black Tougaloo College in Mississippi to an integrated audience, she was investigated by the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission.4 However, in his history of the relationship between music and civil rights struggles, Brian Ward emphasises the variety and 40 American Culture in the 1960s impact of the many musical crossovers that combined in a new interracialism of the airwaves in the early 1960s and that would inltrate other media as when Sam Cooke sang Dylans Blowin in the Wind on Shindigs inaugural programme in 1964 and black Memphians went wild for Elvis Presley when he played a 9,000-strong audience alongside BB King and Ray Charles.5 Andreas Huyssen has argued that postmodernism began in the 1960s, energised by countercultural trends such as musical crossovers and by the reclamation and celebration of folk culture and rock and roll.6 While the machinery of Motown successfully engendered musical stars as well as hit records, Curtis Mayeld in albums such as Theres No Place Like America Today and hits such as Grow Closer Together, People Get Ready, Move on Up and Keep on Pushing, emphasised the decades race relations and prophesied their further deterioration. Eddie Thomas, a member of the Impressions, recalls that Mayeld was like a factory all by himself and Mayeld explained that it was important for me to own as much of myself as I could. He therefore registered each song he wrote with the Library of Congress and founded publishing companies to earn him royalties.7 The 1960s saw a shift in emphasis from artists recording songs written by others to the singer-songwriting craft epitomised by Bob Dylan and Lennon and McCartney. The cult and unorthodox Randy Newman is a further example of an underexplored performer who when he calls himself the dean of satire is selfdeprecating as well as ironic. His simple songs rst heard in the 1960s chronicle complex issues, as in the concept album Good Old Boys (1974) which combines irony and the sentimental in a journey through the South. Iconic gures such as Bob Dylan and musical phenomena such as Motown reveal much about a changing climate but so do the countless others who contributed performances in an unpredictable decade. Like a Rolling Stone: Musical Heritage and the Folk Movement The 1960s saw musical returns as well as innovation. Even its most innovative performers were dependent on the revival of traditional musical inuences, as underpinned by musicologists such as Harry Smith whose Anthology of American Folk Music released in 1952 so inuenced Bob Dylan. The Basement Tapes he recorded with the Band in 1967 may be understood as Dylan nding his foothold in a continuum of traditional music traced from the early nineteenth century. In ballads and broadsides, Dylan found an American idiom. Alan and Music and Performance 41 John Lomax famously reclaimed an American folk heritage and embodied it in African American bluesman Leadbelly, contextualising that heritage in cultural histories such as Folk Songs of North America (1960) and Folk Song Style and Culture (1968), groundbreaking extensions of the classic Folk Song USA (1947) which Alan Lomax had introduced with a rhetorical ourish: A people made a three-thousand mile march between the eastern and western oceans . . . Songs traveled with them . . . Every hamlet produced its crop of ballads of murders, disasters, and scandals . . . Every ddler put his own twists on the tunes he learned from his pappy.8 The vernacular tradition was reinforced by the Greenwich Village folk boom epitomised by the coffee house and folk club performances of Karen Dalton, Joan Baez and the young Bob Dylan. The image of an authentically American music of the people was criticised early by Toni Cade Bambara in her short story Mississippi Ham Rider (1960), in which an elderly bluesman based on Mississippi John Hurt is persuaded to cut records for New York backers who hope folkway-starred sophisticates will absorb the native music of Mr. Ethnic-Authentic.9 Similarly, the image of the troubadour, whose ballads and broadsides exemplify the romance of being on the road was successfully harnessed by Dylan who began as an acolyte of Woody Guthrie and who created a story he later described as hokum of being kicked out of home and riding freight trains to New York City.10 It took Newsweek until 1963 to out Dylan as Robert Zimmerman, a middleclass Jewish boy from Hibbing, Minnesota and it would take much longer before performers would be as self-conscious as Bambara about the musical minstrelsy Dylan addresses in his 2001 album Love and Theft. Folk performers were often urban kids trying to sound like hillbillies and sharecroppers because, as Louis Menand has described, artice was the price of authenticity.11 Columbia Records surpassed RCA Victor by 1960 as the most successful record company, and veteran producer and impresario John Hammond who had discovered Billie Holiday, Count Basie and other musical greats, has described scouting for talent that year and signing up the old (Pete Seeger) and the new (Aretha Franklin). More bizarre was Hammonds visit to hear Texan folk singer Carolyn Hester with then husband/agent writer Richard Faria and discovering Bob Dylan playing harmonica in the background. I watched him for a while and found him fascinating, remembered Hammond in 1977, although he was not particularly good on either guitar or harmonica. Hammond had hoped to sign the Queen of Folk Music Joan Baez, 42 American Culture in the 1960s Figure1.2 Bob Dylan in 1967 with Allen Ginsberg in the background. Leacock Pennebaker/The Kobal Collection. but thought Dylans Talking New York showed sufcient promise to sign him to Columbia.12 Dylans duet with folk hero Pete Seeger at the Newport Folk Festival in 1963 would bring two eras into convergence: what had become the Civil Rights Movements foremost musical expression of hope recalled the Popular Front from which Seeger had emerged in the 1930s. Dylan revered the American music of the old heartland as performed by Seeger and Guthrie, and the nineteenth-century songs of Stephen Foster, handed down songs or rebel songs, as Dylan calls them in his memoir.13 During Woody Guthries protracted death in 1967, Dylan and Seeger would visit and play his songs. It is a sad scene of commemoration made iconic in the movie Alices Restaurant (1969) in which son Arlo is protagonist, combining a desire to carry on his fathers music with his own youthful quest for meaning. Across different musical forms, new artists declared allegiance to musical ancestors. Wilson Pickett referred back to the Soul Stirrers, a gospel group that began in the 1930s and included Sam Cooke until he went solo. In turn, Aretha Franklin made clear how Cooke had inuenced her; Johnny Cash admired the Carter Family even before he met M usic and Performance 43 Bob Dylan Dylans rst song was Song to Woody written for Guthrie whose music was an epiphany It was like the land parted, so much so that Dylan came out of 18 months of seclusion to perform at Guthries memorial concert in January 1968, leading Pete Seeger to say, Woody wants you to take this music to the world, because if you do, maybe we wont have any more fascists.14 Dylan was expected to carry the burden of representation not only as folk successor and troubadour, but as bard of a generation. To begin with, his songs combined the qualities he admired in Guthrie poetic tough balladry with those he discovered in Robert Johnsons delta blues but his musical legacy runs to some 500 songs that stretch from folk to blues to rock, and back to folk. Inuenced by Poe and Rimbaud and celebrated himself by poets such as Archibald MacLeish, Dylan has been studied by music historians, cultural commentators and literary critics, from Griel Marcus and Peter Guralnick to Mike Marqusee and Christopher Ricks. His revisionist memoirs, the rst volume published as Chronicles in 2004, prompted the rst interview in two decades and his reputation as a post-sixties recluse has had to contend with his incessant touring over recent years. Dylan is a complex constellation of contradictions. It is ironic that he should be so keenly associated with the politics of the 1960s when he has spent so much time repudiating any equation between his songs and political events.15 Songs such as Oxford Town about James Merediths attempt to integrate the University of Mississippi, or Only a Pawn in Their Game, an elegy for Medgar Evers, and the bardic Chimes of Freedom which celebrates the SNCC (Student Non-violent Co-ordinating Committee) activists he spent time with in Mississippi, are not among the songs that have endured as the classics but other songs were sixties political events in their own right. Blowin in the Wind was performed at the 1963 March on Washington and Dylan received the 1963 Tom Paine award for his contribution to the Civil Rights Movement but, even as he released them, Dylan bridled at the idea that A Hard Rains Gonna Fall, a response to the Cuban Missile Crisis, and albums such as The Times They Are AChangin, with the title songs plea that senators and congressmen heed the call, should be construed as protest. Dylan bristled at being tied to his times, an idea which recalls his interest in the 1850s and 1860s honed in New York Public Library because he says the songs he wrote wouldnt conform to modern ideas and an earlier century became the all-encompassing template behind everything that I would write.16 Typically, what drew Dylan to that period, however, was the idea of a nation creaking and cracking as the Civil War began and it is more than coincidental that similar schisms characterised the 1960s. Dylan continues to return to issue-based politics in the spirit of protest, and the lm he scripted, ironically entitled Masked and Anonymous (2002), may be read as evidence that he has not escaped the 1960s.17 44 American Culture in the 1960s As a global phenomenon, Dylan was made in Britain. Even at the height of Beatlemania, he was mobbed after a London gig, already regarded as a pop star, a sex symbol, a sybaritic prophet all rolled into one.18 Hits such as It Aint Me Babe and Mr. Tambourine Man were rst performed in the UK and in 1965 Dylans international star status was secured just as the Beatles were securing theirs in the US. Subterranean Homesick Blues was a Top Ten hit and Bringing It All Back Home was number 1 in UK album charts in May 1965 whereas Dylan didnt achieve the same market recognition in the US until later.19 Dont Look Back, D. A. Pennebakers lm of Dylans UK tour, tracked his success including the pseudo-religious frenzy that fans exhibited. Despite the consensus view that Dylan was criticised throughout the period in which he introduced electric and amplied sets negative reception at concerts described as a year of booing that began at Newport in 1965 and continued to Manchester Free Trade Hall in 1966 it is invidious to fantasise Dylans career as such cleanly sliced segments in which he was alternately fted for folk purity or slated for folk rock. His is a career that rides the punches (Im a trapeze artist) even it he did not always roll with them. The clich that he is the voice of a generation has been purposely worn down by Dylan rather than seen as something to live up to.20 More revealing is the heightened emotion his music provokes: to Gary Allen in a tirade against That Music he was a communist crimson troll; for Griel Marcus, he is a dreamer whose Like a Rolling Stone can be compared to the Declaration of Independence.21 Marcus argues in typically suggestive rhetoric that by 1967 the nation was a faith and a riddle . . . a threat and a plea, a church and scaffold22 and Dylans lyrics have been read as the riddles of a prophet though which national metaphors might be best apprehended. The cult of personality that underlined 1960s performance politics can be effectively explored through Dylan, Muhammad Ali and others such as Jimi Hendrix and Abbie Hoffman. If disaggregating the man from the times would seem an exercise in futility, the attendant risk is that they become ciphers if attention is not paid to the contradictions they lived out in a turbulent decade. Dylan seems to be addressing that worry: he has returned to his musical roots and the rst years of his success as folk guru and protest singer in Chronicles. And he is talking. Martin Scorsese who made a movie about The Band, The Last Waltz (1977), was granted Dylans time for interviews underpinning the biopic No Direction Home (2005) which returns to his early career. Todd Haynes postmodern biography Im Not There (2007) is a choral lm in which six different actors, women and men, interpret different stages of his life and career. The many faces of Dylan and the many directions in which he has travelled musically have inuenced performers as different as the Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Marvin Gaye, Bruce Springsteen and James Blount. As Luc Sante has succinctly summarised, even when he has been at pains to make himself transparent, Dylan has given grist to the interpretation mills, which have rarely been idle in forty years.23 Music and Performance 45 and married June. In 1972 Diana Ross played Billie Holiday in Lady Sings the Blues, locating her own star image with that of the authentic jazz and blues diva. Sixties musicians demonstrated a facility for mining the seams of literary and cultural history as well as past musical forms. Columbia records, in the person of Chris Albertson and with the support of John Hammond and others, re-recorded for a new generation the 78rpm records Bessie Smith recorded in the 1930s. Songs passed across generations as parables, sometimes in coded language in which class or racial protest was implied. The boundary between musical culture and politics was porous. Metaphors of struggle occurred in Appalachian mountain ballads, African American spirituals, free jazz such as Max Roachs Freedom Now suite and Yiddish folk songs. The shouting poem that began with Ginsbergs Howl was taken up by performance poets Nikki Giovanni and Sonia Sanchez who were joined by bluesmen poets such as Leroi Jones (Amiri Baraka) in singing out loudly and proudly an emancipatory critique, not least of the war in Vietnam. Giovannis hard-hitting poem Nigger Can You Kill?, for instance, is inuenced by music such as John Lee Hookers I Dont Want To Go To Vietnam; Giovanni is resolute that domestic issues such as racism and poverty needed to be resolved before focusing on war. Similarly, Nina Simones vehement Mississippi Goddamn (1963), the rst protest song this Juilliardtrained classical pianist wrote, was triggered by the 1963 racist bombing in Birmingham of a black church in which four little girls died. It includes the desperate, angry, vengeful lines: Oh, but this country is full of lies/ Youre all gonna die and die like ies/ I dont trust you any more/ You keep on saying Go slow! . Protest and Politics as Melodrama and as Theatre From the March on Washington to the March on the Pentagon, political demonstrations harnessed media interest. The masses gathered in one place would itself form a spectacle memorialised in photograph and documentary footage. The 1968 Democratic Convention hosted in Chicago was a spectacle containing all the ingredients of a melodrama. US party conventions have traditionally been colourful and even violent. Historically, the major responsibility at the Party convention was choosing nominees to go forward on the Republican or Democrat ticket but by the 1960s candidates were expected to battle each other for nomination in Presidential primaries. In advance of the 1968 Convention, however, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey 46 American Culture in the 1960s manouevred himself into the position of Presidential nominee and delegates discovered it had already been decided that he would be put forward. This twist galvanised what was already a volatile situation. Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Dick Gregory and others combined New Left and hippie philosophies. Their public theatre had helped put the Youth International Party (Yippies) on the media map. Fifty thousand people gathered in October 1967 to dramatise Hoffmans dream to levitate the Pentagon through the power of communal meditation in order to exorcise its power and precipitate the ending of the war. So excessive a performance that it sounds apocryphal, it was theatre of everyday life as Erving Goffman has described: it was not that the bizarre idea could succeed but that a phenomenal demonstration would send a message of dissent. The 1960s saw a number of overblown gestures or pseudo-events, manufactured as photo opportunities even if they retained more meaning than this would imply for participants. At the 1968 Chicago Convention, Yippies produced a pig declaring it should be President, its platform garbage. While the satirical humour was effective there were warning undertones: an earlier Yip-in celebration at Grand Central Station in New York City had turned violent and the Convention would dissolve into the similarly overblown Battle of Chicago with some 660 arrested, 1,000 injured and American Indian Dean Johnson killed. The cultural leverage that comes with celebrity status can be seen in a very different and international context during the 1968 Olympics when African American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos won gold and bronze medals in the 200 metres. In and of itself, Smiths world-record-breaking performance brought African Americans to centre stage. When the two athletes mounted the podium to receive their medals, what followed is generally reported for its function as a Black Power salute and for the furore it caused. However, what also made Smith and Carloss protest memorable was its synchronicity as performance art, a symbolic image of black nationalism as Smith has described: I wore the black right-hand glove and Carlos wore the left-hand glove of the same pair. My raised hand stood for the power in black America. Carloss raised left hand stood for the unity of black America. Together they formed an arch of unity and power. The black scarf around my neck stood for black pride. The black socks with no shoes stood for black poverty in racist America. The totality of our effort was the regaining of black dignity.24 M usic and Performance 47 Banned from the Olympic Village and suspended from the national team, the immediate judgment on Smith and Carlos was that protesting domestic politics was anathema at an international sporting event. Only with hindsight, as when Smith was celebrated as the Sportsman of the Millennium in 1995 and San Jos State University erected a statue of its famous alumni in 2005, would the politics of their performance be fully acknowledged. The Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR) inuenced by sociologist Harold Edwards at San Jos State is usually cited as the sole inspiration for Smith and Carloss protest. Australian Peter Norman, who stood with Smith and Carlos on the podium, wore an OPHR badge next to his silver medal to indicate his support of their protest. However, the cultural context in which the performance should be understood was much wider than reference to OPHR alone suggests. The form the protest took was not new: before he became a comedian Dick Gregory had used the same salute at Olympic try-outs in St Louis.25 More signicantly, when Carlos and Smith decided on their demonstration of Black Power politics, the most vocal of African American sporting heroes was banned from performing. Recalling the Olympic Protest in the 1990s, Arthur Ashe was convinced that Muhammad Ali was Smith and Carloss inspiration: Ali had to be on their minds. He was largely responsible for it becoming an expected part of a black athletes responsibility to get involved. He had more at stake than any of us.26 Winner of fty-one tennis titles, including the US Open in the year of the Olympic protest, Ashe too staked a claim for the underprivileged throughout his career and the addition of Richmond-born Ashes statue in 1996 to those commemorating the Southern Confederacy lining Monument Avenue was an ironic postCivil Rights addendum. Initially Muhammad Ali professed himself to be apolitical, boasting that he had never fought for integration and vowing that he would never protest a cause. But he would become a signier of protest and courage for having refused to ght in Vietnam. His trajectory through the decade is epic and controversial: he grew up in Kentucky and won an Olympic Gold in Rome; when he was stripped of his boxing title, he won it back; he would be world heavyweight champion three times. Vilied in the 1960s for his religion and politics, he has since been mythologised as a peace emissary, negotiating the release of US hostages in Iraq, and commodied as a brand: he has been used to advertise Coca-Cola and Adidas. 48 American Culture in the 1960s Muhammad Ali The cultural impact of Cassius Marcellus Clay (194264) and Muhammad Ali (1964 ) reects the divisions of the 1960s and unlike most sporting gures he has been the charismatic subject of writers who have little to do with sport: Alex Haley, Joyce Carol Oates, Gary Wills and Ishmael Reed. When he fought Joe Frazier in what was heralded the ght of the century he was so iconic that Frank Sinatra took photographs for Life. In April 1960 he was registered for the military draft. Two years later he was called but when he failed the aptitude test, he was reclassied ineligible (I was the greatest, not the smartest27). That decision was challenged in 1966 by which time he was world heavyweight champion (from February 1964 when he defeated Sonny Liston). When the aptitude requirement was lowered as President Johnsons government increased the volume of young men called, Ali refused to go, stating unequivocally that I aint got no quarrel with those Vietcong. In more measured tones he explained at the hearing at which he failed to gain exemption as a conscientious objector: It would be no trouble for me to go into the Armed Forces, boxing exhibitions in Vietnam or traveling the country at the expense of the government . . . not having to get out in the mud and ght and shoot. If it wasnt against my conscience to do it . . . if I werent sincere.28 Ali was sincere in his belief that to ght a Christian war as a Muslim who had not been attacked by the Vietnamese was to deny all that he had learned from the Nation of Islam; after the Hon. Elijah Muhammad had been denounced and died, Ali remains true to his beliefs. Norman Mailers prole of Ali which appeared in Life in 1971 was entitled Ego and Alis self-fashioning as the conscience of young America was as, if not more, important than his boxing prowess. He was mythologised as a boxer by Mailer: What separates the noble ego of the prizeghters from the lesser ego of authors is that the ghter goes through experiences in the ring which are occasionally immense, incommunicable except to ghters who have been as good.29 But he was a sign of the times rather than solely a sporting hero. The famous statement I dont have to be what you want me to be. Im free to be me is indicative of the choices he made that led to the ban on practising his sport. Ali was prohibited from boxing from 1967 to 1971, some forty-two months during which he sharpened his political performance speaking on college campuses around the country. When he returned to prizeghting, Mailer could claim Ali as the most prominent American after the President, the prince of mass man and the media and the rst psychologist of the body.30 The psychology of the body was a neologism coined to describe how Ali would psyche out opponents. This was one facet of Alis theatricality and had been part of his persona from the beginning. Ali was a showman, his own promoter as The Greatest through a variety of media, including his 1963 album of pugilistic poetry, talk show appearances and photo opportunities. His famous monologues drew on movies, M usic and Performance music and comic books for popular cultural resonance and the public performances in which he insulted and antagonised opponents drew on African American oral traditions of playing the dozens. Ali successfully harnessed facets of black performance history. He was a media star throughout the decade but his star status changed when he converted to become a Black Muslim. Repudiating his slave name of Clay, Ali was demonised by the press just as the 1959 television documentary The Hate That Hate Produced had demonised the Muslims. Gordon Parks remembers driving along with Ali in Miami in 1966 when he was training for his upcoming ght with Henry Cooper in London and hearing a radio announcer report his return to training. Alis reaction was: Cassius Clay! Im on everybodys lips. But still they wont call me by my right name.31 The New York Times and other publications refused to recognise his change of name throughout the 1960s and journalist Robert Lypsyte has described submitting features on Ali only to discover an editor had changed every reference back to Clay prior to publication.32 By 1966 Floyd Patterson could publicise that in beating Ali he would bring the heavyweight title back to America, as if by becoming a member of the Nation of Islam, Ali had also become a foreigner. Historically, the black sportsman had been caught between two racially polarised audiences, as indicated by the success of black prizeghter Jack Johnson and the vaunted need to nd the next Great White Hope to beat him. The black boxer was often reductively envisaged as a dupe of white-owned sports and entertainment industries. Alis self-fashioning as a celebrity and a political spokesman set him outside of such stereotypes. Ali even became an actor. In 1979 he played Gideon Jackson, a former slave who becomes a South Carolina senator, in the lm based on Howard Fasts Reconstruction-set novel Freedom Road (1944). Publicity emphasised the power of a dream and the triumph of the human spirit and the scene in which Jackson speaks up at the State Convention to rewrite the constitution is typical of the quietly measured tones beneath which Ali subsumed his familiar bluster. The moral leader of former slaves and poor white sharecroppers, his character is killed by Klan, the violent arm of landowners who renounce the claims of freed men. Gideon is waving a white ag of submission in a nal attempt to protect his people when he is shot dead. The camera pans around the slain until the nal image is of Gideons grandson staring into the camera with a look of bitter accusation. Alis presence ensured that while the lm dramatised the struggle of the Black Convention in Charleston South Carolina in 1865, it would simultaneously recall the black freedom struggles of the 1960s. Dick Gregory has called Ali a monument of a human being and explained: There were a lot of us against the war . . . but nobody heard us because we didnt command the worldwide attention that Ali engaged.33 Ali would help any event resonate of the 1960s as powerfully as the present, as evidenced in his lighting the torch at the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, a tower of strength despite Parkinsons disease. 49 50 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 1.3 Pugnacious cultural critic Norman Mailer arm-wrestling with heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali on the terrace of their San Juan hotel, 1 August 1965. Mailer came to watch Jos Torres, world light heavyweight champion, ght Tom McNeeley. Ali boxed four exhibition rounds after the Torres ght. AP Photo. Courtesy PA Photos. Alis star status underpinned Freedom Road. The movie as event depends on the convergence of different factors and the synergy between different culture industries in the 1960s in which performances of all kinds are relevant. For example, the success of The Graduate in 1967 was based not only on Dustin Hoffmans performance but underlined by its soundtrack. It was the rst lm to include songs that had previously been released, notably The Sound of Silence by Simon and Garfunkel. Arthur Penn in deciding on the soundtrack for Little Big Man wanted his story of discrimination to have the sound of discrimination. The achievement of that sound is a typically sixties cultural crossover. Penn felt that even for a lm about American Indians, the dominant sound of discrimination in the 1960s was African American. A white musician John Hammond, son of the record producer, whose musical career began as an interpreter of Robert Johnson and classic and forgotten blues songs, created an original score.34 He cleverly preserved and interpreted the sound and of an earlier era in a movie that would also equate the ideology of the massacred Cheyenne with the utopian counterculture of the 1960s. By the 1970s, the movie soundtrack would be a staple and a promotional must-have for the successful marketing of many lms. Music and Performance 51 Examining the cultural character of the era through attention to performance style is revealing on all levels. Fashions in clothing are expressive of changing youth values and the signicance of youth as a target demographic. In any public performance dress was key, as in Elviss comeback. Dashiki-wearing poets performed black cultural nationalism and the sombre respectability of the Nation of Islam under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad is recorded in monochrome photographs of a phalanx of black men in crisp white shirts and sharp black suits. In the South SNCC volunteers dressed down in denim coveralls while attempting to register poor black people to vote. They chose not to present themselves as formal or ofcious to blend in, rather than be easily marked by the police or the Klan. Nevertheless, the black members of SNCC were romanticised by Norman Mailer as having a reckless style and lan. In his view, their courage on voter registration drives was reinforced by a tasty choice in what they wore, a long thin feather in the hat . . . or an old pair of boots with turned-up toes. They had air.35 The civil rights worker as black cavalier is an image that exudes the kind of cool that Mailer championed in his writings about the hipster. Cultural productions in which youth culture was prominent provoked media coverage of generational and other tensions. The musical Hair was an entertainment event that challenged and changed censorship laws in the theatre. It premiered Off-Broadway on 29 October 1967 but by April 1968 it was Broadways biggest hit, racking up 1,873 performances at the Biltmore Theater. Its distinctive location in New York City would be emphasised in the 1979 lm of the stage musical by scenes in Central Park. However, the stage play was a huge success on Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles and would be easily adapted to different American cities where youth rebellion and resistance to the draft challenged the status quo. On the one hand, the musical entered the mainstream: the Broadway casts album stayed in the Top Ten of the Billboard charts for 150 weeks. On the other hand, Hair was subject to censorship in the South and sometimes only staged after legal appeals against its banning. In Chattanooga in 1972, the directors of the Tivoli theatre refused to allow the show to be performed and a civil ordinance prevented its staging. The appeal for the right of free speech went all the way to the Supreme Court and was not resolved until 1975. At the heart of the clash was a denition of the role of community theatre. The Supreme Court ruling records that of those who initially opposed Hair as an offence to decency, None of them had seen the play or read the script, but they understood from outside reports that the musical, as produced elsewhere, involved nudity and obscenity on 52 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 1.4 The Memphis State University production of Hair, 1970, directed by Keith Kennedy. Courtesy the Mississippi Valley Collection. stage. Although no conicting engagement was scheduled for the Tivoli, respondents determined that the production would not be in the best interest of the community .36 When Memphis State University produced the musical in February 1970, it caused a furore, even though it did not include scenes of nudity. Protests that followed were largely made on religious grounds and the banners, though easily mocked as absurd God Hates Hair and God Made Clothes are a vivid reection of an older generations fear of youthful excess. A free lifestyle challenged rigid denitions of Christian morality and the racial conformity on which southern culture rested so precariously was deed by scenes of race-mixing. The same issues that divided citizens in other cities were brought into sharp relief by bafed, placard-carrying young conservatives outraged by their long-haired peers. The scenes of protest in Memphis were an indication of the strength of feeling that this musical about draft-dodging hippies could provoke. The controversy was so spectacular that Craig Leake, Memphis State graduate of lm production in 1969, returned home to make an NBC documentary called When Hair Came to Memphis. M usic and Performance 53 Figure 1.5 Protests against the staging of Hair in Memphis. Dave Darnell, staff photographer for the Memphis Commercial Appeal, 22 February 1970. Courtesy the Mississippi Valley Collection. 54 American Culture in the 1960s Hair epitomised The Age of Aquarius which except in circumstances like those above travelled very successfully under the aegis of the theatrical spectacle, as evidenced in Londons Shaftsbury Avenue production which opened in 1968 and almost made 2,000 performances, closing in 1973 only because renovation of the theatre building forced its run to end. Londons Gate Theatre updated the musical to place the War in Iraq at the centre of its satire and again the musical ran successfully from 2003 to 2005. In the 1960s, demonstrations, live art, street and guerilla theatre and political spectacles were legion. Alan Kaprow is the academic and artist usually credited with coining the term Happenings to describe the revolutionary and participatory process that was a desire to improvise around ideas and events, to paste-up action, to make collages of people and things in motion.37 Susan Sontag dened a Happening in terms of what it was not, to reect the impossibility of agreement over conventions, aside from the modernist mantra Make It New according to which a Happening takes place in a continuous present.38 However, the concept was not new. In its original conception in the early twentieth century, the happening was designed to shock, antagonise or revolutionise, as in the re-enactment of the storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event in 1920 when it is estimated that around 11,000 Soviet people took part in the performance. American examples include the music and dance of John Cage and Merce Cunningham and Cages conducting of a mimed and silent interpretation of his music in the 1950s. Living theatre, poetry readings and other kinds of happening really took off in the 1960s and the theatre of war was one of the determining factors in public demonstrations, the anti-war movement being particularly adept at dramatising currents of dissent. The spectacle depends on a collective hermeneutical understanding of the event even when unpredictability may be its central feature, as in The Battle of Chicago, or in Living Theater created in cultural opposition to the play culture of Broadway. Playwright Neil Simons success across the decade may be usefully read as a control in an otherwise unpredictable experiment. Ruby Cohn may seem to give Simon short shrift when she alleges, His plays ignore not only wars but also racial violence, drug abuse, energy depletion.39 However, her assessment points up the tendency to measure theatre of the 1960s according to the issues it espoused in openly politicised ways. Theatre seemed to be sliced into seemingly separate cultural segments. Only streets away in New York City, a burgeoning radical theatre could be discovered Off-Off-Broadway. It has Music and Performance 55 been represented as if it just happened with no manifesto except a desire to represent what living in the now felt like, with no charge to audiences except what they chose to contribute when a hat went round. The best-known theatre group, Living Theater, did outline the key tenets of an Off-Off-Broadway performance so that even the most uid performance theatre began to operate within generic expectations: No curtain/ Performers circulate among audience/ Everyday clothes/ Performers circulate among audience/ Everyday clothes/ Performers become part of the audience/ Contacts.40 However, as Stephen J. Bottoms demonstrates, if live theatre was conceptualised as studiously amateur, it soon began to creatively intervene and self-consciously critique countercultural idealism, as in The Hawk (1967) at Theater Genesis, an improvised play in which a drug dealer murders his clients. While New York would remain the symbolic centre of American theatre, no matter how radical its precepts, on the countercultural West Coast, the Diggers were founded by a group of displaced New Yorkers, their theatrical enterprise evolving out of the San Francisco Mime Troupe which in the late 1950s sought to use guerilla theatre to undermine capitalism and shake the status quo. Emmett Grogan, Peter Berg and Peter Cohon (actor Peter Coyote) were central gures and their theatre movement dramatised what a free life might involve, not just via ticketless theatres but free stores and free food for the poor, disdaining what they saw as cynical or delusional countercultural hype as much as asphyxiating bureaucracy. Individual writers and performers were also noteworthy for their inventiveness. Amiri Baraka combined theatre as provocative, issue-based agit-prop and a keen sense of the Black Aesthetic in ways designed to make cultural waves. Kimberly Benston has asserted that Baraka entered the American consciousness not merely as a writer but as an event.41 Early plays such as The Toilet (1964) and The Baptism (1966) set out to shock, the former set in a high schools public toilet reeking of excrement, in which a ght breaks out between a black boy and a white, and the latter yoking together religion and homosexuality. While in the 1950s conservative critics such as Anatole Broyard had disdained the idea of a Negro theatre as encouraging belief in the difference of blacks from whites, Barakas plays were rmly situated within black cultural agendas.42 Dutchman (1964) is the story of a white woman (Lulu) and the black man (Clay) she stabs to death on the New York subway in the middle of the day with no consequences. It is one of the most disturbing parables, presenting 1960s race relations as an inferno; once dead, the rest of the subway cars passengers dispose of Clays body by dragging it out of the car. 56 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 1.6 Citizens Against Busing, Barney Sellers, staff photographer for the Commercial Appeal, 22 March 1972. Courtesy the Mississippi Valley Collection. Often in the 1960s the politics of performance was carnivalesque or media-hyped, publicised as the rhetoric of re-enactment that Paul Connerton has described as one of the ways in which individuals present themselves as a collective.43 While the anarchic left was renowned for eccentric performances galvanising countercultural youth, the conservative right could sometimes be equally creative in dissent. In Memphis, for example, a publicity stunt saw segregationists burying an old school bus to protest the busing of white children across town to ensure the integration of city schools. In Figure 1.6, children pose and a man dances on the bus roof as protestors smile and laugh. Susan Sontag described Happenings as surrealist with surrealism being the farthest extension of the idea of comedy, running the full range from wit to terror.44 Standing Up, Speaking Out and Singing Loud: From Gestalt to Geeky Smiling and laughing about civil rights issues is rarely associated with massive resistance to desegregation. Laughing at segregationist ire was traditionally the province of stand-up comedians whose politically Music and Performance 57 inspired performances combined commentary on the news (Mort Sahl has appeared with a rolled-up newspaper in his hand since 1953) with a bitter, contorted idealism (Sahl also wrote speeches for Kennedy before idealism turned to criticism). The importance of stand-up comedy in the 1960s cannot be overestimated. It featured across the culture industry. Frank Gorshin and Rich Little typically performed on television, Gorshin playing The Riddler in TVs Batman, and both demonstrated the art of impressionism. Littles seemingly plastic face would be contorted into an uncanny impersonation of Richard Nixon throughout the 1970s. As an outlet for populist and radical sentiments over the issues that beset the country, however, clubs and small theatres were more signicant than television in rst bringing fame and notoriety to comedy performers. The boom in satire was the one-man show typied by Lenny Bruces comic monologues, as in one that forms a blistering critique performed in the character of an American Indian complaining, Oh Christ! The white people are moving in! You let one white family in and the whole neighbourhood will be white! Bruce pushed comedy performance to extremes never before experienced in American culture with routines such as Who Killed Christ? and Are There Any Niggers Here? aying anti-Semitism and racism to the bone. The legal trials that Bruce underwent divested comedy of the social safety nets that had seemed to tacitly allow the comedian free speech, and were followed by his death in 1966. The aura of Bruces celebrity was partly the result of the dead comedian as fetish. A nations stories invest in death and, as Michael Taussig claims, the most controversial artists succeed in bringing the fetish character of the modern state into a clear and sensual focus.45 Lenny Bruce in life and legacy existed at the nexus of postwar Americas revolutions. The theatrical trailer for the 1979 lm Lenny for which Dustin Hoffman was Oscar-nominated marketed its subject as the conscience of America, stating, It is ironic that he was prosecuted for acts that have become a part of todays life, largely the idea of humour as social indictment. This reverses one facet of Bruces reception in the 1960s, as when Time magazine famously declared him the sickest of them all. However, Bruces appeal was much more complicated: the New York Post eulogised him as a kind of prophet and TV stalwart Ed Sullivan called him dynamic and original.46 Britains Jonathan Miller and American critic Lionel Trilling took on the debate in the New York Review of Books in 1968 and the meaning of free speech and sexual freedom continues to rage around Bruces martyrdom.47 When Bruce was rst arrested for obscenity, 58 American Culture in the 1960s Judge Axelrod was ready to nd him guilty right away and Bruce pleaded with the US judiciary not to take away my words. Bruces career was the most controversial case of free speech in the 1960s. Fetishised as a 1950s jazz- and Beats-inspired hipster who intersected with the counterculture as in 1966 when he performed with Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention his death from a drug overdose on a bathroom oor, like his performances, proved a big photoopportunity that has been compared to the way photographers fed on gangster John Dillingers death.48 Comedians who opened themselves to public approbation or disapproval demonstrated an almost preternatural talent for distilling the cultural moment. One of the most unusual was a university professor: mathematician Tom Lehrer. His satirical musical repartee began in the 1940s when he wrote songs while still a student at Harvard. In the 1950s he recorded studio and live albums and toured the US, Britain, Australia and New Zealand. By the beginning of the 1960s, as Lehrer entered his thirties, he was a huge hit both sides of the Atlantic and spent the decade supposedly saying farewell to his fans. He chose Glasgow as the venue for his rst nal concert performance in 1960 and Copenhagen as the site of his nal farewell in 1967. Lehrer had decided that, I never had the temperament of a performer . . . I do not require anonymous affection, such as that manifested by the applause of large groups of strangers. I wanted the audience to leave thinking Werent those songs funny?, whereas most, if not all comedians want them to leave thinking Wasnt he (or she) funny?49 This distinction between writer and performer sets Lehrer apart from Bruce and selfpublicists such as Mailer and provides a way into understanding why such idiosyncratically reserved gures as Lehrer and Randy Newman, whose career took off the moment Lehrers ended should attain cult status. That Lehrer tried and failed to say farewell to his audiences more than once is reective of the times: there was always one more event or issue he could not allow to pass without excoriating satire. In many ways, Lehrer combined the music hall of earlier decades with the explosive satire of the cold war or what he called the derrire-garde of American popular music. Although he only recorded around fty songs, stating that his standards were so high that relatively few were keepers, it would be difcult to conceive of alternative comedy without Lehrer. He was at the heart of one of US televisions most popular cult shows That Was The Week That Was even though he never appeared on screen. That Was The Week That Music and Performance 59 Was was inaugurated in Britain under the aegis of broadcaster David Frost, and when exported to air on NBC in 1965, the American version stormed the Nielsen ratings chart. Lehrer wrote the songs for the show but they were sung by the shows team of presenters. Lehrers best known song, National Brotherhood Week, had its rst outing on the show and encapsulates the sharpest of his sharp satire.50 Racism, religious intolerance and hypocrisy are targets, including a poke at his own Jewish heritage: Oh the Protestants hate the Catholics/ And the Catholics hate the Protestants/ And the Hindus hate the Muslims/ And evrybody hates the Jews. In mock democratic harmony, he imagines African American entertainer Lena Horne and segregationist southern sheriff Jim Clark dancing cheek to cheek. The more ludicrous Lehrer becomes, the more barbed his critique. We Will All Go Together When We Go was a cold war anthem, a satire on the grand incineration: We will all fry together when we fry. Well be French fried potatoes by and by. There will be no more misery When the world is our rotisserie, Yes, we all will fry together when we fry. Despite what happened to Bruce, comedians continued to be among the most outspoken critics of American culture on everything from race relations and the war in Vietnam to local issues. Dick Gregory is a case in point. Lehrer remembers that when looking for an in at a San Francisco nightclub to test some new sixties material, he got one because Gregory, the clubs regular booking, was out picketing somewhere.51 Gregorys career began in 1961 working small clubs until his rst real gig at Hugh Hefners Playboy Club in Chicago. He was swiftly lauded for biting political satire and straight-talking about racism. Although Hefner had booked Gregory as a temporary replacement for a white comedian, he signed him for a three-year stint. Gregory described himself as bilingual in English and Profanity, in similar fashion to Lenny Bruce. However, he adapted his act and was a signicant television presence in the decade in which civil rights initiatives coincided with the mediums focus on news. In 1962 with African American congressman Adam Clayton Powell presiding over a hearing on employment practices in television and news media, Gregory testied to discrimination against minorities before the House Committee on Labor and Education alongside Sidney Poitier 60 American Culture in the 1960s and Sammy Davis Jr. At a 1963 charity auction in which a stellar cast raised money from a TV audience, Gregory was pointed: A hundred years ago, I would have been for sale. Television provided one of Gregorys iconoclastic moments when he demanded to sit down with host Jack Paar on the Tonight Show. Having noted that black artists performed and left the stage without joining Paar, Gregory determined to break the intractable code of de facto segregation before a huge TV audience. If Gregory enjoys an iconic status it is because he is famous for having been present at each key event, such as the March on Washington of 1963 and the 1965 disturbances in Watts, Los Angeles when he took a bullet in the leg trying to calm the crowds. He made explosive comedy of civil rights while proving himself a dedicated foot soldier because he believed that even the most bigoted individuals were ripe for conversion. He told a roomful of white southern men at the Playboy Club, Last time I was down South, I walked into this restaurant and a white waitress came up to me and said, We dont serve colored people here. I said, Thats all right, I dont eat colored people. Bring me a whole fried chicken! Three white men approach his table to tell him, Boy, were givin you fair warnin. Anything you do to that chicken, were gonna do to you. And Gregory comes in for the kill: So I put down my knife and fork, I picked up that chicken and I kissed it. Then I said, Line up boys! 52 The shift Gregory made from performing in nightclubs to lecturing on university campuses emphasises his chosen role as a peripatetic teller of truths; dont pass your poor white brother by he has advised black members of his audiences. In Memphis in 2001, he returned to some of the same stories. One of the most famous occurred in Jackson Mississippi in 1962 when an elderly black man had just been released from jail for protesting his right to vote; while imprisoned his wife had died, on only the second night they spent apart. Gregory has declared that the courage and dedication of the old man changed his life. Gregory was a comic innovator whose stand-up routines about the hard facts about black life in America in the 1960s opened the doors for those who followed such as Richard Pryor and Bill Cosby. African Americans were still denied the title, when Leslie Fiedler referred to The Beatles as imaginary Americans and in this seemingly throwaway remark captured something of the groups fascination with American popular culture as it invaded their British sensibilities.53 The transatlantic trajectory of the Beatles is a key motif of the global phenomenon that was pop music in the 1960s. In Thomas Pynchons glo- Music and Performance 61 riously satirical The Crying of Lot 49, the pop group The Paranoids is instructed to cultivate English accents and to watch British TV in an effort to ensure that they become mimics. Studies of the group always emphasise their function as myth and history.54 In his memoir Dixie Lullaby (2006), Mark Kemp remembers that as an eleven-year-old southern boy he had only understood rock and roll as the stuff of modern British mythology . . . Mama had told me that Elvis Presley was somehow connected to the birth of rock & roll, but in 1971, I couldnt see it.55 Kemp knows the Beatles are the apex of a mythical rock and roll even though he is too young to experience the excitement that their appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show evoked on 9 February 1964. Sullivan was the most powerful doyen of music television. His Sunday evening show was live while most music programmes were taped and he invested the British pop invasion with media credibility, as did Bill Eppridges photographs of the group in Life and journalist Larry Kanes interviews with the band during their US tours of 1964 and 1965.56 To assume a nativist strain to the biggest record sales of the decade would be to ignore the Beatles White Album released at the end of 1968 which beat the top sellers of all the preceding years. It has been argued that the tensions between the Fab Four that are commonly supposed to be revealed in the albums structure and that would see them head in different directions also reect some of the strains apparent in the fraying years of the 1960s. It is certainly possible to graft the Beatles on to each cataclysmic event as it is Dylan as if the highs and lows of the group track the decade, but it is at least as revealing to look behind them to the media-made Monkees who had a different introduction to their US fan base also through television. This group was conceived as the rst boy band when producers Bob Rafelson and Bert Schneider (before successful careers in movies) lined up Peter Tork, Davey Jones, Mike Nesmith and Mickey Dolenz after successful auditions for an NBC TV series, conceived as a small-screen version of Beatles lms A Hard Days Night (1964) and Help! (1965). It was axiomatic to assume that the Monkees, who only became a real group following TV success, had no real talent, especially when their music was originally played by session singers and they were marketed for children both sides of the Atlantic. Yet the series won an Emmy and in 1967 the boys even outsold the Beatles. Mike Nesmith was signicant in pushing his own compositions into the mix and when they succeeded in wresting some creative control from music manager Don Kirschner (of Brill fame) they both toured and recorded their own 62 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 1.7 The Monkees pose with their Emmy award at the 19th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards in California on 4 June 1967. They won for best comedy series and best comedy direction for The Monkees. The group members are, from left to right, Mike Nesmith, Davy Jones, Peter Tork and Micky Dolenz. Courtesy PA Photos. songs. This shift is epitomised by a single song, Sugar Sugar, the song the Archies released under Kirschners direction that became a cult hit for the cartoon group made up of session singers. The Monkees had disdained to record the song and the Archies who existed for fans only in animated form were unable to follow the Monkees example of musical rebellion. The Sounds of the Sixties It would be a mistake to assume that Dylan, Motown, the Beatles or the Woodstock generation were always the dominant sounds when the Music and Performance 63 best-selling artists were often those who maintained established musical traditions into the 1960s or whose talent lay in producing Easy Listening such as Andy Williams, or who were country stars, such as Glenn Campbell. Best-sellers included Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass and The Fifth Dimension whose Up Up and Away in My Beautiful Balloon has become the height of muzak, and the golden oldie was introduced in the 1960s. The Singing Nun, aka Sister Luc-Gabrielle, spent ten weeks at number 1 in 1963 and in 1969 the Carpenters ballad version of the Beatles Ticket to Ride was hugely popular and at the 1971 Grammy Awards, following hits such as Close To You and Weve Only Just Begun, they beat Simon and Garfunkel. In the album charts, Hair did amazingly well but so did Barry Sadlers album Ballads of the Green Berets, which stayed at number 1 for ve weeks in 1966. The pop boom of the 1960s endured not only because the music reminds so-called Baby Boomers of their youth but also because of the professionalisation of the industry in the decade. Entrepreneurs found a niche in the music business as producers and talent scouts so that the term music industry began to be applied and John Hammond, Jerry Wexler, and Berry Gordy, Herb Alpert and Phil Spector began to corral music into different sounds for different record labels. Phil Spectors Wall of Sound had begun topping the US charts in 1958, his debut single as producer To Know Him is to Love Him selling a cool million for the Teddy Bears, but from 1960 Spectors distinctive sound also served to dene the girl group. Teenage girls came together as the Crystals, the Shirelles, the Ronettes and the Shangri-Las and were phenomenally successful, their harmonies recalling groups such as the Andrews Sisters who would so successfully blend harmonies with the Supremes on Sammy Davis Jrs TV show. The girl group was one of the most enduring musical sounds of the 1960s and, as academic studies of musical trends have argued, also a non-threatening means of securing crossover success. Many girl groups found a home in Motown, such as the Vandellas, the Marvellettes and, most successful of all, the Supremes. The charts were the industrys measure of best-selling products or brands and a general, if awed, reection of changing musical tastes that cultural historians may follow. Billboard began ranking the industrys most popular albums and by 1958 had become the industry standard for singles too, though there were scandals over payola or pay for play, denoting the nancial inducements record companies could use to persuade radio stations and television programmers to promote their records. Both celebrity disc jockey Alan Freed and tastemaker 64 American Culture in the 1960s Dick Clark fell foul of payola scandals in 1960 and 1962. Promoters such as Sam Phillips of Sun Records in Memphis had already established connections between particular cities and particular musical sounds and Stax Records was founded in Memphis in 1960 as Soulsville USA. Based in a former movie theatre at 926 East McLemore, it became the home of southern soul, between 1962 and 1967, its record sales increasing by 500 per cent in what would later be celebrated as the soul decade. Claims for the signicance of soul are legion. Acionado Gerri Hirshey summarises its force: Soul blew a huge hole in Leave It To Beaver-land . . . soul played black activist centers, and white fraternity bacchanals; soul cassettes went to Saigon in rucksacks . . .57 Carla Thomas self-penned Gee Whiz, a Top Ten hit in 1961, inaugurated the Stax sound in Memphis just when Detroit became Motowns motor city. Chicago, traditionally associated with the blues, was rivalled by Los Angeles, the city which produced 99 per cent of the blues by the end of the decade.58 While the sounds of Chicago and LA were eclectic, the most memorable harnessed a house sound via a house band. The Funk Brothers of Motown are discussed below and at Stax, Booker T. and the MGs were known as the groove engine on tracks by Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett and many more, as well as hitting the charts with their own Green Onions in 1962. A hit factory neglected until recent studies revived interest was the one publisher Don Kirschner founded when he saw a niche in the music market that could be lled in New Yorks Brill Building, which he leased to songwriters. It was the working home of a gallery of hitmakers from Burt Bacharach and Hal David to Carole King and Neil Sedaka. Music critics have recently begun to recover the Brill songwriting teams signicance in professionalising hit-making or, more negatively, as producing similar sounds in an assembly-line music factory. Some have seen the Brill sound as purposely taming the raw rock and roll of the 1950s. Inuences included not only R&B but also doo-wop, Gershwin and Irving Berlin, and it has been posited that the Brill sound feminised the love song. The presence of Carole King and Cynthia Weil is simplistically cited as evidence of this when in fact Kings partner and husband Gerry Gofn was the lyricist on many of their hits. In the context of New Yorks Brill teams, Ken Emersons thesis is the most culturally suggestive when he posits that success lay in the songwriters ability to assimilate and project rock & roll into the mainstream of American popular music, thereby extending and expanding both.59 The Brill Building was home of the Great Music and Performance 65 American Songbook of the 1960s but while the term might seem to restrict the songs to a seamless continuity, the effect was a promiscuous mix of styles, producing hits for the Drifters, the Righteous Brothers, Dionne Warwick, the Animals and Hermans Hermits, what Emerson summarises as a smorgasbord of African-American, AfroCuban and European avorings.60 The best-known hit factory, however, was further north, in Detroit. The music that began there travelled around the world and provided one of the most distinctive and enduring sounds of the decade, a phenomenally successful racial crossover that combined soul and R&B with pop. The Motown Sound What was formerly known as race music enjoyed a phenomenally successful crossover over in the music of the Temptations and the Supremes, the Four Tops, Marvin Gaye and Smokey Robinson. In Europe where Motown artists were fted, theirs was American music, but in the US music could appear as segregated as any southern city in the early 1960s. A putative difference was distinguished further by two types of music charts, the R&B chart differentiating most black music from white Billboard charts. The success of African American performers, however, would be a global phenomenon. Motown even battled the British invasion with some success in the UK. Thanks to a number of factors, including Dusty Springeld, the British blues and pop singer who publicised Motown acts so assiduously to the UK media, the Supremes Baby Love was the sole American hit of 1964. The legend of Motown is that black kids from the Detroit projects were spotted, groomed and manufactured as stars at Hitsville USA and while this simplies a complex organisation, the Sound of Young America was produced under the orchestration of one man. Detroit is the Motor City and the motor of the Motown machine was Berry Gordy. He began as a songwriter but as a musical entrepreneur he was an icon of African American capitalist success. His artists, usually from the working classes, represented that success in obvious ways. The Supremes, who were brought up in Detroits Brewster housing projects, were draped in furs and evening gowns. One critic called them articial in their sequin-spangled angst61 but for Gordy the fashions were expressive of conspicuous black consumption and the cultural power that Motown could wield. He auditioned hopefuls such as the Supremes (called the Primettes when rst trying their luck at Motown) and discovered most of the musical entourage including Stevie Wonder, who was only nine when he joined the family. Mary Wilson of the Supremes addressed the central trope of the Motown family in her memoir Dream Girl (1986), its close community as 66 American Culture in the 1960s well as the potential for unproductive tensions: we really believed we were one big family. But success separated us from the other artists, and the industry started calling all the shots.62 Gordy saw the Supremes as the vehicle to lead Motown into a whole new world of music that included the Las Vegas lounge circuit; after fearing our music wouldnt be seen as good enough for places like that, he made sure the Supremes were a storming success at the Copa and that other of his acts would follow.63 The Supremes were the height of mainstream success, even appearing as nuns in an episode of TVs Tarzan. Motown had its rst Top Ten hit in 1960 and Brian Ward counts up some 174 Top Ten hits during the decade64 with the Supremes from 1962 to 1970 celebrating 12 number 1s from some 30 singles and 25 albums. The factory comprised of two distinct labels Tamla and Motown and subsidiaries such as Miracle Records. It brought together a host of songwriters, producers and arrangers as well as singers and musicians but it was the writing and producing team of Brian and Eddie Holland and Lamont Dozier (HDH) whose talents rst secured the hits that would help build the sound. Motown produced dance music with memorable, if repetitive, lyrics. The singers gained most publicity but it was the denitive sound that set them apart. The rhythm section with bass guitar, tambourine and snare drum so effectively characterised a Motown track that within one or two beats it was instantly recognisable. The snare drum came in on every down beat and the drum and guitar were back beats, with percussionist Jack Ashford playing some 12 instruments. Potential competitors for hits are most revealing in that more than anyone else they needed to understand the Motown sound. Carl Davis, producer of Chicago soul including Curtis Mayeld and the Impressions, believed the Motown sound was built from the bottom up, the singers the icing on a very rich cake. The metaphor he chooses, though, is painterly: Motown used to put a picture frame together, paint in all the background, and then they would take the artist and put him in the picture. They would make a complete record, record it in a certain key that they thought would t the song. Then the singer had to come in and sing the song.65 The documentary lm Standing in the Shadows of Motown (2002) tells the story of the musicians jamming in the basement in Studio A. Allan Slutsky, who undertook a fteen-year project to get it funded, called them the last great music story of that era. Representing the Funk Brothers as the soul behind the sound reawakened interest in Motowns history, especially that of neglected heroes: one Funk Brother, Joe Hunter, describes with emotion the pleasure of being discovered after fty years as a working musician. In 19689 the Motown family fell out when the Holland brothers and Dozier were refused more money or control by Gordy and left Motown, suing and being counter-sued until an out-of-court settlement was reached. The songwriters continued working in various guises (including the labels Invictus and Hot Wax) but the classic Motown era was all but over. When Motown moved its business premises from Detroit to Los M usic and Performance Angeles many key contributors from the early years were left behind. Martha Reeves, who had been with Motown from 1958 when she began work as a secretary before fronting the Vandellas, remembers that there was no warning, no announcement, and no way of preparing for it. In Standing in the Shadows, bassist James Jamerson is portrayed as the tragic symbol of the end of a musical era having followed Motown to LA, he dies poor and unrecognised by Motown fans. Many tragedies ensued after the Detroit era ended, as in the murder of Marvin Gaye, but at the height of success Tammi Terrell collapsed on stage while singing a duet with Marvin Gaye in 1967 and died in 1970 of a brain tumour, and Gaye stopped touring for three years. The Temptations Paul Williams shot himself in 1973 and, most famously, Florence Ballard, mainstay of the Supremes until 1967 when she was dismissed by Berry Gordy, died in poverty. Diana Rosss relationship with the Supremes has always been controversial and her 1969 farewell performance which launched her solo career was managed spectacularly as a Motown extravaganza with its own hit single, Someday, Well be Together, masking tensions within the Supremes that would be dramatised in the 1981 Broadway musical Dream Girls and again when the show was adapted into a movie in 2006. 