Chap008
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Chap008

Course Number: MAR MAR3023, Spring 2010

College/University: UCF

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Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Chapter 08 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning True / False Questions 1. Coca-Cola launched Coke Zero to avoid cannibalizing current sales and to attract new customers in a segment they might not get with Diet Coke. True False 2. When marketers adjust their marketing mix to give customers a clear, distinctive understanding of what their product does,...

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08 Chapter - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Chapter 08 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning True / False Questions 1. Coca-Cola launched Coke Zero to avoid cannibalizing current sales and to attract new customers in a segment they might not get with Diet Coke. True False 2. When marketers adjust their marketing mix to give customers a clear, distinctive understanding of what their product does, they are engaging in psychographic segmentation. True False 3. Every marketer should engage in positioning their product differently for each target market segment. True False 4. For products like pencils and paperclips, marketers should probably use an undifferentiated segmentation strategy. True False 5. When deciding who to promote his new medical oncology center to, Dr. Dick decided he did not need to throw a large grand opening reception. Instead, he promoted the center to the six physicians who would likely refer patients to his center. Dr. Dick was engaged in a concentrated segmentation strategy. True False 6. To decide how much segmentation to engage in, Phoenix University will likely weigh the value of segmentation versus the cost. True False 8-1 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 7. Bathing suit marketers logically use geographic segmentation. True False 8. NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. This is an example of psychographic segmentation. True False 9. The Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS2) conducted by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence is a widely used tool for geographic segmentation. True False 10. The fact that almost everyone living in Dragoon Island retirement community shopped at the fashion mall and drove expensive cars is an example of concentrated segmentation. True False 11. Giant Food Stores in suburban Washington, adjusts its ethnic food aisle offerings based on the variety of ethnic groups living in each area. Giant Foods is using geodemographic segmentation. True False 12. Positioning strategies generally focus on either how the product affects the consumer or how it is better than competitors' products. True False 13. A self-values map displays the position of products or brands in the consumer's mind. True False 8-2 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 14. Perceptual maps include both positions of current brands as well as ideal points where a segment would want a product to be. True False Multiple Choice Questions 15. Coca-Cola introduced Coke Zero to increase sales without taking away from its existing product sales. Which of the following is not true about this effort? A. Segmentation and targeting were of little use compared to developing appealing special advertising. B. The word "diet" was not used in promotion because the targeted segment of men did not react favorably to the "girly" connotations. C. A special fantasy football game was created to help promote the product to the targeted segment. D. Although Coke has more than 400 products, sales to a carefully targeted segment could greatly increase total sales. E. Although the market for cola is mature, Coke plans to adapt the current products and services to meet the needs of changing market climate using the segmentation ideas developed in the launch of Coke Zero 16. Sally is in the new marketing department of a mid-sized lawn and garden company. She is working on the first marketing plan the firm has ever used. She has defined the mission and objectives, and she just finished a situation analysis for the firm. The next step is to: A. develop an advertising plan to promote the upcoming sales. B. find marketing interns or hire new staff to help with implementation. C. create pro forma financial statements to complete the package. D. identify and evaluate opportunities by creating a segmentation, targeting and positioning analysis. E. use the internet, catalogs and vendor information to draw up a list of new products. 8-3 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 17. Segmentation, targeting and positioning: A. are terms that can be used interchangeably in developing marketing plans. B. are part of a firm's marketing strategy. C. should be done simultaneously so synergies can help streamline the effort and avoid overanalyzing the situation. D. are part of the marketing plan but bear little direct relationship to the marketing mix or Four Ps. E. All of the above. 18. Alex has found that investment real estate buyers and residential real estate buyers both respond positively to his marketing communication message. Alex has identified ____________ that respond similarly to his marketing efforts. A. mass customization consumers B. geographic segments C. market segments D. self-concept customers E. geothermal demographics 19. For each target market, General Imaging Corporation, a manufacturer of imaging equipment, will engage in positioning, adjusting their marketing mix variables in order to give customers: A. better Medicaid and Medicare payments. B. a virtual perceptual map of the imaging landscape. C. a psychographic consultation based on value-enhanced manufacturing. D. a mass marketing dialogue based on one-to-one lifestyle customization. E. a clear, distinctive, and desirable understanding of their products relative to competing products. 