67 Figure 1.8 The Supremes during at a reception at EMI House, London, 1969. (left to right) Cindy Birdsong, Mary Wilson and Diana Ross. Courtesy PA Photos. 68 American Culture in the 1960s From the Human Be-In to Helter Skelter Griel Marcus, who began as reviews editor with Rolling Stone in 1967, is one of the most inventive of cultural critics. By yoking together what appear to be dissimilar elements of the 1960s music scene, he conveys the shift from an ideal of participatory democracy to the dangerous solipsism that was a distinct cultural current at the end of the decade: Finally the Beach Boys held hands with Charles Manson as the sixties ended freedom from tradition, the freedom to invent cuts deeply and all across the board. Theres no way to separate the Beach Boys smiling freedom from Mansons knife.66 A seemingly shocking statement is illustrative of the importance of southern California in understanding the cults and clashes that broke the counterculture and the anomie that a cultural project of individual emancipation would inevitably involve. Brian Wilson described meeting Charles Manson as a horric footnote in the career of this band and it is possible to trace connections between the pop group Charles Manson and the Family and the Byrds, Led Zeppelin, the Stones and the Beatles, all of whom met the right-wing psychopath at gigs or through members of the Family or the groups producer.67 When Manson and followers murdered actress Sharon Tate and friends in Los Angeles on 9 August 1969, words from The Beatles song Helter Skelter were scrawled in blood on the walls of the house on Cielo Drive. The conation of the revolution of the head (to borrow the title of Ian MacDonalds study of the Beatles) and drug-fuelled paranoia and anger helped paralyse the utopian hopes of the counterculture. Apocalyptic themes became evident in psychedelic and acid rock that focused on alienation and excess. Mike Marqusee argues, Hendrix took Dylans rock n blues poetry to orgiastic heights68 and that Jean Luc-Godards One Plus One (1968) with the Rolling Stones as its subjects made culture synonymous with war; as Godard lmed the development of the song Sympathy for the Devil, he changed the lyrics to incorporate the assassination of Robert Kennedy, Who killed the Kennedys? After all, it was you and me. An escalating sense of hopelessness and madness was dramatised in Martin Gayes Whats Going On?, the Temptations Ball of Confusion, Edwin Starrs War! and the Living Theaters picture of a cruel and barbarous culture in Paradise Now and not least in the form of the music festival. The 1960s pop festival has become synonymous with Woodstock. That the festival did not take place there but some 50 miles away is an indication of the mystique of the name: Woodstock is a cultural signi- Music and Performance 69 Figure 1.9 Woodstock, a still from the 1970 Academy Award-winning documentary directed by Michael Wadleigh and edited by Martin Scorsese and Thelma Schoonmaker. Warner Bros./ The Kobal Collection. er, idealised and memorialised for the mass appeal three days of peace and music in upstate New York held for some 400,000 ower children. Captured in 120 miles of lm shot by some 16 cameras, Michael Wadleighs lm was deemed a culturally signicant document by the Library of Congress in 1996. In November 2007 a spat between Democrat and Republican hopefuls for the 2008 Presidential election Hillary Clinton and John McCain brought Woodstocks cultural meaning back into the news. They clashed over Clintons idea to dedicate a $1 million federal grant to the Woodstock Museum, the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts, with McCain retorting that since he was a prisoner of war in Vietnam he was tied up at the time. The images he used in his campaign to become Republican nominee, editing together a picture of himself in a Vietcong prison with images of hippies cavorting at Woodstock, dramatised a continuing cultural divide over the memory and meanings of the sixties. The legend for Wadleighs movie, No-one who was there will ever be the same, was made to resonate with the bitter memory of one who was not. 70 American Culture in the 1960s Despite Woodstocks claim on popular memory, the festival movement began and ended in California. In June 1967 the rst mass countercultural musical performance was the Human Be-In, staged in San Francisco in Golden Gate Park at the height of the so-called Summer of Love. The event was designed to be a peaceful psychedelic pop sensation to shower the country with waves of ecstasy and purication via its three key tropes: Music, Love and Flowers. The seeds of destruction were already present. It was followed by Monterey at which the song San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair) became a signier of the hippie movement discussed in Chapter 5. It has been described as the rst great congress of youth69 and may be seen as the birth of the revolutionary musical Happening in the specic form of a festival of music. The pop festival quickly became a media event as signalled by D. A. Pennebakers y-on-the-wall lm Monterey Pop for the ABC network which showcased the Grateful Dead, The Byrds, The Who, Ravi Shankar, the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Otis Redding who famously converted an audience of white rock fans to his stomping soul and blues just prior to his death in December of 1967. Reddings performance was one of the last musical crossovers that would reect the integrationist principles of the declining Civil Rights Movement. Californias Altamont festival, with the Rolling Stones topping the bill, was made notorious for the murder that took place just a few feet from the stage when Hells Angels were accused of killing a young African American audience member. Like the Manson murders it epitomised a music scene spiralling out of control. Taking place on 6 December 1969, it is also a conveniently symbolic end to a decade in which the sense of an ending is a recurring cultural myth, an idea to which this book will return. A more meditative sense of the lost hope of a countercultural frontier is epitomised in Joni Mitchells paean to California in which the protagonist too cold and settled in Paris, France knows that California will take me as I am while at the same time: They wont give peace a chance/ That was just a dream some of us had. The proximity of dream to nightmare captured here and in personal essays such as Joan Didions The White Album (1971) is not only a continuing theme but has also burgeoned into an American genre. Rock and pop casualties of the 1960s are renowned, infamous for their starburst deaths (Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin in 1970, Jim Morrison in 1971), their burnouts, such as Mama Cass Elliotts sad demise in 1974 , as well as for quietly disappearing from view, such as Music and Performance 71 heroin-addicted Karen Dalton who died in 1993. Those who survived sixties excesses have often suffered, like the Beach Boys Brian Wilson emerging from the best part of two decades of depression to carry the Sixties Sound to new fans in a new millennium. Sixties performers enjoy continuing resonance in new contexts and with new audiences. The myth of Motown is reinvigorated in Irish writer Roddy Doyles The Commitments (1987), for example, where young working-class Dubliners co-opt the Motown sound to create their own Dublin soul: If soul is about escapism and revolution (as one character says), then music must be the politics of the people the plebian voice raised in protest.70 Protest songs that came out of the 1960s were revived when Carole King provided the soundtrack for John Kerrys presidential campaign in 2004 and Bruce Springsteen recorded an album of Pete Seegers songs in 2005. Gospel singer Mavis Staples revisited and updated the freedom song soundtrack of the Civil Rights Movement fty years later in Well Never Turn Back (2007), aligning sixties musical protest with the governments failure to respond to the devastation that was Hurricane Katrina. Chapter 2 Film and Television An examination of the cinema reveals a changing lm industry at the end of the 1950s as cinemas role as provider of classic family entertainment was lost to television in what Samuel Goldwyn called the third era of cinema history.1 As Marshall McLuhan made clear in his studies of the new cool medium, the regular trip to the movies was replaced by selective and more infrequent movie-going to enjoy bigbudget spectacles in the 1950s and this too would decline in the 1960s. It became important to target audiences for each new lm and to make that lm an event, rather than to assume the public would turn out to see a lm programme at a local cinema whatever its components. Filmmakers also had to begin to think beyond the box ofce as the measure of lm industry success. Hollywood opened its doors to television as early as 1955 when each week a segment of Warner Bros. Presents entitled Behind the Cameras at Warner Bros. gave viewers a glimpse of the studio in action. The Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 and although the Boulevard district wouldnt be listed as a historic site until the 1980s, it was in the 1960s that Hollywood staked its claim on tourism. Hollywood studios opened to tour parties and British lm critic Charles Higham, visiting in 1965, discovered: At Universal, candy-striped trams slide along the streets resembling Paris, London or Rome, or take a minor detour to the sinister little hill where stands the Psycho motel. At Warners, the crowds cluster in a giant marquee where vintage cars and uncomfortable-looking waxwork drivers advertise The Great Race. At Universal, Frankensteins monster may, if you are in luck, actually pick up and kiss your child.2 As corporate conglomerates replaced the studio system, the industry invested in its star system to maintain the Hollywood mystique, 74 American Culture in the 1960s but the role and denition of the star would change too as notions of celebrity developed, as outlined in Chapter 1. The TV chat show host became a celebrity Jack Paar, Ed Sullivan and Johnny Carson and presenters and news anchors Chet Huntley, David Brinkley and Walter Cronkite were household names, and in the case of Cronkite the most trusted man in America. If the twentieth century was the century of the common man as Vice-President Henry A. Wallace had predicted in 1942, he was celebrated on prime-time television in the 1960s. Hugh Downs, Paars foil on the Tonight show, was fronting NBCs Today and Concentration for more than 12 hours a week by 1963. Interviewed in Look, he asserted, Our heroes today come out of the common ranks. . . I am paid more for acclaim than for merit. I am not in the least haunted by conscience or impelled to give the money back. This is the age of the lionization of the common man.3 The star of motion pictures was only one in a new constellation of new media personalities. Film and television were bound tightly together in a network of businesses and markets that drove production. By the end of the decade 90 per cent of Americans had access to television sets and Hollywood would be a clearing house as well as a dream factory. A lms copyright was the intellectual property studios controlled and distributed to television and in the 1950s licensing a studios lm library was judged the most protable way to ensure cinema would be embedded in television programming. Warner Bros. Presents on ABC remade lms such as Casablanca as television series and advertised Warners cinema releases to television audiences. Walt Disney agreed to host a weekly television programme on ABC that helped nance the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim and ensured Disney Productions would be advertised on television. Even Alfred Hitchcock, renowned for his condescension about the small screen, was persuaded to star in a hit series for CBS: Alfred Hitchcock Presents (195562). In 1965 US television converted to colour and the lm industry magazine Variety began to review small-screen successes. Film re-runs were no longer in the purview of distributors and exhibitors; television hosted re-runs of lms and the situation would not be challenged until the video revolution of the 1980s when home entertainment was changed by the VCR and home-video rental business. In the 1960s, Desilu and MGM became the bright stars of lm and TV mergers, especially in terms of lmed television programming with Desilu making hit series Star Trek (19669). Programming wouldnt really make the shift from (white) family entertainment such as Leave Film and Television 75 It To Beaver and Father Knows Best until well into the 1960s but the key demographic was changing. Children raised on The Wonderful World of Walt Disney, The Mickey Mouse Club and Dick Clarks American Bandstand had been schooled in democratic social values, an idea represented in the movie Hairspray (1988), in which a white teenager in Baltimore in 1962 uses her new-found fame as a dancer to racially integrate a TV show. When the children of the 1950s became the voters and consumers of the 1960s and draftees to Americas war in Vietnam they rebelled. Social outlaws Robin Hood or Rob Roy were hardly negative characters in Disney lms and the television generation had learned much about tensions between the generations from cartoons and live-action features in which adults were ambivalent at best, and evil at worst, absent parents or too preoccupied to notice their childrens needs (Alice in Wonderland, Pollyanna, Mary Poppins). When adults were represented positively, as in The AbsentMinded Professor or A Tiger Walks, they took a stand against a conformist or cruel community.4 Disney died in 1966 but the industry he represented remained controversial throughout the decade,5 not least in 1969 when Richard Schickels The Disney Version conceptualised his media empire as backward-looking, sexist and colonialist. Endorsed by Pauline Kael as the story of how Disney built an empire on corrupt popular culture, Schickels carefully argued study may be read as a countercultural attack on an American institution. Disneys contribution to cultural history was savaged again when Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelarts Marxist critique asserted that the fantasies Disney manufactured were reactionary, bourgeois at best. Despite academic condemnation at the time, with hindsight, it is possible to recoup the unquestioningly conservative Walt Disney, as a Capra-like grandfatherly inuence on the ideology of the counterculture as Douglas Brode shows in From Walt to Woodstock (2003). Larger social forces are reected in the growth of media. Despite global media, and the Supreme Courts sympathetic response to challenges against censorship, cold war apprehension drew the nation back from internationally collaborative possibilities promised after the launch of the satellite Telstar in 1962. The cultural forces that dominated were domestic. In the days following President Kennedys assassination, the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence was established according to Executive Order Number 11412. It would inuence the way in which violent movies were deemed to impact on Americas cultural life. Later, in the wake of Bonnie and Clyde (1967), Jack Valenti, President of the Motion Picture 76 American Culture in the 1960s Association of America (MPAA) had a meeting with producers, writers and studio heads. The meeting took place after the assassination of Senator Robert Kennedy in 1968 and he urged upon all present an increased restraint and heightened responsibility in portraying violence.6 To begin with television looked to the movies as a guide but quickly found its feet and forged new genres that tted the medium and played to those participatory qualities that Marshall McLuhan valued, such as the talk show. Hollywood began hiring directors who had cut their teeth in television as a way to bridge the gap between the media industries and, it was hoped, draw TV audiences back to the cinema. And while lm critic Pauline Kael was scathing about those who began lm careers making TV commercials, her pithy observation that the visuals of the typical commercial were almost a one-sentence rsum of the future of American motion pictures looked forward to the crisp visuals typical of high concept movies that began to be associated with New Hollywood by the late 1970s.7 At the end of the 1960s, the rst academic programmes in lm studies were instituted. Film aesthetics as explored in cultural commentary and industry magazines supported discussion of a lms formal qualities and style, especially as elucidated through les politiques des auteurs and ideas of canonicity, and in parallel, there was developing interest in the sociology of lm, its cultures and ideology. Dwight MacDonald in Esquire, Manny Farber writing for Artforum in the1960s, Stanley Kauffman in the New Republic, Bosley Crowther in the New York Times and Andrew Sarris of The Village Voice wrestled over what lm theory and criticism should entail. Pauline Kael disagreed with all of them most of the time. Pauline Kael and Film Culture Kael was an iconoclastic cultural commentator and the least esoteric of her peers. Movies were her barometer of social change and public taste but, mostly, she wrote what she liked, her passions and prejudices couched in a vernacular produced in resistance to whichever film theory was gaining credence in critical circles. Kael baited as well as rated films with a talent for aphorism and for invective. Her review of Joanna (1968) demonstrates the latter: [W]e are getting the howling banalities of the past brought back in creamy Panavision and fruity DeLuxe color and enough Mod clothes to choke a clotheshorse, and theyre brought back not with irony but with moronic solemnity. Theres a less publicized side of the generation gap: we remember this stuff from the last time around . . . A movie like Joanna F ilm and Television makes one want to throw up . . .8 As Renata Adlers devastating attack on her in The Perils of Pauline (1981) showed, Kael was a celebrity courting controversy in a decade that courted celebrities and she could infuriate cinphiles with her opinions almost as often as she entertained. Kael started in public radio in Berkeley, California and wrote notes for film programmes. She contributed to City Lights, Kulchur, McCalls, and British journal Sight and Sound until she was given a weekly column in The New Yorker in 1967 and stayed there until she became ill and retired in 1991. She influenced younger critics, such as Roger Ebert and Manohla Dargis, largely because of her smart and smarting criticism but also because she more than any of her contemporaries personalised the role of the film critic. She was combative, celebrating movies that other reviewers disparaged and that her New Yorker readers might even disdain to view, and savaging those others admired. In this way her criticism is also resonant of the ideological yardsticks against which films of the 1960s were measured. Kael was scathing about the reductionism of The Green Berets (1968) and the vigilante clean-up movie Dirty Harry (1971) and although she described the conventions of bad student films as random footage, shaky zoom shots, the inevitable girl with a bubble-gum bubble, and people eating flowers and cutting up for the camera,9 she was never as cutting about the pretensions of New American Cinema as she was about blatant propaganda. She celebrated films that criticised American culture from the inside, such as Martin Ritts Hud (1963) which she described as located deep in the divided heart of Hollywood.10 Kaels anti-theoretical stance is epitomised in her review of Siegfried Kracauers Nature of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality, translated into English in 1961. Its title Is there a cure for film criticism? typifies the disease she believed was caused by the imposition of film theory that she feared was overwhelming appreciation of cinema.11 Kracauer was one of many targets. One of Kaels btes noire was a tendency to idolise classic films as sacred cows, as she lamented in an essay on Citizen Kane, and she took Andrew Sarris to task for taking his lead from Cahiers du Cinma. While Manny Farber had championed underrated directors and producers since the 1940s following the Cahiers critics in France, the development of auteurism had entered American film culture largely through Sarris, in essays that began a critical feud between him and Kael. In Circles and Squares (1963) in Film Quarterly, she was adamant that reworking auteur theory in the American grain was a mistake. It may seem ironic that in a film culture in which elevating the role of the director as auteur also emphasised the role of critic as aesthetic judge, Kael should bristle. However, auteurism is a conservative and somewhat romantic approach to cinema and Kael was prescient in signalling that filmmaking is a collaborative and industrial process. As Howard Hampton summarised in Kaels obituary in 2001, she cut through the tendrils of cant and bullshit that engulfed film criticism in posturing pseudo-intellectualism and auteurist hero-worship.12 The closest Kael came to advancing a theory of film criticism was in Trash, Art and the Movies (1969) which celebrates the vitality of mass 77 78 American Culture in the 1960s culture and the importance of plotting change in movie habits and tastes especially her own. She saw the state-of-the-nation reflected in cinema, and was an advocate of breaking down divisions between high and popular that taxed other visual media. Kaels Deeper into Movies (1973) won a National Book Award and the battles of film reviewers, especially those in which Kael was involved, could be loud and influential enough to unnerve filmmakers and magazine editors, as when Kael was fired from McCalls for referring to The Sound of Music as The Sound of Money. A review could make or break a movie. Bonnie and Clyde was condemned by Bosley Crowther for violence in one of his last reviews before retirement in 1968, an indication perhaps that as films changed in the 1960s, film criticism did not always keep pace. However, it was lauded by Kael whose 9,000-word essay sealed director Arthur Penns importance. It is ironic, therefore, that Penn should criticise Kael for not recognising him as the sole creative force on the movie because of her disdain for auteur theory.13 Kael remains controversial because of her excess: she would enthuse or excoriate but she hardly ever wrote a balanced review. While she felt the need to champion the trashy or kitsch, as film director Paul Schrader observed on her death: The pop films Kael most loved, such as Hud, if made today, would be considered art-house fare. Who would have thought the Establishment would crumble so easily? That, forty years after Kael began writing, Harold Bloom would be standing outside the multiplex like a lonely Jeremiah? It was fun watching the applecart being upset, but now where do we go for apples?14 Changing Places It has been argued that the 1963 $40-million epic Cleopatra was the last classical Hollywood lm. Certainly with Elizabeth Taylor, a studiomanufactured star, in the leading role and Joseph L. Mankiewicz as director, it seemed set for success because of its pedigree as well as the scenes of unparalleled spectacle Mankiewicz described for Life prior to the lms release.15 As Cleopatra enters Rome, for example, she wears $6,500 worth of gold dress and some 6,000 extras including snake handlers and belly dancers cavort in her presence. When she closes her eyes thick with black eyeliner as she winks at Marc Anthony (Richard Burton), it is clear that the most powerful woman in the ancient Roman Empire is being represented for her times. Neither Theda Bara in the 1917 version nor Claudette Colbert in 1934, who smoulder just as sexily, would have been directed to wink so audaciously. However, the epic spectacle that rejuvenated the box ofce in the 1950s was to prove a more ambiguous cinema product in the 1960s. Film and Television 79 Figure 2.1 Cleopatra (1963). Courtesy the Kobal Collection. Charlton Heston managed to rescue The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) and Khartoum (1966) yet they did not enjoy the box ofce success of El Cid (1960). Despite its tagline The motion picture the world has been waiting for! Cleopatra almost bankrupted Twentieth Century-Fox. It was then sliced opened and gutted, and all its problems laid bare, in Nick Cominos short lm Premire that dissected its Hollywood opening, and in producer Walter Wangers book My Life With Cleopatra (1962) in which he charged that he had been sidelined. 80 American Culture in the 1960s If Cleopatra signalled the end of the historical epic, it also signied a loss of continuity with the studio system of classical Hollywood. In fact, the television mini-series was on hand as a new form through which ancient history could be reproduced as entertainment with Franceso Rosis The Odyssey successfully exported from Italy in 1968. Some contemporary critics put a positive spin on seismic changes in the movie industry, as in Richard Dyer McCanns Hollywood in Transition (1966), but despite Twentieth Century-Fox leasing Cleopatra to ABC for $5 million, the box ofce failed to mop up production costs. As they rose and studios threw in their lot with the new medium, they made fewer lms in a diminishing market, placing their hopes in a more broadly dened blockbuster that might arise in any genre, whether Goldnger (1964) or Mary Poppins (1964), and prove to be the spectacular family fare that might lift the industry. By middecade the blockbuster was an established product via a consistent volley of commercial hits: My Fair Lady (1964), Doctor Zhivago (1965), and Thunderball (1965), conservative narratives in a decade in which conservative vs radical denitions of culture vs counterculture would often determine a lms success or failure Despite changes in the media industries in a transitional decade, the lm industry survived. As the decade opened, fties themes were legion with Doris Day at the height of success in frothy romantic comedies in which she tussled with Rock Hudson or James Garner and The Apartment (1960), an acerbic comedy about the organisation man of the 1950s carrying the day at the Oscars. Day and Hudson in their Technicolor brilliance did not seem far removed from John F. and Jackie Kennedy; the fashions Day shows off to best effect in Pillow Talk (1959) gure-hugging suits and pillbox hats were Jackie Kennedys trademark and Hudsons playboy antics now seem prescient of the glamour (and the scandal) that the President and his First Lady would represent. Day remained a star throughout the decade and in 1967 turned down the opportunity to play Mrs Robinson in The Graduate, a role that would have sealed her signicance as a sixties icon, while Hudson played a middle-aged man who is surgically changed to begin life anew in Seconds (1966). John Frankenheimers monochrome nightmare may be read as a critique of Hollywood studios trying to change themselves to reect a new, youthful image. One of the reasons television was so successful was that newsconscious TV networks dened national issues as well as reporting them. Televisions facility for non-stop coverage as events unfolded changed the nature of reporting as well as entertaining. Perhaps the Film and Television 81 most important cultural change was the facility of television news to transform events and people into history in the moment of their media coverage. Obvious examples include the televised shooting by Jack Ruby of Lee Harvey Oswald. Re-enactments of the event have helped the public to feel part of a national culture. In The Chase (1966), the shooting of Bubber (Robert Redford) in front of an amassing crowd recalls the shooting of Oswald and when Oliver Stones lm JFK (1991) and Jonathan Demmes Love Field (1994) re-enact the emblematic moment of Kennedys assassination, they deploy TV footage, including a choked Walter Cronkite announcing Kennedys assassination, to signal the moments impact on the nations idea of itself. Serious journalists and commentators felt their professional position under threat from the mediums focus on entertainment. Extrapolating from his own experience of The Morning Show which he presented on CBS, even Walter Cronkite has said that he visualised the television industry as a huge building dedicated to the business of entertainment with journalism in an attached annex next door. In that door between them is a huge vacuum that runs twenty-four hours a day threatening to suck into the larger building anyone who comes too close.16 In local television, the so-called pastel programming that set family shows against news and current affairs could be especially powerful. For example, African American television audiences in the South noticed how frequently there were racial blackouts in the 1960s. Steven D. Classen demonstrates the extent of these in his case study of WLBT-TV in Jackson, Mississippi, the most infamous of examples. The interviews he conducted reveal that southern consumers suffered the strategic omission of black faces from their screens. The Nat King Cole Show, for example, was banned by WLBT and other Southern stations. However, much more insidious tactics were also used. Viewers remember the station would announce technical difculties each time black people featured on NBC- or CBS-franchised programmes and would switch to locally agreed programming. The WBLT case was brought before the Federal Communications Commission which prosecuted the station for manipulation of consumer access to programming and disallowed it from renewing its licence to broadcast in 1969. The Tougaloo students committee which brought the case, and the Jackson Movement which supported it in 19634, also ensured that the cast of top-rated TV show Bonanza was sufciently aware of the TV stations policy as to rescind its agreement to visit the state once made aware that fans would be segregated.17 Much more seriously, Medgar Evers, a civil rights activist and the head 82 American Culture in the 1960s of the NAACP in Jackson, was assassinated the day after he appeared on WLBT. In an interview condemning racial segregation, he reached more people in a few minutes than he could have done through other means. However, the TV also made him recognisable to his murderer, as discussed in Chapter 3. Evers mobilised the power of television but his killer did also, spurred by the uncustomary sight of an articulate black man on local news to end Evers life. One particular way in which racial tensions affected local lm programming was in decisions southern censors made and the ways in which race relations in the South affected self-censorship on the part of lmmakers. For example, And God Created Woman was banned from exhibition in black movie theatres because Brigitte Bardot was deemed too exciting for colored folk.18 Similarly, when scriptwriters Irving Ravetch and Harriet Frank adapted Larry McMurtrys novel Horseman Pass By into Hud, they altered the black cook with whom Hud (Paul Newman) has a sexual relationship so the part was played by white actress Patricia Neal. In 1963 the US was not considered ready to watch the affair McMurtry had imagined. At the stage of exhibition, local censors could be all-powerful. In Memphis, for example, city censor Lloyd T. Binford was renowned for his outrage at any and all representations of sexual desire and kept a tight grip on censoring even the most anodyne of images of race relations. Having been reelected twenty-eight times as censor, he retired in the late 1950s fearing that the demise of the Production Code had opened up a Pandoras box of unspeakable images. Screening the Space Race Two of the most powerful visual images of the 1960s were lmed by amateurs. The rst was bystander Abraham Zapruder whose sevensecond home movie documentary of President Kennedys assassination included the moment bullets entered his head. The footage was initially deemed too shocking to be broadcast on television and instead Life magazine successfully negotiated for rights, as discussed in Chapter 4. The second home movie was lm of the 1969 moon landings. To begin with there had been controversy over televisual representation of man orbiting the moon. NASA had allowed TV stations to lm a simulated ight during rehearsals but on the day slated for the attempt, the orbit was scrapped due to poor weather. As TV news networks covered this, they also used clips from the rehearsal, stating that they were an exact simulation, but they found themselves subject to Film and Television 83 typically cold war suspicion. When the orbit did take place, prerecorded footage was used again. After the fakery associated with television quiz shows in the 1950s, audiences were sceptical and TV stations in search of powerful images to boost their bulletins were contrite.19 Even in the 1960s, conspiracy theorists were quick to charge that the moon landings never took place and a favourite thesis argued that they were a cinematic hoax. It was argued that images showed no evidence of a blast crater on the moon and that when we watched astronauts taking off from the moon there was no exhaust plume. Accusations were based on the inconsistency of precisely those visual images that have marked out the symbolic territory of the moon landings as recorded on lm. Conspiracy theorists used their knowledge of lms and lming to challenge the veracity of documentary footage, arguing, for example, that the astronauts moon walks were lit by more than one light source. The same images were copied in Marooned, directed by John Sturges in 1969. The lm opens with a successful take-off followed by crew checking on-board cameras that will record the mission are working. The disaster that ensues when the space craft has problems re-entering the earths atmosphere makes for high drama and each segment is lmed and relayed to NASA. Although initially a rescue mission is discounted, it goes ahead because the movie President is aware that under the worlds media microscope it is important to be seen to try to save the doomed crew. In the middle of the cold war the rescue attempt includes a joint venture of Russians and Americans. Made only four months after the Apollo 11 moon landings, the cinematography recalls the lunar mission but Sturges lm accrued added signicance when six months after its release, Apollo 13 suffered an explosion in an oxygen tank and not only did the crew have to abort landing on the moon, but they were also forced to use the lunar module to get back to earth. Disaster in space, a science-ction staple, had suddenly become real. Marooned was followed later by the openly sceptical Capricorn 1 (1978) in which NASA fakes a mission to Mars. Cold war fear of radiation was dramatised as a by-product of the space programme and nds its way into episodes of Star Trek and the movie Night of the Living Dead (1968). Some of the biggest cinema hits emphasise sixties anxieties no matter how distant the setting. Planet of the Apes (1968) is a science-ction fantasy that is also a clever satire on the space race and the arms race and speaks to myriad issues from environmentalism to the rise in popularity of religious fundamentalism. Charlton Heston as the stranded astronaut is, Pauline Kael asserted, so 84 American Culture in the 1960s absurd a movie-star myth that he is also the perfect American Adam to work off some American guilt.20 When his space craft travels 320 light years from earth, Taylor (Heston) realises that the ship and its crew have been away from home for 2,000 years and when they are forced to make a crash landing, he is certain that the planet where apes rule men is not Earth. The nal frames of the lm see Taylor riding a horse along the coast in a utopian image of a new Eden until the Statue of Liberty comes into view, smashed and broken. Humanity has almost destroyed itself in the years that Taylor has been in space and has made Earth a wasteland, a truth the apes tried to hide from the astronaut. Figure 2.2 Jane Fonda as Barbarella (1968). Paramount/The Kobal Collection. Perhaps the most outlandish example of spacefaring is Barbarella (1968), a lm about a woman exploring her sexual identity in encounters in outer space. The lm is gloriously camp and its cultural borrowings, not only from Jean-Claude Forests comic book for its heroine, but also from French lm culture, led Kael to describe Jane Fondas portrayal as a pornographic version of Henry James heroines adventuring in Europe.21 Throughout the 1960s Fonda tried on different identities, not only in acting but also in life. Her lms are stepping Film and Television 85 stones across issues that affected American women: she began the decade as the sixties sex kitten in Period of Adjustment (1960) and concluded it by parodying that role as space kitten Barbarella. In the middle of the decade, in her forays into French lm, she dared to be nude in La Ronde (1964) and Barbarellas ability to beat the machine designed to kill her with an overdose of erotic pleasure is an explicit statement about womens sex drives. Barbarella was read as a frothy sci- fantasy but it also struck a cultural chord. Sociologists and philosophers such as Herbert Marcuse had argued that US capitalism contributed to sexual repression and reports such as The Human Sexual Response (1966) were best-selling. Gender roles were being transformed. Barbarella was spirited and tongue-in-cheek and Fonda would make the cover of Life for the role in March of 1968. The lm would become a cult hit in later decades. The idea of space travel as a crazy blast, a sixties trip in the Age of Aquarius, was a nal burst of optimism at the end of the decade. In an episode of Lost in Space (19658), spaced-out hippies turned out to be little green aliens. The screening of the space race has combined satirical spoofs (Dark Star) with pioneering special effects (2001: Space Odyssey) but little could match Star Trek, which ran from 19669 and was the most successful and epic exploration of space travel screened during the decade. Star Trek: Spatial and Racial Frontiers From the first episode, which aired in September 1966, Star Trek was an entertaining, imaginative and often laconic commentary on the times. Its cult status is assured; it made a number of creative interventions into television history. Market spin-offs continue to reinforce the Star Trek brand and the phenomenon that is the Star Trek franchise. Its cast would become household names. William Shatner has became a populist icon and in her 1994 memoir Nichelle Nichols has stated that Martin Luther King Jr described her as an important role model. Nichols role as communications officer Lieutenant Uhura conformed to none of the stereotypical roles that African American actresses had historically been expected to fill; a career officer, she is never less than professional or competent and frequently creative in the solutions she finds to problems that beset the Enterprise. Star Trek portrayed the first interracial screen kiss, between Captain Kirk (William Shatner) and Lieutenant Uhura. This kiss is significantly different from the first soap opera, kiss on Days of our Lives, which prompted hate letters to actress Tina Andrews in 1976. In Platos Stepchildren which 86 American Culture in the 1960s aired on 22 November 1968, Kirk and Uhura are made to kiss against their will as a form of punishment that forces them to contravene their roles. They are seen straining not to kiss each other as their movements are controlled telekinetically. Uhura is only able to utter I feel so ashamed to her captain as their lips meet. On a planet that is a dystopian version of Platos Republic in which only a slave speaks out against the cruelty of the rulers, the kiss is part of the revels in which captain Kirk and Mr Spock are forced to dance and sing and writhe in agony, that is to entertain in ways that could kill the emotionless Vulcan Spock. The kiss is just one of these revels and while it is possible to argue that popular cultural productions are precisely the sites where radical or oppositional representations critical of the status quo first find place, Kirks statement that Where I come from size, shape, or colour makes no difference is an ironic byline in an episode that demonstrates so emphatically that an interracial kiss would not yet be represented as the natural consequence of romance or love even in outer space. Earlier in the year, Harry Belafonte and Petula Clark refused to retape the segment of the NBC programme Petula in which she held his arm while they sang a duet. It is probable that the timing of the show, two days before Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated, ensured that the controversy passed quickly. The public outcry from sponsors Chysler, however, makes the racist ideology that underpinned broadcasting very visible. The image of outer-space dystopia was the subject of a February 1969 episode, The Way to Eden, in which a group of space hippies recklessly speed across the galaxy until their stolen space ship is at the point of explosion and they are rescued by Kirk and his crew. Their first reaction is to sitin in the transporter room, chanting, an action which provokes Kirk to behave like a stern parent and them to call him a stiff and a Herbert. Kirk is contrasted with Spock whose sympathies derive, he states, from the fact that They regard themselves as aliens in their own world, a condition with which I am somewhat familiar. The hippies search for Eden, a planet that many, including Kirk, believe is mythical, is led by Dr Severin, an intellectual and scientist who recalls Timothy Leary but who is not only insane but also the carrier of a deadly bacillus, the dangers of which he hides from his idealistic followers. The hippies are so seductive in their innocence and eroticism that they swing crew members to their cause with only Kirk and Scott holding out against them, Mr Scott worrying on seeing beatific helmsman Sulu and lovesick Chekov, I dont know why a young mind has to be an undisciplined one. When the hippies take over the Enterprise, the reality of Severins monomaniacal plan is revealed when he uses high-frequency ultrasonics to disable the crew. As hippie Adam leads the group in song, the camera pans around their dead bodies in a pastiche of a nuclear holocaust. Having used violence to trick their way to Planet Eden, the hippies find it poisoned: simply to brush against its vegetation is to suffer an acid burn and the fruits of its beautiful garden kill the groups troubadour Adam on first bite of an apple. That Mr Spock should remain sympathetic in his belief that if the survivors do not find Eden, they will make it themselves, is a muted signal that such utopianism had not been completely eradicated by the end of the decade. F ilm and Television 87 Figure 2.3 Captain Kirk (William Shatner) and Lieutenant Uhura (Nichelle Nichols) Paramount Studios/ Courtesy of the Kobal Collection 88 American Culture in the 1960s Cultural Clashes The media and culture industries were tuned to the crossgenerational tensions that characterised much of the decade. Young Americans for whom sci-, horror and titillation at the drive-in could guarantee a great evening out were the target audience for lowbudget teenpics and exploitation movies. American International Pictures (AIP) exploited the teenage market with cheap, quickly made movies about youth. Filmmakers had been moving the demographic steadily downwards until by the 1960s the primary audience was eighteen- to twenty-four-year-olds whose new-found consumerism made them lucrative; AIP were intuitive demographers as Thomas Doherty has proved.22 The nineteen-year-old male, who would be mythologised by the 1970s as the American casualty of the Vietnam War, was AIPs audience as rationalised in the following way: 1. A younger child will watch anything an older child will watch. 2. An older child will not watch anything a younger child will watch. 3. A girl will watch anything a boy will watch. 4. A boy will not watch anything a girl will watch. 5. Therefore, to catch your greatest audience, you zero in on a nineteenyear-old male.23 With directors such as Roger Corman in its stable, AIPs businessmen founders Sam Arkoff and James Nicholson successfully exploited the Peter Pan syndrome marketing strategy outlined above. Cormans cycle of adaptations of Edgar Allen Poes stories lent a kitsch class to the cheaper horror picture but it was the teen ick that was a cultural phenomenon. In Planet of the Apes the youngest ape protagonist, Lucius, states that it is important to keep ying the ags of discontent. Never trust anyone over 30. This maxim forms the core narrative of lms aimed at a youth market. It was popularly understood that more than half of the US population was under twenty-ve years of age, as conveyed through sound bites about The Generation Gap, and as represented by Time magazine whose Man of the Year cover in 1966 focused only on men aged twenty-ve and under. Wild in the Streets (1968) and Gas-s-s-s (1970) epitomise the trend in which rebellious youth is explored and exposed. Released in May of election year 1968, Wild in the Streets was darkly satirical. Rock star Max Frost is elected President by a large majority with the slogan Were fty-two per cent, decrying any nation that would want a man in his sixties Film and Television 89 running it. He is interviewed on television by an uncomfortable Walter Winchell and Dick Clark and makes thirty the age of mandatory retirement to Paradise Camps in which LSD treatment is used to psychout the older generation and render them harmless. By the end of Wild in the Streets, Russia and America have abandoned their space programmes. The hippie President has disbanded military forces, dissolved the FBI, CIA and all protection services to remain close to the people, and shipped free grain to the hungry abroad. But he has also herded those over thirty into camps and given the citizens of Hawaii, the only state to rebel against his rule, a drug overdose that renders them catatonic. When in the nal frames a sullen child tells him he is old at twenty-four and that Were going to put everybody over ten out of business, the boy recalls the disturbing image that photographer Diane Arbus created in Child With a Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, New York City (1962). The camera focuses on the Presidents face, expressive of belated recognition that in living out ones youth one should continue to live. Cold war anxieties underpinned much of AIPs output from I Was a Teenage Werewolf (1957), in which teenagers evolve as a species that will survive the end of the world, to Gas-s-s-s in which gas kills everyone over twenty-ve. George Romeros Night of the Living Dead redened the horror movie for the 1960s with a young hero at its centre. An epidemic of mass murders is committed across eastern and midwestern states by men and women who have mutated into esheating predators. This cold war fantasy shifts the encounter between human and Other so resonant in science ctions into civil war. It opens with a white brother and sister visiting their fathers grave in rural Pennsylvania. The man who lurches towards them across the graveyard is a zombie who kills the brother and chases the sister (Barbara) to a seemingly deserted house. The black hero (Ben) also nds shelter there against a mob of living dead encircling the house. They are joined by a young couple and a family. Frightened and overwhelmed, the pocket of survivors fails to work co-operatively, the conicts inside the house overbalancing their focus on defending themselves against incursions from outside. Internal conict reaches a crescendo when the (white) American family is destroyed from within: the daughter, contaminated when injured by a zombie, hacks her parents to death and begins to eat one of them. Evincing no humanity, her actions recall the mechanical killing Raymond Shaw carries out, brainwashed not by Korean Communists but home-grown politicians including his own mother, in The Manchurian Candidate (1962). 90 American Culture in the 1960s Romeros small-budget movie is, among many other things, a comment on race relations, a clever satire on the nations defences and communications networks, and a critique of environmental dangers as engendered by the space race. Experts identify a connection between an exploratory satellite and the dead. The high level of radiation it emits has reactivated their brains and turned them into murderous cannibals preying on their own families. A journalists plea that Somewhere on this planet there has to be something better than man echoes almost word-for-word lines from Planet of the Apes. The quality of the TV onthe-spot interviews is also satirised: Beat em or burn em. They go up pretty easily says one national guardsman. Are they slow moving? asks the reporter. Yeah, theyre dead. Theyre all messed up is his informative reply. The lone hero, Ben, the only one of the protagonists to respond intelligently to a deadly situation survives to the bitter and ironic end when instead of looking for survivors, a guardsman sees the black man moving in the house and shoots him dead without question. Filmmakers and TV producers seemed unsure of how to bring stories about changing race relations to the screen and the most illuminating examples are not the most obvious. Independent Melvin Van Peebles is best known for the iconoclastic Sweet Sweetbacks Badaasss Song (1971) but his rst feature was self-nanced and shot in France where be believed he would enjoy more artistic freedom than in the US. In Story of a Three-Day Pass (1968), an African American soldiers relationship with a white French girl is marred by his fear of racist repercussions and ends in his demotion. Van Peebles and French-born director Michael Roemer could not be more different in background but together they forged powerful and realistic representations of African Americans. Directed by Michael Roemer with cinematographer Robert Young, Nothing But A Man (1964) was described by contemporary reviewers as a small-town movie or a hicks pic but the $300,000 project was also described by Donald Bogle as a Black Art Film, a term usually reserved for independent lmmakers like Van Peebles but here made to incorporate small-budget lms in which white directors explore racism.24 Youngs cinematography elicits a documentary-style drama of black life. Labour relations are foregrounded: picking cotton earns a black worker $2.50 a day in Alabama in 1963 and the most reliable job Second World War veteran Duff Anderson (Ivan Dixon) can nd is as a member of a section gang on the railroads. Living on the social periphery without the responsibility of family causes the veteran fewer problems than when he tries to nd a position in town that will support a family once he has met and Film and Television 91 fallen in love with a ministers daughter (jazz singer Abbey Lincoln). Refusing to feel like just half a man, he is angered by the resignation of those in whom the threat of violence produces silence but the lm makes clear that every aspect of black life in the South is regulated by that threat. When Duff nds a job at a garage and refuses to engage in small talk with the white man whose wrecked car he tows out of a ditch, he is immediately made to pay the price. The man threatens the garage owner with a boycott if Duff isnt sacked. He loses the job. New York Times reviewer Bosley Crowther eschewed Roemers materialist analysis of his protagonists plight: On the surface and in the present climate, it might seem a drama of race relations in the South, and in a couple of sharp exchanges of the hero with arrogant white men, the ugly face of imminent racial conict shows. But essentially it is a drama of the emotional adjustment of a man to the age-old problem of earning a livelyhood [sic], supporting a family and maintaining his dignity.25 In this way, the movie is glossed and carefully enfolded into a safer category than a racist expos or cinma-vrit; it becomes an oldfashioned liberal movie: a Marty for the South, perhaps. Nothing But A Man is a far more radical statement about Jim Crow segregation than contemporary reviewers allowed and famously described by Malcolm X as the most important lm ever made about the black experience in America. On re-release in 1997, Roger Ebert celebrated it as remarkable for not having employed the liberal pieties of its period in an attempt to reassure white audiences that all stories have happy endings.26 For example, Guess Whos Coming To Dinner (1967) tagged as a love story of today is a sop to liberal ideals when viewed in the context of Loving and Loving vs The State of Virginia, the 1967 Supreme Court ruling that nally made interracial marriage legal after Mildred and Richard Lovings nine-year battle to decriminalise their marriage. Sidney Poitiers role was a safe liberal version of such conicts. A middle-class and successful doctor whose blackness seems the only bar that his future (Northern) parents-in-law can nd against his marrying their white daughter, his safe characterisation represents an unthreatening happy ending. In In the Heat of the Night the factors that make Poitiers doctor acceptable to a liberal East Coast family are those which deem him unacceptable in Mississippi as the state is again placed in stark counterpoint to the rest of the nation. 92 American Culture in the 1960s Norman Jewisons In The Heat of the Night (1967) In The Heat of the Night brought together key figures in the 1960s film industry on a movie that would win five Oscars and earn $10,900,000 in domestic rentals. Director Norman Jewison had enjoyed success with Doris Day in romantic comedies The Thrill of It All (1963) and Send Me No Flowers (1964) and cinematographer Haskell Wexler, renowned for political documentary, had worked with creative success on features including The Best Man (1964), adapting Gore Vidals play, and Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) based on Edward Albees Broadway hit. Rod Steiger was one of the first and finest proponents of Method Acting. Beginning his career in the 1950s, his repertoire by the 1960s included a powerfully intense performance in On the Waterfront (1953). His work in In the Heat of the Night as Sheriff Gillespie would result in the Best Actor Oscar. Ray Charles, who sings the title track, was already an icon who courted controversy, not only in protesting against segregation but also by finally getting busted for heroin, spending the year before the film was released on parole. Quincy Joness score of blues and bluegrass is expressive of distinct and supposedly racialised southern musical traditions. That he creates a fusion of these sounds is a reflection of the ambivalence that suffuses the protagonists too: when a white man pits himself against a black man, he discovers much more than his upbringing has led him to expect. Sidney Poitier was by 1967 an anomaly in American cinema: in Guess Whos Coming To Dinner he proved to be the black actor functioning at the heart of mainstream American cinema, a box office draw in films such as To Sir With Love (1967) and an early indicator of the success that black genre films would enjoy in the 1970s. He was a transitional actor; in The Defiant Ones (1958) he had succeeded in conveying a depth of character and a dignity that seemed extra-textual. Although he has been described as the model integrationist hero, and he certainly appealed to whites as well as blacks, Poitier would begin to shift gears with In the Heat of the Night. The film is set in the small-town South, in Mississippi, the state that throughout the 1960s was the nations strongest example of massive resistance to integration, as immortalised by Nina Simone in the 1963 song Mississippi Goddamn. As Ray Charles sings over the opening credits, a train rolls into the fictional town of Sparta. The murdered body of a Northern entrepreneur whose factories have brought prosperity is discovered just off Main Street. As was becoming ubiquitous in low-budget horrors and murder mysteries, the outsider is eyed with suspicion and therefore the immediate suspect. The criminalisation of Virgil Tibbs (Poitier), arrested by Deputy Sheriff Wood (Warren Oates) simply for being a black man waiting for a train in the middle of the night, recalls the scene in Sergeant Rutledge (1960) set a century earlier in 1861. When a railroad stationmaster finds a man dead and runs straight into cavalry sergeant Rutledge (Woody Strode), the black sergeant finds himself on trial, not only F ilm and Television for killing his commanding officer but also for raping and murdering his white daughter. Despite the fact that he is in Sparta to visit his mother a fact he chooses not to release Tibbs is no longer recognisable as a southern black man who knows his place. When asked What they call you boy?, his reply through clenched teeth, They call me Mr Tibbs, recalls Sgt Rutledges protest on the witness stand that I am a man. James Baldwin described In the Heat of the Night as preposterously unrealistic, but almost despite himself, he succeeded in capturing one of its most pressing claims on film history; that it conveys the anguish of people trapped in a legend. They cannot live within this legend; neither can they step out of it.27 The legend is Jim Crow racism that has poisoned the white man while demeaning the black and is underpinned by a culture clash in which the South battles what it perceives as the Norths disdain. It is also a significant portrayal of African American manhood. Therefore, when Tibbs police-chief boss in the northern city of Philadelphia offers the services of his Number 1 homicide expert to help solve a crime in the South, Gillespie is insulted. However, the film is more than a message movie. It is a thriller whose magisterial comedic touches derive from what was to become a classic plot of the buddy movie by the 1980s, a sub-genre that Poitier was significant in establishing via The Defiant Ones (1958) and Duel at Diablo (1966). The most memorable scene in the film begins with a long tracking shot that follows Tibbs and Gillespie as they drive through cotton fields to the Endicott plantation to question the owner. It repeats almost exactly a scene in Roger Cormans The Intruder (1961) in which William Shatners white supremacist character conspires with a local planter to stir up a mob to oppose desegregation. In both cases the image of the bourgeois plantation owner reflects Senator James Eastland and his fifty-four-hundred-acre place in Sunflower County, Mississippi. In the film, Mr Endicott compares the orchids he tends to black southerners, like the nigra they need care and feeding and cultivation and that takes time, but when he slaps Tibbs, he finds the violence returned swiftly and decisively. It was the first time that a black actor had hit a white with such steely pride in a Hollywood movie. Locked together, despite Tibbs defensive pride and anti-white bigotry and Steigers closed mind and lack of self-worth, the two men discover commonality and mutual respect; that is to say, more than the racial and regional animosity that divided them at the films beginning. Stirling Silliphants screenplay is more subtle than most in this genre, even though Pauline Kael described the story as a good racial joke about a black Sherlock Holmes and a shuffling, redneck Watson in a Tom and Jerry cartoon of reversals.28 Focusing on its popular appeal, Kael captures something of the films significance in breaking open the stereotype of the corrupt southern sheriff. Marlon Brandos Sheriff Calder in The Chase (1966), beaten to a pulp by a southern lynch mob because he protects his prisoner from vigilante justice, is a clearer example of a movie in which 93 94 American Culture in the 1960s the stereotype is openly undermined but Haskell Wexlers camera controls the image of the sheriff: close-up shots of Gillespies incessant gumchewing make clear that Steigers performance is also modelled on real southern sheriffs who had become media pariahs by 1967, notably Harold Strider of Mississippi and Alabamas Jim Clark. Send in the Marines! Looking for America . . . In his ironic song Send in the Marines (1965) Tom Lehrer sang, Well send them all weve got John Wayne and Randolph Scott/ Remember those exciting ghting scenes? The Vietnam War as fought by classical Hollywood heroes is also recalled with bitterness in later decades. In his memoir Born on the Fourth of July (1977), adapted into a blockbusting lm in 1989, paraplegic Ron Kovic laments with cruel irony: I gave my dead dick for John Wayne and Howdy Doody.29 And Nicolas Cage as veteran Alfonso in Birdy (1984) admits, In any other war we would have been heroes. Oh man, we didnt know what we were getting into with that John Wayne shit, did we? Boy we are dumb. John Wayne is also at the centre of a mythopathic moment in Michael Herrs Dispatches (1977) in which he is remembered as the veteran ghter in the Western Fort Apache (1948) whose advice, had their commander only heeded it, would have prevented a platoon of men from being wiped out. In the Marine bunkers of the frontier , from which Herr reported in 1967, he judged the Western as paradigmatic of the situation in Vietnam.30 Like Disney, John Wayne might seem an odd gure to conjure in the context of the sixties but at the height of the Vietnam War, he used his star image to support Americas war. Wayne was a supporter of McCarthys HUAC witch hunt and President of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of Ideals, and he supported Goldwater in 1964 and Nixon in 1968. The Green Berets (1968), which his son produced and in which he starred, presented Americas presence in Vietnam as Hollywood had represented the Second World War: a good war, patriotic and righteous. Waynes persona is satirised to effect in the opening frames of Gas-s-s-s. A cartoon of a US general speaks in John Waynes voice and is made representative of the military industrial complex, upholding the use of chemical warfare with the motto, It became necessary to destroy the world in order to save it. A staunch Republican, Wayne fought the anti-war movement, The Green Berets reecting the tendency for American lms to split into two cycles Left and Right in the late 1960s. The Green Berets Film and Television 95 presented the US military as heroes saving the South Vietnamese from the communists in the North; war correspondents who report otherwise are traitors. Waynes cinematic intervention into Vietnam vilies the Vietcong as baby murderers and village burners and by featuring Star Treks George Takei (helmsman Sulu) as commander of South Vietnamese troops, the lm ensures that when he says he longs to return home to Hanoi but rst he has to kill all stinking Cong, the audience is soothed by the familiar (Japanese American) face associated with the USS Enterprises honourable interventions on another dangerous frontier. Most importantly, Wayne was still the American hero at the frontier, wherever it was located, and the moral force of the gunghter nation.31 Within the rst few frames, two soldiers one black, one white, who have each survived three tours of duty answer questions posed by the public touring Fort Bragg. The black soldier is made to voice a propagandist response to whether the Vietnamese really want us there: If this same thing happened here in the United States, every mayor . . . every teacher . . . every professor, every governor, every senator, every member of the House of Representatives and their combined families all would be tortured and killed . . . But in spite of this, theres always some little fella out there willing to stand up. . . They need us . . . and they want us. A journalist (David Janssen) stands in for the sceptical viewer, his experience over the course of the lm intended to reassure even the most disbelieving that Americas mission is both humanitarian and just. Wayne was not alone in committing his political sympathies to celluloid. Marshall Thompson, friendly veterinarian of TVs Daktari (19669) directed and starred in two pro-war lms, A Yank in Vietnam (1964) and To the Shores of Hell (1966). But by 1968 the anti-war movement was challenging government policy on moral as well as military grounds and in Vietnam morale was at its lowest, as evidenced by escalating army desertions and fraggings, the murder of ofcers by their troops. The war had lost media sympathy but Waynes star persona ensured The Green Berets would not be ignored. When it opened in New York in June, its jingoism was subject to demonstrations, not only by anti-war groups but veterans and reservists as well. The Green Berets, produced by Waynes son Michael, is a rare instance when the two generations came together in a creative effort in which they were on the same side ideologically. Instead, the generation gap would be represented at the Oscars. In 1969 Dustin Hoffman and John Voight were each nominated for the countercultural hit 96 American Culture in the 1960s Midnight Cowboy. While the lm was awarded Oscars for Best Picture and Best Director, they lost the Best Actor battle to an ageing John Wayne for his role as cowboy Rooster Cogburn in a movie set in the 1870s: True Grit. Life magazine pitted Dusty against The Duke in a Choice of Heroes.32 Hoffman was acclaimed following his portrayal of a boy trampling the Apollonian house of the father in The Graduate, the top-grossing lm of 1968 nominated for seven Oscars. In Little Big Man, his anti-hero Jack Crabb was something of an antidote to Waynes persona as Western hero. Nevertheless, Wayne hung on as Old Hollywood even as it lost the pitch battle with the New Hollywood. The biggest movie stars of the decade never fought the war on screen. Paul Newman and Steve McQueen, the faces of the sixties, played nonconformists in less controversial contexts: Newman extending the character of the lone rebel as an alienated anti-authority gure in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963) and Cool Hand Luke (1967) and McQueen perfecting the quixotic yet resilient individualist in The Great Escape (1963), The Cincinnatti Kid (1965) and Bullitt (1968). McQueen found fame as bounty-hunting Josh Randall on CBSs Wanted Dead or Alive which debuted in 1958 and ran for three seasons and some ninety episodes. In many ways, his is a typical career path from the 1950s into the 1960s; he parallels Clint Eastwood whose appearance in Rawhide as Rowdy Yates pregured the iconic sneering drifter he would become in Sergio Leones visually operatic The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1965). From the rst, McQueen was celebrated as the bad-boy-made-good by the movies because he had attended a school for problem children and spent time in the brig while a marine, as represented in Lifes photomontage of September 1963. McQueen is photographed playing with his two-year-old son and lounging in a bath with his wife but the majority of the spread is given over to his taking part in a gruelling cross-country motorcycle race, camping in Sierra Madre and visiting Boys Republic, the school he attended, donating a $500 Steve McQueen Scholarship to the delinquent boy who makes the biggest success of himself. Life celebrates McQueens speech as the lingo of the rough world that spawned him a world of hipsters, racing-car drivers, beach boys, drifters and carnival barkers. Steve has been all of these.33 McQueen professes to dig his old lady, and to be the greatest scammer in the business because acting is a hard scene. Wiry and athletic, cool and unbending, he outs authority and institutions (he will rarely attend a Hollywood premiere), and youthful vigour is the dominant visual image. Clearly Paul Newmans Film and Television 97 long career as an actor and latterly as director has involved far more twists and turns than McQueens but his persona in the 1960s was similarly located. A student at Yale who dropped out to be an actor, he personied sixties cool and the classic line he utters in Cool Hand Luke provided a much-quoted synonym for the culture clash: What weve got here is failure to communicate. In lm and media history, it is important to consider what was not presented on screen and the dearth of images of biological warfare or close combat signalled a broad culture of censorship. In Haskell Wexlers Medium Cool (1968) there is a brief shot of a poster of Eddie Adams Pulitzer Prize-winning 1968 photograph of a South Vietnamese police chief executing a Viet Cong ofcer with a shot to the head. Such images captured the reality the lm industry could not yet represent. International interest in documentary style was the equivalent of the New Journalism epitomised by Tom Wolfe and Norman Mailer. It was also prompted by the development of lightweight, portable camera equipment and faster 16mm lm which could be synchronised with sound, as shown to effect in Robert Drews Primary (1960) which followed Kennedy and Hubert Humphreys election campaigning, and was in some ways the ur-text of political documentary for the decade. The evolving y-on-the-wall style of lmmaking has come to epitomise documentarys privileging of the cinematographer over the director. The act of lmmaking would become a selfconscious politics in itself when Wexler went to Chicago in 1968 to nd footage that would help to distil images of the eras political clashes in a new genre. Mainstream hits such as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) included innovative cinematography, the swift editing together of hundreds of still shots in this case, and small-budget and exploitation movies had traditionally used news footage, in Wild in the Streets of the Sunset Strip riots of 1966, for example, in which West Hollywood police clashed with hippies. In Medium Cool Wexler went a stage further and created an innovative lm drama that became a cult as well as a critical hit, a ctional lm of footage of the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago and the demonstrations it engendered with two imaginary characters, a newsman and an Appalachian woman who has moved to Chicago for work, at its centre. Wexlers lm can be compared to Mailers Armies of the Night in its facility for capturing the Zeitgeist. When Mayor Richard J. Daley complained loudly against those who have been successful in convincing some people that theatrical protest is rational dissent,34 he ordered police to release tear gas on demonstrators and 98 American Culture in the 1960s used the kinds of tactics that had helped him manouevre Martin Luther King Jr out of Fort Daley in 1967, underlining his reputation for political bossism and his renown as an extreme version of the 1950s Organization Man.35 Wexler prepared for this event and kept the cameras rolling. Traditionally the documentary lmmaker was expected to recede into the background, if not into invisibility, so that the material would speak for itself and Wexlers pugnacious personality, unlike Mailers, remains in the background except on two occasions when the director uses his persona to effect. In the rst, he and another camera operator are tear-gassed when following demonstrators to the edge of police cordons. The line the other man utters Look out Haskell! Its real! was added afterwards as a ctional emphasis on what was, in fact, real. The second reference is the nal shot when a camera pans to Wexler who turns his own camera on the audience. It is a disquieting distillation of the power of the camera to record history and drama as it happens and of the reporters inability to remain impartial or unaffected by the events he both witnesses and experiences. Chapter 3 Fiction and Poetry Interviewed in the 1990s about a novel she set in 1968 called Mona in the Promised Land, Chinese American writer Gish Jen stated, As soon as you ask the question Who am I? you are an American. She reinforced her observation with the declaration to be a citizen is to participate and speak up.1 The question Who am I? is the structuring principle and dening question of much writing of the 1960s when speaking up and speaking out became axiomatic. Examples abound in literature, as in comedy and theatre. While the immigrant story may be the quintessential American story, as Gish Jen implies, questions of identity dominated in a plethora of imaginary contexts specic to the 1960s, from the violent existential self-fulllment Stephen Rojack experiences as the result of killing his wife in Norman Mailers An American Dream (1963), to the passionate intellectualism of Saul Bellows Moses Herzog, weighed down by the search for peace amidst chaos, and the postmodern subjectivity of young Californian housewife Oedipa Maas in The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) who asks Shall I project a world?. First-person narratives, especially those in which teenage anxiety was a major concern, took off in the 1950s, as evidenced by the phenomenal success of J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye (1951), but were legion in the 1960s. American voices, strident in protest, conding in desperation, or lled with hatred or sexual bravado, distinguished much of the decades ction. In dramatic monologues, confessional poetry, plays in performance, framed narratives and novels as soliloquies, the universal third person was supplanted by an emphasis on individual consciousness. The man we all want to be, invented by the nation and embodied in the characters of Stephen Rojack a US congressman, television personality and professor as well as a murderer and David Bell, the TV advertising executive of Don DeLillos Americana (1971), was under 100 American Culture in the 1960s attack, not only by feminists but by writers of both genders from racial and ethnic minorities for whom identity politics became a watchword. The emphasis on individual awakening and rebellion is part of the reason that realist ction delineating social norms is felt to recede in the 1960s, despite Richard Yates and John Cheever, and perhaps because their characters are chronic dreamers who worry less about social revolution or the spirit of reform than about being tortured by conformity and deadened by suburbia, concerns that animated the cold war fties. In Writing American Fiction (1961), Philip Roth dened the turn in the literary tide: while it is always, he argued, the tug of reality, its mystery and magnetism, that leads one into the writing of ction, a shift is forced when the writer is not mystied but stupeed, not drawn to but repelled. Roths answer was to write as an active participant in the community or to take refuge in the historical novel.2 Pynchon set V. (1963) in the 1950s to represent the decade as frenetic. However, narratives about the 1950s began to feel historical very quickly unless they weighed in with sixties issues. While the quiet desperation-driven characters in Revolutionary Road (1961) and Bullet Park (1967) continued to inuence writers who began to publish in the 1960s, such as Joyce Carol Oates, a movement coalesced around writers for whom alienation became absurdist disaffection, the Catch-22 in American life, or for whom runic narratives were a way of engaging with a society in ux. James Baldwin argued in Nobody Knows My Name (1961) that US writers did not have a xed society to describe: The only society they know is one in which nothing is xed and in which the individual must ght for his identity.3 The Black Arts Movement would extend this idea; Larry Neals reaction to Invisible Man (1952), Ralph Ellisons novel of racial existentialism, is a case in point: We know who we are, and we are not invisible, at least not to each other. We are not Kafkaesque creatures stumbling thorough a white light of confusion and absurdity.4 In Give Birth to Brightness (1972), Sherley Ann Williams described writers of the 1960s such as Baldwin and Neal as Neo-Black, dening their people in images which grow out of their individual quests and group expectations in a literature that centred on a continuing conversation among Black people.5 Cultural nationalism was a developing feature of African American writing but across the board national allegories were predominating as diagnostic of protagonists outrage and idiosyncrasies and taken to disturbing extremes. In Thomas Bergers Little Big Man (1964), the 111-year-old sole white survivor of the Battle of Little Big Horn is condescended to by an Fiction and Poetry 101 interviewer for whom his life story is merely a tall tale. Berger uses a American literary form familiar from Washington Irving and Mark Twain to create a feisty countercultural hero. Jack Crabb tells the interviewer to turn on his tape recorder, Now you jest sit there and youll learn something, gives the lie to myths of the Old West and presents himself as a cultural force, an agent of change who determines the death of an evil and corrupt General Custer, even as he fails to save his Indian wife and child. Novels about the decade, its public life and events as well as its sensibility, are often large canvasses on which reality seems to be speeding out of control and include Updikes Rabbit Redux (1971) and Thomas Bergers Vital Parts (1970) as well as Bellows Herzog (1964). Updikes Harry Rabbit Angstrom and Bergers Carlo Reinhart, like Jewish intellectual Moses Herzog, are anti-heroes who nurse every grievance and kick against the American grain in epic narratives that navigate a chaotic cultural landscape. The protagonists loss of control is represented as social entropy, an idea at the heart of much writing of the 1960s from Pynchon to Edward Albee. As early as 1960 in his play The American Dream Albee represented the white middle-class family home as the deceptively benign site in which cruelty and delusion nd place. He pinioned the grotesque at the heart of American family an idea to which Charles Webb turns in The Graduate (1963) as does Mailer in Why Are We in Vietnam?: Does this idyll of family life whet your curiosity, ame your balls, or sour your spit?6 Albee infused his subjects with existential angst and anarchy so that he became focal in Martin Esslins study The Theatre of the Absurd (1961), even as he struck with barbed realism at the most traditionally American of themes. A three-time Pulitzer winner who in 1994 was honoured by President Clinton as the playwright in whose rebellion the American theatre was reborn, Albee was castigated throughout the 1960s by reviewers for disguising homosexual love in heterosexual failed marriages. That Albee was open about his homosexuality from his rst success with Zoo Story (1958) makes such claims typical of the critical prejudice from which Tennessee Williams also suffered when, like Williams, Albee has written powerful roles for women. American literary culture seemed to be characterised by intellectually polarised factions and gridlocked racial and sexual relations. However, as in music and art, cultural crossovers when they occur are revealing. Malcolm Cowley, having endorsed Faulkner and remade his reputation in the 1950s, turned his attention to Ken Kesey and the publication of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest (1962). The established 102 American Culture in the 1960s Marxist literary critic Maxwell Geismar having bemoaned in American Moderns: From Rebellion to Conformity (1958) that writers had forsaken politics, recognised the same dramatisation of social turbulence that Cowley valued in Eldridge Cleavers Soul on Ice (1968), describing Cleaver in his Introduction as simply one of the best cultural critics now writing . . . an outside critic who takes pleasure in dissecting the deepest and most cherished notions of our personal and social behavior.7 Cleavers angry polemic was lauded as one of the best ten books of 1968 by the New York Times, his outsider status precisely the characteristic most valued. There seemed to be a division between Jewish American writing at the centre since the 1950s Zion as Main Street as Leslie Fiedler put it and other minority groups writing themselves into the literary mainstream. 1964 saw the rediscovery of Henry Roths Freudian Call It Sleep (1934) and its publication as a paperback original, amidst the upsurge of Jewish American writing by Bellow, Malamud and Roth. Other literary or ethnic groups were still out on the margins in the early 1960s though by the end of the decade African American and American Indian writers would have staked a claim on the literary landscape with N. Scott Momadays House Made of Dawn (1969) winning the Pulitzer Prize. Momadays protagonist Abel is a conicted veteran of the Second World War and his efforts to secure a sense of identity dominate the novel. The idea of identity as unxed, open to possibility as well as trauma, underpins the work of Lebanese American writer Vance Bourjaily whose protagonist Quince Quincey values the freedom not to belong: In the uid society through which I move there is no . . . community of moral belief; it cannot hold itself nor me its child, to any comprehensive and unquestioned single code. And though there are many groups within this society which guard separate if often overlapping codes, I am in no very unusual position when I say I belong to none of them I am more or less without class or national origin or locality or regular intellectual persuasion, as is true of many men of my time.8 In the 1960s Arab Americans were one of a number of seemingly invisible ethnic minorities. Bourjailys heritage was scarcely acknowledged by him or by his publisher and in Confessions of a Spent Youth (1960) Quince is of mixed heritage: a quarter of what is more or less colonial American, of which my mother tried to teach me to be proud. A quarter Welsh, of which no one ever said anything much. Half Fiction and Poetry 103 Lebanese the largest fraction, pretty well concealed . . .9 Quince winds up in his fathers birthplace in Lebanon during the Second World War with another soldier who is also fractional: half Cherokee and half Arab. The responsibility of the writer to his ethnic and racial group was becoming a subject ripe for debate in the 1960s, with Irving Howe, Philip Roth and Norman Podhoretz, for example, disagreeing about the issue in the pages of the conservative periodical Commentary. Ralph Ellison and Irving Howe also debated the appropriate content for the Negro novel in Dissent and the New Leader and Norman Podheretz threw caution to the critical winds. Reputedly annoyed that James Baldwin, having been asked to write a piece on US race relations, preferred to place it in The New Yorker, Podheretz wrote his own position piece with the provocative title, My Negro Problem and Ours (1963). The essay he had lost, Letter From a Region in My Mind, was re-titled Down at the Cross and published to acclaim in Baldwins The Fire Next Time (1963). Issues in literary culture found their way into novels. In The Tenants (1971) Bernard Malamud pitted two writers against each other, African American Willie Spearmint whose pen is his weapon and Jewish Harry Lesser trying to write a literary masterpiece. Gish Jen revisits these politico-literary tensions when her Chinese American characters Mona and Callie discover that publishers in the 1960s are only interested in publishing their African American friend Naomi: Were not book material . . . Naomis experience has an import ours just doesnt.10 Letting Go Tony Tanner used the title of Philip Roths 1962 novel to argue in City of Words (1971) that letting go was the key metaphor for US ction in the late 1950s and early 1960s. John Updikes Couples (1968) was the rst novel by a major writer to celebrate life post-The Pill the contraceptive pill had been licensed in 1960. His portrait of adulterous marriage and its dissolution struck at the heart not of the counterculture but of the ordinary small-town and the middle-class suburbs. Updike made the cover of Time, its legend The Adulterous Society, in April 1968. Most often cited, though, in this context is Roth himself. Initially black humour was the term commonly used by reviewers to describe his ction and Roth compared his aesthetic to that of the outrageously controversial comedian Lenny Bruce, with Portnoys Complaint like Bruces comedic style oscillating between the extremes of unmanageable fable or fantasy and familiar surface realism.11 Roths own 104 American Culture in the 1960s description when revisiting the novel in 1975 recalls Jacob Brackmans 1967 denition of the put-on, a precursor to more critically dened sixties style: It occupies a fuzzy territory between simple leg-pulling and elaborate practical joke, between pointed lampoon and free-oating spoof.12 The shock of in-your-face sexual imagery that Roth employed was hardly new in the 1960s. Henry Miller and Anas Nin, writing from Paris, were renowned for having pushed erotica to aesthetic extremes, with Millers Tropic of Cancer (1934) only nally unbanned as a result of its Grove Press publication in 1964 and the tenacity of publisher Barney Rosset. Roths works do not comprise the most sexually risqu of those published in the decade that nally saw D. H. Lawrences Lady Chatterleys Lover (1928) un-banned, Lenny Bruce on trial for obscenity, and exploitation movies developing into the sexploitation and blaxploitation markets. Leslie Fiedler, for example, reviewed Herbert Kublys The Whistling Zone (1967) as culminating in a campus orgy dripping with more sperm than has owed in any American book since Moby Dick.13 However, such ctions are no longer remembered. Much louder in resonance is Portnoys Complaint which remains by reputation alone a scandalous masturbatory fantasy that made its author a household name and fullled a Jewish fantasy by transgressing the image of quiet and scholarly Jews in the Gentile imagination, in the way that Ross Posnock has described the unending struggle of the nice Jewish boy . . . to be a bad man.14 However, a novel that was re-issued in paperback each year of the decade in the UK as well as the US was a rollicking sexual odyssey rst published in 1960: Vance Bourjailys Confessions of A Spent Youth. Reading them together serves to disabuse us of any assumptions that the sexual revolution was the province of young writers. Neither Bourjaily nor Roth was particularly young nor caught up in countercultural hedonism Bourjaily began publishing in the 1940s and as a tutor for the Iowa Writers Workshop encouraged younger novelists; Roth was already in his late thirties when Portnoys Complaint was published. Yet, in the persons of their sexually obsessed narrators, they best capture the permissive turn in American ction that began in the 1950s and was played out in the 1960s. Roths novel is an entertaining confession by Alexander Portnoy, the thirty-three-year-old Assistant Commissioner of Human Opportunity for New York City to his psychiatrist, who is attempting to cure him of the feeling that he is living in the middle of a Jewish joke, but who is silent throughout Portnoys hysterical outpouring until he nally speaks at the end of the novel: So . . . Now vee Fiction and Poetry 105 may perhaps to begin. Yes? Sexually obsessed and in Oedipal meltdown, Portnoy is notoriously unreliable, trying on a series of masks or putative identities; rifng on his name Alton Petersen, Al Parsons and so on he poses as non-Jewish personae designed to attract nonJewish girls of whom his mother would disapprove. In the Confession of Intentions that opens Confessions of a Spent Youth, Quince is much less ribald but allows that Like most men, I tell a hundred lies a day and closes his tale of worldwide philandering during the Second World War with a denial of having been a terrible sinner and a request that the reader accept his story not as unusual or exotic, but as a specimen account of how a contemporary youth was spent not misspent nor well-spent, merely spent exhibiting no special depths of degradation, nor special heights of intellectual or sensual joy, but only such ordinary ones as most youths know.15 Inaming readers as well as enchanting them has always been Roths way and Boujailys semi-autobiographical narrator is named, of course, after the English Romantic writer Thomas De Quincey whose Confessions of an English Opium Eater was not only a succs de scandale in 1822 but also a popular intertext in the 1960s when the war in Vietnam began to be represented as a drugged and torturous nightmare. In the 1960s the academy was letting go of what has been termed the classic phase of American Studies involving the so-called myth and symbol critics, from F. O. Matthiessen in American Renaissance (1941) and Henry Nash Smith in Virgin Land (1950) to Leo Marx in The Machine in the Garden (1964). Novelists and critics including Philip Roth, Mary McCarthy, John Barth and Leslie Fiedler were battling over the cultural status of the novel and whether a new kind of postmodern ction was beginning to be written. In 1967 Barth published The Literature of Exhaustion in The Atlantic. There had been heated literary debates declaring a moratorium on literature, typical of the decades disquisition on the sense of an ending, explored so delicately by British critic Frank Kermode in 1968, and summed up by Jacques Hermann in The Death of Literature.16 However, as Barth pointed out, the idea of exhaustion did not mean the novel was dead but rather that it was reexive, ripe for experiment and regeneration. Many of the debates about the status of literature took place in universities where the professoriate included the very writers over whom such battles were fought: Saul Bellow (Chicago), John Barth (Penn State and State University of New York at Buffalo), Vance Bourjaily (University of Iowa) and Howard Nemerov (Brandeis University), for 106 American Culture in the 1960s example. Of the magazines in which literature and culture were debated, Partisan Review and Commentary were well established and their editors like Podheretz often threw themselves into the literary fray with spiky editorials. Little magazines such as The Noble Savage founded by Saul Bellow, New American Review (1967 ) in which a section of what would become Portnoys Complaint was published and Robert Blys The Sixties sought to capture the Zeitgeist and mark out new literary territory. Literary criticism like ction often contained within it a personal poesis. Rebellion and revisionism were literary-critical watchwords which coincided in the position pieces of one of the most prolic and outspoken of critics who came to prominence on the crest of the 1960s: Leslie Fiedler. Leslie Fiedler and Literary Culture Fiedler was a self-proclaimed literary anthropologist, whose revisionist examination of myth-criticism in An End To Innocence (1955) and attacks on New Criticism in essays such as Archetype and Signature (1952) characterised the postwar climate of change in which psychoanalytical concepts began to be applied to images that haunted the American psyche and which were powerfully present in literary discourse, especially after studies of Freud were published in the 1960s. Fiedlers political position underwent a series of changes: his anti-communism and condemnation of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be replaced by the end of the decade by his interest in the countercultural turn of events epitomised by the nations youth. Fiedler embarked on the kind of interrogation of the literary canon that would characterise the intellectual left during the hot culture wars of the 1980s and 1990s. Fiedler set out to be controversial. For some, notably Morris Dickstein in Gates of Eden (1977), Fiedler was writing little more than advocacy criticism and his Freudian re-readings of the canon remained conservative in comparison with the Freudian radicalism of Herbert Marcuse, Norman O. Brown, or even Lionel Trilling. For others, he was groundbreaking. Love and Death in the American Novel (1960, revised in 1966), Waiting for the End (1964) and The Return of the Vanishing American (1968) comprise a trilogy in which Fiedlers key motifs are evident. The national status quo in race relations, challenged as it was in the 1950s and 1960s by civil rights and anti-colonial struggles around the world, had produced, in Fiedlers view, a peculiarly American nightmare experience which he began to articulate in 1948 in an article published in Partisan Review. Come Back To the Raft Agin, Huck Honey! may be read as a preface to Love and Death in that Fiedler argues: It is perhaps to be expected that the Negro and the homosexual should become stock literary themes in a period when the exploration of responsibility and failure has F iction and Poetry 107 become again a primary concern of our literature.17 The failure of love specically heterosexual love is at the centre of Fiedlers thesis that in nineteenth-century American literature, there is an archetypal and sentimental image in which two lonely men, one dark-skinned, one white . . . have forsaken all others for the sake of the austere, almost inarticulate, but unquestioned love which binds them to each other.18 The buddy formula so beloved of Hollywood in the 1960s and epitomised by In the Heat of the Night (1967) derives from the model of intimacy that Fiedler examined in its literary manifestations. The paradigm of the white and colored American male [who] ee from civilisation into each others arms formed a central plank in his assessment of the ction of the 1960s in the second edition of Love and Death, in which footnotes to contemporary ction provide a lively commentary on classic American literature. In 1968, Fiedler argued that texts as different as One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest and In Cold Blood were equally obsessed by the alliance, homosexual or otherwise, of the maverick white man and the Indian as they set themselves against the respectable White world.19 While attention to the socio-cultural context of race, gender and sexuality would become the basic co-ordinates against which all literary merit would be measured by the 1980s, Fiedler was instrumental in using the preoccupations of 1960s identity politics as a lens through which to re-read the canon. Literary critics continue to return to Fiedlers thesis: Nina Baym recalls Fiedler in her formulation of the American critics drama of beset manhood, which excluded women writers from the canon.20 Fiedler championed genre ction. He examined the melodrama at the heart of American literature, declaring most tellingly that, Our literature as a whole, at times seems a chamber of horrors disguised as an amusement park fun house, where we pay to play at terror and are confronted in the innermost chamber with a series of inter-reecting mirrors which present us with a thousand versions of our own face.21 He tackled the aesthetics of pornography in a short story that pregured Portnoys Complaint and caused a ripple when published as Nude Croquet in Esquire in 1957. Like Philip Roth, a fellow Jewish writer also from Newark, New Jersey, Fiedler was a literary rebel or bad boy and in a short story called The Last Jew in America played to that reputation. He achieved a countercultural notoriety when small quantities of soft drugs were found in his home and a legal trial ensued but Fiedler turned the experience he described as a Keystone comedy into the best-selling Being Busted, published in 1969 when Fiedler was fty.22 In Cross the Border-Close That Gap: Postmodernism published in Playboy in 1969, Fiedler argued that a new generation of writers was entering the madhouse to produce the anti-madhouse novel and his criticism demonstrated the gap between high and mass culture that modernist aesthetics had cleaved open but many critics still kept separate.23 His hope was that a postmodernist practice would not only re-examine but also reshape aesthetics and epistemology; the substance as well as the style of cultural productions. 108 American Culture in the 1960s Following the paperback revolution of the 1950s and the escalation of the two-bit culture, the paperback book had become ubiquitous, with Dell Pocket Books and Fawcetts Gold Medal among many other imprints staking out market space for popular ction, true stories and risqu confessions. However, during the 1960s, publishers such as Grove Press also successfully extended the paperbacks commercial appeal to provide new and good quality literature and modern classics at competitive prices. Jay Parini remembers that university students of the late 1960s would not be caught in a caf without a copy of Walter Kauffmans Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre. We all wrestled with our nitude . . . and were aware that we must act to dene ourselves and youth activists Tom and Casey Hayden read Camus to each other as part of their wedding ceremony.24 Even in the small-budget radical lm Greetings a student reads Hitchcock by Truffaut. The scriptures for a new generation, to borrow Philip D. Biedlers phrase, were logged by The Chronicle of Higher Education which ran a feature called What Theyre Reading on the Campuses. Campus reading was both eclectic and indicative. Key texts included, for example, the 1968 English translation of Martinique psychiatrist Frantz Fanons The Wretched of the Earth (1966) with a preface by Jean-Paul Sartre. Extrapolating from Fanons colonial Algerian context, the Black Power movement celebrated this as a manifesto. Students also returned to classic English poetry by William Blake and Lord Byron, because Blakes mystic vision of the doors of perception lent a cultish credence to the Beats experimentation with drugs (and, later, Jim Morrison of The Doors), while the vedic and the vatic would underpin Carlos Castanedas rendition of Byrons Don Juan as a Yaqui medicine man, written while Castenada was a student at UCLA. While students in the 1960s revisited classic texts, new books were the most popular best-sellers in paperback, not least those which spoke to present concerns. Allegories for America at War Ken Kesey uses the insane asylum as a metaphor for American societys failure of logic and sanity in One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, an inmate of mixed American Indian heritage disclosing the humming hate and death and other hospital secrets that are too awful to be the truth but are the truth of what is hidden.25 In the provocative documentary Hearts and Minds (1974), high-school football is used as a metaphor for a violent America and a nation of competitive Fiction and Poetry 109 and compulsive winners. The prevalence for such analogies in and about the 1960s is evident whether allegory is purposefully outlandish, as in John Barths Giles Goat-Boy (1966), or sustained as a speculative ction of other worlds, as when Kurt Vonneguts Billy Pilgrim comes unstuck in time. The Second World War on which Vonneguts allegory turns in Slaughterhouse-Five (1969) and to which Joseph Hellers Catch-22 (1961) returned readers was re-worked through a scrim of distracting images which forced the war in Vietnam to the imaginative surface. If World War II was like Catch-22, this war will be like Naked Lunch, Norman Mailer declared in Partisan Review in 1965.26 However, the Second World War was already merely the backdrop to the novel in which the neologism Catch-22 in all its anarchic absurdity reected the postwar political impasse into which the American government had pushed the nation, in Korea in the 1950s and again in the escalating foreign conicts of the 1960s, notably Vietnam. Mailer said Why Are We in Vietnam? was neither planned nor written as a book about the war. Supposedly the hunting trip at its centre a motif that would be returned to in the movie The Deerhunter (1978) was to form only a prelude to the novels real setting: the tip of Cape Cod or the end of the world where the land runs out and the sand dunes bear a resemblance to the desert where bikers and hippies could live in the wild.27 If Puritan America is seen to begin in this landscape with the Pilgrim Fathers landing here before docking in Plymouth, the apocalyptic vision of landscape as dystopian textures Mailers novel as it would other cultural forms, such as the California desert Death Valley in Antonionis movie Zabriskie Point (1970) and Peter Watkinss lm documentary Punishment Park (1971). Mailers novel is entirely set in Alaska during a hunting trip, a male bastion of rugged competition just like the eld of war, and the voice that describes events is made deliberately ambiguous. Is DJ a white teenage boy sent to military school whose Texan slang is a nod to his southern roots, or is his hip talk the key to his real identity as a black disk jockey hipster from Harlem? DJ is both southern and northern, white and black, at times quixotic and at others cruel, the kind of protagonist recognised early by literary critics as vital to sixties ction.28 The very youth of the child protagonist was an important mechanism for cultural critique. As Joyce Carol Oates has pointed out, adolescents are vehicles for adult writers like Mailer who feel they must go back in order to possess the freedom to tell what they see of the truth.29 The idea of a generation gap was an issue that preoccupied many cultural commentators in the 1960s (a theme to which this book 110 American Culture in the 1960s returns) distinguishing the Boomers sixties from the decade as lived by their parents. But Mailer, recalling perhaps Robert Kennedys paean to a youthful spirit discussed in the Introduction, described himself as carrying different ages within him like different models of his experience.30 Never having fought there, Mailers Why Are We in Vietnam? chipped away at the expectation that the young veteran of Vietnam would be the authentic or nal arbiter of Vietnam ction. In this respect the novel compares with the American war story against which others have been measured. Stephen Crane became the internationally acclaimed writer of The Red Badge of Courage (1895), a witnessparticipants account of the American Civil War, a war in which he had not served. Nevertheless, The Youth, or Henry Fleming as he is once named in Cranes text, is the archetypal lone individual tossed around in the chaos of war, battling internal conicts: fear and cowardice. John Carlos Rowe and other critics have argued that an over-privileging of a personalist epistemology is a reection of a specically American mythologizing of the special value of direct experience and displaces the serious political and historical analysis necessary to understand the Vietnam War.31 Looking Backward The inuence of classic American literature was discernible in pastiche and parody. John Berryman wrote a homage to Puritan poet Anne Bradstreet in 77 Dream Songs (1964) and Adrienne Rich returned to Emily Dickinson. Wallace Stevens was a signicant inuence on John Ashbery and in Hunter S. Thompsons Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (1972), a drug-fuelled, misogynistic road trip is likened to pursuing the American Dream in a classic afrmation of everything right and true and decent in the national character. Thompsons parody winds up with: I felt like a monster reincarnation of Horatio Alger. . . 32 Even writers trying to forge new and radical myths of selfhood and selfannihilation returned to the American literary canon to ground them in what remained the most enduring of myths: the American frontier as it informed ideas of American exceptionalism. Other writers had more personal reasons to look back to the literary past. The publication of Robert Lowells Collected Poems in 2003 was a signicant step towards re-evaluating the son of Americas rst aristocratic family of New England poets. A prize-winner in the 1940s, interest in him was renewed by Beat writers in the 1950s. He was labelled the rst confessional poet in M. L. Rosenthals review of Life Fiction and Poetry 111 Studies (1959), a volte face against modernist symbolism in which Lowells depression and mental illness found philosophical and poetic place. The autobiographical traits in his verse encompass his mental breakdowns and three marriages but are transformed in ways that both pregure Sylvia Plath and act as a contrast to her poetic anger. Lowell was a historically conscious poetic voice of 1960s America in whom the nations past was conserved and via whose images it might be reenvisioned. From the European-inuenced free translations of Imitations (1961) to For the Union Dead (1964), there is a seismic shift in focus to the contemporary United States. Therefore, the label confessional as it epitomises his work in the 1950s fails to account for a poet who was at the height of his powers as a commentator on the 1960s. Lowell created masks and characters to tell of the savage servility of the 1960s, while making clear his own stand against Americas war in Vietnam: he refused an invitation to Lyndon Johnsons White House in 1965 to protest against the escalation of the war. In Waking Sunday Morning, the most famous poem in his collection Near the Ocean (1967), he protested the Vietnam War and, along with fellow poets Denise Levertov and Allen Ginsberg, who marched with Lowell on the Pentagon, he used war as a potent mobile metaphor for the decade. The title poem in For the Union Dead (1964) is written at the bloody crossroads of at least two wars. It is a poem that speaks at once to the unsettled historical moment that produced it, as it revisits the 1860s and the Civil War that pitted American against American in a national cauldron of hate. The poem is about the Civil War and at rst sight acts as a commemoration like Ode to the Confederate Dead (1926, rev. 1930), in which Allen Tates narrator attaches memories to monuments commemorating dead soldiers erected in the South. Lowell dedicated his poem to (white) Colonel Robert Gould Shaw (183763), commander of the rst black regiment in the North who died ghting in South Carolina and whose memorial is in Boston. Shaws monument sticks like a shbone/in the citys throat and the poem asks whether there is a point to such monuments when black soldiers have the right to die in war but not to enjoy full citizenship even a century later. Both Muhammad Ali and Stokely Carmichael would very publicly refuse to ght the yellow man in Vietnam who aint never called us nigger and Lowells own refusal to ght in the Second World War involved his imprisonment in 1943 as a conscientious objector. In For the Union Dead, he displaces the act of war in the poems commemoration of neglected heroes with the radical patriotism of the Colonel who cannot bend his back as he leads his men to their deaths: 112 Shaws father wanted no monument Except the ditch, Where his sons body was thrown And lost with his niggers. American Culture in the 1960s Most signicantly in this context, like Angus Wilson whose Patriotic Gore (1962), a study of the literature of the Civil War, was published against a backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement, Lowell shows that the legacy of American slavery haunted civil rights struggles. He writes, When I crouch to my television set/ the drained faces of Negro school-children rise like balloons. In this way, a reference to civil rights demonstrations played out on TV screens across the nation occurs in the middle of a poem about the Civil War written on the eve of that wars centenary. Previous wars would inltrate the most bitter poetic distillations of war such as Bob Kaufmans War Memoir (1965), which returns to the Second World War and asks with bitter irony: What one-hundred-percent red-blooded savage Wastes precious time listening to jazz With so much more important killing to do? Silence the drums, that we may hear the burning Of Japanese in atomic color-cinemascope And remember the stereophonic screaming.33 The dramatic monologue is a form that takes possession of the speaker, as Mississippian Eudora Welty described most succinctly in One Writers Beginnings (1984). The form can allow a character enough rope to hang herself simply by virtue of her own words, as in Ellen Douglass barbed short story I Just Love Carrie Lee (1963) in which a privileged white lady describes her black retainer Carrie Lee as if she were a clever family pet: capable, discerning and almost human. The framed narrative has traditionally conned African American literary subjects since ex-slave narrators were contained by white amanuenses who mediated the slaves presence as abolitionist (as black messages in white envelopes, to borrow John Sekoras phrase). The white narrators deployed to subversive effect by black writers such as Charles Chesnutt in the 1890s allowed black characters a space within a dominant white literary tradition. In the 1960s, the rstperson and/or framed narrative began a new lease of life and is used to effect in ctions as different as One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967) and one of Weltys own stories. F iction and Poetry 113 Where Is The Voice Coming From?: Eudora Welty and the Murder of Medgar Evers One of the most resonant rst-person narratives was begun the night on which a courageous civil rights activist was murdered by a Klansman. Medgar Evers was the leader of the NAACP in Jackson, Mississippi, Weltys and Evers birthplace and home town, and under surveillance by the State Sovereignty Commission which tagged him a race agitator. On 12 June 1963 he was shot in the back with a single bullet which cut through his body, ricocheting through the window of his home and into the kitchen where it lodged itself as evidence. Evers died in front of his wife and three children still clutching his house key. His murder took place on the night President Kennedy broadcast his breakthrough speech on the moral crisis of race relations and rst called for a civil rights bill and reforms: If an American, because his skin is black, cannot enjoy the full and free life all of us want, then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place? Late that night as news broke of Evers death, Welty sat down to write Where Is The Voice Coming From? The storys title bespeaks the anguished plea that his murderer be found: I thought with overwhelming directness: Whoever his murderer is I know him: not his identity, but his coming about, in this time and place. That is, I ought to have learned by now, from here, what such a man, intent on such a deed had going on in his mind . . . I felt, through my shock and revolt, I could make no mistake.34 Her story was accepted for publication in The New Yorker but she was asked to edit it once Byron De La Beckwith was arrested; some of the details Welty had imagined resembled facts becoming clear in the case. It was even feared that the short story might be prejudicial against the man on trial. Eudora Welty has not traditionally been read as a political writer and often described herself as living a sheltered life but in the 1960s she joined her literary voice with black Mississippians clamouring for change. What is probably her most openly political statement remains unpublished: Heroism and shame have lightened or darkened the pages of [Mississippi history]. It is lled with extremes some of it is tragic, some is ugly beyond bearing. But in order to be good writers, we need to face and encompass all we are no human action is too good or too bad to forgo being understood.35 Controlled by the rst-person narrative form, Weltys story begins in medias res with a comment that confuses white bigotry with freedom of speech: I says to my wife You can reach and turn it off. You dont have to set and look at a black nigger face no longer than you want to, or listen to what you dont want to hear. Its still a free country. The speaker makes the reader complicit, Aint that right? Immediately, the reader is made aware of the 114 American Culture in the 1960s role of the media in the civil rights era, as discussed in Chapter 2, and in Evers murder. The programme to which the speaker alludes was Evers rst televised speech as a leader of the Jackson movement in answer to charges from mayor Allen C. Thompson that black people in Mississippi were stirred up by outside agitators. On 20 May he recorded the speech that made him seem the most dangerous man in Mississippi to those who were violent as well as vehement in opposition to black civil rights. Evers was as concrete as he was unequivocal: Tonight the Negro knows from his radio and television . . . about the new free nations in Africa, and knows that a Congo native can be a locomotive engineer. But in Jackson he cannot even drive a garbage truck . . . there is not a single Negro policemen or policewoman, school crossing guard, reman, clerk, stenographer, or supervisor employed in the city department. Jackson had a population of around 50,000 blacks in the 1960s but was one of the most racially conservative towns in the South. People who had not known what Evers looked like would be able to recognise him after that nights television. Weltys ctionalised murderer says: I could nd right exactly where in Thermopylae that niggers living thats asking for equal time . . . and heads up Nathan B. Forrest Road, named after the founder of the Ku Klux Klan, to nd his victim and shoot him into silence. The key structural and interpretative direction of the story is inwards to a twisted psyche: the segregationist ideology which governs the murder and determines the social conditions in which it may be committed but not considered a crime. In 1964 James W. Silver would publish Mississippi: A Closed Society and it is to the closed mind of a coldblooded killer that Welty turned her creative attention in Where Is The Voice Coming From? Welty makes vivid the reactionary individual supported by the prevailing discourse of white racial superiority; racism remains resolved in the mind of the racist who never questions. Importantly and emphatically, the murderer knows nothing of his subject personally but he is consumed by jealousy: the black mans street and his driveway are paved and he has a new white car. When he returns home, the killers wife points out that he might could have got you somebody better since the NAACP ofce run by Evers will soon be fully staffed. Her endorsement of his crime is simple and stark: a chilling end to the story that would not nd any moral resolution until Beckwith, not quite the poor white Welty had imagined, was nally convicted of the murder in 1994. When journalist Rick Bragg covered the trial he observed that The story of Mr. Evers and Mr. Beckwith is almost too profound to be real . . . as if it were pulled straight from Eudora Weltys short stories instead of being the inspiration for one of them. F iction and Poetry 115 Figure 3.1 Medgar Evers grave site in Arlington Cemetery, Washington DC. Courtesy Francisca Fuentes. Writing Race and the Controversy It Makes Equally disturbing in its expos of segregationist ideology is James Baldwins 1965 story Going to Meet the Man. Baldwin enters the consciousness of Jesse, a white deputy sheriff twisted with race hatred who uses a cattle prod and a club on activists campaigning for voter registration and almost kills a boy he has jailed. The man Baldwin imagines has been hardened by hate nurtured in a loving white family, as becomes apparent when Jesse recalls attending his rst lynching picnic and remembers his mother had never seemed more beautiful than in the moment she watches the lynching of a black man, and that he has never loved his father more. He stokes his hatred; the memory of the lynching and the castration he witnessed so visceral that he is brought to the edge of orgasm and the sex he has with his ironically named wife Grace is torrid. Like Welty, Baldwin bears witness to a racist crime and the mindset that made this crime possible. In 1964 Shirley Ann Grau won the Pulitzer Prize for Keepers of the House, a family saga full of secrets, family curses and gloomy wrongs. Grau writes out of New Orleans, a city which remained distinctive, an Africanised and Caribbean city, heavily Catholic in a predominantly Protestant South, until devastated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The 116 American Culture in the 1960s machinations of entangled racial relationships and racist crimes dominate the lives of Graus protagonists. That such a novel should be awarded the Pulitzer Prize in the mid-1960s may be read as testament to a cultural fascination with the lives of black and white southerners at the height of the Civil Rights Movement. Grau was acclaimed for her moral toughness as the teller of a tale in which the keepers of the segregated southern house are brought trembling to their knees. However, three years later another white writer who wrestled with the legacy of the slave South found himself at the centre of one of the most heated literary and ideological battles of the decade. William Styrons The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967) In August 1965, while working on a new novel, the white Virginian writer William Styron asserted that to break down the old law, to come to know the Negro, has become the moral imperative for every white Southerner.36 In 1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner won the Pulitzer Prize and became the number one best-selling ction. Dr King chose it along with the Bible and Galbraiths The New Industrial State as his reading while in jail in Birmingham in November 1967 for having violated a law against demonstrations in the city in 1963. But Styron was also vilied as an unreconstructed southern racist for violating historical truths and presenting Turner as sexually obsessed with a white woman. The impetus toward integrationist politics was losing ground by mid-decade and African American intellectuals, historians and novelists calling themselves Ten Black Writers published a polemical volume in which they excoriated Styron for betraying the memory of Turner, who in August 1831 in Southampton County, Virginia was hanged after his army of slaves (twenty-eight in all) killed fty-seven whites. In his confession, Turner had claimed that the whites were killed in the name of justice; in retaliation, at least 100 blacks were murdered and Turner reputedly skinned and souvenir money pouches made of his skin. Turners Confessions of 1831 were elicited and published by Thomas R. Gray, a white Virginian lawyer but also a slave owner fallen on hard times, who interviewed Turner in jail. Gray asserted his aim was to tease out the motives for the rebellion but he named the act insurrection from the rst page of his pamphlet and his language is loaded with pro-slavery rhetoric. He speaks of diabolical actors in a plot, a ferocious band of remorseless murderers and of Turner as a gloomy fanatic. When Turners voice is rst recorded, he discounts the term insurrection: Sir, you have asked me to give a history of the motives which induced me to undertake the late insurrection, as you call it (my emphasis).37 Despite his actions being framed in Grays terms, Turner authorises his own words; he pleaded not guilty after all. Both he and his aide de camp, Will Francis, were Christians who felt bitterly the scourge of slavery yet, Styrons dissenters complained, F iction and Poetry 117 he made Turner and Francis demented rather than determined. Styrons novel reworked Gray but focuses on the murder of Margaret Whitehead, the only person Turner was known to have slain during the rebellion and includes Freudian dreams in which Turner fantasises about white women, although apart from a homosexual encounter with another slave, Styrons Turner is sexually inexperienced. Styron was attacked for pandering to pernicious racial stereotypes about pathological blacks, while he asserted he had created a psychologically complex individual. The framing of a slaves life in 1831 and again in 1967 by white authors was read as a clear signal of the extent to which black lives remained at the mercy of white assessors in ction as in politics