20. The first step in the segmentation process is to: A. create a perceptual map. B. produce a disclosure statement listing the strengths and weaknesses of the firm's past marketing strategies. C. clearly articulate the firm's vision or marketing strategy objectives. D. articulate the firm's self-concept. E. adapt the company's vision to current consumer lifestyles. 8-4 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 21. For products like pencils and paperclips which provide the same benefit for all consumers, marketers should probably use a(n): A. concentrated segmentation strategy. B. lifestyle segmentation strategy. C. benefit segmentation strategy. D. undifferentiated segmentation strategy. E. all of the above. 22. In the classic example of segmentation strategy, years ago Swift Meat Company transformed turkey meat into "Butterball" turkeys. In the process, the company: A. differentiated its product. B. avoided the SARS virus. C. created a new class of micromarketing. D. raised consumers' self-concepts. E. redefined mass customization. 23. Adidas Group owns Reebok, Rockport, and Greg Norman brands. Adidas uses the different brands to pursue a(n) ________________________ strategy. A. concentrated segmentation B. micromarketing segmentation C. benefit segmentation D. differentiated segmentation E. undifferentiated segmentation 24. Adidas Group owns Reebok, Rockport, and Greg Norman brands. Having a variety of brands allows Adidas to: A. engage in targeted micromarketing for hard-to-fit shoe customers. B. obtain a bigger share of the shoe market. C. use mass marketing techniques. D. utilize geographic segmentation. E. generate economies of scale in advertising expenditures. 8-5 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 25. One of the benefits of a differentiated segmentation strategy is it allows the firm to diversify its business and: A. decrease advertising spending. B. adjust its ideal point inventory. C. lowers overall risk. D. use undifferentiated strategies in micro markets. E. all of the above. 26. While a differentiated marketing strategy can allow a firm to obtain a bigger share of the overall market, one problem is it can also be: A. ideal. B. synthetic. C. cheap. D. expensive. E. invaluable. 27. Firms use a differentiated segmentation strategy, targeting several market segments with a different offering each, because: A. it is easier than mass marketing. B. it helps to obtain a bigger share of the market. C. it is better than focusing on individual or small groups of potential customers. D. most market segments are too small to be profitable. E. banks are more willing to extend credit to companies with this strategic approach. 28. When Penguin Catering Services first opened, the owner decided to target only events at nearby resorts. Penguin Catering was using a ______________ segmentation strategy. A. concentrated B. micromarketing C. benefit D. differentiated E. undifferentiated 8-6 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 29. __________________ is an extreme form of a segmentation strategy. A. Macromarketing B. Micromarketing C. Benefit marketing D. Differentiated segmentation E. Undifferentiated segmentation 30. "Corporate pilot fish" are former employees who start a new business based primarily on contacts and contracts with their old company. Corporate pilot fish most likely pursue a ________________ segmentation strategy. A. mass customization B. micromarketing C. benefit D. differentiated E. undifferentiated 31. If you have ever ordered a personal computer from Dell, you know the online software allows you to adjust the components and accessories based on your needs and desires. Dell and companies like it are engaged in: A. mass customization. B. concentrated segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. differentiated wholesaling. E. undifferentiated marketing. 32. Magazines sometimes contain ads for clothing companies in Hong Kong that will custommake suits. These firms recognize that mass customization consumers are willing to: A. pay less for lower quality. B. adjust their ideal point perceptions to be congruent with one-to-one marketing concepts. C. concede psychographic segmentation benefits for brand name recognition. D. pay more and wait for delivery. E. just their lifestyles to the clothes they buy. 8-7 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 33. Four frequently used segmentation strategies are micromarketing, undifferentiated or mass marketing, differentiated and ________________. A. opportunity segmentation strategy. B. proactive segmentation strategy. C. economies of scale segmentation strategy. D. global segmentation strategy. E. concentrated segmentation strategy. 34. To decide how much segmentation to engage in, effective marketers will likely: A. evaluate the marginal cost versus the fixed costs. B. weigh the value of segmentation versus the cost. C. replace geographic segmentation with geodemographic segmentation. D. ask consumers how they feel about segmentation. E. all of the above. 35. When Mr. How, a Pennsylvania-based discount lumber and hardware chain, sent snow blowers to their Augusta, Georgia store in April, they were engaged in A. concentrated segmentation. B. geodemographic segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. psychographic segmentation. E. misguided geographic segmentation. 