and the Black AntiDefamation Association successfully thwarted attempts to make the novel into a lm in 1968. In interviews Styron made comparisons between the slave revolution he described and Black Panthers like H. Rap Brown and Stokeley Carmichael, who following Martin Luther King Jrs assassination and riots in American cities had called for change by any means necessary; Styrons comments added fuel to the re. The critical impasse has not yet been bridged largely because Styron in the introductory note to the novel professed to have rarely departed from the known facts declaring What there is to know about Nat Turner can be gleaned in a single days reading.38 His detractors marshalled what facts were known against him and the novel remains caught in cultural crossre over revisionist vs culturally conservative histories of slavery that characterised the era. Styron had reviewed white Marxist historian Herbert Apthekers American Negro Slave Revolts (1943) when it was nally published in 1963. Styrons main criticism was that Apthekers thesis in which slave insurrection was a prevalent form of resistance he details some 250 revolts in his study was revisionist and Styron leant on Stanley Elkins Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959) to argue that the totalitarian ideology of slavery infantilised slaves.39 Aptheker was one of few white commentators to African join Americans protesting Styrons image of Turner. The controversy was debated in a forum on The Uses of History in Fiction at the Southern Historical Association conference in November 1968 where Styron observed that facts dont really mean anything and Ralph Ellison retorted: They mean something. Thats why youre in trouble.40 Controversy continues beyond Styrons death in November 2006. In 1999 Tony Horwitz had called for a re-evaluation of the furore that surrounded The Confessions of Nat Turner and Henry Louis Gates Jr and Spike Lee reopened the controversy when plans for a feature lm based on Turner were mooted. However, to date, the only lm about Turner is Charles Burnetts 2003 documentary Nat Turner: A Troublesome Property. James Baldwins refusal to segregate his imagination by entering the minds of white racists in stories such as Going to Meet the Man was, Styron said, an inspiration, but, like Ralph Ellison, Baldwin had warned his friend of the culture wars his portrayal could evoke. Ironically, in This Quiet Dust (1965) Styron had taken for granted that the problem of race and representation 118 American Culture in the 1960s had long since resolved itself into an aesthetic one.41 However, as he discovered in the 1960s, the ideological nexus at which racism and representation coincided was fraught with implications that would continue to matter down the decades. Black nationalist thought coalesced in the Black Arts Movement of which Styron fell foul, as epitomised in anthologies such as Larry Neal and Amiri Barakas Black Fire (1968) which combined a black aesthetic with Beat and Be-Bop culture, or what Baraka summarised later as the attempt to put distance between themselves and the mindless gibberish of square; i.e. the commercial maximum-prot minimum-consciousness values that run the United States.42 It is an aesthetic to which hip-hop returned in the 1990s and to which rappers such as Mos Def have expressed allegiance. In the 1960s and early 1970s, in poetry and stories, slaves historical or ctional were presented as neither benign nor long-suffering. Julian Mayelds Ten Times Black (1972), for example, a collection of short stories dedicated to Sister Angela Davis, includes Barbara Woods The Last Supper, a story set in 1862 in which slave Rosa Lee poisons a white family and slits the throat of the master of the house who abuses her. The controversy over Styrons prize-winning ction was a direct reection of the neo-abolitionist principles that had entered literature and history by the mid-1960s. In Margaret Walkers Reconstructionset novel Jubilee (1966) and Ernest Gaines The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman (1971), former slaves are represented as important ancestors, their stories resonant for the sixties. A largely forgotten but incisive narrative about the ongoing impact of slavery is especially representative: Ronald L. Fairs Many Thousand Gone (1965) subtitled An American Fable. It is the story of a Mississippi county in the 1960s where the clock has stopped and the old way of life has been preserved, the sheriff ensuring that plantation slavery continues unchecked until the oldest slave, Granny, and the elderly slave preacher write to the President. Reecting a very contemporary anxiety, the old folk are as concerned by the rift developing between the generations as by slavocracy itself: The young colored folks are mad down here. The young people say you forgot all about us down here. I say you dont know about us . . . if you dont come down here or send that army down to do something to free my people they is going to kill every white man and every white woman and every white child in Jacobs County.43 When the President sends federal marshals to investigate, they are outwitted by the wily white sheriff and his Fiction and Poetry 119 Figure 3.2 A Study in Black. A display in Memphis State University bookstore photographed by Vernon Matthews, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 29 April 1969. Courtesy the Mississippi Valley Collection. deputies who, supported by the state Governor, lock the marshals in the county jail. It is left to precisely the young black people the older generation is sceptical about to resist the corrupt forces of the law and to set their emancipators free. In the same year that Fair published his fable, Martin Luther King Jr visiting an Alabama plantation was 120 American Culture in the 1960s shocked to discover that sharecroppers had never seen US currency because their commissary still traded only in scrip or credit so they would remain perpetually in debt.44 These were the long shocks of slavery that Richard Wright had described in 12 Million Black Voices (1941) and which endured into the 1960s. In 1964 President Johnson declared war on poverty and in 1965 instituted the Great Society programmes. Johnsons vision of a Great Society was intended to bring about a society of success without squalor, beauty without barrenness, works of genius without the wretchedness of poverty.45 In his internal report The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965), Daniel P. Moynihan, Assistant Secretary for Labor, a conservative pessimist with a liberal belief in the federal governments ability to address social disorder, caused a furore. His report was leaked as the res in Watts, Los Angeles burned with the cynicism of the black poor who had for too long been regarded as an excess population: in the rural South agricultural labourers were replaced by machines and when they moved to northern and western cities, they were regarded as an alien subculture, the black ghetto a problem for which they were responsible rather than the result of de facto segregation. Brian Ward has argued that songs such as Lee Dorseys Workin in a Coalmine or The Impressions Im a Telling You expressed the difculties and disaffection of African American men in the labour market and the symbolic presence of James Brown and Ray Charles lent credence to their effort: Charles struggle against crushing poverty and discrimination, compounded by the fact of his blindness and his personal wrestling with the demons of drugs and alcohol, was the black communitys struggle against disadvantage and prejudice writ large.46 However, in Moynihans Report, a tangle of pathology was presented as the inevitable by-product of black poverty, and single-parent families the major cause of family breakdown, an assumption that would enrage critics. White fear of a black subculture was satirised in Ed Bullins play It Bees That Way (1970), in which black slum-dwellers turn on a white audience, and Toni Cade Bambaras Blues Aint No Mockin Bird (1971) in which lmmakers producing a documentary about the food-stamp programme march into a black familys yard and begin to lm without permission until outwitted by canny grandparents, the grandfather tall and silent like a king.47 Black writers challenged what Stephen Steinberg describes as the stock morality tale in sociological texts about race: In the master narrative of this tale, civic virtue, moral principle, and social ideals are all imperilled by an array of (literally) dark and sinister forces.48 Like Fiction and Poetry 121 Styron, Moynihan returned to Elkins in his thesis and, rather than social deprivation and political neglect, emphasised cultural pathologies. The reports cultural impact would include the blocking of subsequent studies that might have covered similar ground. Like Styron, Moynihan was reviled as a racist, although black militants including Malcolm X also warned that female-headed households demanded a re-assertion of black manhood. Moynihan wrote to a friend, If my head were sticking on a pike at the South West gate to the White House grounds the impression would hardly be greater.49 Creating a sense of the black family whose tragedies are borne if not overcome was salient in forging a countervailing argument as part of what African American historian Lerone Bennett determined in 1970 would need to be an intellectual offensive against the false universality of white concepts whether they are expressed by William Styron or Daniel Patrick Moynihan.50 Dick Gregorys Nigger (1963), for example, is an expos that can be compared in content, though not intricacies of style, to works by Richard Wright and James Baldwin. Gregorys life story is that of a welfare boy and contains the ironic preface, Dear Momma wherever you are, if you ever hear the word nigger again, remember they are advertising my book. The image and memory of his mother frames Gregorys published work; his mother forms the closing image of Callus on My Soul published almost forty years after Nigger: Poor Momma would walk miles in the snow . . . to feed her children. She simply would not give up . . . I understand the calluses on your soul, because now I have my own. 51 The celebration of the resilience of the black mother in the face of poverty and racism is powerful refrain in African American writing in the 1960s. Sarah E. Wrights novel This Childs Gonna Live (1969) may be read as a critique of what Eldridge Cleaver called The Allegory of Black Eunuchs whereby the strong black woman is demonised and love between black men and women reduced to a battle of wills. The Upshur family lives in the shadow of the plantation to borrow Charles S. Johnsons title for his 1934 sociological study.52 Focusing on Moynihans thesis and borrowing from black nationalist discourse, Wrights folk novel is a powerful critique of what African American cultural critic Albert Murray called the fakelore of black pathology.53 At rst, the narrative seems similar to Gwendolyn Brooks long poem In the Mecca (1968) for its focus on a twenty-three-year-old black mothers desperate love for her children. The Upshur children are dying of TB, and suffering from malnutrition, pellagra and hookworm as their mother shucks oysters, digs potatoes, and skins tomatoes in 122 American Culture in the 1960s order to support them. Brooks Sallie Smith, a poor single mother of nine children who works as a domestic, becomes frantic when she discovers a child missing. The residents of the run-down Chicago tenement band together until they nd her murdered. However, Wrights graphic ction also challenges ideas of black deviance and criminality and of matrifocal black families as fatherless. The Kerner Commission had warned in 1968 that despite reforms, white racism ensured the nation was moving inexorably toward two societies, one black, one white separate but unequal. In Wrights novel the black family adapts and survives: mother and father, Mariah and Jacob, end the novel together at the head of an extended family that includes orphans and children born of one or the other parents affairs, as well as their own living children, united in their hopes to break the thrall of poverty and to build up something for the coming of the black nations of the world.54 Rebuttals to Moynihans thesis would continue to be published across disciplines. One of the earliest was sociologist Joyce Ladners Tomorrows Tomorrow (1971) in which she states, the Black community is a product of American social policy, not the cause of it . . . practices of institutional racism [are] designed to create the alleged pathology of the community, to perpetuate the social disorganization model of Black life.55 Ladner, who grew up in rural Mississippi and pursued her study of African American girls in Chicago, derived a sense of family resilience and support from the former and a sense of cautious hope for future generations in the latter. She was followed by cultural anthropologist Carol Stacks study All Our Kin (1974) and historian Herbert Gutmans The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (1976). The coming together of politics in ction or as ction presupposes that individuals live as closely with public facts news and history as personal feelings. In the 1960s the doubling of the political point in slogans such as The personal is political was taken up in writing across the genres. Adrienne Richs poem The Burning of Paper Instead of Children (1968), for example, is inspired by the Catonsville Nine who burned draft les to protest the Vietnam War and the observation that In America we have only the present tense which closes the poem, a pointed reminder that if the ctions of the 1960s and the issues with which they grapple do not continue to exercise readers, their signicance will disappear. Chapter 4 Art and Photography Art historians have mapped a genealogy from Abstract Expressionism as symbolic of free expression during the cold war to the Minimalist movements emphasis on art in real space that continues to dominate critical discussion. Minimalisms decrying of painting as illusion and its emphasis on paring down both its conceptual framework and the artwork to its elemental core began to be evident at the end of the 1950s in Frank Stellas black paintings and Robert Rymans white paintings. The inuence of Abstract Expressionists such as Jackson Pollock would be taken to extremes in radical painting limited to a single colour eld where the canvas itself is textured so that the sole composition in the frame is the effect of brushstrokes or the graininess of the canvas itself. One interpretation was that such art would be impossible to market or commodify and Ad Reinhart used that philosophy to protest the capitalist corruption of the art world as he saw it. Kirk Varnedoe, a former curator of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) delivering his Mellon Lectures in 2003 as a defence of socalled pictures of nothing, argued that the less you have to look at, the more you have to look, the more you have to be in the picture and that one of the valuable things it does more ercely than a lot of other art is to make us think and read what others think.1 The viewers sensibility is the intellectual pivot on which the work may nd place. Roland Barthes essay The Death of the Author published in the US in 1967 followed a structuralist line of critique whereby the creators text is only completed by its audience. At the same time, the spectators central role was, inevitably, ripe for artistic critique: performance artist Bruce Naumann performed without an audience and the physical location of one of Robert Smithsons best known earthworks, Spiral Jetty (1970), ensured that it was inaccessible to viewings. Both artists reconstituted their art in lm and photograph and in written 124 American Culture in the 1960s narratives. The very material of production was challenged as was its ability to transcend the social, through the literality of Warhols objects and the abstraction of Cy Twomblys paintings, often annotated with dates, places or notes, which functioned as formal questions that could derive as easily from architecture as from modernist painting. Tastemakers changed as hybrid forms of art required cultural channels though which to discuss the styles and techniques. Journals, notably Artforum (inaugurated in 1962) and Art in America (1913 ) situated sixties art within critical discourse, publishing some of the most controversial of articles, such as critic Michael Frieds Art and Objecthood and artist Sol LeWitts Paragraphs on Conceptual Art (both in Artforum, June 1967). Artforum kept pace largely because artists and critics held an ongoing conversation in its pages. As one reader and art historian remembers, You read it because it told you what was going on partly because so much of what was going on was not to be seen in the galleries.2 However, the circulation of such journals was inevitably small, emphasising the self-referentiality of art culture. What Artforum and the Smithsonians s Archives of American Art (1965 ) made clear was that the aspiration to break free of art history was a tautology; arts vanguard signalled its own disappearance in Guy Debords thesis of spectacular consumption.3 The most experimental forms and critiques become hardened into new orthodoxies and parodied. Kitsch Day-Glo brightness, for example, an artistic clich of the 1950s, was parodied by artist Philip Guston4 and Pollocks painting Convergence (1952) was manufactured as a 340-piece jigsaw puzzle in 1963. Tastemakers sanctioning of commercial and consumerist reproduction styles as worthy of critical attention might not have been new in the 1960s Duchamp and Dada may easily be cited as precedents5 but it constituted a sea change in the way that art was publicised, debated and monumentalised. The transition from mechanical to electronic culture is central in tracing the cult values of art. Walter Benjamins essay Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936) was translated into English for the rst time and published in the US in 1968. Read alongside Marshall McLuhans work, especially Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1963), the idea of art media extending human sensibility is foregrounded. In his examination of the proliferation of televisual images, McLuhan depicted the viewers relationship to television as tactile and kinetic, as the interplay of the senses, the imagery he chose mirroring descriptions of the individuals response to sculpture and art installations. In Nothing Art and Photography 125 Personal (1964) Richard Avedons photographic image of James Baldwin lying in bed surng the channels with an early remote control adds an ironic footnote.6 It is tempting in a book about American cultural forms to focus on those images that are overtly referential, and to read them as cultural artefacts, set against the ready-made object or Pop Art simulacrum. However, as art critics such as Thomas Crowe, Hal Foster and Kirk Varnedoe have successfully argued, a keen social critique underlies Andy Warhols Death and Disasters series of prints, and Jasper Johns and Cy Twombly may have debunked Abstract Expressionism but they also reworked each of its tenets, with Johns, Varnedoe asserts, at the vanguard of a new counterpoint to abstraction.7 Objects can emote as in Danny Lyons photograph of a Whites Only water fountain next to a broken water bowl for blacks. Robert Rauschenbergs combines of the mid-1950s are an early indication that describing art and photography in the 1960s according to a set of neat oppositions would be entirely spurious. It would be possible to concentrate solely on countercultural values evident in artworks and celebrate an antiestablishment visual revolution paying particular attention to, for example, psychedelic art as it derived from hippie values and expressed changes in musical styles. Album covers of the era epitomise this repeatedly, none more so than The Velvet Underground and Nico (1966); an Andy Warhol banana screen print could be peeled from the album. However, there is a much more promiscuous bank of archival images than such concentrations allow and countercultural values about nature and the environment and the inuences of the anti-war movement infused all kinds of art, from conceptual or process works to earthworks. Most signicantly, the decade saw the democratisation of the visual arts to include an emphasis on public art and performance designed to engage a broad demographic rather than solely an art-educated gallery elite. The Romantic idea of the artist as a cultural outsider, an inspirational bohemian genius, neglected and impoverished, even mad (epitomised by Gaughin and Van Gogh, and in the US context by characters such as action painter Pollock or rebel Guston), would all but disappear in the 1960s as the artists relation to the market improved in material terms.8 Democratisation of the arts involved the inauguration of a series of programmes to foster them, including the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) founded in 1965 and the Art in Public Places Program, established by the NEA in 1967. In 1959 Philadelphia had established its Percent-for-Art programme in order 126 American Culture in the 1960s to explore the interrelationship of art and urban spaces. This oddly named programme derived its name from a new city law whereby one per cent of the total cost of a new public building was put towards art that would illuminate it to best effect. Other cities followed and new and often avant-garde art works commissioned for squares and forecourts and the foyers of buildings began to change the city space though not without controversy. While government-funded grants helped to ensure the expansion of the arts, individual and business enterprise also underwrote the professionalisation of the art market. The Foundation for Contemporary Arts was established by Jasper Johns and John Cage in 1963 and David Rockefeller funded the Business Committee on the Arts in 1967. By Howard Bricks calculation, between 1962 and 1969, 170 municipal arts centres were established in 69 US cities.9 Individual galleries and areas became associated with the entrepreneurial promotion of contemporary artists, Leo Castellis Gallery in New York City and Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, unsurprisingly, gaining most media attention, along with Greenwich Village and Venice Beach in the same cities. Castelli offered many artists their rst solo exhibitions and promoted Warhol and Lichtenstein as New Realists; in turn, he was immortalised by Warhol. Patrons and promoters such as Castelli and Robert and Ethel Scull (also painted by Warhol in Ethel Scull 36 Times) were instrumental in ensuring that the New York scene would remain focal. Virginia Dwan was more unusual in that she succeeded in maintaining a bicoastal inuence with a Dwan Gallery in LA from 1959 and in New York from 1965. The Wadsworth Atheneum, Americas oldest public art museum, founded in 1842, successfully changed with the times and although art museums such as the Charles H. Wright Museum founded in Detroit in 1965 by the eponymous African American entrepreneur had a more difcult task in breaking into art culture, it survived and houses permanent exhibitions of art of the African Diaspora that narrate a cultural legacy. By the end of the decade, cultural workers such as the Art Workers Coalition (AWC) and Women Artists in Revolution (WAR) were campaigning to ensure the diversication of the artists chosen to exhibit in galleries and collected in museums to include women and all ethnic minorities. They also fought to extend the spaces in which art could be accessed beyond the formal settings of galleries and museums to small and informal neighbourhood venues. While the most radical use of space outside of institutional spaces was seen in Land Art, the nexus at which art and politics meet was evident in surprising places. In 1964, Art and Photography 127 for example, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegation to the Democratic Convention in Atlantic City used the boardwalk to display photographs as evidence of racist murders and exhibited a burned-out Ford car as a reminder of the one from which civil rights activists James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman were dragged to their deaths. The Artists Tower of Protest in Los Angeles was the site of protest art by some 418 collaborating artists and dedicated in February 1966 at a ceremony at which Susan Sontag, artist Irving Petlin and a former Green Beret delivered speeches about peace at home and abroad. The tower was protected by young men from Watts. Creative expression was made evident outside the formal process that had traditionally legitimated art as culture. It is impossible nor is it desirable in the context of this study to extricate the visual arts from other cultural forms. Rauschenberg began his career painting Disneys Mickey Mouse for his son; and Andy Warhol made silk screens celebrating Rauschenberg. Musician John Cage wrote essays on artist Jasper Johns and was himself the subject of artwork by Claes Oldenburg and Walter De Maria. Art was seen as the visual equivalent to music, especially jazz styles on which visuals might riff as in Bob Thompsons Gardens of Music (1960). Poet Frank OHara was also curator of MoMA until his death in 1966 and Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton and Allen Ginsberg all produced artwork. William Dembys novel The Catacombs (1965) is a cubist collage studded with allusions to sculptures and art and Bernard Malamuds story Pictures of Fidelman (1968) is based on Oldenburgs conceptual sculpture The Hole or more formally Placid Civic Monument, a grave-shaped hole dug in Central Park on the morning of 1 October 1967 and lled in that afternoon. Gwendolyn Brooks wrote poetry about Chicagos Wall of Respect (1967), a mural at the corner of 43rd Street and Langley designed to celebrate African American heritage and cultural resilience. Artist Joe Overstreet designed the sets for Amiri Barakas The Dutchman for its rst staging in Harlem and collaborated with writer Ishmael Reed. Artists were also lmmakers, not only Warhol but also Oldenburg, lming their artwork or reactions to it as well as using lm as art, as the graphic designer Saul Bass did in the credit sequence that opens the movie Psycho (1960). Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke chose to open 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) with the image of a monolith based on John McCrackens Minimalist sculpture Blue Column of 1967.10 This chapter bears such cultural crossovers in mind as it considers the signicance of art and photography in the 1960s while maintaining 128 American Culture in the 1960s an emphasis on the photographer in particular as a witness to history. Realism and trauma made photo-journalism a very signicant form in the communication of struggles for civil rights and against poverty and in bringing images of wars fought abroad back home. Other and sometimes contradictory trends and nuances are explored for the extent to which they represent the heterogeneity of US art in the 1960s. Of those critics who succeeded in popularising critical debates, Susan Sontag sought to dene the new sensibility. Susan Sontag: Self and Sensibility Susan Sontag had the courage of her aesthetic convictions, adding a scholarly gravitas to any and all subjects. Like Simone de Beauvoir, she cited the character Jo March in Louisa May Alcotts Little Women (1869) as an inuence and like de Beauvoir, she would personify Platonic, Socratic and also erotic responses to contemporary culture. She was described as the intellectuals darling at the time and it has been argued since that Sontag brought a certain histrionic (i.e. Parisian) quality into American intellectual culture that one critic calls position-taking as existential drama.11 The same quality would be cited by Griel Marcus in The Dustbin of History (1995) as evidence of her inability to celebrate quintessentially American culture and even described as anti-American. For her critics, Sontag was never less than controversial and often elliptical. To begin with Sontags critical position could be read as an extension of the New York Intellectuals but it soon became a reaction to them. Just at the moment that they feared the end of classic modernism, she advanced a thesis in which high and low art required no such distinction. Her kind of adversarial cultural engagement which began in 1961 would probably have been noticed in any decade of American culture. It is therefore possible to compare her to other modernist innovators whatever their politics. Her Notes on Camp initially published in Partisan Review in 1964 was her version of Ezra Pounds modernist slogan Make It New or Gertrude Steins essays. Many things in the world have not been named; and many things, even if they have been named, have never been described, Sontag writes, recalling Steins Tender Buttons (1914).12 Even if a Camp aesthetic was already being explored by others in art and criticism, she situated herself as breaking new ground. Sontag would advance the theory that Being-as-Playing-a-Role or the metaphor of life as theatre was Camp and that Camp was the consistently aesthetic experience of the world. Any attempt to distil an age is subject to catechresis but that was precisely Sontags point. She emphasised eclecticism, and her own and the cultures style embodied its critique, as made manifest in her declaration that the very nature of thinking is but, an idea that is reminiscent of philosopher Hannah Arendts A rt and Photography 129 metaphor of thinking without banisters; Arendt would praise Sontags rst novel The Benefactor (1963).13 Sontag set out to dene a new cultural sensibility that she saw in sixties cultural crossovers, the same radicalism of style that characterised the performance politics of the new social movements as it infused art and photography. She compared a Rauschenberg painting to a song by the Supremes and stated that a Jasper Johns painting was accessible in the way of a Beatles record. Her essays in Against Interpretation (1966), written between 1961 and 1965, including On Style (1965) and One Culture and the New Sensibility (1965), are inuenced by McLuhans idea that the model arts of our time are the cooler arts of less content. Contrasting McLuhan with Matthew Arnolds idea of culture, she argues that the new sixties sensibility understands art as an extension of life. Sontag may be read as preguring later studies such as Debord or Baudrillards ideas of simulation and reproduction. Her own style is variously described as spare, modernist and Puritan, her voice as either passive or dominating; Sontag maddened some critics who thought her snippy and elitist but the superlatives far outweighed the cant. She is celebrated by Craig Seligman, for example, as a prototype of the intellectual for the reading public of the 1960s, a scout bringing back news from territories we would all (she was sure) eventually visit.14 Her willingness to deal with alternative cultural contexts is evident in her trip to Hanoi in 1968 and throughout her discussion of politically seductive images of the Vietcong, or of Cuba, as in her Introduction to Dugald Stermers study of poster art, The Art of Revolution (1970). When considering hortatory prose elsewhere in this book it has been possible to read elements of such cultural criticism as autobiography or at least as self-presentation and self-scrutiny. Sontag is ostensibly harder to nd in her work. She was a cultural analyst and an art critic but her scholarly elitism also contributed to her intellectual struggle with fame, in contrast to Norman Mailer or Pauline Kael. Even in her most autobiographical writings in early journals, she is analytical about the egotistical self, as when she notes that it is supercial to understand the journal as just a receptacle for ones private, secret thoughts like a condante who is deaf, dumb and illiterate. In the journal I do not just express myself more openly than I could to any person; I create myself. For Sontag writing was a vehicle for my sense of selfhood.15 She attempted to hold herself above the trappings of mass cultural celebrity while simultaneously irting with the cultural connotations of fame. She did a screen test for Andy Warhol in 1964, was photographed by Vogue, Vanity Fair and by Diane Arbus for Esquire in 1965, and later appeared in Woody Allens movie Zelig (1983), providing intellectual commentary on his shape-shifting protagonist. Visually iconic, especially as a result of the white streak that shot through her dark hair, in her nal years her private life was photographed by partner Annie Leibovitz. That Sontag kept her sexuality out of the sixties limelight may be read as a signicant comment on the fear that the complex persona she had cultivated might be seen to be unlocked or explained away by reference to her lesbianism. 130 American Culture in the 1960s Her quest to understand the ethical quandary involved in viewing images that shock or appal exercised her from early essays such her study of pornography in Styles of Radical Will (1969) to On Photography (1977), and Regarding the Pain of Others (2003). Her idea of photographs as memento mori revealing the subjects mortality and mutability underpins many critical studies and while Sontag felt that photographic images always require their story to be provided as written text, examples discussed below indicate that this is not inevitable. Sontag contributed much to ongoing debates about representation, narrative and authenticity. In the 1960s art and design became audacious as artists and critics including Sontag endeavoured to break the cultural hierarchies according to which the popular in popular culture had been distinguished from art. This intellectual endeavour may be compared to the evolving mode of the postmodern in the critical production of ction, in the work of writers such as Robert Coover and Donald Barthelme, whereby reality was contingent, meaning contested, and what Debord called the commodity society became a source of imaginative critique. The shift from a modernist aesthetic and the sixties reaction against what was perceived as Abstract Expressionisms antinomian individualism is explored in John Updikes novel Seek My Face (2002) in which the elderly former wife of two famous artists, the rst based on Pollock and the second a composite of Pop artists, is interviewed over a single day in 2001 and her memories map the shifts in midtwentieth-century US art. In The Society of the Spectacle (1968), Debord declared that our time prefers the image to the thing, the copy to the original, fancy to reality . . . appearance to essence.16 While Debords context was primarily the Situationists in France, his assertion echoes Sontags Camp which is equally descriptive of the image as artists such as Warhol, a successful commercial artist with a moralists eye, sought to project it, as mediated by capitalism and as mechanised by production dematerialised, to borrow Lucy Lippards term. Pop Art was a movement that posited with exuberance that there was beauty to be found in everyday objects that had been thought of as the crass excreta of the Eisenhower Age.17 The term originally found its cultural provenance in the UK where Lawrence Alloway celebrated work by Richard Hamilton and because, as Thomas Crowe summarises, American artists were slow to capitalise on their own vernacular culture of advertising, lm and mass consumer production.18 Pop Art and Op Art the latter initiated by British artist Bridget Riley in 1964, deriving from Art and Photography 131 Figure 4.1 Andy Warhol in 1968. The Kobal Collection. modernist works in which optical intensity was achieved through repeated geometrical shapes were quickly adapted to consumerist clich, especially in fashion where Op Art patterns were reproduced on dresses and kitchenware. Irony of a different colour and texture can be seen in the work of nun Sister Mary Corita (Frances Elizabeth Kent) for whom the silk screen with which Warhol had become associated proved to be a liberating form. Her enriched bread (1965) plays on the ironically if ubiquitously named Wonder Bread and its packaging in order to represent the holy sacrament of communion. Soup cans, cereal packets, pink cows or, much more disturbingly, images of statesanctioned violence from police brutality in Birmingham, Alabama to the atom bomb and the electric chair, were reproduced seemingly ad innitum so that Barthes could argue that nothing is more identiable than [Warhols] Marilyn, the electric chair, a telegram or a dress as seen by pop art.19 Pop artists were bricoleurs. They relocated signicant cultural objects already understood within social discourse in different contexts to create a new message in an altered discourse, as Roland Barthes explained in relation to a photograph of J. F. Kennedy praying in 1960 or Caryl Chessmans cell door prior to his execution in 1960 as it contributed to a movement to ban capital punishment.20 Like Elvis and Dylan, discussed in Chapter 1, Warhol changed direction in ways that animated his art; building on the aesthetics of danger and death, he produced some of his most powerful images of American society. His 132 American Culture in the 1960s art also exhibited a queer aestheticism hidden by the art world even at the height of his fame. As Sontag veiled her sexuality, the queerness infusing Warhols Camp artistry was largely hidden, even in Alice Neels uncompromising portrait of Warhol of 1970. His torso is naked and disguring scars from Valerie Solanas assassination attempt are visible, as is the corset he wore to combat some of the effects of the shooting. His eyes are closed. Even in this most naked of portraits, by a self-proclaimed collector of souls who gloried in sexual and political expos, much is hidden even as much is revealed. What is American about US Art? The South and the West Museums from MoMA to the Whitney and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art have asked the question in their exhibition titles What is American about US art? Critics repeatedly grapple with the same: Maurice Tuchman emphasised the anti-traditional as peculiarly American in American Sculpture of the Sixties (1967) and Donald Judd hoped that his identical plexiglass boxes would help put an end to European inuences on an anti-accommodationist American art. Cross-generational debates shed light on areas of tension in art, such as the symposium The Black Artist in America (1969) during which Romare Bearden and Tom Lloyd clashed over whether there is a cultural form called Black Art and over the need for a separate black aesthetic.21 When we examine politically charged interventionist artworks and seek to use them as cultural markers, it is important to recall that prescient art and photographic works are sometimes also lost or neglected pieces, or were created by amateurs or came about incidentally. Wally Hedriks crumpled American ag vandalised by the word Peace (1953) is a reminder that sixties dissenters were neither new nor young; his 1959 painting Madame Nhus Bar-B-Q is also explicit in its critique of US support of a corrupt regime in Vietnam. Prescient artworks may also make visible what federal, state or municipal authorities might prefer hidden, as in Ron Haeberles secretly shot photographs of the My Lai massacre, or the artistic turn towards the avant-garde that Los Angeles civic authorities fought to suppress through the 1950s and into the 1960s. Photographer Matt Heron feared that the work of the Southern Documentary Project recording southern culture in the 1960s had been lost until Black Star returned some six thousand negatives shot by photographers including Danny Lyon that had been unused, unsold and unutilized for twenty-ve years.22 Art and Photography 133 Photographs may be representative of American culture in the 1960s but not necessarily as art. On 14 October 1962 a U2 spy plane took photographs of Soviet missiles in Cuba and brought the US to the brink of war. The ying cameras could function from 70,000 feet and shoot miles of lm but photographic interpreters within the intelligence services were required to authenticate the images. The CIA deemed them sufciently reliable for President Kennedy to order the blockade of Cuba and for the United Nations to organise the televised hearing in which the USSR was questioned about agreement with Castro to site nuclear missiles on Cuba, only 90 miles off the coast of Florida. The Super-8 lm shot by Abraham Zapruder is noted in Chapter 2 but once the rights were secured by Life it was turned into still photography, rst published in 1963 in small black-and-white frames to offset charges of Life sensationalising Kennedys murder. However, the images appeared in a large colour display on 25 November 1966 to coincide with the Warren Commission report that included Zapruders lm in its review of forensic evidence. Photographs may be art precisely because they form the sole record of another ephemeral artwork, such as Oldenburgs Hole, Dennis Oppenheims snow projects of 1968 or Robert Barrys wire installations of 1969. Art was transient rather than kinetic and artworks a metaphor for the precariousness of life. In 2004, for instance, John Rockwell asked Preserve Performance Art? Can You Preserve the Wind?23 Art critic Lucy R. Lippards Six Years (1973) takes the form of the art it records; a postmodern collage of conceptual art over six years in the art objects dematerialisation. Artworks are sometimes also works of the imagination only; if never completed by the artist, it is their conception of American culture that is revealing, as in Diane Arbus idea for a Family Album, or the book that would have been scholar and curator Kirk Varnedoes critical assessment of the inuence of Southern-born artists on American art, still in planning on his death in 2003. As far as it may be understood, Varnedoes project sought to inject a regional cross-current into the history of American art that Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg had centred on the East Coast and in Manhattan most particularly. His book would have contributed signicantly to a reappraisal of the regional as it helps dene the national and addressed regional disaffection and dissidence as it informs national culture. Nancy Marmer, for example, exploring Californian Pop Art, notes the separate but equal positions taken by West Coast practitioners of the style.24 Despite gures such as 134 American Culture in the 1960s Edward Kienholz and Ed Ruscha whose work was prototypically Pop Art, critics and artists in the West often saw themselves as members of artistic sub-cultures, even though this was the decade in which the West Coast art scene came to national prominence. Marmer notes that by 1966 Pop Art functioned as an opening wedge through which new forms could enter, such as assemblage, junk art and the nish-fetish style that honed industrial techniques.25 The West was asserting radical new forms. The journal Artforum founded in San Francisco in 1962 remained located in the West until 1967 when it moved its base to New York. It would initially foreground art in the West; in fact, its original editor had planned to call the journal Art West in recognition of the sensibility of a beleaguered art community, so far away from New Yorks metropolitan centre. Roy Lichtensteins Masterpiece (1962) is a stark satire of this sensibility. The speech bubble reads, Why, Brad darling, this painting is a MASTERPIECE! My, soon youll have all of NEW YORK clamoring for your work! The canvas disappearing off the edge of the frame is unseen, the viewer discerning no more than a white border over which the New York art world might clamour. In the South, most particularly, the beleaguered sense of regional curse was so acute that even as recently as 2005 Hal Crowther discussing the Ogden Museum of Southern Art in New Orleans could opine that Art news is no news unless New York notices.26 Cy Twombly may be taken as a case study of what Varnedoes study might have begun to elucidate: a Southern-born US artist he has remained outside New York for most of his career and is readily associated with Europe since moving to Rome in 1957, via his Roman Paintings of the early 1960s, and on through to his Golden Lion at the Venice Biennale in 2003. While his Southern-ness seems to matter to art critics, it is rarely analysed as an inuence. Simon Schama writes of the courtly gracefulness of the Virginian translated to Italy only to smash any hint of the neo-classical in his argument that this quintessentially American artist succeeded in tearing a strip off the tendency of abstract painting to its own monumentalism.27 Jonathan Jones, celebrating Twombly as the last great American artist, implies one reason for neglect of the mythology of place as a critical inuence on the work but without actually arguing the case. He asserts that the artists passion is the past: He was born in the Old South where history throttles the present like weeds overgrowing a plantation house. He also notes that Twombly was born in Stonewall Jackson hospital in Lexington, Virginia. Immediately afterwards, though, he states that the US that emerged out of the Civil War tells its history as progress and that Art and Photography 135 includes the history of art. To locate Twombly as signicant in the history of American art since the Civil War, or as representative of the new American art of the 1950s and 1960s, is to push his passion for the Southern past to the background or to elide it. Jones compares Pollock to Virginia-based Edgar Allen Poe and, by extension, likens his abstract paintings to those Roderick Usher paints in Poes short story The Fall of the House of Usher (1840). He situates Twombly as Pollocks heir precisely for the gothic qualities he believes form part of a tragic and pessimistic Southern story but he goes no further in elucidating it.28 To see this story as a narrative inuence both on Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism in art of the era would be to explore ideas of southern gothic excess and heightened personal and site-specic memory as it ows into US art. Kirk Varnedoe was born in Savannah, Georgia and his university study of modern art took place between 1963 and 1972. To read the signicance of the South in the work of Southernborn painters Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg and Cy Twombly (Varnedoes primary subjects) would have presumably returned to the signicance of Black Mountain College in Asheville, North Carolina as the nations most progressive and experimental art centre, which despite its close in 1957, had already launched the key avant-garde gures of the 1960s. A glance across the teachers and students at Black Mountain reveals the interdisciplinary cultural forces that came together there and John Cage recalled that before their friendship foundered in 1961, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauchenberg, both former students, were referred to as the Southern Renaissance.29 Outside of Black Mountain, individual southern artists who were initially outsiders to the New York City scene would also make their mark upon it. The saxophonist turned painter Tennessean Robert Ryman was marginal insofar as he worked at the edges of the New York art scene as a guard at the Museum of Modern Art and as a self-taught artist in an era when most were academically trained. But his highly textured canvases, such as his white paintings of 1957 to 1964, would inuence painters at the centre of 1960s visual arts, from Reinhardt to Rothko. Francis Frascina and Suzaan Boettger have contributed much to the study of West Coast art. Frascina notes the idea raised in the Introduction to this book: that US regions enjoy a cultural history of non-conforming to national ideals. His study of Los Angeles foregrounds those elements of sixties visual culture that are countercultural in expression such as 66 Signs of Neon (1966) built by Noah Purifoy and Judson Powell out of found objects after the Watts 136 American Culture in the 1960s disturbances. For Judy Baca the Chicana artist, the city is central to her vision of ethnic diversity. The Great Wall of LA, a mural painted inside the Tujunga drainage canal and created between 1978 and 1983, includes signicant sections on community organising by ethnic minorities that was a salient feature of social networks put in place in the 1960s. Suzaan Boettger argues for the exuberant brashness of West coast Funk Art as compared to a more aestheticised East Coast Minimalism.30 She also examines earth sculptures of the late 1960s. The latter were not entirely new: Frederick Law Olmstead in the 1850s may be cited as a key precedent and Rauschenbergs Nature Paintings and Dirt Paintings for John Cage could be read as part of Marcuses Great Refusal as it began to inform Land Art. Sublime Western landscapes inspired pioneering radical ventures, from The Sierra Club founded in California in 1892 to the Wilderness Act (1964), designed to preserve landscape as symbolic of the national character. The earthworks that engaged with that landscape may be read as quintessentially American because of the frontiers signicance as history and myth, and for their engagement with American intellectual culture from the Puritans through Emerson and Thoreau and their non-conformity of style, scale and execution. The rise of the environmental movement, explored in Chapter 5, coincided with the proliferation of earthworks that represent the consciousness of America in trauma by the 1960s.31 West Coast-based artists sympathetic to the environmental and anti-war movements, including Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer and Robert Smithson, contended with ideas of violence and destruction, reclamation and regeneration. The Nature vs Civilisation dichotomy was reconceptualised on a new artistic frontier. By 1970 Smithson would declare, Theres no going back to Paradise or nineteenth-century landscape which is basically what the conservationist attitude is.32 The quiet pastoral heritage Leo Marx examined in The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (1964) was giving way to an active protectionist environmentalism. Smithson worked with industry, including mining and engineering companies, to reclaim land for sculpture, and also produced art of environmental catastrophe such as Tar Pool and Gravel Pit (1966). By the 1970s earthworks would to a great extent be absorbed into the American mainstream, even institutionalised, as Suzaan Boettger claims, as Land Art.33 They would inform national monuments such as Maya Lins Vietnam Memorial which recalls 1960s earthworks in its conceptualisation of a gaping wound in the earth. A rt and Photography 137 Nothing Personal? Sixties Portraiture and The American Family In 1964 fashion photographer Richard Avedon and James Baldwin collaborated on a photo-essay collection called Nothing Personal intended to portray the heart, mind and soul of a troubled nation by combining pitiless portraits of iconic Americans with a biting if elliptical commentary. The collection was never reprinted and was panned by contemporary reviewers like Time who famously asserted that Avedons camera was a crueler instrument of distortion than any caricaturists pencil. The images may be compared to Diane Arbus portraits from her earliest shots of New Yorkers in Esquire (1960) which included a nameless corpse in the citys morgue. Portraiture in whatever form it takes, from Avedon and Arbus to Johns, Lichenstein and Warhol, is often stark; idolatry, crucial in mythologising the era, and the Romantic fascination with the individual is both evident and exploded. American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell recognised the importance of portrait photographs when he commissioned Presidential portrait experts Harris & Ewing. Eve Arnolds candid but sympathetic portraits of celebrities contrast markedly with Richard Galellas invasive paparazzo-style shots. By the 1970s, Jackie Kennedy would take out an injunction against Galella for stalking her for pictures. Jackie Kennedy credited fashion photographer Mark Shaw with becoming her family photographer for the images he took of Kennedys Camelot in the run-up to the 1960 election, including Kennedys favourite picture which seems an unlikely snapshot of the senator walking off into the sand dunes at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. Looks four-day photographic binge entitled The President and His Son was taken a short time before Kennedys assassination. Stanley Treticks photographs begin with three-year-old John-John watching the helicopter that brings his father home and Laura Berquists prose follows the images to narrate a typical day rocking in Lincolns chair, clambering on to the table in the Cabinet Room: A boy is absolutely not allowed to yell Gromyko! to get daddys attention.34 No mention is made of the Presidents death; instead a perfect picturing of the fatherson bond acts as an elegy. However, Life would feature Bill Eppridges expos of white middle-class husband and wife John and Karen, heroin addicts, in February 1965. It featured shots of him shooting up and her prostituting and pushing drugs, their private life an expos of the nations underside. Diane Arbus called a project of 1968 Family Album. It would combine commissioned portraits with the images with which she is most famously aligned the bizarre, uncanny and even frightening subjects of her uninching gaze, some of which were collected in the exhibition Untitled in 19701. Arbus found the strange and grotesque in the American family but did not publish her subjects under such a loaded descriptor. A very different dystopian variation on the family theme is apparent in Lee Friedlanders ironic photographs of television sets in family homes around the country (Philadelphia in 1960, Washington DC in 1962 and Florida in 138 American Culture in the 1960s 1963) which forced viewers to confront the human subject on the screen in distorting and even frightening close-ups that seem to render the television itself an alien interloper at the heart of American family life. Finding ones way onto a magazine cover may be read as a measure of popular cultural credence but Carl Fischers photographs on the cover of Esquire magazine blasted conventions time and again. His Christmas 1963 cover featured heavyweight boxer Sonny Liston, whose association with organised crime had just broken in the news, in a red-and-white Santa hat (Had me enough of this mother-fuckin crap). It is reported that it cost the magazine around $750,000 in lost advertising.35 Nevertheless, managing editor Harold Hayes and art director George Lois continued to collaborate on some of the most controversial images of the decade. Fischer photographed Muhammad Ali in 1967, while protesting his vilication as a draft dodger and the stripping of his championship title, as St Sebastian, based on Casagnos famous painting. His body pierced with arrows, Fischer created an iconic image of Ali as martyr to his own image and to the nations need for scapegoats.36 More comically, he featured Andy Warhol drowning in a can of the Campbells soup he reputedly ate every day for lunch as well as commemorating it in Pop Art.37 Self-portraits could take surprising if revealing shapes, as in Jasper Johns emblem of the Savarin coffee can lled with paint brushes that he used as a signier of himself, and Rauschenbergs Autobiography (1968) which includes the text Began silk screen paintings to escape familiarity of objects and collage as a signal that art and biography are inextricable for the artist. Avedon discussed his portraits in 1959 in ways that pregure Nothing Personal and illuminate his juxtaposition of 1960s celebrity gures such as Truman Capote and Andy Warhol with the marginalised citizens who drift at the liminal edges of US culture. He conded in Capote that Sometimes I think all my pictures are just pictures of me . . . the human predicament may be simply my own.38 In Photo Veritas: Photographers as Cultural Shock Troops At the beginning of the decade photography remained marginal in status in critical discourse. But as the photo-journalism in Life magazine (explored in the Introduction) and exhibitions such as the Whitney Museum of American Arts Evidence of Impact: Art and Photography 19631978 demonstrate, by 1977 Susan Sontag could go so far as to argue that all art aspires to the condition of photography insofar as it is an aesthetic form that turns all subjects into art.39 The cameras propensity for disclosing reality to be an aesthetic form was central to sixties culture, uncovering what might otherwise remain unnoticed, whether so familiar as to be passed over or too extraordinary to be believed. Soon-to-be-actor Dennis Hoppers beautifully Art and Photography 139 staged and laconic Double Standard (1961) incorporates Standard Oil as represented in a petrol stations sign viewed through a car window whose rear-view mirror reects trafc waiting to cross a junction. Such images would be explored as a clich and made into art-photography by the myth-maker of LA Ed Ruscha in Twenty-six Gasoline Stations (1962). The extraordinary could be seen in Fritz Goros scientic photo-essays in Life such as his exploration of a pre-natal foetus (10 September 1965). William Anders photograph Earthrise taken on 25 December 1961 came about accidentally insofar as he was photographing possible lunar landing sites as Apollo 8 orbited the moon but his image of earth as viewed from the moon and reproduced in Life was iconoclastic. For the rst time earth was seen from another world. Among the shock troops dealing very much with the world as it was were civil rights photographers Ernest Withers, Charles Moore, Danny Lyon and others who aimed to captured the quotidian as well as the extraordinary movement event and to bring them together as news. Withers had begun covering the civil rights beat in the late 1940s and would photograph its end in the iconic images of the Memphis sanitation workers strike that brought King to the city where he met his death. Images of the Movement are imprinted in collective memory, from the news footage in which water cannons and police dogs were turned on children in Birmingham in 1963 and non-violent demonstrators beaten by club-wielding Alabama state troopers during the 1965 Bloody Sunday attacks in Selma, to James Meredith, shot at during his March Against Fear in 1966. Photographing such events was both deant and dangerous. Alabamaborn Vernon Merritt, a staff photographer for Life, describes Sheriff Jim Clark assaulting him: I had a couple of Nikons around my neck, and he snatched them off and whacked me with a cattle prod. I was shocked a few times and hit a couple of times and then thrown out [of a bus] on to the street. I wound up in jail.40 Tom Langston of the Birmingham Post-Herald was attacked along with Freedom Riders on 14 May 1961 but not before photographing the beating of James Peck that almost killed him, while Danny Lyon took a shocking photograph of SNNC photographer Clifford Vaughs almost literally pulled apart by police arresting him for taking pictures of a 1964 demonstration in Cambridge, Maryland. Sontag argued that even those photographs that shock and emote are not much here if the task is to understand because narratives are what provoke understanding.41 In fact, the most cataclysmic clashes were often the most quotidian, narrating the ashpoints of the sixties, 140 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 4.2 Vietnam Victory Parade, 13 June 1970, Sam Melhorn for Memphis Commercial Appeal. Courtesy the Mississippi Valley Collection. as in the image that Sam Melhorn, staff photographer for the Commercial Appeal, captures of a Vietnam Victory Parade marching through downtown Memphis as anti-war protestors march alongside (see Figure 4.2). While the pro-war or pro-victory demonstrators outnumber the protestors, the placards the protestors carry are by far the most prominent in the photographers frame. Similarly, Garry Winogrands visual skit in a 1967 photograph of an interracial couple carrying pet monkeys is simultaneously a narrative and a critique of US race relations while Howie Epsteins photograph of Nixons inauguration ceremony in 1969, a ghostly black-and-white shot of spectators wearing Nixon masks, is an apocalyptic pantomime of the election story. On other occasions, the precise context is the meaning, as in Ernest Withers shots of the Staple Singers standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel mourning Dr King, surrounded by wreaths, and his photograph of a tearful Aretha Franklin with Coretta Scott King beside her at the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) Convention Club in Memphis. The musicians Withers usually photographed in the act of performing are still, shocked and muted by Kings death. Art and Photography 141 In the documentary Hearts and Minds (1975), a Vietnamese cofnmaker, who has lost seven children himself, makes between 700 and 800 cofns a week, and when interviewed is planing cofns that will contain poisoned children. While pictures of death are seemingly ubiquitous in war, artists found many ways of focusing the spectators attention. On 27 June 1969 Life carried 242 photographs, a portraitby-portrait reproduction of One Weeks Dead in Vietnam. Men in uniform, or in college year books, smiled at readers and their ghosts brought home that US casualties in the war were approaching 37,000. However, when Robert Hughes went to live and work in the US in 1970 and became art critic for Time, he bemoaned the dearth of images of the war: Here was America, riven to the point of utter desolation over the most bitterly resented conict it had embarked on since the Civil War. Vietnam was tearing the country apart, and where was the art that recorded Americas anguish?42 He does single out Leon Golub as an honourable exception to a general rule; Golubs studies Napalm I, II and III (1969) would be followed by Vietnam II in 1973. But the lack of an art of anguish that Hughes observed is revealing. It is at once an omission of painters who were not yet vogue and indeed of anguish associated with other facets of US culture aside from war and a recognition that the photographic arts rather than the painting or sculpture that was Hughes primary subject were in the foreground when picturing death. African American artist Joe Overstreet is overlooked although he successfully combined abstract techniques with protest politics, as in his critique of the practice of lynching, Strange Fruit (1965), and most expressively in Robert Hughes context, of the Vietnam War in Agent Orange (1967). News services ensured that photo-journalists would be at the forefront of the art of anguish. It is estimated that 135 photographers died while covering the wars in Vietnam and Indochina, beginning with Dickey Chappelle in 1965, one of the few women photojournalists and who had arrived in Southeast Asia as early as 1961. Roger Mattinglys photographic portrait of Larry Burrows on the Laotian border in the days before Burrows was killed in a helicopter crash along with fellow photographer Henri Huet depicts him as warweary, aged by the proximity to death. The helicopter would prove a central image in Vietnam photography. Fredric Jameson argues that it invokes the essential motion of the war and Vietnam ctions such as Joseph McElroys Lookout Cartridge (1974) and Stephen Wrights Meditations in Green (1983) engage in postmodernist fashion with the role and responsibility of the 142 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 4.3 US Army helicopters providing support for US ground troops y into a staging area fty miles northeast of Saigon, Vietnam, 1966. Henri Huet /AP Photos. Courtesy PA Photos. photographer.43 Any understanding of combat photography owes much to past masters such a Matthew Brady during the American Civil War and Robert Capa in the Second World War but the photo-essay and televised footage came together as never before and while explorations of Vietnam as the rst television war are ubiquitous in studies of the 1960s,44 still photography was, I would argue, far more effective in ensuring a war story would be told and its salient images memorised. Larry Burrows had begun shooting images of the war in Vietnam in 1962 after having covered crises from Suez to Cyprus. He was a British citizen whose identity may have allowed him a certain detachment from debates about the rightness of US intervention but he described himself as something of a hawk to begin with. He had worked with Life since the age of 17 and was therefore enfolded into that magazines middle-American ethos. Free from the adherence to deadlines that characterised TVs breaking news, however, he was able to explore the war as a correspondent, and his changing relationship to Vietnam may be read as shadowing the nations. The photograph sometimes called Reaching Out and alternatively referred to as Purdie after the gunnery sergeant at its centre was taken on 5 October 1966 during the battle of Mutter Ridge but was not viewed by the public until 1971. This image for which Burrows would become best known Art and Photography 143 posthumously was one Life had never previously selected for publication. The shot is of some ten or so soldiers caught in chaos in the midst of a bombardment. One casualty lies in the mud and another Purdie with a bandage around his head is reaching out to him. In 1971, located among the images selected for Lifes elegy for Burrows, it could be read as symbolic of his own and Lifes recognition that in this thwarted piet of black and white American wounded lies the visual epitome of a tragic, twisted and unwinnable war. Pictures of war drill deep into the USs democratic ideals of self and nationhood, as in Philip Jones Grifths Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam (2004) which photographs the grandchildren of Vietnamese people exposed to Agent Orange to uncover the legacy of 1960s chemical warfare. That expos began with William F. Peppers The Children of Vietnam published in Ramparts Magazine (1967), with a preface by the long-acknowledged cultural expert on American childhood, and anti-war protestor, Dr Benjamin Spock. It has been cited as the trigger for Dr Kings public denouncement of the war. The devastating effects of carpet-bombing and chemical warfare on the Vietnamese were rst captured by Magnum photographer Grifths in Vietnam Inc. which was ground-breaking in 1971. It was published just as the Pentagon Papers leaked to the New York Times the extent of the USs military commitment in Vietnam and the governments deception of the nation over the depth it had reached in the quagmire. Where Burrows steadily came to despise the effects of war, Grifths exhibited no reservations: alongside victims of napalm, he includes women waiting on an army base for soldiers to pay for sex and a picture of a married soldier sexually taunting a young Vietnamese woman as another soldier encourages him.45 In a milieu of burgeoning criticism over the war, Grifths juxtaposed a blurred image of Vietnam war hero George S. Patton who, Grifths caption reports, carried a skull around as a gruesome souvenir, with a clear picture of a Vietnamese mothers desperate weeping over the grave of her son. The paired photographs give the lie to the safety of the strategic hamlet and question the commander whose soldier father was immortalised in President Nixons favourite lm: Patton (1970). A similar juxtaposition occurs in a single image of a meditative soldier standing over a Vietnamese woman and child, who Grifths reports are shortly to be killed by GI artillery re.46 Even the most banal images are contextualised with a sharp and sometimes scathing irony: a river of garbage that Grifths explains would not exist without the Americans and a child being bathed by a GI before an audience of women: 144 American Culture in the 1960s Every American seemed quite convinced the people were somehow unhygienic. On the other hand, the Vietnamese who found it necessary to bathe three times a day could never understand why Americans restricted themselves to once-daily washing. The marine was demonstrating to bored mothers how to bathe a child. One mother realised the marine was using her vegetable dish to stand the boy in and . . . grabbed the dish and strode off, cursing such disregard for the basics of cleanliness.47 Grifths uses captions forcefully; the dehumanising forces at work in war are highlighted in each visceral image. Notably, there is one image he fails to include as pictorial evidence of the horrors of war but alludes to only in written text: the sight of a father, convulsed with tears, retching in the gutter, clasping the money hes just earned for spending half an hour in an Americans hotel room.48 At home one of the most tragic images of the era was taken in 1970 at Kent State University when the Ohio national guard shot dead four students. Its precursor is less well known. Nacio Jan Brown captured an anxious police ofcer, night stick in hand, looking into the camera as he crouches over a bludgeoned student whose eyes stare out of a bloodstreaked face. Ronald Reagans infamous comment on student demonstrations at San Francisco State College in 1968, If it takes a bloodbath, lets get it over with. No more appeasement, is a tting caption.49 Student John Filo was one of few photographers on Kent State campus two years later when chaos erupted. The iconic image the amateur took of the dead body of Jeffrey Miller, a girl kneeling over him, her agonised face caught mid-scream and her arms wide in a gesture of tragic hopelessness, won a Pulitzer Prize and became a poster called The Cost of Freedom. President Nixons comments on the tragedy echoed Reagans when he asserted bums is perhaps too kind a word to be applied to students who burn buildings . . . terrorise other students and terrorise faculty. Dean Kahler, shot and paralysed on the day he was curious to see his rst student demonstration, describes waking up in hospital to receive letters including one which read, Dear communist hippie radical, Hope by the time you read this, youre dead.50 Honouring the dead in artistic terms remained controversial throughout the era not least because of assassinations of actual or putative political leaders. Oldenburgs idea for a memorial called Kennedy Tomb which would have been a metal casting of Kennedy based on the Statue of Liberty was never made.51 In 1971 Leonard Bernstein would throw himself into a commission from Jackie Kennedy to Art and Photography 145 inaugurate the already controversial Kennedy Center and compose his most controversial piece of music, a requiem called Mass which shocked some members of the Catholic Church into banning its performance. A hectic, cacophonous, multi-faith explosion of sound overwhelms the Simple Song of the lone celebrant whose faith is tested at each phase of Bernsteins composition. The artistic depiction of death and assassination tested the shifting boundaries of taste in each genre, as with Carl Fischers Three Assassinations (1968) which graced the cover of Esquire magazine and in which the gures of John F. and Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr in funereal suits and ties are cut and pasted together standing in the graveyard at Farmingdale, New York, a line of grave stones receding into the distance. Robert Kennedy, brother of the most telegenic President was, like any other politician of the 1960s, supremely aware of the importance of the camera. It is well known, for example, that Kennedy made at least two closely photographed visits to his brothers grave around Lyndon Johnsons inauguration. Still photographs and moving images were equally insistent reminders of political hopes dashed. The assassination of Robert Kennedy occurred immediately after he won the Democratic Primary in California, after eighty-ve days of campaigning for nomination. It followed hard on the murder of Martin Luther King Jr in April. Arthur Schlesinger Jr concluded his 1979 biography by asserting that Kennedy could have been a new Franklin Roosevelt but the long-term effect of Kennedys late entry into the race whether indeed he would have won a Democratic nomination will never be known, as signalled by the title of David Halberstams book, written after accompanying Kennedy on the campaign trail, The Unnished Odyssey of Robert Kennedy (1968). Nevertheless, he has been mythologised as the last powerful liberal standing, his death the only way that he could have been prevented from beating Nixon in 1968. The manner of his murder, shot to death in the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel, captures the violence that Charles Moore said he tried to escape when he left America for the best part of 1966. Paul Fuscos photographs of America mourning Kennedys death contribute a very different image of the public performance of mourning. In a decade when the state or public funeral was becoming ubiquitous, Fuscos photo-essay contributes signicantly to an understanding of the faith that even at the end of the 1960s many Americans could still place in political leaders, especially one as symbolically central as Robert Kennedy. 146 American Culture in the 1960s RFK: Funeral Train (1968/2000) When Robert Kennedy was shot on 5 June 1968, Norman Mailer claimed, Our country started to fall apart that day. After his funeral was held in St Patricks Cathedral in New York City, Kennedys cofn was taken aboard the train that would transport his cofn, his family, friends and news and television crews to Washington DC for the burial. The train made slow progress south because people lined the track to pay their respects. Two mourners were killed by an oncoming train and the train had to slow when others neared to pay their respects to the cofn, elevated so that it could be seen in the last of twenty carriages. In this way, the journey to Arlington cemetery that could have taken around four hours took almost nine and the burial did not begin until 10 p.m., lit by oodlights and television lighting.52 Life photographer Bill Eppridge captured the most devastating picture of the slain senator, on the Ambassador Hotel kitchen oor as busboy Juan Romero held him and stared with shock into the camera: I made that picture and suddenly the whole situation closed in again. And it became bedlam.53 He shot scenes of bedlam on the streets that night too. Magnum photographer Paul Fusco, however, reveals the quiet and solemn aftershocks. It is ironic that the rst of Fuscos pictures to be published were collected in a special memorial edition of Look magazine (RFK: The Bob Kennedy We Knew By the Editors of Look) but that the photographic collection he would entitle RFK: Funeral Train would not be published until 2000, a year after Mailers A Time of Our Time (1999) included the essay in which he described the scene.54 While the memorialisation of Senator Kennedy began in the week of his death, and would include the documentary Robert Kennedy Remembered put together in four weeks in order to ensure its release by the Democratic Party Convention in Chicago, it would take until 2000 for more than a handful of the images to be viewed by the public. When Look ceased publishing in 1970, its photograph collections were housed in the Library of Congress, where most of Fuscos pictures remain. It also seems ironic that Look chose to reproduce ve of the photographs that Fusco took in monochrome in an issue that predominantly features colour photography of the Kennedy family. While it is axiomatic to note the Kennedys iconic status as the First family, it is odd that photographic evidence of the nations mourning should be made auxiliary. In his assessment of the day, Michael Harrington notes that the funeral train would inevitably pass through the other America because the afuent never live in sight of the tracks but the poor do and he underlines what has become part of the legend of Kennedy as the last liberal hope when he asserts that the American poor were mourning their own aspirations along with the man who had spoken for them.55 As the funeral train left New York, Fusco was shocked to see the crowds amassing and his short Afterword to the collection recalls Harrington: those most in need of hope crowded the tracks of Bobbys last train, stunned into disbelief, and watched that hope trapped in a cofn pass and disappear from their lives.56 His photographs A rt and Photography 147 record the grief of so-called ordinary Americans and yet some of the images he chose for RFK: Funeral Train contradict popular consensus about the racially polarised end of the sixties as described in the Kerner Commissions report of 1968. Some of the most memorable shots are those in which black and white Americans stand together. In one a black womans arm is draped across a white womans shoulders in a gesture of comfort. Another is married with the legend on the facing page in which RFK declared that as long as people are not free, the American Revolution will not be nished. Fuscos photographs are testimony to the allure that Kennedys family held in the national imagination but this is a very different kind of family album; standing in family formation in order of height, still and ramrod straight, a young family parents casually dressed and children, boys and girls alike, wearing only swimming trunks stands with heads lowered to the passing train (see Figure 4.4b). In this portrayal of collective grief, a woman prays on her knees, another holds a handkerchief to her tearful face; others stand with hands on hearts or holding owers, waving or saluting. In one shot a man holds his box Brownie at waist height and in another a young boy points a Kodak Instamatic, ubiquitous since 1963, to record the funeral train as a snapshot. The dead Kennedy is the absent centre around whom the images gather; neither RFK nor his cofn is present in any of the shots selected for RFK: Funeral Train. Rather, the books paratexts allude to his tragic death via Senator Edward Kennedys eulogy reproduced as A Tribute, Mailers observations as The Promise, an extract from Evan Thomas biography that emphasises the small plain cross to contrast with Kennedys memorial at Arlington,57 and quotations from RFKs speeches in which his words to the poor and to outsiders resonate poignantly. RFK: Funeral Train is a photographic event as memorial and the act of memorialisation seems to be taking place in a continuous present tense. Fuscos use of colour (elided by Look) contributes to a mood of timelessless; typically sixties fashion prints mingle with ageless classic clothes and seem less typical when viewed against the mle of fashions that characterises the collections moment of publication in 2000. The mourners are caught mid-wave and often in a blur. By slowing the speed of the lm and keeping the light low, Fusco caught the blur of movement in almost every frame so that the images register as moving pictures, keeping pace as it were with the funeral train. Those images which close the collection are completely blurred giving both the impression of movement and speed and seeming to gather up the moment in a memory loop in swathes of grey and purple, fantasy colours. More generally throughout the collection, onlookers are colourfully and casually dressed as if caught in medias res, their decision to pay their respects natural, as in the case of a girl in a pink bikini whose sombre pose is strikingly incongruous and members of a family rising from lawn chairs as the train passes the end of their garden. However, portable chairs set along the track belie the organisational prowess of others, as do home-made signs stating So Long Bobby and RFK We Love You and the presence of a boy scout troop or a group of World War II veterans. 148 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 4.4a Paul Fuscos RFK: Funeral Train (1968/2000). Courtesy Paul Fusco/Magnum Photos. Figure 4.4b Paul Fuscos RFK: Funeral Train (1968/2000). Courtesy Paul Fusco/Magnum Photos. Art and Photography 149 Disillusion is evident in artwork produced late in the decade as in John Filos iconic photograph at Kent State, Rauschenbergs Currents print series (1970) and, in the aftermath of the War on Poverty, Bruce Davidsons photographs of the urban poverty of Spanish Harlem, and Bob Adelmans photographic portrait of rural poverty in Alabama in Down Home (1972). Photography continues to be entangled in ideological debates about what it reveals and how it commemorates, an idea to which the Conclusion returns in its exploration of Birmingham, Alabamas continued association with the violence of 1963. Artistic reproduction of an event can also turn it into a market phenomenon that distances it from the event itself. Boomer interest in art of the 1960s has ensured that it remains buoyant in the art market and in 2004 Warhols Mustard Race Riot (1963), based on a Life magazine photograph of police attacking demonstrators in Birmingham, achieved $15.1 million (then around 8.1 million). How secure one may be in reading artworks in and out of context and across time is illustrated by Yoko Onos performances of Cut Piece (1964 ), at once a disturbing performance of abuse and an overt critique of scopophilia as she invited members of the audience to cut sections of clothing from her body. Preserved only in the memories of participants and in photography, in 2003, aged seventy, Ono performed Cut Piece again in Paris. On the one hand, there is a paradox at the heart of any reclamation of an artwork that was conceived to exist in its moment of production; it will neither be the same work, nor will it necessarily escape becoming a parody of itself or of its original intent. However, in 1995 Faith Wilding was asked to recreate her 1972 installation Womb Room (Crocheted Environment) for an exhibition history of womens art and, on the other hand, as Miwon Kwon notes, to decline such an invitation would have been an act of selfmarginalization, contributing to a self-silencing that would write Wilding and an aspect of feminist art out of the dominant account of art history (again).58 Contemporary cultural critics continue to engage with images of the 1960s as made by artists. In a story-essay in Polaroids From the Dead (1996), for example, Douglas Coupland explores James Rosenquists collage F-111 (1965), a painting that blew up the jet ghter-plane ubiquitous in Vietnam to gigantic proportions, and in the opening frames to the movie Lost Highway (1997), David Lynch reprises Allen DArcangelos US Highway 1 (1962) in which the viewers gaze is pulled via the cats eyes in the middle of the night-dark road toward the horizon. Chapter 5 New Social Movements and Creative Dissent Cultural critic George Lipsitz has repeatedly referred to the era as The Age of the Civil Rights Movement, Gary Wills argues that the Kennedy era was really the age of Dr. King and in Alice Walkers rst published essay she described it as iconoclastic: a call to life for people who did not exist either in books or in lms or in the government of their own lives.1 The Civil Rights Movement should be read as prototypical because its principles and strategies in the shape of mass demonstrations and direct action protest were revised to t other political platforms and are integral to the new social movement as a cultural form and because it is representative of the Great Refusal that Herbert Marcuse described as the root of ideological change. It was revolutionary and reformist, realist and utopian, and in endeavouring to combine multiple ideologies, it would inevitably break into factions. The movements demise was underscored by COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program), according to which the combined forces of the FBI, CIA and military intelligence sought to destroy radical organisations and undermine or indict movement leaders, from Dr Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X to Huey Newton of the Black Panthers, and by local initiatives such as Mississippis State Sovereignty Commission which spied on subversive citizens and vetted juries. However, across the rst half of the decade the Civil Rights Movement stayed in the media spotlight, publicising racial violence in the South and the de facto racially segregated norms whose traditions blocked black progress, North or South. To begin with, it was customary for historians to investigate social movements as a national phenomenon in order to elucidate the extent to which legislation they fought for operated as a force of social change. More recently, historians have been assiduous in uncovering the stories of grass-roots activists overlooked in scholarly studies 152 American Culture in the 1960s whose focus is celebrated leaders. Bringing oral histories and memoirs into historical account has revealed the signicance of women, the elderly and of a white minority of activists. Political dissent was not only the province of youth: Jim Lawsons workshops on non-violence underpinned the beginnings of the Nashville movement and Ella Baker of the SCLC and NAACP has been acknowledged as midwife to the Student Non-violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC). Nor did socalled radicals always begin their activism on the fringes. Abbie Hoffman, one of the most outlandish of countercultural organisers, was a member of the NAACP and his Yippie philosophy was also informed by his organising experience with SNCC during Freedom Summer. Consensus history had it that the political trend turned from the integrationist politics of the Civil Rights Movement, epitomised by Martin Luther King Jr and the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference), to the black separatist position encapsulated in the slogan Black Power while sixties histories tend to privilege Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in movement culture. However, SNCC, founded in 1960, is signicant not only because it was in the vanguard of student-led political groups, but also because its vision of an American pluralistic democracy as interracial in character demanded a much more radical conceptual shift for the nation than the tenets of SDS which developed out of historically Old Left concerns, or the racial separatism of the Nation of Islam or Black Panther Party, both traditionally read as much the more radical groups. The Deacons for Defense were also pushed to the background of surveys of the era because their armed defence against the Klan contradicted the dominant image of non-violent resistance as consensual. Similarly, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission papers that began to be released in 1989 reveal conspiracies that ensured post-Brown vs Board retaliatory violence would receive public approbation, such as Byron De La Beckwiths acquittal for murdering Medgar Evers, explored in its literary context in Chapter 3. While it was not surprising to learn that the Commission vetted the jury, proof of the fact also served to problematise the popular assumption that any white southern jury would have refused to convict for a racist crime. Only recently have we come to explore in detail the make-up of a supposedly Solid South and its supposedly unbroken wall of resistance to racial change. An attempt to put the movement on wheels, as James Farmer described the Freedom Rides, reveals the heterogeneity of participants. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CORE) founded in Chicago in 1942 was mobilised to organise the Freedom Rides of 1961, New Social Movements 153 reworking the Journey of Reconciliation it co-sponsored with the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1947 after the Supreme Court rst made segregation on interstate public transport illegal. Volunteers came from across the US and sometimes travelled internationally to participate, as Ray Arsenaults epic study proves. James Peck had been on the 1947 Ride and in 1961 suffered fty-three stitches in the face as a result of being beaten in Birmingham. He wrote his story almost immediately. Novelist Lillian Smiths introduction to his account acts as a validation of on-the-spot historiography: this thoughtful participant in ideas and acts has written factual stuff, valid for historians of the age and Peck acknowledges the power of the media for the movement when he notes Bayard Rustin watched him on TV in London, a friend teaching in Hiroshima sent Japanese news clippings and The New Age in South Africa carried the story.2 The New Abolitionists SNCC and SDS built ideological platforms on the precepts of the Abolition and Labor movements, contributing to a long tradition of resistance. The political heritage of older participants, like Peck, was often long and complicated. Daniel Horowitz has emphasised Betty Friedans beginnings in the Old Left and Popular Front feminism, and Bayard Rustin, one of Dr Kings key advisors, had been dening and redening techniques of peaceful protest since the 1930s. Writer Lorraine Hansberrys commentary on images in the photographic text The Movement (1964), prepared with SNCCs assistance, stresses that the movement began in the seventeenth century when Africans mutinied on ships transporting them to slavery: In strong contradiction to the myth of Negro passivity . . . the New Negro has merely brought to the Movement new methods and fresh determination.3 Charles Paynes study of Mississippi and Adam Faircloughs delineation of the movement in Louisiana demonstrate a long history of organising at the local level. The 1960s saw continual reinvention of strategies for reform in an effort to counter federal laxity in tackling social injustice, a problem which psychologist Kenneth Clarke described as a kind of Alice in Wonderland . . . the same analysis, the same recommendations, the same inaction.4 What was new about the new social movements of the 1960s was that racial, feminist and environmental reforms came together in a political Zeitgeist that united civil disobedience with the performance style discussed in Chapter 1. Direct action in a new media culture 154 American Culture in the 1960s forged new ways of making old demands. Tom Hayden believes that the new movements were also communities of martyrs that came about in a time of apocalypse; his rhetoric is overblown but captures the spirit of the times and serves as a reminder that organisations were not bureaucracies or even very organised and to make them seem so would be like trying to turn a volcano into a skyscraper.5 The tenets to which the Civil Rights Movement held disturbed national mores. James Baldwin argued that the black and the white, deeply need each other here if we are to become a nation and Kings idea of a network of mutuality was more threatening than calls for a separate but equal society.6 John F. Kennedy admired Finians Rainbow (1947), the play that premiered the year of the rst interracial Freedom Rides and that Francis Ford Coppola adapted into a musical lm. At its heart is the interracial southern community of Rainbow Valley that sits-in and sings its protests to the sheriff. A non-violent liberal nation was an impossibility in the 1940s and equally impossible to sustain in the 1960s; released in the year of Kings assassination, Coppolas lm was a poignant coda to a utopian dream. The interracial coalition failed not only because of segregationist fears of race mixing but also because of liberal qualms according to which a beloved community remained an abstraction. When King warned that, Negroes hold only one key to the double lock of peaceful change. The other is in the hands of the white community, he recognised this fact. As one historian allows, school integration was a different kind of Woodstock.7 Nevertheless, grass-roots activism caught re across the South and students were the re-starters. In February 1960, four black students at the Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro, North Carolina sought to smash Jim Crow etiquette in its quotidian forms by refusing to leave a lunch counter where they knew they would be denied service. Their protest would impact on southern custom to the extent that only two months later it was estimated that 50,000 people had protested at lunch counters across 100 towns and cities. Their direct action would develop into the student movement represented by SNCC and CORE. To begin with, though, their impact would be underestimated. Julius Lester who would join SNCC, remembers that he read the news of the sit-in on the back page of his newspaper with less interest than I did the evenings television listings.8 As a method of protest, the sit-in was not new; in 1943 CORE activists had occupied a Chicago restaurant for similar reasons. There were occasional demonstrations across the South in the 1950s and a sit-in initiated by the NAACP Youth Council in Wichita, Kansas in 1958 was followed New Social Movements 155 by another in Oklahoma. However, established organizations such as the NAACP typically organised through focused and cumulative law suits rather than direct action. Spearheaded by the students, action as theatre ensured demonstrations would be covered by the media and memorialised as events. Martin Luther King Jr dened non-violent direct action as seeking to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatise the issue that it can no longer be ignored and David Dellinger, one of the Chicago Seven prosecuted for disrupting the Democratic Convention in 1968, could refer to the peace movement as a creative synthesis of Gandhi and guerrilla.9 Figure 5.1 Freedom Summer Murders marker, Mount Zion Church, Longdale, outside Philadephia, Mississippi. Sharon Monteith. 156 American Culture in the 1960s SNCC and Freedom Summer The Student Non-Violent Co-Ordinatating Committees philosophy encouraged afliations between groups including NAACP and SCLC, CORE, SDS and Nonviolent Action Group (NAG) as symbolised in their coming together as the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) to campaign for voter registration during Freedom Summer of 1964. They would take Mississippi to the nation.10 SNCC emphasised a redemptive community that supersedes immoral social systems, a civic community in which each act or phase of our corporate effort must reect a genuine spirit of love and good-will. In 1960 student leaders met with Ella Baker who guided them in the formation of their own distinctive group not a youth branch of the SCLC or an offshoot of the NAACP. SNCC was courageously heterogeneous in political make-up; whereas other organisations would not openly support Communism, for example, SNCC made no exclusions and its history traces intellectual and political shifts across the decade: from existentialism to Marxism, from integrationist to separatist conceptions of society, and from ballot to bullet. Oral histories demonstrate that its policies followed the system of Field Secretaries carrying out supportive eldwork in small southern towns from McComb, Mississippi to Albany, Georgia and focused on action over administration. The formal staff base was small and dynamic and while it is invidious to name only a few, Bob Moses is cited by other SNCC workers as inspirational, as is Mrs Hamer, and SNCC staffers became renowned political gures down the decades, among them former NAACP Chairman Julian Bond and Congressman John Lewis. Their courage in facing down white supremacists is memorable: Sam Block in Greenwood, Bob Zellner and Mendy Samstein in McComb, Hollis Watkins and Curtis Hayes in Hattiesburg and Anne Moody in Canton. The Freedom Houses in which they lived were frequently bombed, The Student Voice, SNCCs magazine until 1965, endeavouring to record the extent of violent attacks. SNCCs voter registration and education strategies had to evolve to combat massive resistance. The Freedom Ballot (1963), a mock election, demonstrated that despite white authoritys spurious rejection of those seeking to register, a Freedom Vote would elect an interracial coalition: the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). In 1964 this hands-on organisation experienced an inux of volunteers as a result of what SNCC cannily described as a peace corps operation to help voter registration, set up Freedom Schools and community centres and develop special projects. SNCC even envisaged a project to help poor whites with literacy and civic education because in many ways Mississippi has imprisoned her white people along with her blacks.11 The symbolic importance of Freedom Summer was far more signicant than the relatively small number of participants (700 volunteers buttressed by lawyers, ministers and doctors). The insertion of a northern middle class red diaper babies and students from schools such as Yale and Stanford into the savage South N ew Social Movements 157 was a media dream. Nevertheless, communications secretary Julian Bond remembers the resentment he and other black SNCC workers felt when the press was more interested in what Susie Smith from Vassar was doing and whether she had stubbed her toe in the middle of a demonstration in which fty Negroes were beaten.12 The biggest media event was also the most tragic. Fifteen activists and demonstrators lost their lives in 1964 but the murder that dominated headlines like no other during Freedom Summer was that memorialised in Figure 5.1. The murder by Klansmen and police ofcers of two northern volunteers, Schwerner, established in Mississippi, and Goodman during his very rst days on the Summer Project, alongside local black activist Chaney, hit headlines around the world when their bodies were discovered hidden in an earthen dam and the conspiracy unravelled. The conviction of their murderers would be pursued down the decades. Despite the murders and due to the media attention they generated but mostly because of workers tenacity, the Summer Project was an enormous success, hence Howard Zinns celebration of The New Abolitionists and Mrs Hamers saluting Freedom Summer volunteers as strangers who were the best friends we ever met: They want to make democracy a reality in the whole country if it is not already too late.13 However, as Bob Moses has said, a concomitant challenge was whether SNCC could integrate itself . . . and live as sort of island of integration in a sea of separation.14 Established staff worried that the presence of whites in the struggle would lead white southerners both to retrench and to assume that the white volunteers had initiated the programmes of a predominantly black movement. They also feared that after Freedom Summer, SNCC would have to rebuild. SNCC did institute many changes, the most controversial its break from integrated reconciliation as an ideology. Charles Marsh notes with regret that the SNCC society became paranoid and closed and in many ways, SNCC foundered on its possible alliance with nationalist movements that leaders Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown and others took in 1966, specically by joining with the Black Panthers. There was, however, earlier evidence of a developing impatience in the speech John Lewis prepared but did not deliver at the March on Washington because its bellicose language was considered too combative for the occasion: We will march through the South, through the Heart of Dixie, the way Sherman did. We will pursue our own scorched earth policy and burn Jim Crow to the ground nonviolently . . .15 SNCC was the fulcrum for an evolving movement culture. It provided the context for the feminist position paper co-written by Casey Hayden and Mary King in 1964 questioning procedures whereby men were eldworkers and women administrators: Assumptions of male superiority are as widespread and deep-rooted and every much as crippling to the woman as the assumptions of white supremacy are to the Negro.16 That the paper was believed to be the work of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson is testament to her strength of character as the only woman executive member but also a disturbing indication that gender stereotypes remained racialised within the most egalitarian of groups; it was assumed 158 American Culture in the 1960s white women would toe the line of gender division while black women would speak out. However, in November 1965, Hayden and King sent a memo entitled Sex and Caste to women working across the freedom and peace movements to open up dialogue and out of SNCCs structure emerged chapters of the student, Black Power, feminist, Free Speech and anti-war movements. Mario Savio, who founded the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley and spent Freedom Summer in Mississippi, described it as the seminal event of the twentieth century that created a cadre of activists for the nation.17 The movement he founded would encompass a communist society, The DuBois Club, and Young Republicans for Barry Goldwater. Despite Savios words, in 1981 Clayborne Carson wrote a history of SNCC in order to preserve the shock troops of the Civil Rights Movement from the fate of obscurity in a period of declension.18 It is telling that SNCC history was vulnerable, especially since its short and long-term successes are evidenced in the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its extension in 1982 and in the fact that by 1980, 75 per cent of African Americans in Mississippi were registered to vote, more than in any other southern state. However, in 1980 Ronald Reagan chose the Neshoba County Fair in Philadelphia as the site of his anti-statist campaign for President in a shrewd move to persuade the southern bloc of voters that states rights would be respected. Rural Mississippi had come to symbolise the place where a conservative counter-revolution would begin. In 1987 SNCC began to return to public notice when its rst reunion was organised and Raleigh City Museum, North Carolina would celebrate the fortieth anniversary of SNCCs founding in 2000. The SNCC Freedom Singers continue as the group Sweet Honey in the Rock and in a moment that speaks specically to Carsons concern that their efforts not be forgotten, SNCC veterans petitioned for a Justice Department investigation into the voting irregularities in Florida that prevented registered African Americans from participating in the 2000 Presidential election. Other Americans: Black Power and Red Power SNCC workers cite Mrs Fannie Lou Hamer as inspirational. The granddaughter of slaves and one of twenty children in a sharecropper family, she had limited schooling because she was expected to till the elds whenever the weather made that possible. Growing up in the plantation environment that Ronald L. Fair explores in Many Thousand Gone, discussed in Chapter 3, Hamer remained unaware that black Mississippians had the right to vote: When the people would get out of the elds, if they had a radio theyd be too tired to play it. So we didnt know what was going on in the rest of the state even; much less in other places.19 But in August 1962 she rallied to SNCCs cause. Unable to persuade her not to continue her politicisation, Mrs Hamers New Social Movements 159 Figure 5.2 Mrs Fannie Lou Hamers grave, Ruleville, Mississippi. The gravestone situated on co-operatively held African American-owned land reads Fannie Lou Hamer, Oct 6 1917March 14 1977 and the inscription is I am sick and tired of being sick and tired. Sharon Monteith. landlord evicted her from his plantation after eighteen years; she was no longer suitable labour material. While many agricultural workers were forced into Tent Cities once turned off farms for similar reasons, Mrs Hamer became a eld secretary for Sunower County and an example to the Freedom Summer volunteers she inducted in Oxford, Ohio. She had suffered ghting for the rights she emphasised to the students she trained. In June 1963 she was jailed for attempting to desegregate a lunch counter and two black prisoners coerced to beat her with a blackjack damaged a kidney and caused a blood clot. She remained steadfast and student volunteer Sally Belfrage closes her memoir with the memory of Mrs Hamer singing We Shall Overcome immediately before the crashing blow that was the Democrat Party rejection of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). In 1964 the Democratic National Convention refused to seat representatives of the MFDP, Mrs Hamer among them, in place of the segregationist delegation. It would take until 1968 for black delegates to be seated. If SNCCs strategy had been to shame the liberal establishment into confronting social inequalities, it failed in Atlantic City which signalled the demise of integrationist liberal principles as the 160 American Culture in the 1960s movements underpinning. At the 1948 Convention in the city of Philadelphia the black Progressive Democratic Party had tried to challenge the all-white South Carolinian representatives but failed. Twenty years on, the liberal impasse could not be assailed. The push to racially desegregate was by no means unanimous, though, and calls to strengthen separatist facilities or to bear arms against white supremacists echoed through each year of the decade. To review the period in terms of a dichotomous black leadership of Martin Luther King Jr vs Malcolm X is to imply that African Americans were caught in a double bind, contained by allegiance to one or the other model for social progress. The integration of Martin and Malcolm has usually occurred only as wish-fullment or regret in cultural productions that return to the era. At the end of Spike Lees Do The Right Thing (1989), for example, a photograph of Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X is silently pinned to the Wall of Fame and in Steve Earles Christmas in Washington (1997) he sings, Come back to us Malcolm and MLK/ Were marching in to Selma as the bells of Freedom ring. To set up a dichotomy between two conicting approaches to the ght for equal rights is to elide the complex relationship between non-violent and armed protest that galvanised legislation. Even in its overtly non-violent phase the movement was underpinned by self-defence and by the will to violence. When Medgar Evers was murdered, enraged protestors demanding we want the murderer threw rocks at white businesses in Jackson and twenty-seven were arrested.20 Dr King was always aware that the threat of violence was a powerful tool, as when he warned in May 1963 as African Americans protested in Birmingham that the city threatened to be the site of the worst racial holocaust the nation has ever seen, an idea returned to in the Conclusion. Daisy Bates used armed guards to protect her activism and E. D. Nixon, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Charles Sims recognised self-defence and argued in movement meetings that segregation yielded to force more than to moral suasion designed to appeal to conscience and character. Even Mrs Hamer conded that Sometimes I get so disgusted I feel like getting my gun after some of these chicken eatin preachers . . . selling out to the white power structure.21 In Monroe, North Carolina, Robert Williams, formerly head of the local NAACP chapter, agitated for armed defence and Ronnie Moore of CORE also made public statements in support. The Deacons for Justice and Self-Defense became very visible in the ght against violent intimidation from white supremacists such as the Ku Klux Klan in a New Social Movements 161 return to Reconstruction-era racial terrorism. The Deacons were an independent working-class group that came into being to ght on the local front but who made the nation face the fact that civil rights legislation would have no impact on the segregated status quo if sheriffs were derelict in law-enforcement with regard to black residents in their counties. Similarly, the beginnings of the Black Power Movement occurred in the South: in Greenwood, Mississippi during James Merediths March Against Fear in 1966. After Meredith was shot and wounded, organisations rallied to complete his march in anger fuelled by factors including the evidence that the Civil Rights and the Voting Rights Acts had failed to stem violence. Stokely Carmichel and Willie Ricks changed the phrase coined by Richard Wright and others into a call for militant action. Black Power was a sign of disaffection, a signal that nomenclature such as Negro would be superseded in a new identity politics and that Black pride had found an ideological outlet. Black Power functioned like the X The Nation of Islam took to replace a slave name, as a powerful way to signal Afrocentric community. It was an ethnic model based on closing ranks to enter American polity as a distinct minority, and a strategy that other minorities would revisit. Dr King described Black Power as a psychological call to manhood in an effort to understand the cultural shift towards separatism and it pre-empted James Formans Black Manifesto (1969), the beginning of the debate over what the nation owes African Americans as reparations for having held them in slavery that continues today. Grounded in a material analysis of the making of an African American underclass and the churchs complicity in its formation, the reparations debate began with Formans call for white religious institutions to pay $500 million in recognition of black oppression. Addressing problems of ghettoisation and poor housing had been indirect goals of the Civil Rights Movement but Black Muslims paid attention to the poor and to prisoners, delivering street-corner speeches like those for which Malcolm X was renowned in Harlem, and visiting prisons. Dr King had argued that riot was too often the language of the unheard and while King sought to cross the chasms of suspicion class created, it was not until the mid-1960s that he turned the movement spotlight to poverty. The Nation of Islam looked precisely to those most oppressed economically who feared their needs had gone unrepresented by civil rights organisations. Gordon Parks cites a New York taxi driver protesting that although he was too busy surviving to join a movement, these Muslims . . . make more sense 162 American Culture in the 1960s than the NAACP and Urban League and all the rest of em put together. Theyre down on the good earth with the brother.22 The ghetto was the prison James Baldwin argued African Americans had been expected to perish in by never being allowed to go behind the white mans denitions23 and Black Power ideology would be crucial in situating the racially dispossessed in global context. In his 1969 revision of The Other America (1962), Michael Harrington stated his regret that, quite wrongly, he had omitted American Indians from his study of poverty when they were probably the poorest of all.24 Harringtons declaration accrues larger meaning when it is remembered that he was a member of the governments task force dening the parameters of the War on Poverty. The late 1960s saw the production of a number of counter-histories in the form of a new politics of minorities. This contributed to the belated recognition of the signicance of Indians in movement politics, especially after the Indian Rights Movement seized the media spotlight in the symbolic occupation of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay, rst in 1964, demanding the land for an Indian University and then over some eighteen months between 1969 and 1971 demanding both land and rights. In 1970 Dee Brown published Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee and Harold E. Fey revised his 1959 book Indians and Other Americans to take account of political struggles of the intervening decade. As Dave Murray has demonstrated, revising earlier histories of American Indians and returning to critiques of government policy towards Indians often involved looking backward.25 But a change in stance and style was evident in the work of Vine Deloria. In 1970 Deloria conded: Sometimes when people ask what tribe I belong to, I am tempted to answer Others . . . I have yet to attend a conference on poverty, race relations, social problems, civil rights, or pollution without being tagged an other .26 Vine Deloria and the Indian Rights Movement Deloria, a Sioux Indian, former marine, student of religion and latterly lawyer was best known as a human rights activist. Appointed Executive Director of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in 1964, his 1965 editorial Now Is the Time was a call to revitalise the NCAI to catch the movement Zeitgeist. Like other writers and intellectuals discussed in this book, he was inuenced by Marshall McLuhans ideas of communication, criticising strategies such as students taking over university buildings N ew Social Movements 163 which failed to move student politics beyond the campus gates. He championed education as self- and group-determination, and analysed the liberal problem of a people who with 54 million acres of land worth $3 billion should be neither poor nor benighted yet were treated like a conglomerate slum population.27 His caustic and witty social critique in over twenty books over three decades is exemplied in Spirit and Reason (1999) and Delorias spirit was countercultural as well as religious. He published in Playboy, an album by Floyd Red Crow Westerman took its title from his rst and most controversial book, Custer Died For Your Sins (1969), and, among other prizes, Deloria was recipient of the Wallace Stegner Award in 2002 for his writings on the land-use philosophy of Indians. He argued in 1970 that the white mans conception of nature was obscene and he was criticised himself for deploying fundamentalist creationist models and, like the conservative leader of the Nation of Islam whose notion of Islam bore little resemblance to the religion, for aligning himself with conspiracy science ction. Delorias politics reect the complexities of the era rather than a supercially liberal or conservative agenda. In The Red and the Black, Deloria argued that Civil Rights was the most important but also the least understood movement of our generation and that the equation of race with black as the signier of civil rights initiatives risked eliding the presence of Indians. He argued that a typically liberal embarrassment over lack of knowledge about Indian history and communities exacerbated their erasure, the assumption being that all minority groups suffered identical problems.28 As had psychologist Kenneth Clarke testifying before the National Commission on Civil Disorders, Deloria critiqued government inertia: after the preliminary publicity whitewash, each new administration failed to address Indian policy. Only when the Special Subcommitte on Indian Education chaired by Edward Kennedy published its report Indian Education: A National Tragedy A National Challenge (1969) would its sixty recommendations lead to the Indian Education Act of 1972.29 That he has been compared to Martin Luther King Jr is both an accolade and an indication that the Indian Rights Movement would inevitably be measured against the Civil Rights Movement. However, Deloria is missing in most accounts of the ways in which identity politics in the 1960s have informed multicultural culture wars in subsequent decades, despite his essays on the rise of Ethnic Studies at UCLA in the 1960s and his scathing criticism that Indians and Mexicans had never been considered part of the culture the Kerner Report (1968) sought to describe and address. Deloria consistently criticised theoreticians for their unwillingness to address concrete realities: The massive amount of useless knowledge produced by anthropologists attempting to capture real Indians in a network of theories has contributed substantially to the invisibility of Indian people today. Straight-talking and provocative, he made no attempt to soften the history of oppression as he saw it: Negroes . . . were considered draft animals, Indians wild animals . . . Orientals . . . domestic animals and Mexicans humorous lazy animals.30 DeLoria was keenly aware of the cultural impact 164 American Culture in the 1960s of deleterious stereotypes. He recognised, not without courting controversy, that consigning elder statesmen to the caricature of Uncle Tom risked destroying the entire fabric of accumulated wisdom and experience of the older generation of minority groups and left young people underestimating social inequities as a betrayal of leadership, especially when Indian tribal governments had been loath to risk their special relationship with the federal government during the expansion of social programmes in the 1960s.31 In this way, Delorias Indian-specic cultural commentary also situated new movements in comparative context. He reiterated that the failure to teach American Indian history to young people risked a terrible loss. At the end of the decade his We Talk You Listen: New Tribes, New Turf (1970) provided the intellectual context through which acts such as the occupation of Alcatraz could be understood in context of what he saw as the strangulating liberal thought-world. Delorias critique of liberalism was scathing and Hubert Humphrey was at its centre; a man with a consistent record on human rights had played safe with power but killed the liberal image in Chicago when he watched himself elected as Democratic standard bearer amidst brutality.32 The end of liberalism was, Deloria argued, bound up in moral, religious and cultural conicts and by situating Indian Rights at the heart of ideological splits between conservatives and progressives, he also highlighted their long history. A Time to Break Silence: The Mystique of Gender and the Geography of Hope Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique (1963) was a widely publicised retort to the demonisation of the working woman in such Freudian texts as Ferdinand Lundberg and Marynia Farnhams The Modern Woman (1947) in which feminism was aligned with Communist conspiracy. Her book was a catalyst for the burgeoning cultural discourse that would later be termed second-wave feminism but which was known as womens liberation. Although Michael Klein in The Turbulent Decade went so far as to describe Friedans as one of the rst oppositional texts of the New Left, it was rather a conservative book in many ways. Friedans worrying about the alarming passivity of teenage girls whose lives were stopped short by motherhood is more representative of the 1950s when she began work on her book than the 1960s when she published it. Furthermore, her assertion that the (white) housewife-mother had been rendered the model for all women and forced to subsume her interests to her feminine role has a long feminist history that returns us to the writings of Charotte Perkins Gilman and Thorstein Veblen at the very beginning of the twentieth century. Friedans study was in some ways groundbreaking but in others not entirely unexpected. New Social Movements 165 Across different cultural forms the role of women was being examined by men as well as women. In Love and Death in the American Novel (1960) Leslie Fiedler argued that a central theme of American literature had always been the male protagonists ight from women and their association with domesticity as a civilising force. In The Crying of Lot 49, Pynchons housewife Oedipa Maas is caught up in a paranoid fantasy that may be the result of alcohol or prescription drugs, fast becoming recognised as crutches for women trapped in a suburban hinterland. Novelist Richard Yates exploration of tragic suburbanites in Revolutionary Road (1961) included April Wheeler whose husband accuses her in an alcohol-fuelled argument of being like Flauberts Madame Bovary. Driven to the verge of madness by the responsibilities of her delimiting role and broken dreams, April dies when she attempts to abort an unwanted child. Despite her claims not to write of her times in anything other than sidelong glances, the cold war and the war between the sexes also texture The Bell Jar (1963) and Plaths expos of college sororities initiating young women into the nil of belonging presages Friedans New Life Plan according to which women will resist the patriarchal pressure taking a far greater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any known disease.33 Like Friedan, Plath was a graduate of Smith College and in her description, the white middle-class feminine norm is rst revealed in college when the picked buds of American womanhood succumb to the pressure of being everybody; ergo, no one.34 In 1959 Stanley M. Elkins had made a loaded comparison between the Nazi death camps of the Holocaust and the plantation system, arguing that the inevitable consequence was the dehumanisation of slaves. Plath deployed the simile of the Holocaust to narrate a womans suicide in Lady Lazarus and, as Marianne DeKoven has argued, poetry by women in the 1960s often served as the most powerful, rich, galvanizing movement statements.35 Friedan followed suit, describing the home as a comfortable concentration camp, and her target audience was hooked. Womens Studies was not yet a publishing category when The Feminine Mystique came out in paperback but womens colleges such as Vassar bought copies to include in welcome packs for incoming students.36 Criticism of her work began early though, as in Sylvia Fleis Favas 1963 review arguing mother-of-three Friedan set up an equally damaging counter-mystique whereby women were expected to pursue career ambitions outside the home.37 Journalist and novelist Robert Lipsyte sent up Friedan in The Masculine Mystique (1966) while in The Stepford Wives (1972), Ira Levins satire on the 166 American Culture in the 1960s male backlash, Friedan is the feminist speaker who visits small-town Stepford and stirs up docile housewives so that the Mens Association feels forced to crush the movement by killing the communitys wives to reproduce them as robotic exaggerations of femininity. While Friedan ignored the ways in which race and ethnicity complicate her model, and the fact that in working-class experience staying at home was an impossible luxury rather than a suffocating bell jar, she did succeed in galvanising a key segment of the female population. However, The Second Stage (1981) would signal a conservative return to family values at the expense of what was after all an original contribution to the struggle for feminist autonomy in the era. The Feminine Mystique should be remembered as a pivotal text that exemplies a pivotal moment when fties models of femininity were challenged. However, in the 1990s, Lynn Spigel undertook a television reception study and interviews with undergraduate students revealed they still traced the development of feminism in postwar America according to I Love Lucy (the re-runs they watched in their childhood) and similar shows.38 The close relationship between their popular memory and television emphasised the persistence of those exemplary ctions of a fties-style feminism that Friedan sought to change. While organisations such as Veteran Feminists of America celebrate such challenges, contemparary cultural productions sometimes return to the era to question the extent of womens liberation. In Todd Hayness movie Safe (1995), for example, a California housewife suffers non-specic symptoms which recall the problem with no name and her privileged environment is proved noxious and dangerous; ABC show Desperate Housewives dramatises similar caveats. In 1966 the National Organization for Women (NOW) issued a Bill of Rights to institute federal change by building an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) into the Constitution, the continuation of a struggle that began in the 1920s. The shift from pockets of protest seen at local and university levels to a national and legislative struggle for change was subject to a severe backlash from those who stereotyped womens liberation as the province of man-hating feminists burning their bras, even though NOW and ERA activists described their position as liberal and presented civil rights reforms as socially benecial in the widest terms. As the Civil Rights Movement had split into factions, so feminist claims for recognition led to the splintering into groups of women who labelled themselves liberal feminists or socialist or Marxist feminists, and the idea of a separate female culture was advanced by groups of radical feminists. Multiple feminist groups New Social Movements 167 organised against the Miss America pageant of 1968 outside the Democratic Convention in Atlantic City, where MFDP supporters had demonstrated in 1964 for ofcial recognition. United in a Ten-Point Protest