36. Differences in weather and climate create opportunities for: A. concentrated segmentation. B. geographic segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. psychographic segmentation. E. geodemographic segmentation. 8-8 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 37. NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. This is an example of ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. psychographic C. demographic D. benefits E. loyalty 38. ____________________ segmentation is the most common basis of consumer market segmentation because these segments are easy to define and usually easy to reach. A. Geographic B. Psychographic C. Self-value D. Benefit E. Demographic 39. Beer marketers know one very attractive segment is 25-40 year old, high school-educated, working-class, males. This is a _______________ segment of the beer market. A. demographic B. psychographic C. self-value D. benefit E. geographic 40. Television advertising has recently expanded to include mini-ads, short, 5-10 second ads. These ads are more likely to be useful in advertising to men than women since men are more likely to channel surf than women during commercial breaks. This type of advertising will be more useful to marketers engaged in ________________ segmentation. A. demographic B. psychographic C. self-value D. benefit E. geographic 8-9 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 41. Demographic segmentation is segmentation based on: A. age. B. gender. C. education D. income. E. all of the above. 42. Marketers like Benetton want their ads to appeal to one's self-concept, suggesting to consumers: A. "Mass customization for the masses." B. "I'm like them, so I should buy their products." C. "I will never be rich, but I can dress like I am." D. "Be Peace." E. "All is fair in love, marketing, and war." 43. Psychographics is the segmentation method that delves into how consumers: A. adjust to demographic changes. B. allocate scarce incomes on a variety of goods and services. C. describe themselves. D. value their livelihoods. E. all of the above. 44. Determining psychographic segments involves understanding consumers': A. age, income, and education. B. gender, race, and religion. C. disposable personal income, benefit perceptions, and alternative egos. D. self-values, self-concept, and lifestyles. E. all of the above. 8-10 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 45. Paul is considering psychographics as a way to segment the market for his client, a small travel agency. This approach to segmentation offers him an enormous advantage because: A. it is based on behaviors and reasons people make choices. B. it is easier to use than demographics to determine the size of the segment. C. travel agencies represent a mature industry, which doesn't respond well to other approaches to segmentation. D. psychographics is the preferred method consultants use when dealing with small firms. E. travel agency customers are purchasing a service rather than a product, and services marketing cannot use other segmentation approaches. 46. Education marketers recognize the primary motivations of most non-traditional college students are self-respect and self-fulfillment. Understanding the values of this market segment allows marketers to: A. emphasize the benefits these consumers are looking for in a college education. B. lower the price for this market segment. C. offer alternative curriculums based on their geographic location. D. employ loyalty marketing strategies. E. utilize micromarketing strategies. 47. Travel marketers know Baby Boomers represent a huge demographic segment. They also know Baby Boomers are heavily motivated by self-fulfillment which creates the possibility of ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. self-concept C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point 48. Beverage companies often use television commercials with images of young people laughing and enjoying themselves on a beach or in a club. These images are designed to appeal to consumers' ________________, suggesting "be like me." A. geographic choice B. self-concept C. loyalty references D. benefit perceptions E. ideal sociological point 8-11 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 49. If values provide goals, and self-concept is the way we see ourselves, lifestyles are: A. images of how we should live our lives. B. marketing manipulation of consumers' fears. C. how we live our lives to achieve goals. D. motivations turned into perceptual maps. E. geodemographic relational configurations. 50. MTV uses __________ segmentation to target individuals interested in doing good deeds, and in doing so, it helps add value without jeopardizing its financial success. A. altruistic B. corporate social responsibility C. millennial generation D. lifestyle E. socio-demographic 51. VALS is the most widely used __________________ tool. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point 52. Which of the following is NOT one of the VALS segments? A. Innovators. B. Do-gooders. C. Thinkers. D. Achievers. E. Experimenters. 53. Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, and Experiencers are VALS classifications based on: A. motivation. B. demographics. C. health. D. innovativeness. E. all of the above. 