against a consumer con-game, they argued that Miss America was little more than a military death mascot on cheerleader tours around Vietnam.39 Much that the feminist movement achieved in the 1960s would be made manifest in the 1970s and 1980s in the writings of Gloria Steinem, Robin Morgan, Charlotte Bunch and Shulamith Firestone among others. Their denitions of (white) female culture would be a spur to more racially nuanced debate and a source of black feminist contention throughout ensuing decades. John dEmilio has stated, if you press me to talk about the sixties, almost every one of the stories that would spontaneously erupt from my memory is about events that occurred in the 1970s: stories of the gay liberation movement.40 Gays and lesbians were involved across new social movements, most notably in the persons of Bayard Rustin and Robin Morgan, but the symbolic demonstration of gay culture did not take place until New York City police raided Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village in 1969. The reaction precipitated the most famous protest against the suppression of gay civil rights. In resistance that recalled agitation for civil liberties in the South, especially the taking to the streets of black southerners in Birmingham in 1963, individuals refused arrest and were beaten by police using night sticks. The riot that ensued was treated in the same way as antiVietnam war protests, with Tactical Patrol Force Units sent to quell the disturbance. The chant Gay Power was heard and The Village Voice41 described the scene as something from a William Burroughs novel.42 Stonewall was reported as an all-male fracas, with no reference to the race or ethnicity of participants, but later accounts emphasise the role lesbians played and the signicance of the Inn as the focus of a police raid precisely because regulars were African American and Hispanic. The story of Stonewall on 278 June 1969 means more than the sum of its parts. In the supposedly dead-end days of Movement politics, a multiracial and multi-ethnic group sent a sharp message that this non-vanilla mix of people would no longer accept criminalisation.43 The Civil Rights model of public protest was deployed by a group for whom invisibility had afforded a kind of protection but whose existence had been systematically mediated through pseudomedical discourse in which homosexuality was a cold war disease. The sexuality of federal employees in the civil service and the Department of Defense was monitored, with known homosexuals 168 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 5.3 Stonewall memorial statues, Greenwich Village, New York City. Courtesy Tina Galloway. dismissed. Such undercurrents found their way into popular culture. Otto Premingers lm Advise and Consent (1962), for example, depicts a Senate conrmation battle during which a closet homosexual is blackmailed, nally killing himself, and in Greetings a young mans friends make him into a fag when he is drafted to ght in Vietnam in a pantomime of the most unacceptable of army recruits. In 1964, Life published a special investigation of homosexuality subtitled A secret world grows open and bolder. Society is forced to look at it and try to understand it. Paul Welchs investigative journalism described undercover police operations to trap soliciting homosexuals. Despite a pose of objectivity, it exemplies the discourse in which homosexuals were New Social Movements 169 trapped: discarding their furtive ways and openly admitting, even aunting, their deviation . . . For every obvious homosexual, there are probably nine nearly impossible to detect.44 Cold war fears of invasion, contagion and conspiracy rendered homosexuality pathological as in previous decades. Keeping gay activism outside the movement narrative of the sixties relegates the gay liberation movement to the fringes. It also restricts the scope of the decade by delimiting its close to 1970 when the effects of Stonewall were rebounding and the controversy that was Roe vs Wade (1973) was building. Both are evidence that sexual politics was on the cultural agenda in different ways throughout the 1960s as was the environment. In Walden (1845) Henry Thoreau advanced the symbolic importance of water in the environment: A lake is the landscapes most beautiful and expressive feature. It is earths eye; looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature.45 A century later in Kurt Vonneguts novel Cats Cradle (1963), ice-nine is a scientic breakthrough that goes horribly wrong when all the water on earth freezes, destroying the worlds ecology, and in the paranoid fantasy Dr Strangelove (1964) a US General fears his sexual impotence is the result of a communist plot to destroy American manhood by polluting the water with sperm-destroying uorides. W. S. Merwins poem For A Coming Extinction (1967) imagined a dead future and in Soylent Green (1973), a movie set in a dystopian future, the failure to sustain natural resources leads to synthetic food made from cadavers feeding the mass population to conserve what little food remains for the elite. The fear that the worlds natural resources would be used up, squandered or corrupted prompted concerned individuals to call for a shift from conservation to legislation in the 1960s. Rachel Carsons Silent Spring (1962) In the early 1960s, marine biologist Carson shifted the imperative of reform from natural history and conservation to ecology and environmentalism in a book that has never been out of print. Silent Springs publication coincided with the tragic scandal over fertility drug Thalidomide and battles over consumer safety championed by Ralph Nader, as well as pervasive anxieties over the threat of nuclear fallout. Carson was inuenced by sociological studies of the power of advertising and of complacent consumerism as critiqued by David Riesman, C. Wright Mills and Vance Packard: Lulled by the soft sell and the hidden persuader, the average citizen is seldom aware of the deadly materials with which he is surrounding himself.46 Carson 170 American Culture in the 1960s charged that the public is fed little tranquilizing pills of half truth about the danger of pesticides47 and she took agri-business to task for its failure to act responsibly with the environment. Her emphasis on chemicals as elixirs of death, and her recitation of resultant conditions from cancer to genetic mutation, made for a powerful expos; chemical companies put together a war chest of $250,000 to counter negative publicity.48 Silent Spring would be a Book of the Month Selection and a Fawcett paperback by 1964 but even before its publication in September 1962, press coverage was vast due to the June serialisation of extracts in The New Yorker, Carsons appearance on CBS Reports and because President Kennedy cited Silent Spring as a reason for requiring his Science Advisory Committee to investigate the dangers of pesticides. Before anyone had even read the book, its contents were known, exemplifying Marshall McLuhans thesis that to understand the new media was to apprehend the ways in which news in one medium was carried and transformed by another. In June 1963 Carson was asked to present her ndings at Congressional hearings on pollution. She was prescient in her concern about what are now all-too-commonly cited environmental crises such as the greenhouse effect. However, Carson was a surprising champion of social change. The books she published in the 1950s did not presage the furore she would create. The Sea Around Us (1951) won the National Book Award, The Edge of the Sea (1955) was a celebration of the seashore and Carson was a regular contributor to Ladies Home Journal and Womens Home Companion, casting her readership net wide. However, she would be hailed as a revolutionary prophet by some and her training in science dismissed and ridiculed by others on the publication of Silent Spring Eugene P. Odums The Fundamentals of Ecology (1953) rst identied the ecosystem and Carsons approach may not have been wholly original. A 1946 New Republic article on the dangers of DDT for example, cited the ominous silence of birds as its key motif49 and poets from Keats to Whitman deploy the image of a deathly silence in which no birds sing. But when Carson uses the same trope of silence, it is revealing in the context of a scientist who as a woman was not expected to speak out with such authority. Carsons real success lay in her facility for translating scientic information into accessible prose. William Shawn, Editor of The New Yorker, wrote of his admiration of Silent Spring in a letter: You have made it literature full of beauty and loveliness and depth of feeling.50 Her literary strategies include the opening fable of a town in which spring begins without birdsong because a chemical powder like nuclear dust has killed all the birds. In a series of powerful, even sensationalist, analogies, Carsons literary non-ction pushes her point home. In a chapter entitled Beyond the Dreams of the Borgias, she argues that contaminated food holds similar dangers to those experienced by guests at a meal hosted by the infamous Renaissance poisoners. For her biographer Linda Lear, Carson was a Witness for Nature and in her study of the reception of Silent Spring, Priscilla Coit Murphy describes it as a perfect storm, a landmark in literary as well as environmental history.51 But Carson had surprising detractors too: the Sierra Club was New Social Movements 171 sceptical and for others she displayed the advocacy typical of an investigative journalist rather than an objective scientist. Her situation was made more difcult because throughout the period of writing and publicising the book, Carson was dangerously ill. She died of breast cancer in 1964 having undergone a catalogue of ancillary illnesses including temporary blindness, all of which she hid from the press, aware that detractors might use the information to argue that Silent Spring was the work of bitterness. In the event, however, her work led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and pregured various pieces of legislation. Carsons was not a lone voice by any means: Wallace Stegners Wilderness Letter (1960) had argued that the wilderness was the scientic yardstick against which the world would be measured. However, Carsons was the loudest voice raised from middle Americas heartland on the issue in the 1960s and mythologising this middle-class, middle-aged woman has contributed to her importance. Senator Ribicoff introduced her to Congress as the lady who started this in a deliberate echo of President Lincolns comments to Harriet Beecher Stowe during the Civil War and it is with the cultural phenomenon of Uncle Toms Cabin that Silent Spring is often compared. Federal legislation quickly followed the environmental movement, from the Wilderness Act (1964) to the Clean Air Act (1970). Membership of the Sierra Club (1892 ) increased and of the National Wildlife Federation. New organisations were formed including The Environmental Defense Fund (1967) and Friends of the Earth (1969). Senator Gaylord Nelson campaigned in 1968 for a national Environmental Teach-In based on the anti-war Teach-Ins taking place in universities and John McConnell harnessed such initiatives as a platform for Earth Day. The rst Earth Day took place on the same endangered frontier over which Wallace Stegner had campaigned, in San Francisco on 21 March 1970, and was repeated with bases around the country the following year when around 20 million people took part in Earth Day on 22 April. The US Senate unanimously passed the Clean Water Act (1970), as a result of such events during which pollution, nuclear power and environmental health were rmly on the nations agenda with President Nixon declaring 1970 the year of the beginning for federal environmental regulation. Ralph Nader began campaigning for alternative and soft energy and in 1977 President Carter issued a National Energy Plan although it failed to win votes in Senate. Almost forty years on, however, indifference to environmentalism such as pulling out of the Kyoto treaty on global warming has characterised the George W. Bush administration and led to its being described by Gregory Wetstone of the National Resource Defense Council as the most anti-environmental Presidential 172 American Culture in the 1960s Administration ever. Every president has left more of Americas landscape protected than they inherited, declared Carl Pope director of the Sierra Club in 2004, Bush has gone in the opposite direction.52 Such concerns were already evident in Dr Kings speech of 4 April 1967 in which he protested the Vietnam war: They watch as we poison their water, as we kill a million acres of their crops. They must weep as the bulldozers roar through their areas preparing to destroy the precious trees . . .53 Kings speech was called A Time to Break Silence and Elmo Zumwalt Sr, the commanding ofcer of the in-country navy whose veteran son died in 1988 from chemically induced cancers, broke silence when he campaigned that Centers for Disease Control had failed to point out the dangers of defoliant Agent Orange, the chemical that had been praised as a miracle juice to help US swift boats battle through the verdant hell of Vietnam waterways.54 That Zumwalt Sr had been commanded to spray Agent Orange and that his son, a swift-boat commander, had died from its effects went to the tragic heart of the American familys relationship with chemical warfare. The Pentagons belief in Agent Oranges safety was an ironic addendum to the decades environmental movement especially once the effects of the deleterious chemical warfare programme were revealed to the nation in the 1980s and the Zumwalt story was told in soap-opera style as My Father, My Son (1988). The TV movie is typically the genre in which personally tragic responses to controversial social issues rst nd representation. A novel which encapsulates many of the issues that saturate the era is environmentalist Wallace Stegners All The Little Live Things (1967). Ruth and Joe Allston nd a retirees haven in rural California but in this anti-pastoral novel of the American West, Stegner leaves its protagonist raw and exposed. As Joe opines in the Epilogue, Peace was not anything I saw or smelled or felt. The bell jar that had protected our retirement was smashed . . . 55 The widening generation gap renders Joe unsure of his cultural footing when a free-falling hippie guru who purports to follow the philosophy of ahimsa becomes his nemesis as soon as he breaches the western frontier Joe has staked as his claim: Spacemen, kook, barefoot saint, seeker, searcher, rebel, lush, pothead, idealist, bughouse intellectual, Modern Youth, whatever he was, he looked at me in the eyes for a second that contained our mutual recognition and abhorrence.56 Joe turns to Crevcoeurs Letters from an American Farmer and to Huckleberry Finn, in an attempt to resurrect a frontier credo. The New Social Movements 173 Allstons garden carved out of wilderness is a valiant endeavour to cultivate peace but the hippies freedom to nd himself in the land is portrayed as the demolition of Joes hopes for serenity. In his Wilderness Letter, Stegner had rst voiced his geography of hope as set against the fear that if American wilderness as reality and idea was insufciently valued, never again will Americans be free in their country from the noise, the exhausts, the stinks of human and automotive waste.57 The hippie movement, often an understudy in surveys of social movements, is important for its ongoing relationship to land and ecology and because, as Alice Erchols argues, More people passed through love ghettos like Haight-Ashbury than took part in SDS.58 A 1967 news report wondered whether hippies were fading into the landscape,59 so successful were they at putting down ecological roots. For example, 250 ower children set out from California in a wagon train of 63 psychedelic buses. Arriving in rural Tennessee in March 1971, they set up an organic farming commune that would sell its produce via a health store. By 1981, The Farm was a collective of 1,300 hippies on a 1,750-acre spread and its cottage industries included a school, radio station, publishing company and international hippie news service, a free clinic and their own version of the peace corps a kind of hippie Camelot which organised free ambulances as far away as the South Bronx and reforestation projects in Guatemala and Bangladesh.60 Unlike the internecine struggles that Stegner describes in his novel, the Tennessee hill folk helped the hippies and enjoyed access to their facilities in return. In 2008, The Farm is an eco-village and includes a Hippie Museum and a history of its own development on its web site.61 A gathering conservatism began to be apparent in interpreting even the most countercultural of movements from the very beginning which speaks to the hippie movements complexity. Warren Hickle in the ironic Social History of the Hippies (1970) described hippie young who sounded for all the world like young Republicans.62 Their utopian ideal of American individualism and their de-emphasising of government controls and central leadership models referred back to utopian experiments such as Brooke Farm. Similarly, in celebrating Easy Rider as the rst above-ground movie to explore hippie culture, Paul Warshow could already see that its (traditional) virtues were inseparable from its faults: gentleness, tolerance, grace, openness to experience; disconnectedness, disengagement, monotony, an emotional and intellectual vacuousness.63 The litany of ideals/failings is 174 American Culture in the 1960s Figure 5.4 A hippie walks by the intersection of Haight and Ashbury in San Francisco, California, 10 October 1970. (AP Photo) Courtesy PA Photos. typical of the way in which newspaper reports vacillated between features on graduate hippies carving out a drugless new world and virulent attacks on their supposed social pathology. The year of the hippie, 1967, began with the San Francisco Human Be-In on 14 January but also saw its ending in a three-day wake, Death of the New Social Movements 175 Hippie, on 6 October, a reaction to the violence, exploitative drug scene and bad vibrations in the formerly peaceful Haight-Ashbury district. Ironically, Taps, composed during the Civil War and traditionally played at military burial services, was played at the symbolic hippie funeral. The end of the hippies was summed up by a Haight-Ashbury shopkeeper: Now weve got lots of troublemaker types. Pseudohippies I call them . . . They dont care about anybody else but themselves.64 Distinguishing between true hippies who were friendly to everybody and opportunists selling drugs and chasing trouble became a professional occupation for journalists, as Joan Didion explores in her essay Slouching Toward Bethlehem (1967), especially once the scene crumpled and hippies dispersed. On 21 October 1967, for example, the Associated Press reported that Atlanta, the southern city that had designated itself too busy to hate, was the New Mecca for ower children and that the Peachtree/14th Street district, a traditionally residential middle-class neighbourhood that included Piedmont Park, was the hippie centre. Hippies were, the press was pleased to report, children of middle- or upper-class parents who hoped to slip out of the frame some of the newspaper people put us in. However, by September 1969, United Press International reported a showdown with the same Atlanta hippies after disturbances in Piedmont Park.65 Like members of other youth movements, hippies were socially pathologised. In news items such as Hippes May Get Air Travel Rules, it was suggested that American Airlines was trying to ensure anyone boarding aircraft be required to wear shoes and a representative of United Airplanes expressed the belief that anyone carrying a musical instrument that could not be lodged beneath a seat a hippie with a guitar should be expected to buy a half-fare ticket to transport it. Standards over hippie cleanliness were discussed in Aviation Daily and the American Civil Liberties Union challenged penalties exacted against hippies on the basis that this is the same kind of reasoning that kept Negroes in the back of the bus.66 They Wont Give Peace a Chance The anti-war movement evolved out of other social movements and was one of the most heterogeneous. The image of peace protestors as beatniks-turned-hippies protesting via love-ins was designed to damage the movement. The governments distrust of youth movements was made manifest by 1969 when Vice-President Agnew 176 American Culture in the 1960s declared that young anti-war protestors were like naughty children, too easily inuenced by communists. Individuals were often punished. Detroit poet John Sinclair, a member of the White Panther Party, was awarded a ten-year jail sentence for possession of two marijuana cigarettes. It was considered by many an excessive punishment meted out not for drugs but for anti-war activities. Sinclair served two-and-a-half years. The Washington demonstrations Mailer explores in The Armies of the Night (1968) epitomise the moment by which dissent changed to resistance, but throughout the period men and women revered as cultural experts and established intellectuals, from Dr Benjamin Spock to Rev. William Sloane Cofn, gave the lie to propaganda designed to deny the breadth and depth of the movement. Protesting the draft meant ghting against the escalation of US troops from around 23,000 in 1964 to more than 500,000 when Johnson stepped down as President in January 1969. Journalist James Fallows in What Did You Do in the Class War, Daddy? describes a draft physical in 1970, a situation satirised in the movie Greetings and via Arlo Guthries experience in Alices Restaurant (1969). Fallows remembers that students like him from Harvard and MIT manipulated reasons for medical exemption but that working-class young men from nearby Chelsea were accepted almost to a man. First, it was easy for inuential families and middle-class young men at elite universities to extricate themselves from the war, so that when in 2004 it was posited that, The paucity of Americans protesting the [Iraq] war is directly related to the paucity of Americans participating in it.67 The logic was an ironic reminder that American family lives could be left untouched by war unless a member served. Second, as Country Joe and The Fishs anthemic song Feel Like Im Fixing-to-Die Rag dramatised, even being strung out would not prevent the US military from signing up the young. Noam Chomskys rst book American Power and the New Mandarins (1969) was dedicated to the brave young men who refuse to serve in a criminal war and Joan Baez refused to pay taxes that would contribute to the continual drafting. It is unsurprising that Women Strike for Peace, founded in 1961 to End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race, should be at the forefront of protests against the draft. As Amy Swerdlows detailed study shows, women knew how to foreground the very models of fties-styled femininity that would give their political goals emotional weight and mothers protesting the endangerment of their children added a passion to the cause. On the other hand, the southern military college the Citadel, sixty-seven of whose alumni died in Vietnam, was vehement New Social Movements 177 in its support of the war: the American ghting man is dying so that these bearded, draft-dodging, dope-addicted, Communist-inspired, pseudo-intellectual cowards have the liberty and sanctuary [to disparage America].68 However, the Tet Offensive and the murder of dissenting students at Kent State were among the triggers for a change of culture even within the Citadel. College newspapers The Vigil and The Brigadier began to publish a spectrum of opinions including sympathy with dissent. More typically pro-and anti-war tensions were sited at the nexus of two generations, the one seeking to explain itself to the other in order to defuse the conict that Lewis Feuer, a member of a Berkeley faculty during the FSM, summarised as a conict between fathers and sons. The tension is dramatised in The Doors epic song The End (1967). The controversial nal line Jim Morrison screams into oblivion, Father/ Yes son?/ I want to kill you/ Mother, I want to fuck you, is often read as the archetypal Oedipal crisis. However, it is a rejection of the Apollonian tradition of the father who fails to picture what will be so limitless and free for the son in his embracing of the Dionysian feminine exuberance of the mother. When reprised in Francis Ford Coppolas Apocalypse Now (1979), The End is also an indictment of the desperate stakes forced on the young sacriced by their fathers in government. The question of how the US should extricate itself from the war coloured all shades of political opinion, from John Galbraiths How To Get Out of Vietnam (1967) and Arthur Schlesinger Jrs The Bitter Heritage: Vietnam and American Democracy, 19411966 (1967) to Mary McCarthy and Diana Trillings On Withdrawing from Vietnam: An Exchange (New York Review of Books, 1967). James Carrolls An American Requiem (1996), subtitled God, My Father, and the War That Came Between Us, chronicles the tension in his relationship with his father, Lieutenant General Joseph F. Carroll, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. A priest and member of the peace movement in the late 1960s, James anti-war sentiments force a painful breach with his father and with the idea of the nation the son has inherited. The three Carroll brothers experiences coalesce in a succinct summary of political polarisation in the era; the eldest ees the draft, the middle son follows in his fathers footsteps Carroll Sr was an FBI man before working in government and becomes an FBI agent charged with hunting down draft-dodgers such as his brother. Youngest son James hides his anti-war allegiance from his father and measures his timidity against Quaker Norman Morrison whose selfimmolation beneath Carroll Sr and Robert McNamaras ofces at the 178 American Culture in the 1960s Pentagon sickens him as it inspires his cause. Morrisons sacricial rage was recalled by McNamara as the rst protest to really compel his attention and North Vietnamese poet laureate To Huus poem quietly commemorated the moment in which Morrisons heart grew brightest.69 High-prole celebrities lent their support to the anti-war effort, working within the system and pitting themselves against it. From celebrated pediatrician Dr Benjamin Spock to Hanoi Jane Fonda, they publicised the steps one could take to oppose an unpopular war. Robert Bly donated the cheque he received as the winner of the 1969 National Book Award for Poetry to Resistance, organising against the draft, and John Lennon set up voter-registration booths at his American concerts in 1971 so that anti-war youth could vote against the war in voting Nixon out of power. When an established gure in American culture lent their support to the war, like John Wayne, or spoke out against it, like Jane Fonda, they symbolised the cultural divide over its continuation, no one more than CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite whose views were taken not only by audiences but also by government to encompass middle Americas. On 27 February 1967 during an hour-long TV special on the Tet Offensive, Cronkite declared that the only realistic, yet unsatisfactory, conclusion to draw was that the war was mired in stalemate. This was especially devastating for the government when, as Mary McCarthy summarised, The meaning of a war, if it has one, ought to be discernible in the rear, where the values being defended are situated; at the front, war itself appears senseless, a confused butchery that only the gods can understand.70 Protests known as the Moratorium demonstrations of 15 October 1969 in which more than two million Americans were known to have participated serve as a broad-brush representation of the strength of anti-war feeling that built not only among students and radicals but also religious, civic and professional groups, politicians, from Eugene McCarthy and Edward Kennedy to George McGovern, and voters across the board. The Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) founded in 1967 emphasised the rst-hand experiences of servicemen and women in Vietnam. Despite high-prole members John Kerry and Oliver Stone the organisation has received much less coverage than its signicance merits, especially since it continues as a non-prot organisation to support veterans. Winter Soldier, a little-remembered 1972 documentary, was only re-released in 2006 and is an indication that excavation of the decades neglected cultural texts reveals a more New Social Movements 179 complex mosaic of contributors to the decades movements. Soldiers and marines testied that the war to which they were consigned, or in which they volunteered to ght, led to their having carried out war crimes as the regrettable consequence of American policy. Winter Soldiers footage of the four-day 1971 investigation is shot through with something of the emotional power of South Africas Truth and Reconciliation Committee hearings of the 1990s, during which atrocities committed under the apartheid regime began to be addressed openly by some of those who perpetrated them. However, while the post-apartheid regime instigated the Committees formation, Vietnam veterans themselves acted in the wake of public exposure to atrocities such as the My Lai massacre for which Lt William Calley had been made scapegoat. It is striking that in Winter Soldier former soldiers with long hair and beards look like student protestors whose stereotyped image had typied the way anti-war protest was represented. Students played an important and sometimes tragic role in anti-war demonstrations, as on 4 May 1970 when four students were shot dead by National Guard at Kent State. Students were shot and wounded by the military at other universities including New York, New Mexico and Jackson State. In popular culture, tension between generations over the war and youth culture is best represented in a striking movie Joe (1970). Bigoted $4-an-hour factory worker Joe Curran (Peter Boyle) and $60,000-a-year advertising executive Bill Compton (Dennis Patrick) unite across class lines in their resentment of young people taking over the culture. In her rst role, Susan Sarandon is Melissa, Comptons daughter, hospitalised when she ips out on speed. When her father kills the young man he sees as the source of her lifestyle, Joe celebrates him as a hero: Id like to kill one of them. By the lms end, this ordinary Joe has murdered three hippies. Under the inuence of drugs, deciding to inltrate a commune, Joe convinces addled Bill, There is only one way out now. Clean. Everybody. Bill shoots the nal witness running to escape the massacre, who the camera reveals is Melissa. The four hippies murdered in Joe are neither guilty of drug-dealing nor of anything other than championing free love and drugs, their innocence a reminder that national guardsmen also shot innocents at Kent State. The Citadel would be among the forty-four colleges that condemned the action at Kent State and students at Mississippis all-black Jackson State openly protested the murder of the white students. What happened next is too frequently forgotten in the commemoration of Kent State as symbolic of the anti-war student movement, perhaps 180 American Culture in the 1960s because John Filos photograph, discussed in Chapter 4, is so iconic but also because when Mississippi police red on black protestors they did not expect to be vilied in the international press, and they were right. Nixon would describe students who protest on university campuses as bums.71 Citing sniper re from a university building that was never proved, police red bullets into a dormitory. Nine were wounded and two people died: Philip Gibbs studying law and a highschool student, James Earl Green, who had been taking a short cut through campus. They are commemorated by the Gibbs-Green Plaza at Jackson State, but aside from a single oral history published by Kent State in an effort to address its own symbolic centrality, the event has received little attention. From Liberalism to Neo-Conservatism A hardening conservatism was the liberal reaction to the most radical features of the counterculture including anti-war activism and separatist groups placing themselves in adversarial relationship to the nation. Norman Poderhertz, described as the conductor of the neocon orchestra,72 went so far as to initiate a campaign against the Movement in Commentary in June 1970. Those whose youthful radicalism had been spent in the 1930s began to use what Peter Clecak calls the framework of nostalgia to bolster a neo-conservative backlash. 73 Commentary published Midge Decters scathing attack on the feminist movement, New Chastity and Other Arguments Against Womens Liberation in 1972 but her Letter to the Young (and to their parents) (The Atlantic, 1975) is much more commanding in its reection on the loss of the most gifted and the most indulged generation. She succeeds in criticising the self-abasing tolerance of liberal professors who abandoned hedonistic students despite their duty of care, while quietly demonstrating how seriously a neo-conservative mothers lost hope in her nations children should be taken.74 The term neo-conservative did not come into vogue until the mid1970s but the beginning of the nations drift rightward from the Rooseveltian nation has been subject to considerable scrutiny as if there were a single moment that enshrined the end of liberalism and as if that moment is revealed at the ballot box. Johnson enjoyed a landslide victory in 1964 and as historian Ewan Morgan spells out: One out of every ve people who had voted Republican in 1960 changed sides in 1964 . . . The scale of the Democratic victory persuaded some political commentators that conservatism and the Republican party New Social Movements 181 itself were moribund.75 However, the nomination of rightist Republican Barry Goldwater in 1964 was a turning point for the Party. Unlike any Republican candidate before him, he carried all the Deep South states. Again, it could be countered that Johnsons espousal of civil rights lost him the southern bloc. Yet his landslide in 1964 was also revealing of a dangerous liberal complacency that allowed the Republican right to re-group and to attract liberals whose criticisms, like Patrick Moynihans, Nathan Glazers or indeed Podheretzs, best signalled liberalisms discontents. Conservatism gathered some force through the decade. Student group Young Americans For Freedom (YAF) mentored by William F. Buckley had enjoyed a much larger membership on inauguration than SDS which would not reach its membership peak until shortly before its demise. In The Conscience of a Conservative (1960) Barry Goldwater stressed an aggressive conservatism that would unite libertarians and the hard right and in Up From Liberalism (1959) Buckley had argued that McCathyism had already brought liberalism to boiling point. Yet it would take until 1966 for conservatives to gain central ground. In 1960 Nixon feared the left more than he wooed the right, situating Republican moderates at the centre of his campaign. It was a failing Goldwater himself would address in 1964, and that Nixon would succeed with in 1968. Once in government Nixon licensed VicePresident Agnew to maintain the right-wing spirit that would continually remind the electorate of the conservative strength that lay beneath. Through Agnews biting comments on anti-war activists as professional anarchists and the liberal media as elitist snobs, Nixon mobilised those radical rightists like the John Birchers and blue-collar workers life Peter Boyles Joe, as well as more sophisticated readers of the National Review. Traditional conservative attacks on federal reforms such as Johnsons Great Society programmes, already losing ground to the war, successfully combined with neoconservative attacks on liberalism and the New Left. In turn, the New Left had continually highlighted the weaknesses in liberalism. In Culture and Politics (1959), C. Wright Mills had identied the young intelligentsia as the social group that would shake the establishment, an idea taken up by Herbert Marcuse in OneDimensional Man (1964) and underlined by SNCC and SDS. However, the 1964 and 1968 Democratic Conventions were the public theatre in which liberalisms downturn can be best seen, as returned to at different points across this book. When George McGovern could not turn the political tide in 1968, it became more apparent that the Democratic 182 American Culture in the 1960s Party had lost the liberal-coalition-that-might-have-been: Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr on a platform of liberal-socialist reform at home and an end to the war abroad. Disenchanted with liberalism in the wake of violence, the surge further right took many forms: religious groups balking at the lowering of moral standards in the media and the culture; cold warriors holding out for a win in Vietnam and reacting against plans to withdraw; and states righters still smarting under the legal expectation to racially integrate. By the 1980s Samuel Huntington was arguing that conservatism was a return to cultural norms following the disharmony of the sixties while John Schwartz defended the many hidden successes not always immediately apparent but now embedded in the culture that were a direct result of liberal politics in the 1960s. Such disagreements would characterise the culture wars during which liberal programmes were revisited. African American conservative Shelby Steele worked on four Great Society programmes and later espoused Black Power politics. These experiences form the basis of his 1990s critique of the redemptive liberalism he believes atrophied post-1960s liberal thought, leaving only a futile sense of moral authority. He argues that African Americans lost out because the nations need to redeem itself in the 1960s made of them a sociological people who remain contingent in American life.76 Steeles thesis recalls a 1968 CBS programme, In Search of a Past, part of the Emmy-award-winning series Of Black America which argued that while African Americans were not yet integrated, it would prove equally impossible for them to forge a connection with Africa. In Toward A Future That Has No Past (1972) Orlando Patterson argued instead that the historic choice faced by African Americans was to transcend their past, the connes and grip of a cultural heritage, to become the most truly modern of all peoples a people who feel no need for a nation, a past, or a particularistic culture.77 This futureoriented statement from a controversial black historian re-envisions contingency as modernity but the ironic reversal of identity politics also recalls the existentialism that Norman Mailer espoused in which the African American subject was the distillation of the modern, alienated gure at the heart of jazz and Beat culture, Hipsterdom and Black Power politics. Criticism of afrmative-action programmes ensured that race remained a central focus of the hot culture wars and neocons from Irving Kristol and Glen Loury bemoaned what they saw as the state of American pluralism by targeting multiculturalism as it derived from 1960s emphases on identity politics. Conservative criticism of a supposedly politically correct reication of race and ethnicity ensured New Social Movements 183 members of the sixties liberal elite such as Arthur Schlesinger Jr would join the fray to argue multi-culti forced a disuniting of the vital democratic centre that was the nations liberal heart. There is always a tendency for revolutions to consume and destroy their creators or for the revolutionaries to shift sides or burn out. The burned-out lives of movement organisers are dramatised in Alice Walkers Meridian (1976) and Julius Lesters And All Our Wounds Forgiven (1994) and a number of those whose careers were founded on the platforms of the new social movements have been chastised in a cultural slap-in-the-face for shifting from the New Left to the neoconservative Right, as in Eric Lotts The Disappearing Public Intellectual (2005). However, the same grass-roots organising that opened the decade has also outlasted the sixties, often in the form of what Charles Marsh calls, respectfully, curmudgeonly activism,78 like that which has kept Rev. Ed King, the white Tougaloo chaplain and one of the MFDP delegation to Atlantic City, involved in ghting for better health care in Mississippi. It is the same indefatigable community concern that made SNCCs Unita Blackwell into Mississippis rst African American woman mayor. Holding fast to sixties principles or eschewing them in a disappointed conservative volte-face are equally prevalent responses to a turbulent era, reactions to which continue to dominate many contemporary debates, as summarised in the title of SNCC historian Howard Zinns memoir You Cant Be Neutral on a Moving Train: A Personal History of Our Times (1994). Conclusion The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy The ideals and the failures of the 1960s echo powerfully. Nostalgia not only harks back to a lost past but suggests the future may be lost too because American culture is still marked by some of the problems new social movements set out to solve. This may be one reason why Todd Gitlin compares his need to nd a romantic foothold in the sixties with the myth of the magnicent French resistance [which] turns out to have been rather punier than we imagined.1 The deication of an authentic sixties risks a loss of intellectual scepticism; the idea that any facet of the decades culture could be puny or anodyne is anathema to those who lived at the barricades, and for whom the decade sustains its glories and glamour regardless of failures, as Gitlins Letters to a Young Activist (2003) explores. A reason to return to the decade as an ideological touchstone is to reclaim the sense of social agency in civil rights and student politics, literature and art, comedy and music. In the historical moment in which individuals came to voice and the cultural was celebrated as experiential, the importance of the individual began to be worn away in the poststructuralist move toward decentring the subject. The problem of how to recall and reproduce the urgency with which contemporary issues resonated exercises those of us who return to the era to plumb its images. It is especially difcult when the dominant popular representation of the civil rights era has been as an integrationist success story; movies and ctions function in self-congratulatory, wish-fullling ways involving the amelioration of racism and white-on-black violence. Even the most incisive of 1960s directors have been co-opted to this trend. John Frankenheimer made The Manchurian Candidate (1962) and Seven Days in May (1964) as pointed critiques. When he adapted Marshall Fradys biography of George Wallace in 1997, his black aide was elevated to a central character against which the audience might 186 American Culture in the 1960s measure Wallaces shifting stance on race. Wallace did have two black attendants who cared for the invalid in his last years and Eddie Holcey, at Wallaces behest in 1979, pushed him down the aisle of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church so that he could apologise for his racial misdeeds to the congregation sitting in Dr Kings former church: I have learned what suffering means in a way that was impossible before I was shot. I think I can understand something of the pain that black people have had to endure. I know that I contributed to that pain. I can only ask you all for forgiveness.2 His confession was followed by the singing of Amazing Grace and expressions of compassion. It is this scene that closes Fradys study of the Alabama congressman who had come as close to fascism as his populism would allow by Kings death in 1968. And it is this scene that is recalled in the documentary Four Little Girls (1997) when Wallace embarrasses Holcey by presenting him to director Spike Lee as his best friend. African American characters are often messianic and morally reliable guides but while the black character is redeemer of the white, the white is usually foregrounded.3 The nations turn toward confession accelerated in the 1990s, as personied by President Clinton, and has been criticised by public intellectual Patricia Williams and lampooned by comedian Dennis Leary. The cult of apology is satirised in Adam Mansbachs novel Angry Black White Boy (2005). Macon Detournay grows up in Boston which saw some of the most violent racial clashes over bussing, the controversial method of ensuring the racial integration of schools. In 1998 a student at Columbia University in New York, incensed by the acquittal of police indicted for beating Rodney King and inspired by hiphop, Macon starts a riot by burning a police car, the rst in a series of criminal acts he believes will avenge the African Americans he idolises and fetishises. He becomes a notorious media anti-hero in a parody of 1960s-styled performances of dissent a persona he fails to understand or transform except into robberies and hold-ups and a futile attempt to cast off his whiteness by crossing over into blackness. When he organises a Day of Apology for whites to make amends for the nations racial sins, it descends into chaos. Writing in 1988, intellectual historian Barbara Melosh feared a sanitized version of civil rights had entered the canon of consensus history and bemoaned novelists silence on this issue, silence she feared resulted from a modernist and postmodernist divorce between ction and history.4 While political agency is made more ambivalent in postmodern terms, the shibboleth of uidity can be undone by texts which encode racist violence and conict in the continuous present The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 187 tense, like Mansbachs novel. Julius Lesters And All Our Wounds Forgiven (1994) and Anthony Grooms Bombingham (2001) convey post-civil rights conict and despair. Historian Vincent Harding has noted the bleeding ulcers, nervous breakdowns, mysterious ailments [that] took their toll on young lives and former activists working for voter registration in the South, such as Lesters Robert Card and Alice Walkers Meridian, suffer debilitating versions of post-traumatic stress syndrome. Grooms Vietnam combatant Walter in Bombingham suffers a deep psychological and physical toll that was rarely represented at the time. Junius Edwards If We Must Die (1963) and John A. Williams Captain Blackman (1972) are exceptions that prove the rule. Lester plumbs the depths of post-civil rights pain via Robert Card when he is abused in jail by a white sheriff who runs his knife over Cards penis until he is aroused against his will and forces two black men to perform oral sex on him. Death would make Card a martyr and the sheriff knows how to shake his faith in self and survival without risking such distinction. Later, Card acknowledges, I cannot think of anyone in this century who lived in constant relationship to death like those of us who sought to make America whole and broke ourselves into pieces instead.5 Novelists who write beyond the historical ending of the decade enter discursive terrain in which characters are emotionally disabled precisely because of the continuity they feel with the 1960s. The Persistence of History The history of new social movements is so recent that personal reenactments and commemorations are legion, reinforced as mythology as well as history. In 2000, President Clinton, Coretta Scott King and civil rights leaders retraced the Selma to Montgomery March that turned into Bloody Sunday on 7 March 1965, when George Wallaces state troopers and Sheriff Jim Clarks deputies beat marchers. They marked the 35th anniversary on Edmund Pettus Bridge, a solid signier of Movement past in popular memory. However, ve years later veterans who had marched every year were beginning to get worried: Older folks keep marching but the younger people arent getting into it.6 Whether the sacrices of older generations will continue to be commemorated is a persistent worry and a vexing question that relates to how the violence of the era should be remembered. Journalist Adam Nossiter covering the 1994 trial of Byron De La Beckwith for murdering Medgar Evers in 1963 felt that the courtroom 188 American Culture in the 1960s seesawed disorientingly, from that early 1960s world to 1994 and back again, over and over. The age of the case was visually striking as elderly witnesses, young in 1964, repeated their testimony. A photographer described the trial as better than anything that anyone could conjure up on television or even on the Court Channel because it was history.7 The spatio-temporal distance between 19634 and the 1990s is collapsed again in the 1996 movie Ghosts of Mississippi (released in Europe as Ghosts of the Past): the mimetic pull of the narrative celebrates closure on thirty years struggle for justice. Racist murders make pressing demands on collective memory and on the nations capacity to withstand the violent history that haunts race relations. In Ghosts of Mississippi, a character asks, When are these fellows gonna get it through their heads that the 1960s are over? but is met with silence. Whether the emphasis is deferred justice Never Too Late (to do the right thing) is the title of Mississippi prosecutor Bobby DeLaughters 2001 memoir of the trial or on failure to nd closure, the long 1960s is a touchstone in memory studies. In George Bushs inaugural address of 1989 he declared: The nal lesson of Vietnam is that no great nation can long afford to be sundered by a memory. Alison Luries The War Between the Tates (1974) is set in 196970 and its nal line Mommy, will the war end now? resonates with the knowledge that the war would not end for four more years and that its effects continue, while Tim OBriens novel In the Lake of the Woods (1994) exposes the My Lai massacre as much harder to put to rest or suppress than Bushs statement might suppose. Bringing the war home was the summative anti-war slogan; it signied the importance of disrupting American culture at the levels of government, politics, business and media. Michael Herrs Dispatches (1977), for example, closes with the mantra, Vietnam, Vietnam, Vietnam. Weve all been there, to acknowledge the prosthetic memory of those who were never there but for whom the place, made synonymous with war in American cultural production, forms part of the consciousness of the nation. What they did in or about Vietnam is a marker in the campaign biography of each Presidential candidate in its aftermath. This was pronounced in 2004, as satirised by Christopher Buckley: Neither candidate shall mention the word Vietnam. In the event that either candidate utters said word in the course of a debate, the debate shall be concluded immediately and declared forfeit to the third-party candidate.8 George W. Bush was recipient of ve deferments of his draft notice between 1963 and 1967 which allowed him to serve in the Texas National Guard. In Mort Sahls blistering stand-up in 2004, the ques- The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 189 tion What did you do in the war, daddy? related to the war in Iraq and Bushs answer was deemed to be I started it.9 Former US Navy Lieutenant in Vietnam and a Vietnam Veteran Against the War, Senator John Kerrys campaign for Democratic nomination hinged on those two biographical facts and endeared him to his generation whether they fought or protested. His navy career recalled Kennedys and his critique of Vietnam was the basis for a parallel critique of incumbent Bushs foreign policies. Joe Klein went so far as to argue in the documentary Going Upriver: The Long War of John Kerry (2004) that Kerry brought the Vietnam War to its real end because, thanks to his careful approach to the PoW-MIA hearings of the 1990s, he and his senate committee reported it was highly unlikely that any men missing in action remained prisoners. This pronouncement allowed Clinton to nally drop the trade embargo and resume diplomatic relations with Vietnam in 1994. However, Kerry failed to win out against Bush and a factor in that defeat was the creation of the group Swiftboat Veterans for Truth which tried to cast aspersions on Kerrys war record, securing Bush a comfortable margin over his opponent for the rst time since Kerry had won the nomination. The shadow of Vietnam continues to fall over American politics. Paul Connerton allows that how societies remember is inextricable from what they are encouraged or instructed to remember. Susan Sontag argued that collective memory could not exist but that ideologically substantiated discourse dictates precisely how a society should feel about its past. Collective memory is a mesh that connects people via institutions, traditions and conventions but there is also evidence of a powerfully personal imperative to connect individual and family history to the public sphere in the form of events and ofcial histories. Joseph Lelyveld subtitles his sixties memoir Omaha Blues (2005) A Memory Loop and tries to distinguish a particular circuit of memories that I feel driven to retrace and connect, where possible, to something like an objective record or the memories of someone else, in hopes of glimpsing what was once real.10 Todd Gitlin opens his history of SDS with, I was not living in history, but in biography.11 Coming of age in the era involved an apocalyptic sense of doom, of waiting for the summer rain made iconic in The Doors mournful The End. The omnipresent threat of nuclear disaster was drilled into schoolchildren alerted to take cover under their desks. As a child James Carroll likened himself to mad mascot Alfred E. Neuman whose ironic slogan was What, me worry? and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice who was eight when Sixteenth 190 American Culture in the 1960s Figure C.1 The Doughboy Statue, Overton Park, Memphis, 10 July 1967, Memphis Commercial Appeal. Photographer unspecied. Mississippi Valley Collection. Street Church was bombed allows: I remember more than anything, the cofns . . . The small cofns. And the sense that Birmingham wasnt a very safe place.12 The omnipresence of death and violence characterises sixties memoir. Jack Hoffman, brother of Abbie, drafted into the army in 1961, remembers that travelling to South East Asia as an army medic sounded attractive until the hard heav- The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 191 iness of those body bags, unyielding of meaning, was my introduction to the Vietnam War.13 In James Conaways memoir Memphis Afternoons (1993), he recalls ordering peyote by mail, boiling the cacti into a nauseating green liquid and lying in Memphiss Overton Park waiting for something to happen but when the landscape turned sinister, where I most wanted to be was home. At home is his father who, having opened his sons mail, wants to know the meaning of this peyote business; while the father wants to ensure the son will not persist with drugs, the son is concerned his privacy has been violated. Their exchange is limited: We never discussed the peyote or the opened letter, just as we never discussed anything important that held the promise of conict, as most things did by now, from integration to the draft. Importantly, what remains unexpressed is the cultural shift from the last, lingering moment of the Adult in America, the monarch whose omnipotence comes by virtue of age and masculinity and not much else, a false entitlement shared by Dads entire generation that would be swept away in an angry social tide I cant claim to have foreseen or taken a signicant role in.14 What is especially revealing about Conaways memoir is his refusal to place his youthful self at the centre of the era, as in so many memory texts by Boomers. Instead, he allows that he and his friends were insecure and apprehensive of the opportunities and dangers inherent in the next social order. Dividing the generations risks losing the complexities Conaway admits into his memoir: [T]he perspectives that made us contemptuous of the contradictions in our fathers world would also make us suspicious of the revolutionary certitudes and pieties of the new age. We were in a sense the nowhere generation.15 Conaways southern geography contributes to his sense of not being at the centre of things yet the South of the 1960s is scrutinised time and again in ensuing decades for its symbolism as the nations hope for racial peace. Many southern writers farmer and environmentalist Wendell Berry (The Hidden Wound ), novelist Ellen Douglas (Truth: Four Stories I Am Old Enough To Tell ) and historian Tim Tyson (Blood Done Sign My Name) have focused on memory as a moral resource. Tony Kushner, who grew up in Lake Charles, Louisiana returned home with the Broadway musical Caroline, or Change (2004), in which he conveyed how incredibly tiny things become metaphoric for enormous things. When black maid Caroline (Tonya Pinkins) is instructed to keep any change her white charge Noah leaves in his pockets to teach him the value of money, a small lesson escalates into a culture clash amidst the racial wars of 1963. 192 American Culture in the 1960s Kushner has said: Im interested in moments in history where a lot seems to be changing and people are either struggling to not change with the times or struggling to change.16 Finding regions or cities culpable of the events that occurred in them was a media pastime in the 1960s. Chicago journalist Mike Royko, for example, made San Francisco guilty of failing to quash the hippie movement. When hippies requested a permit to demonstrate in 1968, he was ironic: permission should be granted so Chicago might teach them the lesson that San Francisco had failed to teach because Chicago is not as easily capitulated by fads, excited by goofs, or shocked.17 Chicago had its own image problems, however, not least because of high-prole violence, like that which followed Dr Kings symbolic reiteration of Martin Luther when he nailed his measures for improvement in the citys race relations to the door of Chicagos City Hall, or the clashes with police that accompanied the 1968 Democratic Convention. Prior to the Convention, plywood walls were erected so that delegates staying in hotels on the Loop would not see Chicagos slums on their way to the Convention centre.18 The southern city provides a revealing case study of the effort it can take to change with the times. Southern cities and states were made symbolic of the national failure of liberal democracy. Inevitably, Dallas was judged and found wanting after President Kennedys assassination: Dallas had claimed the ignominious reputation as a city of fanatics and its name might never recover from this double infamy.19 A Life expos dubbed Dallas smug for dismissing the murder as a communist plot. Reporters pointed to the citys glittering skyscrapers shadowing ramshackle Negro homes and signs of shame such as a billboard urging Save our Republic defaced by salacious grafti and a sign urging the government to Impeach Earl Warren.20 After Dr Kings murder, Memphis raised around $4 million to sell itself to a disapproving world with Mayor Loeb, whose intransigence in the face of black sanitation workers had brought King to the city, travelling to New York to lure business to Memphis. However, when a commissioned study of the citys social and economic health suggested its problems were old and intractable, related to a legacy of political bossism and resistance to change, the report was suppressed by tacit agreement among Chamber of Commerce members, politicians and the press.21 Much later, in 1991, the National Civil Rights Museum was conceived as a project to conserve the Lorraine Motel and to turn a site renowned only for the murder committed there into an institute for commemoration and social The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 193 change. Birmingham would follow suit enshrining and changing Kelly Ingram Park. But for Birmingham . . . The Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth, Birminghams longest-serving and most assiduous ghter for civil rights, recalled that while Kennedy was a gradualist in terms of legislation, it was Birmingham that turned the tide for the President: But for Birmingham, we would not be here today. The phrase summarised the extent to which Alabamas most industrial city has been the epicentre of efforts to measure the impact of protests to secure racial justice and federal legislation. In 1961 CBS made a television documentary Who Speaks for Birmingham? and Lyndon Johnson selected the city as the target for federal enforcement of the Voting Rights Act in 1965; in 1969 Operation New Birmingham succeeded in bringing together civic and industry power elites in an effort to remake the city renowned for police brutality; and in 1990, tragically, the city set new records for violent deaths.22 Images of Birmingham have been dominated by violence. In 2004 Warhols Mustard Race Riot, inspired by Life magazine photographs of the attacks on children in Kelly Ingram Park, achieved a record sum. Today, the city is a renowned medical research centre, its Downtown dominated by University of Alabama at Birmingham; it is a banking hub and headquarters for at least two Fortune 500 companies. In 2002 the legend Heart of Dixie that had been a xture on the states car licence plates since the early 1950s was replaced by Stars Fell on Alabama, a telling shift from Confederate pride to a romantic reference to an 1833 meteor shower and the popular jazz song. In 2006, Birmingham was renamed The Diverse City, its traditional Magic City having been dismissed as too generic. A series of advertisements emphasise cultural attractions including world-class entertainment, conference facilities, ne dining and civil rights history: Remember the courage of the past to appreciate the triumphs of today in Birminghams Civil Rights District.23 In 1963, however, culture had retreated, as one resident bemoaned in Look magazine: the city has a civic symphony, civictheater groups, an art museum, a botanical garden and a zoo. But the Broadway road shows are not coming to Birmingham. And our Music Club season almost failed this year because of ticket cancellations. Many people in Birmingham are afraid to go out after dark.24 Birmingham was the largest segregated city in the US in the 1960s and it functioned as a barometer for the racial health or sickness of the 194 American Culture in the 1960s nation. In 1963 the city was even declared dead. Eulogies were typied by lawyer and resident Charles Morgan Jrs plea for a national effort to help resuscitate the city: the communitys life has been snuffed out by fear and violence. What has happened here is a timely warning of what can happen anywhere if men and women who say they believe in American ideals the good people will not stand up for their convictions . . . In Birmingham, fear and cowardice have in effect suspended the First Amendment.25 In the mid-1960s, Birmingham was the nations racial crucible from which Dr King would write his Letter from Birmingham Jail. Violence against Freedom Riders in 1961 had already ensured that Birmingham hit the headlines and in January 1963 SCLC launched Project C for Confrontation in the city King described as having the ugliest record of brutality in the South, hoping for a notable civil rights victory after the strategic indecision of the Albany campaign. In 1963 it was the black children of Birmingham who forced President Kennedy to act in the name of civil rights and Birmingham city ofcials to nally agree to desegregation policies that had already been before the council. Almost a thousand black children were jailed, some as young as ve or six, in the citys fairgrounds because the jails were full. The children were moral witnesses apparently fearless in the face of Eugene Bull Connor, ironically Chief Commissioner for Public Safety, who in that role allowed his men to unleash police dogs and re water cannons on the children demonstrating in Kelly Ingram Park. The Birmingham campaign harnessed the media as no other campaign; photographs and footage of children lashed by water were dramatic and the national media mistakenly recorded a much larger group of protesters than had actually marched. Controversy over an iconic picture reects contradictions in the medias representation of Birminghams complex racial history. Fifteen-year-old Walter Gadsen, captured (see Figure C.2) by the camera Bill Hudson hid in his jacket, denied in interview with Jet magazine that he had been involved in the demonstration. He was, he said, an observer caught up in history when he crossed the street. He was also a member of a black middle-class family who disagreed with the form the protests took. Ofcer Dick Middleton, it has since been argued, was actually trying to control the German Shepherd snapping at the boys torso. Birmingham journalist Diane McWhorter used the image to argue in 2001 that the Big Truth about segregation was never black and white, though neither participant wished to add his thoughts to her study.26 However, interviewed for a British documentary in The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 195 Figure C.2 Birmingham Protest, Walter Gadsen and police dog. Photograph by Bill Hudson, 3 May 1963. AP Photos. Courtesy PA Photos. 1988 Gadsen had stated, Im glad I went to the park that day because Hudson was lucky enough to catch me with his camera and the two shook hands for the television cameras.27 Whatever the story behind this photograph may be, despite reluctance on President Kennedys part to intervene, and despite criticism of putting children on the movements front lines, such images are memorable. As historians David Garrow and Peter Ling point out, the press was ready to leave Birmingham when it was decided that the Childrens Crusade should go ahead and, although King vacillated over the safety of allowing children to become involved, they were willing to act. Lifted into the air by the force of water cannons, bitten, bruised and jailed, the sight of American police assaulting schoolchildren was the image of brutal resistance the movement needed. The images were a turning point; they recalled Sharpeville, the 1960 anti-apartheid demonstration in South Africa when police killed sixty-nine, and they lent something of the same moral strength to the Birmingham campaign. Remembering Birmingham in 1963 or Memphis in 1968 is to return to segregationist intransigence and in Birminghams case to the Klan 196 American Culture in the 1960s violence that made the city a citadel of race hatred known as Bombingham. Despite the success of the May demonstrations, Sixteenth Street Baptist church was bombed on Sunday, 15 September 1963. It was the fourth bombing in a month and one of more than twenty over the previous eight years, including one that destroyed Rev. Fred Shuttlesworths home. It had been preceded by the rst urban breakdown of social order in the 1960s, on 10 May 1963. When A. G. Gastons motel and Dr Kings brothers home were bombed following a Klan rally, the city exploded too. The murder of Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins was the nal offence in a series of Klan retaliations to the success of the Birmingham campaign. The citys efforts to do the right thing by prosecuting the bombers were blocked when FBIs J. Edgar Hoover, no supporter of civil rights, ofcially closed the investigation in 1968, despite having the names of four men strongly believed to have been involved. The dogged determination of Bill Baxley who pursued the case on coming to ofce as Alabama Attorney General in 1971 was crucial in ensuring it was re-opened. Slowly over subsequent decades the city would rebuild its image by facing its past and prosecuting the bombers. Bill Hudsons picture of Walter Gadsen epitomises the citys overarching project to address violence as an image which has haunted Birmingham as well as a factor of its civil rights history. It is reproduced as one of the bronze statues that forms part of James Drakes installation of a Freedom Walk through Kelly Ingram Park. The inscription reads: This sculpture is dedicated to the foot soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery, they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses and bombings. They were the fodder in the advance against injustice, warriors of a just cause. They represent humanity unshaken in their rm belief in their nations commitment to liberty and justice for all. We salute these men and women who were the soldiers of the great cause Richard Arrington Jr, Mayor of Birmingham, May 1993. In 2001 Diane McWhorter returned to memories of her childhood in a panoramic account of Birminghams white elite which follows many returns in various cultural forms, such as sportswriter Paul Hemphill who in Leaving Birmingham (1993) recalls his blue-collar childhood and tries to understand the climate in which racial violence could receive public approbation. Birmingham is the setting for Vicki Covingtons novel The Last Hotel for Women (1996), its backdrop the violence against Freedom Riders in 1961, and for Sena Jeter Naslunds T he Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 197 Figure C.3 James Drakes memorial sculpture. Sharon Monteith. 198 American Culture in the 1960s Four Spirits (2003) in which white and black characters are focalisers through which the events of May 1963 are channelled. Any Day Now, a popular success on cable televisions Lifetime channel, shuttled back and forth from the early 1960s to its present of 1998, an interracial friendship its focus, but of all the cultural productions that return to Birmingham, Tony Grooms Bombingham is the most aesthetically interesting; it is as critically diagnostic as McWhorters cultural history. The visceral hatred captured graphically in Charles Moores and Bill Hudsons photographs is held back to a slow burn in this meditative novel in which a black child comes of age in Titusville where Condoleezza Rice grew up, and in Vietnam. Bombingham is set against a background of domestic racial terrorism and war: Birmingham in 1963 and Vietnam in the 1970s are both war zones. Walter Burkes name may be a composite of Walter Gadsen and Burke Marshall, Assistant Attorney General for civil rights and the White Houses representative who was almost permanently stationed in Birmingham during 1963. Interracial tension is palpable in Grooms novel; rather than enumerating what King in Letter from Birmingham Jail called the stinging darts of segregation, its focus is spiralling violence. When Walters friend Haywood dies beside him in Vietnam, the trauma triggers his memory of losing his best friend in a racist killing on 15 September 1963. In this way, Grooms commemorates the boy generally referred to as one of two other black children shot on the same day as the church bombing. Grooms Lamar Burrell is a ctional version of Virgil Lamar Ware, described in the African American-owned Birmingham World as a seventh-grader and a very quiet and Christian little boy, shot by two sixteen-year-old white boys discovered to be Eagle Scouts as he rode on a bicycle.28 Richard Rorty has argued that novelists are primarily redescriptors of the past, but while Grooms represents social breakdown by funnelling it through the story of a family breaking apart, he refuses to dilute the terror by emphasising the individual at the expense of broader historical forces: family gatherings always return to stories of lynchings and bombings. Grooms ensures that imagined characters and historical gures originate out of the same unruly and violent conditions. The subject is decentred to precise effect. Walter is made permeable, seeing his sister, Lamar and Haywood as extensions of himself, and Birmingham 1963 remains a current event in this 2001 novel. Walter Benjamin argued that history can only break down images, not stories, but Bombingham is a representational struggle in which Grooms integrates images of Vietnam The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 199 with civil rights iconography with a striking a sense of contemporaneity that the US and UKs war in Iraq has only served to reinforce. Bombinghams publication in 2001 also coincided with the conviction of a former Klansman for the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church thirty-eight years previously.29 There is a contemporary obsession with claiming connection to memories we do not have. It is an obsession that Walter Benn Michaels has argued is peculiarly American and animates memory studies in their focus on prosthetic memories.30 The claim that I was there in the vanguard, participating in events that are legendary, is a natural phenomenon. The National Voting Rights Museum in Selma, Alabama, for example, includes a wall with the slogan We Were There followed by messages and memories written by marchers. However, the same tendency adds a disturbing footnote to this case study of Birmingham. A federal district judge James Ware repeatedly claimed that Virgil Ware was his brother and that he was riding the bicycle across Birmingham when Virgil, perched on the handlebars, was shot dead. In fact, Virgil Wares brother James still lived in Birmingham when the fabrication came to light and is quoted as saying: I am hopeful my brothers memory and place in history has not been harmed by the discovery of these unfortunate events.31 False memories or memories of events in which a participant embellishes their role can appear in many forms and have begun to be explored in popular cultural productions as well as by psychologists. In an episode of television series The Education of Max Bickford entitled Revisionism (2001), an African American professor represents herself in speaking engagements as a former Freedom Rider threatened in Birmingham who protested alongside Dr King. Her memories are proved false and the kudos she has earned is dissipated by her calculated betrayal of the past. Bickford (Richard Dreyfuss) asks whether it matters very much if she inspires students to think about the past since the events she described did happen. His African American university principal (Regina Taylor) quickly educates him: People died. You cant take ownership of that. It disrespects their memory.32 From the Boomers to the Y Generation: Wont Get Fooled Again When Bill Clinton entered the White House, Toni Morrison praised him as Americas rst black President, blacker than any actual black person who could ever be elected in our childrens lifetime, and when 200 American Culture in the 1960s the scandal over his association with Monica Lewinsky threatened to engulf him, she named it Slaughtergate.33 Morrisons rhetoric is undergirded by sixties cultural values; Clinton had usurped power and then signally failed to assimilate. She closes her editorial with an activist ourish: she will march to Washington DC to prevent the collapse of the Constitution. With hindsight, Eric Lott has argued that with Clintons election a generational legacy had at last to be confronted.34 The image of the 1960s has been safeguarded by around 75 million baby boomers, guardians of their youth who across the culture industries retell their coming-of-age stories and reinvest in the era. Even satirising their self-centredness and newfound well-being is frequently the province of a boomer, as in Tom Wolfes description of The Me Decade and P. J. ORourkes knowing irony: We changed the world. Life has never been the same since that youthquake of forty years ago . . . We got married, had families, straightened out, got married again, had more families, straightened out (really). There can be no greater sacrice than that a man lay down his lifestyle for others.35 While civil rights often invokes a soft-focus return, the boomer is a source of wry humour and knowing critique. The boomer character is complacent and/or conicted, developing into the cut-throat corporate raider (Gordon Gecko in Wall Street, 1987) or ailing around as an old hippie (The Dude in The Big Lebowski, 1998). He or she is often an educator whose radical sympathies the students nd outmoded. In Jonathan Franzens novel The Corrections (2001), for example, Chip Lambert is a conicted university professor who gives up his radical critique of late capitalist American society: Criticizing a sick culture, even if the criticism accomplished nothing, had always felt like useful work. But if the supposed sickness wasnt a sickness at all . . .36 Like Grooms Bombingham, Franzens exploration of American culture places a family at the centre but the sickness it explores derives not a little from sixties ideas of youth as concept rather than chronology. In 1961 at a Whitehouse conference on ageing, President Kennedy declared that adding years to the lifespan as a result of science and medicine was indeed progress, but our objective must be to add new life to those years. Steve Lohr remembers Kennedys words as he recalls progressive images of retirees in Sun City: The worlds First Active Retirement Community for people aged 55 and better was built outside Phoenix, Arizona in 1960 and registers the shift whereby the freedom not to work in the retirement golden years rst began to be sold as a lifestyle.37 In Christopher Buckleys Boomsday (2007), The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 201 boomers have taken Kennedy at his word. The value that boomers who put off retirement have added to their twilight years is corporate corruption and the retirees toast government insolvency as they career around the golf course. Boomsday recalls Kurt Vonneguts short story Welcome to the Monkey House (1968) with its Federal Ethical Suicide project but is also a satirical response to topical fears about the pension payout that boomers expect and that the nation cannot easily afford. In Boomsday, 1960s youth has run up such social security debts that Americas twenty-rst-century youth led by twenty-nine-yearold blogger Cassandra Devine threatens to enforce euthanasia: a Natural Transitioning whereby the 30 per cent hike in taxes for under-35s, designed to pay for retired boomers and to subsidise their longevity, will be offset by their promise to self-destruct. Cassandra breaks open a boomer monopoly on social protest: We arent going to get Congress to act responsibly, to stop piling up endless debt and entitlements and passing it all on to the next generation, without a little dancin in the street.38 She urges members of the beleaguered Y generation to storm the gates of retirement communities like Sun City, and to campaign against the Ungreatest Generation who dodged the draft, snorted cocaine, made self-indulgence a virtue.39 She makes the cover of Time and like many boomers before her is declared the voice of her generation. The youngest commissioner of Social Security in US history by the end of the novel, Cassandra prophesier of catastrophe is still trying to avert this one. Buckleys provocative novel taps into a 1960s sub-genre that included The Doors Five To One (1968) and movies such as Wild in the Streets (1968) and Gas-s-s-s (1970), discussed in Chapter 2. It engages with an idea that conservative critic Stephen Carter advanced at the height of the culture wars, when he argued that most Americans despise the sixties and that while die-hard liberals fail to apprehend this, most voters are tired of being blamed for everything that is wrong.40 However, representative sixties gures discussed in these pages have not just faded away. While the margins are seen as symbolically central across much of this study, those who occupied them in the 1960s often entered the mainstream by the end of the twentieth century the mainstream, in turn, lling up with cultural commentators for whom dissent was a patriotic norm. Amiri Baraka, discussed in Chapter 1, is a case in point. He became the recipient of a Pen/Faulkner Award and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Barakas journey was a typical trajectory from radical margins to cultural centre. However, in 2002 he was castigated by the 202 American Culture in the 1960s governor of New Jersey who demanded his resignation as the states poet laureate for writing the poem Somebody Blew up America after the 11 September 2001 attacks. Baraka was back in the news, so much so that one commentator compared Governor McGreevey vs Baraka with Senator Joe McCarthy railing against Lenny Bruce for opening the door for unbridled debate on societys dark secrets.41 Writers who made their names through the cult texts of the 1960s have reacted as strongly as any other boomers to the sixties re-creation in subsequent decades. In Hocus Pocus (1990), Kurt Vonneguts narrator, a Vietnam veteran, named Eugene Debs Hartke after the socialist politician, is a prison guard who masterminds a prison rebellion because in late middle age in a millennial 2001 he feels cut loose in a thoroughly looted, bankrupt nation. The racially segregated prison where predominantly black prisoners are served a diet of I Love Lucy is a quotidian reminder of social failure. The novel is an exegesis of the balancing act involved in honouring the past while using it as a psychodramatic prop through which to garner hope in the present and faith in the future. Looking back in ction or commentary has provoked some critical reviews of the sixties as it has impacted on subsequent decades. In 1989, Marxist Alex Callincos probed the heart of declension insofar as it relates to the perceived failure of the white middle-class members of the radical counterculture to change the world. He is relentless in his excoriation of radicals who settled, for whom nostalgic returns to the past stand in for lost political energy: What could be more reassuring for a generation drawn towards and then away from Marxism by the political ups and downs of the past . . . than to be told . . . there is nothing they can do to change the world. Resistance is reduced to the knowing consumption of cultural products perhaps the postmodern works of art whose authors have sought to embody in them this kind of thinking, but if not, any old soap opera will do just as well.42 While in The Making of the Counterculture (1969) Theodore Roszak could predict that Technocracys Children were giving shape to something that looks like the saving vision our endangered civilization requires,43 the radical factions that broke away were later seen as traducers of the sixties as ennobled by commemorators of Kennedy and King and as recalled as enterprising rather than antinomian. In 1971 Ihab Hassan dening the postmodern turn in American culture equated antinomianism, apocalypticism and annihilation with the The Sixties and its Cultural Legacy 203 counterculture and Eric Hobsbawm would assert in The Age of Extremes (1993) that the fusion of the demotic and the antinomian was the distinguishing feature of those changes, as captured in the title of Nicholas von Hoffmans We Are the People Our Parents Warned Us Against (1968).44 In Philip Roths ironically titled American Pastoral (1997), for example, Seymour Swede Levov, a self-congratulatory product of postwar liberalism, imagines himself a version of Johnny Appleseed in his home in Arcady Hill Road. He chooses not to think about the fact that crosses were burned and swastikas daubed on the walls of his suburban haven in the recent past, or that daughter Merry Levov is beginning to symbolise the social evils he has kept at bay. But his daughter becomes the Rimrock bomber and her bomb kills a man. Over the last ten years, the number of such protagonists has risen to constitute a sub-genre. The activist who uses violence in dissent, a minor character in Joan Didions Play As It Lays (1970) becomes major in E. L. Doctorows The Book of Daniel (1971) and as the protagonist of Marge Piercys Vida (1980) and has been re-envisioned in recent ction as Roths Merry, Russell Banks Hannah in The Darling (2004) and Sigrid Nunezs Ann in The Last of Her Kind (2006), to name only a few examples of an evolving genre. The protagonists of recent representation are disaffected white, privileged sons and daughters of afuent parents who cast off their families to participate in the Days of Rage of 1969; they attempt to bring the war home via bombings and kidnappings; they are members of the Weathermen or the SLA; as they age, they live in prison or underground because the FBI continues to list them as its most wanted. The ageing protagonists of recent ction evince a sense of futility; broken upon the rocks of their own frustrations, to borrow Morris Dicksteins metaphor in Leopards in the Temple, but they hardly ever settle. Sometimes the failings of the sixties that could not be resolved in life are resolved in these socially symbolic ctions; sometimes the protagonists slide into regret and self-hatred; always they survive to tell a story of the 1960s that is neither self-congratulatory nor ameliorative. Notes Introduction 1. C. Van Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford, 1966), pp. xiixiii. 2. Manning Marable, Beyond Black and White: Transforming African American Politics (New York: Verso, 1995), p. 207; David Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (New York: Harper, 1999), p. 310. 3. Jerry Wexler, quoted in Peter Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2002), p. 18. 4. David Denby makes a similar point in The Moviegoer, The New Yorker, 12 September 2005, p. 92. 5. C. Van Woodward, American Counterpoint: Slavery and Racism in the NorthSouth Dialogue (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1971), pp. 48 6. Ellen Douglas, Black Cloud, White Cloud (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1989), p. 230. 7. Slavoj iz The Fragile Absolute (New York: Verso, 2000), p. 3. ek, 8. W. James Booth, Communities of Memory: On Witness, Identity, and Justice (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), p. 23. 9. Joseph Roach, Cities of the Dead: Circum-Atlantic Performance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), p. xi. 10. Dick Hebdige, Subculture: The Meaning of Style (London: Routledge, 1981), p. 91. 11. Russell Baker, quoted in Richard Corliss, The Seventies, Film Comment (JanuaryFebruary 1980) p. 34. 12. Robert Reinhold, Changes Wrought by 60s Youth Linger in American Life, New York Times, 12 August 1979. 13. Raymond Williams, Culture is Ordinary, Resources of Hope (London: Verso, 1989), p. 4. 14. Clifford Geertz, Thick Description: Toward an Interpretative Theory of Culture, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), p. 16 15. Raymond Williams, Base and superstructure in Marxist cultural theory, New Left Review 82 (1973). 16. Mike Davis, Urban Renaissance and the Spirit of Postmodernism, New Left Review 151 (1985), pp. 10613. 206 American Culture in the 1960s 17. Oscar Lewis, Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty (New York: Basic Books, 1975); The Culture of Poverty, Scientic American 215 (1966), pp. 1925. 18. Morris Dickstein, Leopards in the Temple: The Transformation of American Fiction, 19451970 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 101; Tom Hayden, Reunion: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 6. 19. Richard Gehman, That Nine Billion Dollars in Hot Little Hands, Cosmopolitan, November 1957, p. 72. Thanks to Alex Hinchliffe for this reference. 20. Martin Luther King Jr, Letter from Birmingham Jail, Why We Cant Wait: Chaos or Community? (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1968), p. 91. 21. Julius Lester, Look Out Whitey! Black Powers Gon Get Your Mama! (New York: Dial Press, 1968), pp. 106, 104. 22. Anne Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi (New York: Dell, 1968), p. 307 23. George S. Schuyler, King: No Help To Peace, Raceing to the Right: Selected Essays of George S. Schuyler (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2001), pp. 1045. 24. King, A Time to Break Silence, in Reese Williams (ed.), Unwinding the Vietnam War (Seattle, WA: Real Comet Press, 1987), p. 429. 25. King, Why We Cant Wait, p. 133. 26. Quoted in Stephen Oates, Let the Trumpet Sound (New York: New American Library, 1983), p. 110. 27. Minutes of Administrative Committee, Atlanta, Georgia, 19 October 1961, SCLC Papers 195470, Part 2. Records of the Executive Director and Treasurer, Project Co-ordinator Randolph Boehm (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1995), Reel 4, frames 1224. Thanks to Peter Ling and Lee Sartain for this reference. 28. Marisa Chappell, Jenny Hutchinson and Brian Ward, Dress modestly, neatly . . . as if you were going to church: Respectability, Class and Gender in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Early Civil Rights Movement, in Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith (eds), Gender and the Civil Rights Movement (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004), pp. 69100. 29. John W. Aldridge, Celebrity and Boredom, The Devil in the Fire: Retrospective Essays on American Literature and Culture, 19511971 (New York: Harpers Magazine Press, 1972), p. 168. 30. Norman Mailer, The Spooky Art: Some Thoughts on Writing (New York: Random House, 2003). 31. Norman Mailer, Instinct and Inuence, The Spooky Art, p. 99. 32. Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture (London: Faber, 1970), p. 292; Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night: History as a Novel, The Novel as History (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), p. 187. 33. Mailer, Armies, p. 98. 34. Ibid., p. 23. 35. Ibid., p. 3. 36. Ibid., p. 48. 37. Natalie Robins, Alien Ink: The FBIs War on Freedom of Expression (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992), p. 330. 38. Mailer, Armies, p. 54. Notes 207 39. Diana Trilling, Encounter (1962); Richard Poirier, Norman Mailer (London: Fontana, 1972), p. 98. 40. Text of 20 January 1961 inaugural speech at http://www.historyplace.com/ speeches/jfk-inaug.htm 41. Don DeLillo, Libra (London: Viking, 1988), p. 181. 42. Theodore H. White, For President Kennedy: An Epilogue, Life, December 1963, p. 19. 43. Ibid. 44. Senator Lloyd Bentsen famously quashed the presidential ambitions of Dan Quayle with the cutting remark: Senator, I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, youre no Jack Kennedy. 45. James Carroll, An American Requiem: God, My Father, and the War That Came Between Us (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifin, 1996), p. 32. 46. As demonstrated in biographies such as Robert Caros Means of Ascent (1990) which argues that he undid all the good work of the Kennedy White House. The myth of Kennedy as a martyr to the cause of civil rights was even beginning to nd its way into the black press, How JFK Surpassed Abraham Lincoln, Ebony 19: 4 (1964), pp. 2534. 47. Robert Kennedy, A Tiny Ripple of Hope Day of Afrmation Address at the University of Cape Town, 6 June 1966 at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/ speeches/rfkcapetown.htm 48. Hunter S. Thompson, The Nonstudent Left, The Nation, 27 September 1965. 49. Abbie Hoffman, Soon To Be A Major Motion Picture (New York: Putnam, 1980), p. 59. 50. Robert McNamara, quoted in Todd Brewster, Yes, Mr. President!, Vanity Fair, April 2007, p. 109. 51. Mary McCarthy, Hanoi (London: Penguin, 1968), p. 43. 52. As quoted in Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton with Jay Barbree and Deke Slayton, Moon Shot: The Inside Story of Americas Race to the Moon (Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing, 1994), p. 133. 53. Lynn Spigel, White Flight, in Lyn Spigel and Michael Curtin (eds), The Revolution Wasnt Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conict (New York: Routledge, 1997), p. 52. 54. Wallace Stegner, Wilderness Letter 3 December 1960 at http://www.wilderness.org/OurIssues/Wilderness/wildernessletter.cfm 55. Warren French, The Southern: Another Lost Cause, The South in Film (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1981), pp. 39. 56. Charles Payne, Ive Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 144. 57. Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1973), p. 8. 58. Ellen Douglas, Afterword, Black Cloud, White Cloud, p. 230. 59. Fred Hobson, Booking Passage: W. J. Cash and a Southern Awakening, The Silencing of Emily Mullen and Other Essays (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005), p. 208. 60. Howard Zinn, The Southern Mystique (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972), pp. 281, 263. 208 American Culture in the 1960s 61. The Time-Life Editors Preface (1965) to Elizabeth Spencer, The Voice at the Back Door (1956) (New York: Time Life, 1965) n.p.; Dick Gregory, Callus on My Soul (New York: Kensington, 2000), p. 28. 62. Thomas Pynchon, Journey into the Mind of Watts, New York Times magazine, 12 June 1966, p. 78. 63. Otto Kermer et al., Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Dutton, 1968), p. 1. 64. Northern black conservative Shelby Steele in The Memory of Enemies (1990) condes that a (white) southern accent is enough to catapult him back past what he fears may be merely the public relations bromide of a New South to his stereotype of the Old: I could . . . condemn her and even her region, not because of her racial beliefs, which I didnt know, but because her accent had suddenly made her accountable to my voluminous and vivid memory of a racist South, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (New York: St. Martins Press, 1990), p. 150. 65. Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Womens Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New York: Vintage, 1980), p. 60. 66. Marable, Beyond Black and White, p. 24. 67. Sharon Monteith, The Murder of Emmett Till in the Melodramatic Imagination: William Bradford Huie and Vin Packer in the 1950s, in Harriet Pollack and Christopher Metress (eds), Emmett Till in Literary and Historical Imagination (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008), pp. 3152. 68. George Lipsitz, California: The Mississippi of the 1990s, The Possessive Investment of Whiteness (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998), pp. 21133. 69. Carroll, American Requiem, p. 32. 70. Seymour M. Hersch, The Dark Side of Camelot (New York: Little, Brown, 1997), p. 89. 71. Carroll, American Requiem, p. 32; James Conaway, Memphis Afternoons (New York: Avon, 1994), p. 170. 72. When Kennedy Died, Newsweek, 14 September 1964, pp. 612. 73. Julian Bond, The Media and the Movement: Looking Back from the Southern Front, in Media, Culture and the Modern African American Freedom Struggle, ed. Brian Ward (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001), p. 20. 74. Leslie Fiedler, Waiting For the End (London: Pelican, 1967), p. 77. 75. Wendy Kozol, Lifes America: Family and Nation in Postwar Photojournalism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), pp. 738. 76. Ibid., pp. 1534. 77. Jill Freedman, Resurrection City, in Ken Light (ed.), Witness in Our Time: Working Lives of Documentary Photographers (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2000), pp. 734. 78. Paul Hendrickson, Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and its Legacy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), pp. 13, 139. 79. John Gennari, Bridging the Two Americas: Life Looks at the 1960s, in Erika Doss (ed.), Looking at Life: Critical Essays on Americas Favorite Magazine (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001), pp. 26180. 80. Daniel Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America (New York: Vintage, 1961), p. 29. Notes 209 81. Edgar Z. Friedenberg and Anthony Bernhard, New York Review of Books, 9 March 1967, in Dennis Hale and Jonathan Eisen (eds), The California Dream (New York: Collier Books, 1968), p. 268. 82. Irving Howe, Decline of the New (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1970), p. 253. 83. Vine Deloria, Tactics or Strategy?, We Talk You Listen: New Tribes, New Turf (New York: Macmillan, 1970), p. 47. 84. Fletcher Knebel, Scarlet OHaras Millions: She grossed $90 million and set off a gentlemanly battle, Look 27: 24 (3 December 1963), pp. 3940, 42. 85. In 2003, three of us led a bus tour for the Organization of American Historians (OAH) of Mississippi civil rights sites: Allison Graham of the University of Memphis, Connie Curry (in the 1960s Director of the Southern Student Human Relations Project and an advisor to SNCC executive) and me. Edward Linnethal writing about our tour points out that, Sometimes the very lack of memorial attention to marking certain acts of racist violence on the landscape calls attention to such places for that very reason, Epilogue, in James Oliver and Lois Horton (eds), Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory (New York: New Press, 2006), p. 221. 86. Randall Jarrell, A Sad Heart at the Supermarket, in Norman Jacobs (ed.), Culture for the Millions: Mass Media in Modern Society (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1964), p. 99. 87. Why the Craze for the Good Old Days?, US News and World Report 85: 20 (1973), p. 72. 88. Gary Allen, That Music, in Jonathan Eisen (ed.), The Age of Rock: Sights and Sounds of the American Cultural Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1970) p. 212. 89. Christopher Buckley, Boomsday ( New York: Twelve, 2007), p. 63. 90. Tom Wells, Outrage at Sick Vietnam Napalm Game, Sunday Mercury, 4 April 2004; Nick Wadhams, Vietnam Video Game Forgets Moral Quotient, Associated Press Online, 6 April 2004; James Au Wagner, John Kerry: The Video Game, Salon, 13 April 2004. 91. Michael Medved, Hollywood vs America (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 23. 92. For Agnews speech, see Erik Barnouw, Tube of Plenty (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 4435; Department of Defense press release 3 November 1966 at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/carves/html Instruction 5410.15 93. Quoted in Edward Jay Epstein, The Big Picture: Money and Power in Hollywood (New York: Random House, 2005), p. 328. 94. Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987), p. 83. 95. Andrew Young, An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transition of America (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), p. 413. 1. Music and Performance 1. See The Age of the Dream Place and the Rise of the Star System, in Paul Grainge, Mark Jancovich and Sharon Monteith, Film Histories: An Introduction and Reader (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2007), pp. 98101. 2. Richard Rorty, Contingency, Irony, Solidarity (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. xvi. 210 American Culture in the 1960s 3. Dick Gregory, quoted in Ann Powers, Aretha Franklin, in Barbara O Dair (ed.), The Rolling Stone Book of Women in Rock (New York: Random House, 1997), p. 93. 4. Untitled informants report, 24 March 1964, and A. L. Hopkins investigative report, 5 April 1964, MSSC records 3742 and Yasuhiro Katagiri, The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001) p. 154. 5. Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), pp. 174, 139, 135. Although Chuck Berry sued the Beach Boys for their use of his Sweet Sixteen as the underlying theme of Surn USA. 6. Andreas Huyssen, Mapping the Postmodern, in Jeffrey Alexander and Steven Seidman (eds), Culture and Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 35567. 7. Eddie Thomas, quoted in Craig Werner, Higher Ground (New York: Crown, 2004), p. 80; Curtis Mayeld in Curtis Mayeld: Darker Than Blue, Omnibus, BBC Television documentary, 2004. 8. Alan Lomax, Charles Seeger and Ruth Crawford Seeger (eds), Folk Song USA (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1947), p. vii. 9. Toni Cade Bambara, Mississippi Ham Rider, Gorilla, My Love (London: The Womens Press, 1984), pp. 502. 10. Bob Dylan, Chronicles: Volume One (London: Simon and Schuster, 2005), p. 78. 11. Louis Menand, Bob on Bob: Dylan Talks, The New Yorker, 4 September 2006, p. 129. 12. John Hammond with Irving Townsend, John Hammond on Record (London: Penguin, 1977), p. 351. 13. Dylan, Chronicles, pp. 8, 83. 14. Dylan describes that epiphany more than once in Chronicles, pp. 244, 229; Pete Seeger, quoted in After A Long Hiatus, Dylan Returns, Rolling Stone, 24 February 1968. 15. Dylan, Chronicles, pp. 11524, 147. 16. Ibid, pp. 846. 17. See also Mike Marqusee, Wicked Messenger: Bob Dylan and the 1960s (rev. from Chimes of Freedom, 2003; New York: Seven Stories Press, 2005), pp. 31115, 321. 18. James Miller, Flowers in the Dustbin: The Rise of Rock and Roll, 19471977 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999), p. 221. 19. The album would be Planet Waves (1974). 20. Nora Ephron and Susan Edmiston, Bob Dylan Interview, Summer 1965, in Jonathan Eisen (ed.), The Age of Rock: Sights and Sounds of the American Cultural Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1970), p. 65. 21. Gary Allen, That Music: Theres More to It Than Meets the Ear, ibid., pp. 198 9; Griel Marcus, Like a Rolling Stone: Bob Dylan at the Crossroads (London: Faber, 2005), p. 149. 22. Griel Marcus, Invisible Republic: Bob Dylans Basement Tapes (London: Picador, 1997), p. 70. 23. Luc Sante, I Is Someone Else, New York Review of Books, 10 March 2005, p. 35. 24. Tommie Smith, quoted Mike Marqusee, Redemption Song: Muhammad Ali and the Spirit of the Sixties (London: Verso, 1999), p. 244. Notes 211 25. Dick Gregory with Sheila P. Moses, Callus on my Soul (New York: Kensington, 2000), pp. 967. 26. Arthur Ashe, quoted in Thomas Hauser (1991), Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times (London: Pan, 1997), p. 205. 27. Hauser, Muhammad Ali, p. 143 28. Ibid., p. 154. 29. Norman Mailer, Ego, Life, 19 March 1971. Reproduced in Gerald Early (ed.), Im a Little Special: A Muhammad Ali Reader (London: Yellow Jersey Press, 1998), p. 102 30. Ibid. 31. Gordon Parks, The Redemption of the Champion, Life, 9 September 1966, reprinted in Early, p. 54. 32. Robert Lypsyte in Hauser, Muhammad Ali, p. 157. 33. Ibid., p. 509. 34. John Hammond with Irving Townsend, John Hammond on Record (London: Penguin, 1977), pp. 36972. 35. Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night: History as a Novel, The Novel as History (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), p. 61. 36. For a full record of Southeastern Promotions Ltd vs Conrad et al., 420 US 546 (1975), see http://caselaw.lp.ndlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search& court=US&case=/data/us/420/546.html 37. For example, Howard Brick, Age of Contradiction: American Thought and Culture in the 1960s (New York: Twayne, 1998), p. 60; Alan Kaprow, Some Recent Happenings (New York: Something Else Press, 1966). 38. Susan Sontag, Happenings: An Art of Radical Juxtaposition (1962), in Against Interpretation and Other Essays (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1967), pp. 26374. 39. Ruby Cohn, New American Dramatists 19601980 (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. 11. 40. Ibid., p. 77. 41. Ibid., p. 95. 42. Anatole Broyard, Portrait of an Inauthentic Negro: How Prejudice Distorts the Victims Personality, Commentary, 10 (July 1950), pp. 5664. 43. Paul Connerton, How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 67. 44. Susan Sontag, Happenings, p. 274. 45. Michael Taussig, The Nervous System (New York: Routledge, 1992), p. 133. 46. For more examples, see Ronald K. L. Collins and David M. Skover, The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Fall and Rise of an American Icon (Napierville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2002). 47. Lionel Trilling, On Lenny Bruce (19261966), The New York Review of Books, 6 October 1966; Lionel Trilling, The Sad Fate of Lenny Bruce and Jonathan Millers Reply, The New York Review of Books, 18 November 1966. 48. Collins and Skover, The Trials of Lenny Bruce, p. 339. 49. Tom Lehrer, quoted in Dr Demento (aka Barry Hansen), Too Many Facts About Tom Lehrer, The Remains of Tom Lehrer, p. 15. 50. Although the US version tended to be more careful about offending its audiences with radical views than the British version. 212 American Culture in the 1960s 51. Dr Demento, Too Many Facts, p. 18. 52. Dick Gregory with Robert Lypsyte, Nigger: An Autobiography (New York: Washington Square, 1964), p. 144. 53. Leslie Fiedler, A New Fiedler Reader (New York: Prometheus, 1999), p. 54. Devin McKinney, Magic Circles: The Beatles in Dream and History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004) 55. Mark Kemp, Dixie Lullaby: A Story of Music, Race and New Beginnings in a New South (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006), p. 33. 56. Larry Kanes interviews were broadcast and Eppridges candid photographs were exhibited at the celebration It Was Forty years Ago Today . . . The Beatles in America, Museum of Television and Radio, New York, 29 April 2004. 57. Gerri Hirshey, Nowhere To Run: The Story of Soul Music (London: Southbank, 2006), p. xii. 58. Ken Emerson, Always Magic in the Air: The Bomp and Brilliance of the Brill Building Era (London: Fourth Estate, 2006), p. 5, n. 273. 59. Ibid., p. xv. 60. Ibid., p. 266. 61. Albert Goldman, Detroit Retools its Rock, Life, 25 July 1969, p. 12. 62. Mary Wilson, Dream Girl: My Life As A Supreme (New York: St. Martins Press, 1986), p. 200. 63. Berry Gordy in Adam White, Gordy Speaks: the Billboard Interview (1993), Gerald Early, One Nation Under a Groove: Motown and American Culture (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, revised 2004), pp. 150, 162. 64. Ward, Just My Soul Responding, p. 267. 65. Carl Davis, quoted in Robert Pruter, Chicago Soul (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), p. 77. 66. Marcus, pp. 11314. 67. Brian Wilson in Wouldnt It Be Nice documentary; Tommy Udo, Charles Manson: Music, Mayhem, Murder (London: Sanctuary, 2002), pp. 1889. 68. Marqusee, Wicked Messenger, p. 219. 69. Miller, Flowers in the Dustbin, pp. 2601. 70. Roddy Doyle in Pat Wheeler and Jenny Newman, Roddy Doyle, in Sharon Monteith, Jenny Newman and Pat Wheeler, Contemporary British and Irish Fiction: An Introduction Through Interview (London: Arnold, 2004), p. 56. 2. Film and Television 1. Samuel Goldwyn, Hollywood in the Television Age, Hollywood Quarterly, winter 19491950. 2. Charles Higham, Hollywood Boulevard 1965, Sight and Sound , 34:1 (1965), p. 178. 3. Virginia Kelly, Hugh Downs and the Common Man, Look, 3 December 1963, p. 49. 4. Aniko Bodroghkozy cites student Jeff Greenwald who in an article the New York Times Magazine (1971) remembered TV of his childhood teaching him about adult greed (The Price is Right) and scheming in marriage (I Love Lucy) which solidied into a youthful disdain for an adult world that was troubled, Notes 213 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Groove Tube: Sixties Television and the Youth Rebellion (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001), p. 33. Disney was awarded a Medal of Freedom by President Johnson in 1964 but supported Republican Barry Goldwater in his Presidential campaign the same year. Statement by Jack Valenti before the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 19 December 1968, in Stephen Prince (ed.), Screening Violence (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2000), p. 65. Pauline Kael, Trash, Art, and the Movies, Going Steady: Film Writings 1968 1969 (New York: Marion Boyars, 1994), p. 96. Kael, The Corrupt and the Primitive, The New Yorker, 7 December 1968; Going Steady, pp. 194, 199. Kael, War as Vaudeville, The New Yorker, 12 October 1968. Kael, Hud, Deep in the Divided Heart of Hollywood, I Lost it At the Movies (New York: Little, Brown, 1965), pp. 7894. Kael, Is there a cure for lm criticism?, Sight and Sound, 31:2 (Spring 1962), p. 57. Howard Hampton, Such Sweet Thunder: Pauline Kael, 19192001, Film Comment, November/December 2001, p. 45. Arthur Penn, Making Waves, in Lester D. Friedman (ed.), Arthur Penns Bonnie and Clyde (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 1131. Paul Schrader, Fruitful Pursuits, Artform, March 2001. Joseph E. Mankiewicz, Cleopatra Barges In At Last, Life, 20 May 1963, pp. 6674. Walter Cronkite, A Reporters Life (New York: Ballantine, 1996), p. 337. Steven D. Classen, Watching Jim Crow: The Struggles Over Mississippi TV, 1955 1969 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004) and my review, Journal of American History, 92: 1 (June 2005). Though made in 1956, the lm was rst distributed in the US in 1958 and in the South at the beginning of the 1960s. For a detailed discussion see Mary Ann Watson, Hungering For Heroes, The Expanding Vista: American Television in the Kennedy Years (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), pp. 11920. Kael, Apes Must Be Remembered, Charlie, The New Yorker, 17 February 1968. Kael, A Fresh Star, Going Steady, 1712. Thomas Doherty, Teenagers and Teenpics (Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman, 1988), p. 194. Alan Betrock, I Was a Teenage Juvenile (New York: St. Martins Press, 1986), p. 103. Donald Bogle, Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies & Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films (New York: Continuum, 2001), p. 200. Boseley Crowther, New York Times, 21 September 1964, The New York Times Film Reviews 19131968 Vol. 5 (New York: New York Times/Arno Press, 1970), p. 3491. Roger Ebert, 1997 review in the Chicago-Sun Times, Roger Eberts Video Companion (New York: Andrews McMeel, 1997), p. 889. James Baldwin, The Devil Finds Work (New York: Laurel, 1976), p. 67. Kael, Going Steady, pp. 34, 109. Ron Kovic, Born on the Fourth of July (New York: Pocket Books, 1977), p. 112. 214 American Culture in the 1960s 30. Michael Herr, Dispatches (London: Picador, 2002), pp. 434. 31. The phrase is Richard Slotkins in Gunghter Nation (New York: Atheneum, 1992). J. Hoberman in The Dream Life: Movies Media and the Mythology of the Sixties (New York: New Press, 2003), notes European protests against The Green Berets with a Stuttgart daily newspaper comparing the lm to Nazi propaganda, p. 208. 32. Ralph Graves, Dusty and the Duke: A Choice of Heroes, Life, 11 July 1969. 33. The Bad Boys Breakout: Steve McQueen Moves in on the Movies and Becomes its Hottest New Star, Life, 23 September 1963, p. 62. 34. Mayor Daley, quoted in Lewis Chester, Godfrey Hodgson and Bruce Page, An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968 (London: Andr Deutsch, 1969), pp. 5067. 35. For a discussion, see Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor, American Pharoah: Mayor Richard J. Daley, His Battle for Chicago and the Nation (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 2000). 3. Fiction and Poetry 1. Gish Jen, Bagels and Won Tons Served with Humor, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 5 July 1996. 2. Philip Roth, Writing American Fiction, Commentary, March 1961, Reading Myself and Others (New York: Vintage, 2001), p. 65. 3. James Baldwin, Introduction, Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son (London: Penguin, 1961), p. 12. 4. Larry Neal, quoted in Eric J. Sundquist, Cultural Contexts for Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man (Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 1995), p. 13. 5. Sherley Ann Williams, Give Birth to Brightness (New York: Dial Press, 1972), p. 24. 6. Norman Mailer, Why Are We In Vietnam? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 13. 7. Maxwell Geismar, Introduction, Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice (London: Panther, 1970), pp. 1112. 8. Vance Bourjaily, Confessions of A Spent Youth (London: Corgi, 1968), p. 22. 9. Ibid., p. 262. 10. Gish Jen, Mona in the Promised Land, (London: Granta, 1996), p. 129. 11. Roth, Reading Myself, pp. 33, 18. 12. Jacob Brackman, The Put-On, The New Yorker, 24 June 1967, p. 34. 13. Leslie Fiedler, Waiting For the End (London: Pelican, 1967), p. 157. 14. Ross Posnock, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of the Modern Intellectual (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), p. 86. 15. Bourjaily, Confessions, pp. 9, 477. 16. Jacques Hermann in The Death of Literature, New Literary History, 3 (1971), pp. 3147. 17. Fiedler, Come Back To the Raft Agin, Huck Honey!, The New Fiedler Reader (New York: Prometheus, 2001), p. 3. 18. Fiedler, Love and Death in the American Novel (London: Penguin, 1982), p. 92. 19. Fiedler, The Return of the Vanishing American (London: Paladin, 1972), p. 12. 20. Nina Baym, Womens Fiction: A Guide to Novels By and About Women in America, 18201870 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978). I use Fiedler Notes 215 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. to situate my study of interracial friendships in southern ction in Advancing Sisterhood? Interracial Friendships in Contemporary Southern Fiction (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), pp. 413, 68, 756. Fiedler, Love and Death, p. 27. Fiedler, On Being Busted at Fifty, The New York Review of Books, 9: 1 (13 July 1967). Fiedler, Waiting For the End (London: Pelican, 1967), pp. 126, 56. Jay Parini, Being and Nothingness in New York, The Guardian, 26 April 2003, p. 15. Ken Kesey, One Flew Over a Cuckoos Nest (London: Picador, 1973), pp. 3, 8. Mailer, Cannibals and Christians (New York: Dial, 1966), p. 85. Mailer, The Occult, The Spooky Art, pp. 2334. See, for example, David P. Galloway, The Absurd Hero in American Fiction (1966 rev. 1970), Ihab Hassan, Radical Innocence (1961 rev. 1971) and Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity (1972). Joyce Carol Oates, The Teleology of the Unconscious: The Art of Norman Mailer (pp. 179203) in New Heaven, New Earth: The Visionary Experience in Literature (London: Gollancz, 1976), p. 187. Norman Mailer, The Armies of the Night: History as a Novel, The Novel as History (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), p. 9. John Carlos Rowe, Eye-Witness: Documentary Styles in the Representation of Vietnam, Cultural Critique, 3 (1986): pp. 12650. Hunter S. Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (London: Penguin, 1972), pp. 23, 69 Bob Kaufman, Solitudes Crowded with Loneliness (New York: New Directions, 1965), p. 53. Eudora Welty, Preface, The Collected Short Stories (London: Penguin, 1983), p. xi. Speech written for the inauguration of Mississippi Governor William Winter in January 1980, manuscript in The Eudora Welty Collection, Millsaps Collage, Jackson, MS. William Styron, This Quiet Dust, Harpers Magazine, April 1965, p. 138. Thomas R. Gray, The Confessions of Nat Turner, in Kenneth S. Greenberg (ed.), The Confessions of Nat Turner and Related Documents (Boston, MA: Bedford, 1996), pp. 402, 44. See Tony Horwitz, Untrue Confessions: Is What Most of Us Know About the Rebel Slave Nat Turner Wrong?, The New Yorker, 13 December 1999, pp. 809. For more detail, see Scot French, Mau-Mauing the Filmmakers: Should Black Power Take the Rap for Killing Nat Turner the Movie?, in Brian Ward (ed.), Media, Culture and the Modern African American Freedom Struggle (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001), pp. 23354. William Styron, Overcome, New York Review of Books, 1: 3 (26 September 1963). Ralph Ellison, William Styron, Robert Penn Warren and moderator C. Vann Woodward, The Uses of History in Fiction, Southern Literary Journal (1968), p. 75. Styron, This Quiet Dust, p. 139. Amiri Baraka, The Music, Reections on Jazz and Blues (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1987), pp. 2645. 216 American Culture in the 1960s 43. Ronald L. Fair, Many Thousand Gone (New York: Bantam, 1971), p. 81. 44. Nicolas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Migration and How it Changed America (London: Macmillan, 1991), p. 17. For a discussion of the new slavery in the South, Nahem Yousaf, A Sugar Cage: Poverty and Protest in Stephanie Blacks H-2 Worker, in Suzanne Jones and Mark Newman (eds), Poverty and Progress in the US South (Amsterdam: VU Press, 2006), pp. 15566. 45. Lyndon B. Johnson, 26 June 1964, Marvin E. Gettleman and David Mermelstein (eds), The Great Society Reader: The Failure of American Liberalism (New York: Vintage, 1967), p. 22. 46. Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), pp. 205, 187. 47. Toni Cade Bambara, Blues Aint No Mockin Bird, Gorilla, My Love (London: The Womens Press, 1984), p. 135. 48. Stephen Steinberg, Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Justice in American Thought and Policy (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1995), p. 5. 49. Nicholas Lemann, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, The New Yorker, 7 April 2003, p. 98. 50. Lerone Bennett, The Challenge of Blackness, Black Paper Series, Institute of Black World Publication, April 1970. 51. Dick Gregory, Nigger! (New York: Washington Square, 1964); Callus on My Soul: A Memoir (New York: Kensington, 2000), p. 5. 52. Sharon Monteith, The Never-ending Cycle of Poverty: Sarah E. Wrights This Childs Gonna Live, Poverty and Progress in the US South, pp. 8398. 53. Albert Murray, The Omni Americans: Black Experience and American Culture (New York: Da Capo, 1970), p. 97. 54. Sarah E. Wright, This Childs Gonna Live (London: Paladin, 1988), pp. 1678. 55. Joyce Ladner, Tomorrows Tomorrow (New York: Doubleday, 1971), pp. xvxvi. 4. Art and Photography 1. Kirk Varnedoe, Pictures of Nothing: Abstract Art Since Pollock (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006), pp. 243, 8. 2. David Rosand, quoted in Amy Newman, Challenging Art: Artforum 19621974 (New York: Soho Press, 2000), p. 140. 3. Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (New York: Zone Books, 1995), pp. 1356. 4. As in the images collected for the Philip Guston exhibition, the Royal Academy, London, April 2004. 5. Joseph Kosoth explored the extent of Duchamps inuence in Art After Philosophy, Studio International, 178, pp. 91517 (OctoberDecember 1969); Neo-Dada: Redening Art, 195862 (New York: The American Federation of the Arts/Universe Publications, 1994). 6. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), p. 276. 7. Varnedoe, Pictures of Nothing, pp. 57, 244. 8. In 1959, Rothko refused to full his commission to provide 600 feet of abstract impressionist painting for the Seagram Building, New Yorks nest skyscraper. His work would have covered the walls of the Four Seasons restaurant. He did Notes 217 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. paint the murals and they hang now in the Tate Modern in London, a gift from the painter himself, but he returned the $35,000. Howard Brick, Age of Contradiction: American Thought and Culture in the 1960s (New York: Twayne, 1998), p. 27. Varnedoe, Pictures of Nothing, pp. 939. Beatrice Berg, Susan Sontag: Intellectuals Darling, the Washington Post, 8 January 1967; David Denby, The Moviegoer, The New Yorker, 12 September 2005, p. 90. Susan Sontag, Notes on Camp, Against Interpretation (London: Eyre and Spottiswood, 1966), p. 273. Arendt, quoted in Melvyn A.Hill (ed.), Hannah Arendt: The Recovery of the Public World (New York: St. Martins Press, 1979), p. 336. Craig Sleigman, Sontag and Kael: Opposites Attract Me (New York: Counterpoint, 2005), pp. 18, 40. Journal entry 31 December 1958, excerpted in Susan Sontag: on Self, New York Times, 10 September 2006. Her journals will be published in 20089. Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, trans. Donald Nicolson-Smith (New York: Zone, 1995), p. 97. Michael Lydon, Rock for Sale, in Jonathan Eisen (ed.), The Age of Rock 2: Sights and Sounds of the American Cultural Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1970), p. 53. Thomas Crow, The Rise of the Sixties: American and European Art in the Age of Dissent (London: Laurence King, 2004), p. 39. Roland Barthes, That Old Thing, Art . . . (1980), in The Responsibility of Forms: Critical Essays on Music, Art and Representation (New York: Hill and Wang, 1985), p. 200. Roland Barthes, The Photographic Message (1961), Image, Music, Text, trans. Stephen Heath (London: Flamingo, 1984), p. 22. Romare Bearden et al., The Black Artist in America, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 27: 5 (1969), pp. 24560. Matt Heron, The Civil Rights Movement and the Southern Documentary Project, in Ken Light (ed.), Witness in Our Time: Working Lives of Documentary Photographers (Washington: Smithsonian, 2000), p. 70. John Rockwell, Preserve Performance Art? Can You Preserve the Wind?, New York Times, 30 April 2004, p. E5. Nancy Marmer, LA Pop Art, in Lucy Lippard (ed.), Pop Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966), p. 139. Ibid., p. 147. Hal Crowther, The Outsider, The Oxford American, 51 (Fall 2005), p. 170. Simon Schama, Twomblies of Wimmebeeldon, The Guardian, 17 April 2004, p. 16. Jonathan Jones, The Last American Hurrah, The Guardian Weekend, 10 April 2004, pp. 404. Jasper Johns, quoted in Calvin Tomkins, The Minds Eye: the Merciless Originality of Jasper Johns, The New Yorker, 11 December 2006, p. 83. Suzaan Boettger, Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), p. 120. Max Kozloff, Art, Nature, 208: 11 (17 March 1969), p. 348. 218 American Culture in the 1960s 32. Jack Flam (ed.), The Collected Writings of Robert Smithson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), p. 237. 33. Boettger, Earthworks, p. 228. 34. The President and His Son, Look, 3 December 1963, pp. 2636 35. Gordon Burn, King of the Day-Glo, Stiff-spined, Wise-guy Shiny Sheets, Independent, 8 February 1997. 36. Although Ali was at rst reluctant as a Black Muslim to be photographed as a Christian icon. 37. Images on display at the exhibition Carl Fischer, Photographs 1963 to 1977, The Gallery at Pentagram, London, April 2004. Also available at http://web.mac. com/scherny/Carl_Fischer_Photography_Inc./Current_Exhibition.html 38. Truman Capote, Richard Avedon (1959) from Observations, A Capote Reader (London: Penguin, 1987), p. 547. 39. Susan Sontag, On Photography, (London: Penguin, 1979) p. 149. 40. Vernon Merritt, quoted in The Great Life Photographers, (ed.), The Editors of Life (London: Thames and Hudson, 2004), p. 358. 41. Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2003), p. 37. 42. Robert Hughes, Goya (London: Harvill, 2003), p. 7. 43. My thanks to Mark Troy for introducing me to McElroys ction. 44. See, for example, TVs First War, Newsweek, 30 August 1965, p. 32. 45. Philip Jones Grifths, Vietnam Inc. (London: Phaidon, 2005), pp. 1823. 46. Ibid., pp. 623, 589. 47. Ibid., p. 162. 48. Ibid., p. 106 49. David Fenton (ed.), Shots: Photographs From the Underground Press (New York: Douglas Book Corporation, 1971), pp. 589. 50. Decisive Moments: How Photography made the Sixties, BBC, 1988, shown on BBC 2, 1997. 51. Boettger, p. 6. 52. TV: A Long Kept Vigil, New York Times, 9 June 1968, p. 60. 53. Bill Eppridge, quoted in The Great Life Photographers, p. 148. 54. I was drawn to the photographs when I saw them rst in The Long Goodbye, The Guardian, 9 October 1999, accompanied by Mailers essay, pp. 924 in advance of the publication of Funeral Train. 55. Michael Harrington, Introduction: Poverty in the Seventies, The Other America: Poverty in the United States (London: Penguin, rev. ed. 1981), p. xx. 56. Paul Fusco, Afterword, RFK: Funeral Train (New York: Magnum Photos Inc./Umbrage Editions, 2000), n.p. 57. The simple grave site was changed at the familys request in 1971. 58. Miwon Kwon, One Place After Another: Site-Specic Art and Locational Identity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), p. 43. 5. New Social Movements and Creative Dissent 1. Alice Walker, The Civil Rights Movement: What Good Was It? (1967), In Search of Our Mothers Gardens (London: The Womens Press, 1984), p. 122; Gary Wills, The Kennedy Imprisonment (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1984), p. 301. Notes 219 2. James Peck, Freedom Ride (New York: Grove, 1962 ), pp. 10, 1023. 3. The Movement: Documentary of a Struggle for Equality (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964), p. 52. 4. Clarke was testifying as to how riots like the one in Watts in 1965 might be addressed differently from riots in Chicago in 1919, Report of the National Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam, 1968), pp. 4823. 5. Tom Hayden in Cheiyl Lynn Greenberg (ed.), A Circle of Trust: Remembering SNNC (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998), pp. 21213. 6. James Baldwin, Down At The Cross: Letter from a Region in My Mind, The Fire Next Time (London: Penguin, 1964), p. 83. 