8-12 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 54. Marketers have found that ___________________ are often more useful for predicting consumer behavior than ________________. A. demographics; psychographics B. benefit segmentation; undifferentiated segmentation C. psychographics; demographics D. geodemographics; mass marketing E. demographics; loyalty segmentation 55. Firms might use multiple segmentation methods to: A. tailor communications B. design products C. determine the substance of the marketing message D. All of the above E. None of the above 56. Though marketers have found that psychographics are often more useful for predicting consumer behavior than demographics, psychographics have the limitation of not being as objective and: A. concentrated in more localized geographic areas. B. provide only undifferentiated segmentation possibilities. C. offer only one-to-one marketing potential. D. harder to identify potential customers. E. all of the above. 57. Because marketing is all about creating value for customers, dividing the market based on _____________ segmentation can be quite useful. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point 8-13 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 58. A university targeting students based on the benefit of getting a degree quickly and without interfering with the rest of the students' lives would emphasize: A. providing classes at convenient times and asynchronous distance learning courses. B. discount pricing for students taking more than twelve credit hours. C. the higher average salaries earned by college graduates. D. the great variety of classes offered. E. all of the above 59. The beer commercial "less-filling, tastes great" was based on ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point 60. Toothpastes displayed in supermarkets offer whitening, fights gum disease, tartar control, kills germs for fresh breath, and more. Toothpaste marketers are using ________________ segmentation. A. benefit B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. ideal point 61. Golden Years Vitamin Corporation targeted consumers living in Florida who were over 50. Golden Years was using _______________ segmentation. A. benefit B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geodemographic 8-14 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 62. The phrase "birds of a feather flock together" captures the idea of ______________ segmentation. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic 63. PRIZM and Tapestry by ESRI divide and sort small geographic areas using 60 or more characteristics. These market research tools are powerful examples of __________________ segmentation. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic 64. Gloria is opening an upscale women's clothing store in a growing suburban residential area. Gloria knows her target market is upper-income women living within twenty miles. She can't afford to purchase a PRIZM or Tapestry analysis so she will most likely use ________________ as a basis for targeting her market. A. voter registration lists B. pizza delivery data C. real estate values by subdivision D. public school enrollment data E. new construction data 65. The ___________________ PRIZM cluster are service industry professionals and "techies" who rent, enjoy music, are less than 35 years old and travel to the Caribbean. A. Gray Power B. Boomtown singles C. Hispanic Mix D. Urban Tapestry E. Johnny Come Lately 8-15 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 66. Geodemographic segmentation can be particularly useful for _____________, because customers typically patronize stores close to their neighborhood. A. Internet marketers B. wholesalers C. retailers D. consumer goods manufacturers E. all of the above. 67. Chain stores often use _____________________ data to identify other locations with similar demographics and purchasing behavior. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic 68. Marketers often create a special marketing mix for loyalty segments because these segments are: A. too large to service with undifferentiated segmentation. B. difficult to identify. C. cost too much to acquire. D. usually quite profitable. E. all of the above. 69. When Ron complained to his local credit union about the unprofessional behavior of one teller, the credit union management added a code into his accounts alerting all tellers that Ron was a special, valued customer and provide whatever service he requests. The credit union management included Ron in its _______________ segmentation. A. self-actualization B. geodemographic C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic 8-16 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 70. Airlines were among the first retailers to embrace loyalty segmentation when they created: A. business-class seating. B. 30-day advance pricing. C. fuel surcharges. D. in flight movies. E. frequent flyer programs. 71. One of the reasons marketers utilize loyalty segmentation is: A. the high cost of finding new customers. B. government tax incentives for loyalty. C. accounting difficulties associated with identifying new customers. D. rapid population increases. E. micromarketing no longer works. 72. While demographic and geographic segmentation of retail customers is relatively easy, these characteristics do not help marketers determine: A. how old their customers are. B. what their customers need. C. where their customers live. D. which customers have young children. E. what income bracket their customers are in. 73. Kim's Kayak Tours initially identified active retirees living in the retirement community nearby as one of her target markets. She then tailored her service and marketing message to the schedules and priorities of this audience. Kim initially used _______________ segmentation and then used ____________ segmentation. A. micro; loyalty B. lifestyle; macro C. geodemographic; lifestyle D. geographic; loyalty E. self-concept; geodemographic 8-17 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 74. Marketers often employ a combination of segmentation methods, using _____________ to identify and target their customers, and ________________ to design products and messages to appeal to them. A. substantial segmentation; one-to-one B. undifferentiated segmentation; differentiated segmentation C. loyalty segmentation; perceptual segmentation D. geodemographic segmentation; lifestyle or benefit segmentation E. lifestyle segmentation; geographic segmentation 75. Karen has identified four potential market segments for her Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. The next step is to: A. categorize each market segment by consumer demographics. B. establish her overall objectives C. decide whether to use undifferentiated segmentation. D. develop a positioning strategy. E. evaluate the attractiveness of each segment. 76. Karen has identified four potential market segments for her Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. She will then evaluate whether each segment is: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. 77. Carl has identified four potential market segments for his Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. Carl will then compare segments to determine if they are distinct from each other. Carl will evaluate whether each segment is: A. identifiable. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. 8-18 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 78. Greta is concerned that one of the potential market segments she has identified for her dog grooming service is too small and does not contain sufficient buying power. Greta is concerned with whether the segment is: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. 79. CVS drugstores used both lifestyle and demographic segmentation to: A. assist federal drug enforcement agents to track down illegal use of over-the-counter drugs B. develop a product mix and set of promotion messages to reach their most frequent and regular shoppers. C. determine what stores in what cities should carry lifestyle products like condoms. D. close unprofitable stores, or stores that would become unprofitable in the near future. E. None of the above. 80. Ryan wants to sell personal Web site services to American soldiers in the Middle East. Ryan may well have trouble with this segment not being: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. 81. As access to the Internet becomes nearly universal, it makes many potential market segments become more: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. 8-19 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 82. Talbots target customers are college-educated women between 35 and 55 years old with average household income of $75,000 or more. This is Talbots' ________________ segment. A. self-actualization B. geodemographic C. psychographic D. demographic E. geographic 83. When Talbots, an upscale women's' clothing store, tries to portray an image of "traditional, conservative, and with good taste," they are appealing to their target market's: A. lifestyle. B. geodemographic. C. perceptual map. D. loyalty. E. geographic. 84. College students are a less _______________ market segment because students' media habits are quite diverse. A. substantial B. perceptive C. identifiable D. reachable E. quantifiable 85. For a segmentation strategy to be successful, the customers in the segment must react similarly and positively to the firm's marketing mix. The market segment must be: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. responsive. 8-20 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 86. When Starbucks first opened, many critics suggested, "No one will pay $4.00 for a cup of coffee." Starbucks' critics suggested consumers would not be _____________ to the company's offerings. A. responsive B. perceptive C. identifiable D. reachable E. quantifiable 87. The manager of Plantation River Country Club wanted members of the very upscale club to use the bar and dining facilities more frequently. He offered a two-for-one "happy hour" special but few members came. The manager did not have a grasp of what made his target market: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. 88. Caroline is assessing market growth, market competitiveness, and market access for each segment she has identified. Caroline is assessing ________________ of each potential market segment. A. substance B. responsiveness C. identification D. reach E. profitability 89. After assessing the market growth potential for his company's baby products in Mexico, Harmon wanted to evaluate market competitiveness. To do this, Harmon would consider: A. mass marketing distribution potential and logistical support. B. the current size of the market and expected growth rate. C. ease of pricing control and number of promotional outlets. D. the number of competitors, entry barriers, and product substitutes. E. all of the above. 8-21 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 90. After assessing the market growth potential and market competitiveness for his company's baby products in Mexico, Harmon wanted to evaluate market access. To do this, Harmon would consider: A. ease of accessing or developing distribution channels and brand familiarity. B. the current size of the market and expected growth rate. C. ease of pricing control and number of promotional outlets. D. the number of competitors, entry barriers, and product substitutes. E. all of the above. 91. Which of the following would NOT be used in calculating the profitability of a segment? A. segment perceptions. B. segment size. C. segment adoption percentage. D. profit margin percentage. E. fixed costs. 