7. Martin Luther King Jr, Where Are We?, in Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1968), p. 22; Robert K, Roney, A Different Kind of Woodstock, Integrated Education, 11: 2 (MarchApril 1973), p. 3. 8. Julius Lester, All Is Well: An Autobiography (New York: William Morrow, 1976), p. 68. 9. Martin Luther King Jr, Letter from Birmingham Jail, Why We Cant Wait (New York: Signet, 2000), p. 68; David Dellinger in Lewis Chester, Godfrey Hodgson and Bruce Page, An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968 (London: Deutsch, 1969), p. 516. 10. Ed King in Charles Marsh, Gods Long Summer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), p. 29. 11. Memorandum on SNCC Summer Mississippi Summer Project, University of Southern Mississippi, McCain Library and at http://anna.lib.usm.edu/ %7Espcol/crda/ellin/ellin062.html 12. Julian Bond, quoted in Francesca Polletta, Freedom is an Endless Meeting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), p. 105. 13. Fannie Lou Hamer, Foreword, Tracey Sugarman, Strangers at the Gates: A Summer in Mississippi (New York: Hill and Wang, 1966), pp. viiiix. 14. Voices of Freedom (New York: Vintage, 1995), p. 183. 15. Cited in Milton Voist, Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960s (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), p. 229; Edward P. Morgan, The 60s Experience: Hard Lessons About Modern America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), p. 61. 16. SNCC Position Paper (Women in the Movement), Name Withheld by Request, November 1964, in Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Womens Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New York: Vintage, 1979), p. 234. 17. Mario Savio, Thirty Years Later: Reections on the FSM, in Roger Cohen and Reginald E. Zelnik (eds), The Free Speech Movement: Reections of Berkeley in the 1960s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), p. 64. 18. Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 2. 19. Mrs Hamer, interview with Neil McMillen, 14 April 1972, Mississippi Oral History Program, McCain Library, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg. 20. Lester Sobol, Civil Rights 19601966 (New York: Facts on File, 1967), pp. 1901. 21. Mrs Hamer, To Praise Our Bridges, in Dorothy Abbott (ed.), Mississippi Writers: Reections of Childhood and Youth (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1986), p. 324. 220 American Culture in the 1960s 22. Gordon Parks, Black Muslims Cry Grows Louder . . . What Their Cry Means to Me: A Negros Own Evaluation, Life International, 9 September 1963, p. 32. 23. James Baldwin, The Dungeon Shook, The Fire Next Time (London: Penguin, 1964), p. 17. 24. Michael Harrington, The Other America: Poverty in the Unites States (London: Penguin, 1981), p. x. 25. David Murray, Sovereignty and the Struggle for Representation in American Indian Nonction, in Eric Cheytz (ed.), The Columbia Guide to American Indian Literatures of the United States Since 1945 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), pp. 3245. 26. Vine Deloria, Others, We Talk You Listen: New Tribes, New Turf (New York: Macmillan, 1970), p. 85. 27. Deloria, The Liberal Problem, We Talk, p. 79. 28. Deloria, The Red and the Black, Custer Died For Your Sins (New York: Avon, 1969), p. 169. 29. Deloria, Preface and The Burden of Indian Education, Spirit and Reason (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1999), pp. xii, 176. 30. Deloria, The Red and the Black, p. 172. 31. Deloria, Stereotyping, We Talk, p. 91. 32. Deloria, Tactics or Strategy?, Ibid., p. 51. 33. Sylvia Plath, Context (1962), in Ted Hughes (ed.), Johnny Panic and the Bible of Dreams and Other Prose Writings (London: Faber, 1977), p. 93; Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: Dell, 1964), p. 318. 34. Plath, America! America! (1963), Johnny Panic, pp. 378. 35. Marianne DeKoven, Utopia Limited: The Sixties and the Emergence of the Postmodern (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004), p. 268. 36. Kenneth C. Davis, Two-Bit Culture: The Paperbacking of America (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifin, 1984), p. 304. 37. Sylvia Fleis Fava, Book Review, American Sociological Review, 28: 6 (December 1963), pp. 10534. 38. Lynn Spigel, From the Dark Ages to the Golden Age: Womens Studies and Television Re-Runs, Screen, 36: 1 (1995), pp. 1633. 39. No More Miss America!, Sisterhood is Powerful, ed. Robin Morgan (New York: Vintage, 1970), pp 5849. 40. John DEmilio, Placing Gay in the Sixties, in Alexander Bloom (ed.), Long Time Gone: Sixties America Then and Now (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 210. 41. Lucian Truscott IV, Gay Power Comes to Sheridan Square, The Village Voice, 3 July, 1969. 42. Gay dissent was embedded in Burroughs ction as in Allen Ginsbergs poetry. Ginsbergs Please Master (1968) broke new ground in its graphic description of a homosexual encounter. 43. Martin Duberman, Cures: A Gay Mans Odyssey (New York: Penguin, 1991), p. 161. 44. Paul Welch, The Gay World Takes to the City Streets; Homosexuality: A Secret World Grows Open and Bolder, Life, 27 July 1964, pp. 4458. 45. Henry D. Thoreau, Henry David Thoreau, Owen Thomas (ed.), Walden and Civil Disobidience, (New York: Norton 1966), p. 62, 186. Notes 221 46. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (London: Penguin, 2000). 47. Ibid., p. 29. 48. Priscilla Coit Murphy, What A Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2005), p. 4. 49. Ibid., p. 14. 50. Cited in Martha Freeman (ed.), Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 19531964 (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1994), p. 394. 51. Murphy, What A Book Can Do, p. 190. 52. Juliet Eilperin, Bush Uses Market Incentives; Kerry Focuses on Rules, Washington Post, 26 October 2004, p. A05. 53. Martin Luther King Jr, Where Do We Go From Here?, p. 116. 54. Battling in a Verdant Hell, Life, 27 January 1964. 55. Wallace Stegner, All the Little Live Things (New York: Penguin, 1991), p. 35. 56. Ibid., p. 278. 57. Wallace Stegner, Wilderness Letter, 3 December 1960 at http://www.wilderness.org/OurIssues/Wilderness/wildernessletter.cfm 58. Alice Echols, Hope and Hype in Sixties Haight-Ashbury, in Shatk Ground: The 60s and its Aftershocks (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), p. 18. 59. Are Hippies Fading Away or Becoming Part of the Community?, Memphis Press-Scimitar, 27 December 1967, p. 15. 60. Zay N. Smith, The Flower Children Still Bloom, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 26 July 1981. 61. http://www.thefarm.org 62. Warren Hickle, A Social History of the Hippies (1967), in Gerald Howard (ed.), The Sixties (New York: Washington Square Press, 1982), p. 208. 63. Paul Warshow, Easy Rider, Sight and Sound (Winter 1969/1970), pp. 368. 64. Hippies Leaving Dope Peddlers, Hoodlums Taking Their Place, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 27 July 1968. 65. Atlanta Becomes New Mecca for Flower Children, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 21 October 1967; 1,000 Hippies in Showdown with Atlantas Policemen, Memphis Press-Scimitar, 22 September 1969. 66. Orville Hancock, Hippies May Get Air Travel Rules Memphis Press-Scimitar, 15 November 1967. 67. James Fallows, Washington Monthly, October 1975; Peter Beinhart, Two Countries, New Republic, 10 May 2004. 68. The Citadel War Record: Vietnams Casualties, Citadel Archives, Charleston, South Carolina, quoted in Alex Macauley, An Oasis of Order: the Citadel, the 1960s and the Vietnam Anti-War Movement, Southern Cultures (Fall 2005), p. 46. 69. Cited in Taylor Branch, At Canaans Edge (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006), pp. 35961. 70. Mary McCarthy, Hanoi (London: Penguin, 1968), p. 75. 71. Richard Nixon, The Memoirs (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1978), p. 453. 72. Joshua Muravchik, The Neoconservative Cabal, Commentary, 23 September 2003, p. 26. 73. Peter Clecak, Americas Quest for the Ideal Self: Dissent and Fulllment in the 60s and 70s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 7691. 222 American Culture in the 1960s 74. Midge Decter, Letter to the Young (and to their parents), in Mark Gershon and James O. Wilson (eds), The Essential Neo-Conservative Reader (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1996), pp. 6475. 75. Iwan W. Morgan, Beyond the Liberal Consensus: A Political History of the United States Since 1965 (London: Hurst, 1994), p. 41. 76. Shelby Steele, The Loneliness of the Black Conservative, The Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America (New York: HarperCollins, 1998), esp. pp. 4370. 77. Orlando Patterson, Toward . . . Past: Reections on the Fate of Blacks in the Americas, The Public Interest, 27 (Spring 1972), pp. 601. 78. Marsh, Gods Long Summer, p. 197. Conclusion 1. Todd Gitlin, Letters to a Young Activist (New York: Basic Books, 2003), p. 19. 2. Marshall Frady, Wallace (New York: Random House, 1996), pp. 28890. 3. Sharon Monteith, Advancing Sisterhood: Interracial Friendship in Contemporary Southern Fiction (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000). 4. Barbara Melosh, Historical memory in Fiction: The Civil Rights Movement in Three Novels, Radical History Review (Winter 1988), pp. 64, 75. 5. Sharon Monteith, Revisiting the 1960s in Contemporary Fiction: Where Do We Go From Here? , in Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith (eds), Gender and the Civil Rights Movement (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004), pp. 2289; Julius Lester, And All Our Wounds Forgiven (New York: Harcourt and Brace, 1994), p. 190. 6. Floyd Tolbert, quoted in Samira Jafari, Marchers Want Youth to Follow in Footsteps, The Herald-Sun, Durham, NC, 6 March 2005, p. A10. 7. Adam Nossiter, Of Long Memory: Mississippi and the Murder of Medgar Evers (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994), pp. 24952; photographer David Rae Morris, quoted in Willie Morris, The Ghosts of Medgar Evers: A Tale of Race, Murder, Mississippi, and Hollywood (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 57. 8. Christopher Buckley, Rules of Engagement, The New Yorker, 4 October 2004, p. 51. 9. Mort Sahl, The Village Theater, New York City, 29 April 2004. 10. Joseph Lelyveld, Omaha Blues: A Memory Loop (New York: Picador, 2006), p. 18. 11. Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987), p. 1. 12. Condoleezza Rice, quoted in Antonia Felix, The black slip of a girl who grew up in the segregated Deep South, Sunday Times, 21 November 2004, Section 5, p. 2. 13. Jack Hoffman and Daniel Simon, Run, Run, Run: The Lives of Abbie Hoffman (New York: Putnam, 1996), pp. 634. 14. James Conaway, Memphis Afternoons (New York: Avon, 1994), p. 175. 15. Ibid., p. 174. 16. Kushner, quoted in Harry Haun, A Range of Change, authors playbill for the performance of Caroline, or Change at Eugene ONeill Theater, New York City, 4 May 2004, p. 10. Notes 223 17. Mike Royko, Flower Children Planting Seeds for Chicago But-In, Memphis Commercial Appeal, 31 March 1968. 18. Fred Halstead, Out Now! A Participants Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War (New York: Monad, 1971), p. 411. 19. Thomas Thompson, Aftermath of Shame And Detection, Life, 30 December 1963, p. 21. 20. Dallas: Smug But Beginning to Think, Life, 30 December 1963, pp. 1415; Robert Wallace, A Beer Can and a Bouquet: What Dallas Is Like and How It Got to Be That Way, Life, 30 December 1963, pp. 1617. 21. Conaway, Memphis Afternoons, p. 196. 22. Glenn T. Eskew, But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), p. 333. 23. See, for example, the Birmingham Convention and Visitors Bureau at http://www.bcvb.org/about-ads 24. Charles Morgan Jr, as told to Thomas B. Morgan, I Saw A City Die: Birmingham, Look, 27: 24, 3 December 1963, pp. 234. 25. Ibid., p. 24. 26. Diane McWhorter, The Moment That Made a Movement, The Washington Post, 2 May 1993 and Carry Me Home: Birmingham Alabama, The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001), pp. 3725. 27. Decisive Moments: The Photographs That Made History (Yorkshire Television, 1988). 28. Funeral for Virgil Ware, Allegedly Killed by White Youth, Set for Sunday, Sept. 22, Birmingham World, 21 September 1963, p. 1. 29. Thomas Blanton was only the second person to be brought to justice since Robert Chambliss conviction in 1977. Blanton was given four life terms for each of the schoolgirls the bomb killed. Of the other bombers, members of Eastviews Klavern 13, Bobby Frank Cherry would nally be tried in 2002 and would die in prison in 2004. A fourth man died before he was charged 30. Walter Benn Michaels, You Who Never Was There: Slavery and the New Historicism, Deconstruction and the Holocaust, Narrative, 4 (1996), pp. 116. 31. NPR, 8 November 1997; Fellow Judge Discovered Wares Lie About Identity; Article About Racist Attack Boosted Suspicion, Washington Post, 9 November 1997. 32. Revisionism, The Education of Max Bickford, CBS, 21 November 2001. 33. Toni Morrison, The Talk of the Town, The New Yorker, 5 October 1995, pp. 312. 34. Eric Lott, The Disappearance of the Liberal Intellectual (New York: Basic Books, 2006), p. 133. 35. P. J. ORourke, The Veterans of Domestic Disorder Memorial, Atlantic Monthly, April 2003, p. 401. 36. Jonathan Franzen, The Corrections (London: Fourth Estate, 2002), p. 93. 37. Steve Lohr, The Late, Great Golden Years , New York Times, 6 March 2005, pp. 1, 6. 38. Christopher Buckley, Boomsday: A Novel (New York: Twelve, 2007) pp. 701. 39. Ibid., p. 94. 224 American Culture in the 1960s 40. Stephen Carter, The Dialectics of Race and Citizenship, Transition, 56 (1992), pp. 8099. 41. Rotan E. Lee, The Baraka Flap: Lenny Bruce Revisited, Philadelphia Tribune, 11 October 2002. 42. Alex Callincos, Against Postmodernism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), p. 170. 43. Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 1 44. Ihab Hassan, The Postmodern Turn: Essays in Postmodern Theory and Culture (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press), p. 19; Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes (London: Michael Joseph, 1994), p. 78. Bibliography General Raymond Arsenault, Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). Alexander Bloom and Wini Breines (eds), Takin it to the Streets: A Sixties Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Daniel Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America (New York: Vintage, 1961). Howard Brick, Age of Contradiction: American Thought and Culture in the 1960s (New York: Twayne, 1998). Ann Charters (ed.), The Portable Sixties Reader (London: Penguin, 2003). David Farber (ed.), The Sixties: From Memory to History (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994). James J. Farrell, The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism (New York: Routledge, 1997). David Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jnr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (London: Vintage, 1993). Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973). Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987). Dennis Hale and Jonathan Eisen (eds), The California Dream (New York: Collier Books, 1968). Michael J. Heale, Sixties in America (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001). Seymour M. Hersch, The Dark Side of Camelot (New York: Little, Brown, 1997). Gerald Howard (ed.), The Sixties: The Art, Attitudes, Politics, and Media of Our Most Explosive Decade (New York: Washington Square Press, 1982). Irving Howe, Decline of the New (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1970). Norman Jacobs (ed.), Culture for the Millions: Mass Media in Modern Society (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1964). Fredric Jameson, The Ideologies of Theory: Essays, 19711986 (Minneapolis: Minnesota, 1988). Otto Kermer et al., Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Dutton, 1968). Wendy Kozol, Lifes America: Family and Nation in Postwar Photojournalism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994). 226 American Culture in the 1960s Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: Norton, 1979). Claude Levi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology (New York: Basic Books, 1963). Peter Ling, Martin Luther King, Jr (London: Routledge, 2002). Edward P. Morgan, The 60s Experience: Hard Lessons About Modern America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991). Joan Morrison and Robert K. Morrison, From Camelot to Kent State (New York: Times Books, 1987). Joseph Roach, Cities of the Dead: Circum-Atlantic Performance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996). Natalie Robins, Alien Ink: The FBIs War on Freedom of Expression (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992). Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture (London: Faber, 1970). Nora Sayre, Sixties Going on Seventies (London: Constable, 1974). Sohnya Sayres et al., The 60s Without Apology (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984). Arthur Schlesinger Jr, History of US Political Parties: Factions to Parties (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1973). Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1973). Shelby Steele, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (New York: St. Martins Press, 1990). Irwin Unger and Debi Unger (eds), The Times Were a Changin: The Sixties Reader (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998). Brian Ward (ed.), Media, Culture and the Modern African American Freedom Struggle (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001). C. Van Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford, 966). Andrew Young, An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transition of America (New York: HarperCollins, 1996). Howard Zinn, The Southern Mystique (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972). Music and Performance Amiri Baraka, The Music, Reections on Jazz and Blues (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1987). Stephen J. Bottoms, Playing Underground: A Critical History of the 1960s Off-OffBroadway Movement (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005). Lewis Chester, Godfrey Hodgson and Bruce Page, An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968 (London: Andr Deutsch, 1969). Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor, American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley, His Battle for Chicago and the Nation (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 2000). Ruby Cohn, New American Dramatists 19601980 (London: Macmillan, 1982). Ronald K. L. Collins and David M. Skover, The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Fall and Rise of an American Icon (Napierville, IL: Sourcebooks, 2002). Neil Corcoran (ed.), Do You Mr Jones?: Bob Dylan with the Poets and Professors (London: Pimlico, 2003). Peter Coyote, Sleeping Where I Fall (Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1998). Bibliography 227 R. G. Davis, The San Francisco Mime Troupe: The First Ten Years (Palo Alto, CA: Ramparts, 1975). Serge R. Denisoff, Great Days Coming: Folk Music and the American Left (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971). Robert Draper, Rolling Stone Magazine: The Uncensored History (New York: Bantam, 1990). Gerald Early (ed.), Im a Little Special: A Muhammad Ali Reader (London: Yellow Jersey Press, 1998). Gerald Early, One Nation Under a Groove: Motown and American Culture (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004). Jonathan Eisen (ed.), The Age of Rock: Sights and Sounds of the American Cultural Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1970). Ken Emerson, Always Magic in the Air: The Bomp and Brilliance of the Brill Building Era (London: Fourth Estate, 2006). Benjamin Filene, Romancing the Folk: Public Memory and American Roots Music (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000). Paul Friedlander, Rock and Roll: A Social History (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996). Martin Goldsmith, The Beatles Come to America (London: Wiley, 2004). Michael Gray, Song and Dance Man III: The Art of Bob Dylan (London: Continuum, 2000). Marcus Griel, Invisible Republic: Bob Dylans Basement Tapes (London: Picador, 1997). Marcus Griel, Like a Rolling Stone: Bob Dylan at the Crossroads (London: Faber, 2005). Peter Guralnik, Sweet Soul Music (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2002). David Hajdu, Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Mimi Baez Farina and Richard Farina (London: Bloomsbury, 2001). Thomas Hauser, Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times (London: Pan, 1997). Gerri Hirshey, Nowhere To Run: The Story of Soul Music (London: Southbank, 2006). Jack Hoffman and Daniel Simon, Run, Run, Run: The Lives of Abbie Hoffman (New York: Putnam, 1996). Alan Kaprow, Some Recent Happenings (New York: Something Else Press, 1966). Mark Kemp, Dixie Lullaby: A Story of Music, Race and New Beginnings in a New South (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006). Alan Lomax, Charles Seeger and Ruth Crawford Seeger (eds), Folk Song USA (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1947). Devin McKinney, Magic Circles: The Beatles in Dream and History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004). Mike Marqusee, Redemption Song: Muhammad Ali and the Spirit of the Sixties (London: Verso, 1999). Mike Marqusee, Wicked Messenger: Bob Dylan and the 1960s (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2005). James Miller, Flowers in the Dustbin: The Rise of Rock and Roll, 19471977 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999). Barbara ODair (ed.), The Rolling Stone Book of Women in Rock (New York: Random House, 1997). Robert Pruter, Chicago Soul (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991). Tommie Smith with David Steel, Silent Gesture (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007). 228 American Culture in the 1960s Howard Sounes, Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan (London: Black Swan, 2002). Tommy Udo, Charles Manson: Music, Mayhem, Murder (London: Sanctuary, 2002). Richie Unterberger, Turn! Turn! Turn!; The 60s Folk-Rock Revolution (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2002). Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998) Brian Ward, Radio and the Struggle for Civil Rights in the South (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2004). Film and Television James Baldwin, The Devil Finds Work (New York: Laurel, 1976). Erik Barnouw, Tube of Plenty (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). John Baxter, Hollywood in the Sixties (London: Tantivy Press, 1972). Aniko Bodroghkozy, Groove Tube: Sixties Television and the Youth Rebellion (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001). Will Brantley (ed.), Conversations with Pauline Kael (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999). Douglas Brode, The Films of the Sixties (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1980). Douglas Brode, From Walt to Woodstock: How Disney Created the Counterculture (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003). Robert Burgoyne, Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at US (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997). Seth Cagin and Philip Dray, Hollywood Films of the Seventies: Sex, Drugs, Violence, Rock n Roll & Politics (New York: Harper and Row, 1984). Steven D. Classen, Watching Jim Crow: The Struggles Over Mississippi TV, 19551969 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004). Jim Collins, Architectures of Excess: Cultural Life in the Information Age (New York: Routledge, 1995). John E. Connor (ed.), American History, American Television: Interpreting the Video Past (New York: Frederick Unger, 1983). Corrigan, Timothy, A Cinema Without Walls: Movies and Culture After Vietnam (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991). Edward Jay Epstein, The Big Picture: Money and Power in Hollywood (New York: Random House, 2005). Lester D. Friedman (ed.), Arthur Penns Bonnie and Clyde (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Paul Grainge, Mark Jancovich and Sharon Monteith, Film Histories: An Introduction and Reader (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007). Jim Hoberman, The Dream Life: Movies Media and the Mythology of the Sixties (New York: The New Press, 2003). David E. James, Allegories of Cinema: American Film in the Sixties (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989). Pauline Kael, I Lost It At The Movies (New York: Little, Brown, 1965). Pauline Kael, Going Steady: Film Writings 19681969 (New York: Marion Boyars, 1994). Stephen Prince (ed.), Screening Violence (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2000). Bibliography 229 Richard Schickel, The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art and Commerce of Walt Disney (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972). Lynn Spigel and Michael Curtin (eds), The Revolution Wasnt Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conict (New York and London: Routledge, 1997) Ella Taylor, PrimeTime: Television Culture in Postwar America (1989) The New York Times Film Reviews 19131968 Vol. 5 (New York: New York Times/Arno Press, 1970). Parker Tyler, Underground Cinema (London: Pelican, 1969). Mary Ann Watson, The Expanding Vista: American Television in the Kennedy Years (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990). Fiction and Poetry John W. Aldridge, The Devil in the Fire: Retrospective Essays on American Literature and Culture, 19511971 (New York: Harpers Magazine Press, 1972). Marc Chenetier, Beyond Suspicion: New American Fiction since 1960 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996). John Henrik Clarke (ed.), Ten Black Writers on Nat Turner (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1968). Marianne DeKoven, Utopia Limited: The Sixties and the Emergence of the Postmodern (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004). Morris Dickstein, Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties (New York: Basic Books, 1977). Morris Dickstein, Leopards in the Temple: The Transformation of American Fiction, 19451970 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999). Leslie Fiedler, Waiting For the End (London: Pelican, 1967). Leslie Fiedler, The Return of the Vanishing American (London: Paladin, 1972). Leslie Fiedler, Love and Death in the American Novel (London: Penguin, 1982). Leslie Fiedler, A New Fiedler Reader (New York: Prometheus, 2001). David P. Galloway, The Absurd Hero in American Fiction: Updike, Styron, Bellow, Salinger (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1982). Kenneth S. Greenberg (ed.), The Confessions of Nat Turner and Related Documents (Boston, MA: Bedford, 1996). Ihab Hassan, Radical Innocence, Studies in the Contemporary American Novel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961). Jacques Hermann, The Death of Literature, New Literary History, 3 (1971), pp. 31 47. Tony Horwitz, Untrue Confessions: Is What Most of Us Know about the Rebel Slave Nat Turner Wrong?, The New Yorker, 13 December 1999, pp. 809. Kathryn Hume, American Dream, American Nightmare: Fiction Since 1960 (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000). Nicolas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Migration and How it Changed America (London: Macmillan, 1991). Albert Murray, The Omni Americans: Black Experience and American Culture (New York: Da Capo, 1970). Joyce Carol Oates, New Heaven, New Earth: The Visionary Experience in Literature (London: Gollancz, 1976). Raymond Michael Olderman, Beyond The Waste Land: A Study of the American Novel in the Nineteen-Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972). 230 American Culture in the 1960s Ross Posnock, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of the Modern Intellectual (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000). Manfred Putz, The Story of Identity: American Fiction of the Sixties (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1979). Albert E. Stone, The Return of Nat Turner: History, Literature and Cultural Politics (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992). Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974). Sherley Ann Williams, Give Birth to Brightness (New York: Dial Press, 1972). Art and Photography Julia Ault, Come Alive: The Spirited Art of Sister Corita (London: Four Corners, 2007). Richard Avedon, The Kennedys: Portrait of a Family (New York: Thames and Hudson, 2007). Suzaan Boettger, Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002). Pierre Bourdieu, Photography: A Middle-Brow Art (London: Polity Press, 1996). Truman Capote, Observations, A Capote Reader (London: Penguin, 1987). Denise Chang, The Girl in the Picture: The Remarkable Story of Vietnams Most Famous Casualty (London: Simon and Schuster, 1999). Thomas E. Crow, The Rise of the Sixties: American and European Art in the Era of Dissent (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996). Jennifer Doyle, Jonathan Flatley and Jos Esteban Muoz, Pop Art: Queer Warhol (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996). Martin Duberman, Black Mountain College, An Exploration in Community (New York: Dutton, 1972). Horst Faas and Tim Page, Requiem: By the Photographers who Died in Vietnam and Indochina (London: Jonathan Cape, 1997). John Alan Farmer, The New Frontier: Art and Television 196065 (Austin, TX: Austin Museum of Art, 2000) Jack Flam (ed.), The Collected Writings of Robert Smithson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996). Thomas Frank, The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997). Paul Fusco, RFK: Funeral Train (New York: Magnum Photos Inc./Umbrage Editions, 2000). Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson (eds), Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain (London: Routledge, 1993). Mary Emma Harris, The Arts at Black Mountain College (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987). Barbara Haskell, Claes Oldenburg: Object into Moment (Pasadena, CA: Pasadena Art Museum Catalogue, 1971). Seymour Hersch, May Lai 4: A Report on the Massacre and Its Aftermath (New York: Random House, 1970). Robert Hughes, American Visions: Epic Hisory of Art in America (London: Harvill Press, 1997). Bibliography 231 Vincent Katz, (ed.), Black Mountain College: Experiment in Art (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002). Anthony W. Lee, Diane Arbus: Family Albums (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003). Lucy Lippard, Six Years: The Dematerialisation of the Art Object from 19661972 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001). Charles Moore, Powerful Days, The Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore (New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1991). Robert C. Morgan, Conceptual Art: An American Perspective (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994). Amy Newman, Challenging Art: Artforum 19621974 (New York: Soho Press, 2000). John OBrien (ed.), Clement Greenberg, The Collected Essays and Criticism. Volume 4: Modernism with a Vengeance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). Anne Rorimer, New Art in the 60s and 70s: Redening Reality (London: Thames and Hudson, 2001). Clifford Ross (ed.), Abstract Expressionism (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1991). Craig Seligman, Sontag and Kael: Opposites Attract Me (New York: Counterpoint, 2005). Susan Sontag, On Photography (London: Penguin, 1979). Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (London: Hamish Hamilton, 2003). Ronald Steel, In Love with Night: The American Romance with Robert Kennedy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000). Kirk Varnedoe, Pictures of Nothing: Abstract Art Since Pollock (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006). New Social Movements Judith Clavir Albert and Stewart Edward Albert (eds), The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1984). David Allyn, Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History (New York: Routledge, 2001). Terry H. Anderson, The Movement and the Sixties (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). John A. Andrew, The Other Side of the Sixties: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of Conservative Politics (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997). Geoff Andrews et al., New Left, New Right and Beyond: Taking the Sixties Seriously (Houndmills: Palgrave, 1999). Edward Baccioco, The New Left in America: Reform to Revolution, 19561970 (Palo Alto, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1974). Tom Bates, Rads: The 1970 Bombing of the Army Math Research Center at the University of Wisconsin and Its Aftermath (New York: HarperCollins, 1992). Warren J. Belasco, Appetite for Change: How the Counterculture Took on the Food Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006). Robert Bellah et al., Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (London: Harper Perennial, 1985). Joseph Boskin and Robert A. Rosenstone, Seasons of Rebellion: Protest and Radicalism in Recast America (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972). 232 American Culture in the 1960s Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 195463 (New York: Touchstone, 1988). Winifred Breines, Community and Organization in the New Left: 19621968 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989). Lindsey Brink, The Age of Abundance: How Prosperity Transformed Americas Politics and Culture (London: HarperCollins, 2007). Paul Buhle (ed.), History and the New Left: Madison, Wisconsin, 19501970 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990). Stewart Burn, Social Movements of the 1960s: Searching for Democracy (Boston, MA: Twayne, 1990). Ellen Cantarow, Moving the Mountain: Women Working for Social Change (New York: Feminist Press, 1980). Milton Canton, The Divided Left: American Radicalism, 19001975 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1978). Stokely Carmichael, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (London: Cape, 1967). David Carter, Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked The Gay Revolution (New York: St. Martins Press, 2004). William H. Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980). Peter Clecak, Radical Paradoxes: Dilemmas of the American Left, 19451970 (New York: Harper and Row, 1973). James H. Cone, Martin and Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare (New York: Orbis Books, 1991). CORE, Cracking the Color Line: Non-Violent Direct Action Methods of Eliminating Racial Discrimination (New York: CORE, 1960). Maurice Cranston (ed.), The New Left: Six Critical Essays (London: Bodley Head, 1970). Nick Crossley, Making Sense of Social Movements (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 2002). Marcy Darnovsky, Barbara Epstein and Richard Flacks (eds), Cultural Politics and New Social Movements (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995). Charles DeBenedetti and Charles Cateld, An American Ordeal: The Anti-War Movement of the Vietnam War (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1990). Gerard J. DeGroot (ed.), Student Protest: The Sixties and After (London: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998). Gary A. Donaldson, Liberalisms Last Hurrah (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2003). Martin Duberman, Stonewall (New York: Dutton, 1993). Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Womens Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and The New Left (New York: Vintage, 1980). Adam Fairclough, To Redeem the Soul of America (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1987). Adam Fairclough, Race and Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915 1972 (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1995). Daniel Foss, Freak Culture: Life-style and Politics (New York: Dutton, 1972). Ronald Fraser et al., 1968: A Student Generation in Revolt (New York: Macmillan, 1972). Bibliography 233 George M. Fredrickson, The Comparative Imagination: On the History of Racism, Nationalism and Social Movements (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). Jo Freeman (ed.), Social Movements of the Sixties and Seventies (London: Longman, 1983). L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, The New Left and the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s: A Re-evaluation (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute, 1995). Mark Gerson (ed.), The Essential Neoconservative Reader (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1996). Joanna Grant, Ella Barker: Freedom Bound (New York: John Wiley, 1980). David Halberstam, The Children (New York: Fawcett Books, 1998). Fred Halstead, Out Now! A Participants Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War (New York: Monad, 1978). Samuel Huntingdon, American Politics: the Promise of Disharmony (Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1981). Maurice Issermann, If I Had a Hammer: The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left (New York: Basic Books, 1987). Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, Peace Now!: American Society and the Ending of the V War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999). Richard King, Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990). Enrique Larana et al., New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1994). Linda Lear, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature (London: Penguin Books, 1997). John Lewis, Walking in the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998). Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith (eds), Gender and the Civil Rights Movement (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2004). Danny Lyon, Memories of the Southern Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Pres, 1992). William J. McGill, The Year of the Monkey: Revolt on the Campus, 19681969 (New York: Basic Books, 1982). Kay Mills, This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (New York: Dutton, 1993). Aldon Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organising for Change (London: Collier Macmillan, 1984). Anthony Oberschall, Social Conict and Social Movements (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973). Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor Peoples Movements (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977). Charles Payne, Ive Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). Howell Raines, My Soul is Rested (New York: Penguin, 1977). W. J. Roraborough, Berkeley at War: The 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). John Schwartz, Americas Hidden Successes: A Reassessment of Public Policy from Kennedy to Reagan (New York: Norton, 1988). Alan Scott, Ideology and New Social Movements (London: HarperCollins, 1990). 234 American Culture in the 1960s Tim Tyson, Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). Jeremy Varon, Bringing the War Home: the Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004). Milton Viorst, Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960s (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979). Jack L. Walker, Sit-Ins in Atlanta (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). Robert Penn Warren, Who Speaks for the Negro? (New York: Vintage, 1965). Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up? American Protest Against the War in Vietnam (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984). Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1964). Cultural Legacy Paul Berman (ed.), Debating P.C.: The Controversy Over Political Correctness on College Campuses (New York: Laurel, 1992). Michael Brub and Cary Nelson (eds), Higher Education Under Fire: Politics, Economics, and the Crisis of the Humanities (New York: Routledge, 1995). Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987). W. James Booth, Communities of Memory: On Witness, Identity, and Justice (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006). Robert Bork, Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline (London: HarperCollins, 1997). David Burner, Making Peace with the 60s (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996). Walter H. Capps, The Unnished War: Vietnam and the American Conscience (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1982). Ron Chepesiuk, Sixties Radicals Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, 1995). Peter Collier and David Horowitz, Destructive Generation: Second Thoughts About the Sixties (New York: Free Press, 1989). Craig Cox, Storefront Revolution: Food Co-ops and the Counterculture (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994). Alice Echols, Shaky Ground: The 60s and its Aftershocks (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002). Richard J. Ellis, The Dark Side of the Left: Illiberal Egalitarianism in America (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1998). Robert S. Ellwood, The Sixties Spiritual Awakening: American Religion Moving from Modern to Postmodern (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994). Glenn T. Eskew, But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997). James J. Farrell, The Spirit of the Sixties: The Making of Postwar Radicalism (New York: Routledge, 1997). Steve Fraser, The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 19301980 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999). Bibliography 235 Lawrence H. 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Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Ron Jacobs, The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground (London: Verso, 1997). Robin D. G. Kelley, Yo Mamas Disfunktional: Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1997). Lauren Kessler, After All These Years: Sixties Ideals in a Different World (New York: Thunders Mouth Press, 1990). Roger Kimball, Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education (New York: Harper and Row, 1990). Christopher Lasch, The True and Only Heaven: Progress and its Critics (New York: Norton, 1991). Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy (New York: Norton, 1995). Lawrence W. Levine, The Opening of the American Mind (Boston, MA: Beacon, 1996). Steven Macedo (ed.), Reassessing the Sixties: Debating the Political and Cultural Legacy (New York and London: Norton, 1997). Andrew M. 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Index Adams, Eddie, 97 Advise and Consent, 11, 168 Affluent Society, The (Galbraith), 4, 7 Agent Orange, 172 Agent Orange (Overstreet), 141 Agnew, Spiro T., 1756, 181 Albee, Edward, 92, 101 Ali, Muhammad, 31, 47, 4850, 111, 138, 218 Alices Restaurant, 42, 176 All The Little Live Things (Stegner), 20, 1723 American International Pictures (AIP), 889 American Pastoral (Roth), 203 American Power and the New Mandarins (Chomsky), 176 American Requiem, An (Carroll), 1778 And All Our Wounds Forgiven (Lester), 183, 187 Anders, William, 139 Angry Black White Boy (Mansbach), 186 Anti-Vietnam War demonstrations, 13, 15, 35, 45, 479, 95, 111, 122, 132, 140, 1434, 172, 17580 Any Day Now, 198 Aptheker, Herbert, 117 Arbus, Diane, 89, 129, 133, 137 Archives of American Art (Smithsonian), 124 Armies of the Night (Mailer), 1315, 97, 176 Arsenault, Ray, 153 Artforum, 76, 124 Art in Public Places (NEA), 125 Artists Tower of Protest (LA), 137 Art Works Coalition (AWC), 126 Autobiography (Rauschenberg), 138 Avedon, Richard, 1245, 1378 Baby Boomers, 16, 34, 36, 191, 199203 Baca, Judy, 136 Baez, Joan, 39, 41, 176 Baker, Ella, 12, 152, 156 Baldwin, James, 10, 93, 100, 115, 117, 121, 1245, 1378, 154, 162 Bambara, Toni Cade, 41, 120 Baraka, Amiri (aka Leroi Jones), 45, 55, 118, 127, 2012 Barbarella, 845 Barth, John, 195, 109 Barthes, Roland, 123, 131 Bates, Daisy, 160 Battlefield Vietnam (computer game), 35 Battle of Chicago, The, 46, 54, 97 Battle of Sunset Strip, The, 32, 97 Beach Boys, The, 68, 71 Bearden, Romare, 132 Beatles, The, 39, 44, 601, 68 Beckwith, Byron De La, 11314, 152, 1878 Belafonte, Harry, 39, 86 Bellow, Saul, 99, 101, 102, 105 Bernstein, Leonard, 1445 Binford, Lloyd T., 82 Birmingham, Alabama, 2, 23, 45, 131, 18990, 1929, 223 Black Arts Movement, the, 100, 11822, 132 Black Mountain College, North Carolina, 135 Black Panthers, 6, 35, 117, 1512, 157 Black Power, 56, 467, 108, 11718, 1612, 182 Blue Column (McCracken), 127 Bly, Robert, 106, 178 Boettger, Suzaan, 1356 Bombingham (Grooms), 187, 1989, 200 Bonanza, 81 Bond, Julian, 26, 29, 1567 Bonnie and Clyde, 201, 756, 78 Boomsday (Buckley), 34, 188, 2001 Boorstin, Daniel, 32 Born on the Fourth of July, 36, 94 Bourjaily, Vance, 102, 1045 Brick, Howard, 126 Brookes, Gwendolyn, 15, 121, 127 Brown, James, 34, 120 Brown, Nacio Jan, 144 Brown, Norman O., 8 Bruce, Lenny, 14, 31, 579, 104, 202 Buckley, William F., 5 Burrows, Larry, 30, 1413 Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (Brown), 162 Bush, George, 188 Bush, George W., 14, 18, 1712, 1889 Cage, John, 52, 126, 127, 135, 136 Callincos, Alex, 202 Carmichael, Stokeley, 111, 117, 157, 161 Caroline or Change (Kushner), 1912, 222 Carroll, James Lt Gen., 1778 238 Carson, Johnny, 74 Carson, Rachel, 3, 12, 16971 Carter, Stephen, 201 Cash, Johnny, 42 Cash, W. J., 22 Castelli, Leo, 126 Cat Ballou, 20 Cats Cradle (Vonnegut), 16971 CBS Reports, 30 celebrity culture, 314, 35, 3740, 41, 4750, 1378 centenary of the Civil War, 33, 43, 1112, 171, 175 Chaney, James, 155, 157 Chappelle, Dickey, 141 Charles H. Wright Museum (Detroit), 126 Charles, Ray, 34, 40, 92, 120 Chase, The, 81, 934 Cheever, John, 100 Chessman, Caryl, 131 Chicago soul, 46, 66 Citadel, the, 1767, 179 Civil Rights Movement, 2, 912, 2630, 39, 43, 56, 812, 914, 11920, 127, 13940, 15154, 156, 166, 167 Clark, Dick, 64, 75, 89 Clark, Jim (sheriff), 59, 139, 187 Clarke, Kenneth, 153, 163 Cleaver, Eldridge, 56, 102 Cleopatra, 7880 Clinton, Bill, 14, 26, 101, 186, 187, 199200 cold war culture, 2930, 589, 824, 8990, 1689 Columbia Records, 412 Commentary, 103, 180 Commission on Interracial Co-operation (CORE), 1523, 1545, 156, 160 Commercial Appeal (Memphis), 28, 53, 56, 140, 190 Conaway, James, 27, 191 Confessions of a Spent Youth (Bourjaily), 102, 1045 Confessions of Nat Turner, The (Styron), 112, 11618 Conservatism, 912, 267, 80, 158, 164, 166, 1735, 1803 Cooke, Sam, 40, 42 countercultural forms, 323, 34, 50, 56, 58, 75, 77, 80, 85, 956, 1356 Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO), 151 Couples (Updike), 103 Cronkite, Walter, 74, 81, 178 Crowe, Thomas, 130 Crowther, Bosley, 76, 91 Crying of Lot 49, The (Pynchon), 601, 99, 165 Cuban Missile Crisis, 19, 31, 43, 133, 154 Cut Piece (Ono), 149 Daley, Richard J. (mayor), 978 DArchangelo, Allen, 149 Davidson, Bruce, 147 Davis, Mike, 7 Davis, Sammy, Jr, 60, 63 Day Doris, 80, 92 de Certeau, Michel, 32 American Culture in the 1960s de Tocqueville, Alexis, 22 Deacons for Defense, 152, 1601 Debord, Guy, 32, 124, 129, 130 Decter, Midge, 180 Defenders, The, 31 Defense Intelligence Agency, 1778 DeLaughter, Bobby, 188 DeLillo, Don, 16, 32, 99 Dellinger, David, 155 Deloria, Vine, 12, 32, 1624 Demby, William, 127 DEmilio, John, 167 Democratic Party conventions, 456, 146, 15960, 1667, 1812, 192 Desperate Housewives, 166 Dickstein, Morris, 106, 203 Didion, Joan, 70, 175, 203 Disappearing Intellectual, The (Lott), 183 Disney, Walt, 18, 35, 745, 94, 213 Dixon, Ivan, 901 Doar, John, 12, Doherty, Thomas, 88 Dont Look Back, 42, 44 Doors, The, 177, 189, 201 Do the Right Thing, 160 Double Standard (Hopper), 139 Douglas, Ellen, 2, 223, 112, 191 Down Home (Adelman), 149 Drew, Robert, 23, 27, 97 Dr Strangelove, 6, 169 Dutchman (Baraka), 55 Dwan, Virginia, 126 Dylan, Bob, 38, 404, 61, 68, 131 Earle, Steve, 160 Earth Day, 1712 Earthrise (Anders), 139 Eastland, James, 2, 93 Easy Rider, 202, 32, 33, 1734 Ed Sullivan Show, The, 61 Education of Max Bickford, The, 199 Elkins, Stanley, 117, 165 Ellison, Ralph, 100, 117 environmental movement, the 136, 16973 Eppridge, Bill, 61, 137, 146, 212 Epstein, Howie, 140 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 166 Erchols, Alice, 173 Eros and Civilisation (Marcuse), 8 Esquire magazine, 14, 76, 107, 129, 138, 145 Evers, Medgar, 43, 812, 11314, 152, 160, 1878 F111 (Rosenquist), 149 Fair, Ronald, L., 11819, 1589 Farmer, James, 36, 1523 Farm, The (Tennessee), 173 fashionable clothing, 20, 38, 51, 657 Feel Like Im Fixin to Die Rag (Country Joe and the Fish), 176 Feminine Mystique, The (Friedan), 1646 Feuer, Lewis, 177 Fiedler, Leslie, 5, 12, 60, 102, 104, 105, 1067, 165, 214 fifties, the, 78, 29, 131 Filo, John, 144, 149, 199 Finians Rainbow, 154 Index Fire Next Time, The (Baldwin), 10 First Family, The, 27 Fischer, Carl, 138, 145, 218 Fog of War, The, 19 Folk Songs of North America, 41 Folk Song Style and Culture, 41 Fonda, Jane, 845, 178 Forman, James, 161 For the Union Dead (Lowell), 11112 Four Little Girls, 186 Four Spirits (Naslund), 1968 Frady, Marshall, 1856 Frankenheimer, John, 80, 89, 1856 Franklin, Aretha, 39, 41 Frascina, Francis, 1356 Freedom Rides, the, 139, 152, 180, 194, 196, 199 Freedom Road, 4950 Freedom Walk (Drake), 1967 Free Speech Movement (FSM), 24, 158, 177 Friedlander, Lee, 1378 Fried, Michael, 124 Friedan, Betty, 153, 1646 Fusco, Paul, 1458 Gadsen, Walter, 1946, 198 Galbraith, John Kenneth, 4, 177 Galella, Richard, 137 Gas-s-s-s, 889, 94, 201 Gaye, Marvin, 65, 67, 68 Geertz, Clifford, 6 Ghosts of Mississippi, 188 Ginsberg, Allen, 8, 42, 45, 111, 127 Giovanni, Nikki, 45 Gitlin, Todd, 36, 185, 189 Glazer, Nathan, 181 Goffman, Erving, 46 Going To Meet the Man (Baldwin), 115, 117 Going Up River: The Long War of John Kerry, 189 Goldwater, Barry, 5, 26, 31, 94, 158, 181, 213 Golub, Victor, 141 Goodman, Andrew, 155, 157 Goodman, Paul, 8 Gordy, Berry, 63, 656 Graduate, The, 50, 80, 96, 101 Grau, Shirley Ann, 11516 Great Society programs, 1, 78, 162, 1813 Green Berets, The, 16, 35, 63, 77, 945, 214 Greetings, 108, 168, 176 Gregory, Dick, 5, 23, 46, 47, 49, 5960, 121 Griffiths, Philip Jones, 1434 Guston, Phlip, 124, 216 Guthrie, Woody, 412, 43 Haeberle, Ron, 132 Haight-Ashbury, San Francisco, 33, 1735 Hair, 31, 514, 63 Hairspray, 75 Halberstam, David, 145 Hamer, Fannie Lou, Mrs, 1579, 160 Hammond, John, 412, 45, 50, 63 Hansberry, Lorraine, 153 Happenings, 546, 70 Harrington, Michael, 1467, 162 Hayden, Casey, 108, 1578 Hayden, Tom, 45, 108, 154 239 Haynes, Todd, 44, 166 Hearts and Minds, 1089, 114 Hedrik, Wally, 132 Hefner, Hugh, 59 Hendrix, Jimi, 44, 68, 70 heritage sites, 32, 47, 73, 136, 155, 158, 173, 180, 187, 1929, 209 Heston, Charlton, 79, 834 hippie culture, 323, 52, 70, 85, 88, 1725, 179, 221 Hobson, Fred, 23 Hoffman, Abbie, 18, 44, 46, 190 Hoffman, Dustin, 50, 57, 956 Hofstadter, Richard, 26 Holcey, Eddie, 186 Hombre, 20 Hopper, Dennis, 33, 1389 Horne, Lena, 39, 59 House Made of Dawn (Momaday), 19, 102 Howe, Irving, 32 Hud, 20, 77, 78, 82, 96 Hudson, Bill, 1946 Huet, Henri, 1412 Hughes, Robert, 141 Huie, William Bradford, 26 Human Be-In, 70, 174 Humphrey, Hubert, 46, 97, 164 Huntley and Brinkley, 74 I Dont Want To Go To Vietnam (Hooker), 45 If We Must Die (Edwards), 187 Impressions, The, 40 Indian Rights Movement, the, 1624 Indians and Other Americans, 162 In the Heat of the Night, 914, 107 In the Lake of the Woods (OBrien), 188 In the Mecca (Brookes), 1212 Jackson State University, Mississippi, 17980 Jameson, Fredric, 1, 7, 1412 Jarrell, Randall, 34 Jen, Gish, 99, 103 Jetsons, The, 18 Joe, 179, 181 John Birch Society, the, 27, 181 Johns, Jasper, 125, 126, 127, 129, 135, 1378 Johns, Vernon, Rev., 12 Johnson, Justice Jim, 26 Johnson, Lyndon, 7, 14, 16, 26, 31, 35, 48, 111, 145, 1801, 193 Jones, Quincy, 92 Kael, Pauline, 12, 75, 768, 83, 84, 93, 129 Kane, Larry, 61, 212 Kaprow, Alan, 54 Kaufman, Bob, 112 Keepers of the House, The (Grau), 11516 Kennedy, Edward, 147, 163, 178 Kennedy, Jackie, 14, 16, 1718, 24, 37, 80, 137, 1445 Kennedy, John, F., 1417, 19, 22, 25, 278, 31, 34, 43, 57, 75, 80, 81, 97, 11315, 131, 1334, 137, 1446, 154, 173, 189, 1935, 202, 207 and Camelot, 1516, 18, 137, 146, 173 and New Frontier, 1520, 278, 136, 1445 240 Kennedy, Robert, 16, 18, 23, 39, 68, 76, 110, 1458, 182 Kent State University, Ohio, 144, 149, 177, 17980 Kerner Commission, the, 24, 122, 163 Kerry, John, 14, 71, 178, 189 Kesey, Ken, 101, 108 King, BB, 40 King, Ed, Rev., 183 King, Martin Luther, Jr, 2, 912, 13, 16, 25, 2930, 31, 36, 86, 11920, 13940, 145, 1512, 155, 1603, 172, 182, 186, 192, 1946, 199, 202 King, Mary, 36, 1578 King, Rodney, 186 Kirschner, Don, 612, 645 Klu Klux Klan, 152, 157, 1956, 199, 223 Kristol, Irving, 182 Kwon, Mirwon, 149 Land Art, 123, 1267, 133, 1356 Lasch, Christopher, 32 Lawson, James, 152 Lehrer, Tom, 589, 94 Lemann, Nicholas, 7 Lemay, Curtis, Gen., 6 Lennon, John, 3940 Lester, Julius, 1011, 1545, 183, 187 Letters to a Young Activist (Gitlin), 185 Levertov, Denise, 15, 111 Levin, Ira, 1656 Lewis, John, 156, 157 Lewis, Oscar, 78 Libra (DeLillo), 16 Lichtenstein, Roy, 134, 137 Life Against Death (Brown), 8 Life magazine, 2930, 48, 61, 78, 82, 85, 96, 133, 137, 138, 139, 1413, 146, 149, 168 Lippard, Lucy, 130, 133 Lipsitz, George, 27, 151 Liston, Sonny, 48, 138 Little Big Man, 20, 50, 96, 1001 Living Theater, 545, 68 Lomax, Alan and John, 401 Look magazine, 74, 137, 1467, 1934 Lookout Cartridge (McElroy), 1412 Lost in Space, 85 Lott, Eric, 183 Love Field, 245, 81 Lowell, Robert, 8, 15, 11012 Lurie, Alison, 188 Lyon, Danny, 125, 132, 139 Lypsyte, Robert, 49, 165 McCain, John, 69 McCarthy, Eugene, 178 McCarthy, Mary, 105, 1778 McCracken, John, 127 MacDonald, Dwight, 76 McGovern, George, 178, 181 McLuhan, Marshall, 73, 76, 124, 1623 McMurtry, Larry, 82 McQueen, Steve, 967 McWhorter, Diane, 1946 Maddox, Lester, 2, 6 Mailer, Norman, 5, 12, 1314, 34, 48, 50, 51, 58, 97, 99, 101, 10910, 129, 1467, 176, 182 American Culture in the 1960s Making of a Counter Culture, The (Roszak), 13 Malamud, Bernard, 101, 103 Malcolm X, 24, 35, 91, 151, 1602 Manchurian Candidate, The, 89, 185 Manson, Charles, 68, 70 March on the Pentagon (1967), 13, 15, 45 March on Washington (1963), 9, 43, 45, 60, 157 Marcuse, Herbert, 89, 14, 85, 136, 151, 181 Marooned, 83 Marsh, Charles, 157, 183 Marx, Leo, 105, 136 Masculine Mystique, The (Lypstye), 1656 Mass (Bernstein), 1445 Masterpiece (Lichtenstein), 134 Mayfield, Curtis, 40, 66 Medium Cool, 31, 978 Medved, Michael, 35 memory texts, 44, 1469, 166, 1778, 1823, 185203 Memphis State University, 524, 119 Meredith March Against Fear, 139, 161 Midnight Cowboy, 956 Millett, Kate, 14 Mills, C. Wright, 7, 169 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), 26, 127, 156, 159 Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, 1512, 210 Monkees, The, 612 Monroe, Marilyn, 378, 131 Moody, Ann, 11, 156 Moore, Charles, 30, 13940, 145 Morrison, Jim, 70, 108, 177 Morrison, Norman, 1778 Moses, Bob, 1567 Motown, 40, 627, 68, 71 Moynihan, Daniel P., 4, 8, 1201, 122, 181 Mr Novak, 31 Mumford, Lewis, 8 Museum of Modern Art (New York City), 123, 127, 132, 135 musical crossovers, 38, 3940, 445, 50, 51, 637, 701 Mustard Race Riot (Warhol), 149, 193 My Father, My Son, 172 My Lai massacre, 179, 188 Nader, Ralph, 5, 169, 171 Napalm I, II and III (Golub), 141 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 12, 152, 155, 156, 1602 National Commission on Civil Disorders, 163, 219 National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 756, 213 National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), 1623 National Endowment of the Arts (NEA), 125 National Organization for Women (NOW), 1667 National Review, 5, 181 Nation of Islam, The, 29, 34, 489, 51, 152, 1612 Naumann, Bruce, 123 NBC White Paper, 30 neo-conservatism, 1803 Index New Left, the, 456, 1528, 164, 1812, 189 Newman, Paul, 967 Newman, Randy, 40, 58 Newton, Huey, 35, 151 New Yorker, The, 77, 113, 170 New York Review of Books, 57, 177 New York Times, 25, 28, 76, 102, 143 New York Yankees, 4 Nichols, Nichelle, 857 Night of the Living Dead, The, 83, 8990 Nixon, E. D., 12, 160 Nixon, Richard 26, 27, 29, 31, 57, 94, 140, 143, 171, 1801 Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), 156 Nossiter, Adam, 1878 Notes on Camp (Sontag), 37, 128 Nothing But a Man, 901 Nothing Personal (Avedon and Baldwin), 1378 Oates, Joyce Carol, 100, 109 Ochs, Phil, 234, 39 Of Black America, 182 Off-Off Broadway, 6, 51, 54 Oldenberg, Claes, 127, 134, 144 Olympic Games (1968), 467 Omaha Blues (Lelyveld), 189 One-Dimensional Man (Marcuse), 181 One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, 108, 112 Ono, Yoko, 149 Oppenheim, Dennis, 133, 136 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 16, 81 Other America, The (Harrington), 8, Overstreet, Joe, 127, 141 Paar, Jack, 60, 74 Packard, Vance, 169 Parks, Gordon, 29, 49, 1612 Patton, 143 Peck, James, 139, 153 Peebles, Melvin van, 90 Penn, Arthur, 20, 50, 78 Pentagon Papers, 143 Percent-for-Art program (Philadelphia), 1256 Pill, The, 103 Placid Civic Monument (Oldenberg), 127 Planet of the Apes, 19, 834, 90 Plath, Sylvia, 165 Podhoretz, Norman, 12, 103, 1801 Poitier, Sidney, 59, 914 Pollock, Jackson, 123, 124, 125, 130, 135 Pop Art, 125, 1302, 1334, 138 Portnoys Complaint (Roth), 1035, 106, 107 Power Elite, The (Mills), 7 Presley, Elvis, 389, 40, 51, 61, 131 primary, 27, 31, 97 Profiles in Courage (Kennedy), 15, 27 pseudo-events, 312, 467 PT-109, 16 Pulitzer Prize, 11516, 144 Pynchon, Thomas, 12, 24, 601, 99100, 101, 165 racial segregation, 22, 25, 28, 39, 812, 856, 904, 11316, 15160 Rauschenberg, Robert, 15, 125, 127, 129, 135, 1367, 149 Reaching Out (Burrows), 1423 Reagan, Ronald, 5, 267, 144, 158 Redding, Otis, 70 Reinhart, Ad, 123, 135 reparations debate, 161 Revolutionary Road (Yates), 100, 165 Rice, Condoleezza, 189, 198 Rich, Adrienne, 110, 122 Riesman, David, 169 Rockwell, George Lincoln, 137 Roemer, Michael, 901 Roe vs Wade, 7, 169 Rolling Stone magazine, 69 Romero, George, 8990 Rorty, Richard, 198 Rosenquist, James, 149 Ross, Diana, 45, 657 Roszak, Theodore, 13, 202 Roth, Philip, 100, 102, 1035, 106, 107, 203 Rothko, Mark, 135, 21617 Rubin, Jerry, 5, 46 Ruby, Jack, 16, 81 Ruscha, Ed, 139 Rustin, Bayard, 153 Ryman, Robert, 123, 135 241 Sahl, Mort, 57, 189 Sanchez, Sonia, 45 Sarris, Andrew, 767 Savio, Mario, 158 Schwerner, Michael, 155, 157 Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr, 8, 15, 145, 177, 183 Schuyler, George, 11 Scorsese, Martin, 44, 69 Scull, Robert and Ethel, 126 Seconds, 81 Second Stage, The (Friedan), 166 Seeger, Pete, 412, 43, 71 Seek My Face (Updike), 130 Sergeant Rutledge, 923 Sexual Politics (Millet), 14 Shatner, William, 857, 93 Shawn, William, 170 Shuttlesworth, Fred, Rev., 160, 196 Sierra Club, the, 136, 170, 171, 172 Silent Spring (Carson), 3, 16971 Silliphant, Sterling, 93 Silver, James, 34, 114 Simon and Garfunkel, 50, 63 Simon, Neil, 52 sit-ins, 25, 1545 Six Crises (Nixon), 31 Slotkin, Richard, 22 Smith, Lillian, 153 Smith, Tommie, 467 Smithson, Robert, 123, 136 Solanas, Valerie, 132 Sontag, Susan, 12, 37, 54, 56, 127, 12830, 132, 1389, 189 Sorensen, Theodore, 15 Sound of Music, The, 78 South, The as foreign country, 215, 60, 1525, 1919 as regional point of view, 237, 56, 1326, 155, 175, 1919 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 11, 140, 152, 156, 206 242 space age, the, 19, 289, 34, 827 Spector, Phil, 63 Spigel, Lynn, 19, 166 Spock, Benjamin, Dr, 5, 178 Standing in the Shadows of Motown, 667 Star Trek, 1920, 74, 83, 857, 95 Stax Records, 64 Steele, Shelby, 182, 208 Stegner, Wallace, 12, 20, 163, 171, 1723 Steiger, Rod, 924 Stella, Frank, 123 Stepford Wives, The (Levin), 1667 Stone, Oliver, 356, 81, 178 Stonewall riots, 1679 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), 1526, 189 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 22, 26, 29, 51, 15260, 183, 209, 219 Styron, William, 11618, 1201, 215 Sun Records, 64 Supremes, The, 63, 658 Tanner, Tony, 103 Tar Pool and Gravel Pit (Smithson), 136 Tarzan, 66 television culture, 1518, 278, 31, 736, 803, 1378, 142 Thalidomide, 169 That Was The Week That Was, 589 This Childs Gonna Live (Wright), 1212 This Quiet Dust (Styron), 11718 Thompson, Hunter S., 5, 18, 110 Thompson, Marshall, 95 Three Assassinations (Fischer), 145 Thurmond, Strom, 2, 11 Till, Emmett, 9, 256, 29 Time magazine, 13, 57, 103 Tretick, Stanley, 137 Trilling, Diana, 14, 177 Trilling, Lionel, 26 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 20, 24 Twenty-six Gasoline Stations (Ruscha), 139 Twombly, Cy, 1245, 1345 Understanding Media (McLuhan), 124 Untitled (Arbus), 137 Updike, John, 101, 103, 130 US Highway 1 (DArchangelo), 149 Variety magazine, 74 Varnedoe, Kirk, 123, 125, 1335 Vaughs, Clifford, 139 Velvet Underground, The, 37, 125 Vidal, Gore, 5, 92 Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), 1789 American Culture in the 1960s Village Voice, The, 13, 76 Vonnegut, Kurt, 109, 169, 200, 202 Walker, Alice, 151, 183 Wallace, George, 2, 5, 6, 23, 26, 31, 1856, 187 War in Vietnam, the, 11, 1314, 16, 19, 356, 458, 69, 88, 945, 101, 10910, 111, 140, 1414, 1767, 18890, 1989 Ward, Brian, 3940, 120 Ware, James, 199 Ware, Virgil, 1989 Warhol, Andy, 15, 378, 124, 125, 126, 1302, 1378, 149, 193 Warshow, Paul, 1734 Watts disturbances, 12, 24, 35, 60, 1356 Wayne, John, 35, 946, 178 Welch, Paul, 1689 Welcome to the Monkey House (Vonnegut), 201 Welty, Eudora, 112, 11314, 115, 215 We Reach the Moon, 28 West, as regional point of view, 24, 267, 945, 109, 1336, 1723 Wexler, Jerry, 1, 63 Wexler, Haskell, 924, 978 Whitney Museum of American Art, 138 Whole Earth Catalogue, The (Brand), 32 Why Are We in Vietnam? (Mailer), 101, 10910 Wild in the Streets, 889, 97, 201 Wilderness Act, The (1964), 136, 171 Wilderness Letter (Stegner), 20, 173 Wilding, Faith, 149 Williams, Robert, 1601 Winchell, Walter, 89 Winogrand, Gary, 140 Winter Soldier, 1789 Withers, Ernest, 13940 WLBT-TV (Mississippi), 812 Womb Room (Wilding), 149 Women Artists in Revolution (WAR), 126 Women Strike for Peace, 176 Woodstock festival, 6870 Woodward, C. Vann, 1 Wright, Sarah E., 1212 Wright, Stephen, 1412 Yates, Richard, 100, 165 Young, Andrew, 36 Youth International Party (Yippies), 5, 39, 456 Zabriskie Point, 109 Zappa, Frank, 58 Zapruder, Abraham, 82, 133 Zinn, Howard, 2, 3, 157, 183 iek, Slavoj, 3 Zumwalt, Elmo, Sr, 172

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