92. Fiona wants to sell a local advertising calendar. She knows there are 1000 households in her community, and estimates 30 percent will buy the calendar. The printing company will charge a $100 set up fee and calendars will cost $4.00 each to print. What price will she need to charge to cover all costs and make a $500 profit. A. $6.00 B. $7.00 C. $8.00 D. $9.00 E. $10.00 93. Paula is trying to determine whether the segments she is considering for her day care center will be profitable. Which of the following will not specifically help her in this analysis? A. the number of children needing day care in the immediate area B. the fixed costs of the center C. the percentage of parents in the area who can both afford to send their child or children to day care and who are willing to do so. D. the average number of older siblings of the children who might use the day care center. E. the rate she would charge minus the variable cost of providing service to each child. 8-22 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 94. In addition to calculating the potential profitability of a market segment, marketers will also consider: A. customer loyalty. B. defection rates. C. cost of replacing customers. D. likely future sales to customers. E. all of the above. 95. Which of the following is perceived as an important ethical concern associated with Internet-based segmentation? A. charging consumers higher prices based on their online search behavior. B. offering discounts to online consumers. C. offering recommendations to online consumers based on their search behavior. D. retaining customer data to simplify future online transactions. E. offering one-to-one segmentation based on consumer behavior. 96. Ronaldo wants to develop an Internet auction-based business. After establishing his objectives, describing potential market segments, and evaluating the attractiveness of each segment, Ronaldo now has to: A. undifferentiate his product line. B. consider future customer loyalty. C. create a perceptual inventory. D. select a target market. E. divide demographic data by psychographic constants. 97. When selecting a target market, firms should attempt to: A. determine consumers' objectives. B. describe potential opportunities for mass-optimization. C. evaluate the geographic constraints to psychographic segmentation. D. match the firm's competency with a market segment's attractiveness. E. identify potential repositioning strategies. 8-23 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 98. Data collected via Internet purchase history can help marketers in many ways beyond just selling goods. Which of the following is not attractive to marketers? A. The ability to make recommendations to customers on the basis of previous purchases B. The ability to test promotions easily and quickly C. The ability to price merchandise geographically based on the zip code of the purchasers D. The ability to gather a great deal of information about an individual purchaser including what he or she did NOT purchase while visiting the website. E. The ability to reach all members of the segment with sophisticated offerings 99. _______________ involves defining the firm's marketing mix variables so that target customers have a clear, distinctive, and desirable understanding of the firm's offerings relative to competitors' offerings. A. Processing B. Perceptualizing C. Positioning D. Proportioning E. Prospecting 100. Whenever Donald calls on potential pest control customers, he emphasizes the fact that, unlike the national franchise competitors, he is a local business person and has been in business over twenty years. Donald is _______________ his business relative to his competition. A. segmenting B. packaging C. positioning D. pricing E. creating symbolic associations of 101. Reginald wants to position his financial services company. Reginald can position his services according to: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. 8-24 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 102. Whenever the president of the local, public university promotes the institution, he emphasizes the university's price (much lower than neighboring private colleges) and quality. He is positioning the institution based on: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. 103. We often see advertisements touting a product as being made with natural ingredients, or long-lasting. Marketers using these types of promotions are positioning their products based on: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. 104. Alexis is working out how to position her fashion accessories store in a suburban strip mall. She has selected targets, and she will consider: A. value B. salient attributes C. symbols D. competition E. all of the above 105. Howard feels he can most effectively position his painting business on value by combining price and _______________. A. dollar signs and American flags on his promotional materials B. his commitment to the community C. his support and care of the people who work for him D. consumer's perception of quality E. all of the above 8-25 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 106. Marco was assigned to help create a positioning strategy for the manufacturing firm where he works by working on the salient attributes. He should consider: A. the features the engineers feel are most important for the quality of the product. B. the ways the sales representatives have been positioning the firm against the competitors. C. the characteristics that help his firm win a state-wide award for excellence in manufacturing. D. what the target marketing would consider the most important. E. the safety record of the firm and its products. 107. Almost every political candidate uses a combination of red, white, and blue in their campaign posters. They are trying to position themselves in voters' minds using: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. the competition. E. all of the above. 108. Jim wants to position his firm against his competitors. In doing so he should: A. never select a competitor in the same neighborhood. B. avoid making fun of the competitor's product. C. avoid looking too much like the competitor so that he'd confuse the target segment. D. avoid discussing the strengths of his product so the competitors won't be aware of his product quality. E. avoid discussing the weaknesses of his competitors so they won't retaliate. 109. A ____________ is often used to illustrate the position of a firm's products or brands in consumers' minds. A. mass marketing analysis B. VALS summary C. perceptual map D. loyalty timeline E. globe 8-26 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 110. Within a perceptual map, a(n) _________________ represents where a particular market segment desired product would lie. A. lifestyle symbol B. strategic target C. self-value determination D. ideal point E. benefit congruency 111. "Why create a perceptual map?" asked David. Andy who was the senior marketing manager gave him four reasons. Which of the following was NOT one of Andy's reasons? A. "It's a quick way for senior managers to see not only our product but each of our competitors, all at once." B. "It's a way to demonstrate the dimensions that our customers are important." C. "It shows where we aren't - and where our competitors aren't - in our customers' and prospects' minds." D. "It's a way to show the position of the company in ten years." E. "We can easily show where we are positioned and how large the market is." 112. Whose perceptions are being measured in a perceptual map? A. Competitors B. The strategic planners C. A company's executive team D. Inventors of the products or the current R&D team E. Consumers 113. In a classic case of _______________________, the makers of Marlboro cigarettes initially targeted women smokers. Later, they created the Marlboro Man image targeting male smokers. A. lifestyle symbolization B. strategic target concentration C. self-value determination D. ideal point perception E. repositioning 8-27 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 114. Several years ago, General Motors ran an advertising campaign for their Oldsmobile line of cars using the slogan, "Not your father's automobile" and an attractive young woman as spokesperson. GM was attempting to _______________ the Oldsmobile line. A. reposition B. use salient feature differentiation for C. identify a target market for D. position E. coordinate micromarketing with an undifferentiated strategy for 115. Despite the short-term success of Tiffany & Co.'s effort to gain new customers for life, the appeal to younger less affluent customers alienated the older, more affluent customer base. Tiffany & Co. chose to reconnect with its traditional customer bases and began the difficult task of ____________________. A. segmenting B. positioning C. strategic course correction D. branding development E. repositioning Essay Questions 116. What lessons could Coca-Cola apply from its success with Coke Zero to other potential new products? 8-28 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 117. Why must a firm's STP strategy be consistent with and derived from the firm's mission and objectives? 118. In theory, why is micromarketing the ultimate in STP strategy? What is the weakness associated with micromarketing? 119. Assume you are the marketing consultant for your university. Your university wants to focus their marketing effort on retention of current students. You have a choice of segmenting the undergraduate student market on either a geographic or psychographic basis. What is the difference between the two? Which would you recommend, and why? 120. Assume you are the marketing consultant for your university. Your university wants to focus their marketing effort on recruiting new students. You have a choice of segmenting the undergraduate student market on either a demographic or benefit basis. What is the difference between the two? Which would you recommend, and why? 8-29 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 121. Consider the fast-food hamburger chain that is closest to where you are now. Describe the STP efforts that company employs. 122. Using the Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS) tool, describe three market segments in your institution. Label each segment. 123. Marketers find psychographics a valuable segmentation approach. What are some of the limitations of psychographic segmentation and what can marketers do to offset those limitations? 124. The text states that "geodemographic segmentation can be particularly useful for retailers. Use a local retailer to describe how geodemographic segmentation can be useful". 8-30 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 125. Why does loyalty segmentation make so much sense? Describe how a local pizza restaurant could employ loyalty segmentation. 126. Kim's Kayak Tours identified active retirees living in the retirement community nearby as one of her potential target markets. She knows she can tailor her service and marketing message to the schedules and priorities of this audience. How will Kim evaluate the attractiveness of this segment? 127. Abigail wants to sell a local advertising calendar. She knows there are 2000 households in her community, and estimates 30 percent will buy the calendar. The printing company will charge a $400 set up fee and calendars will cost $4.00 each to print. What price will she need to charge to cover all costs and make a $2000 total profit. Show your calculations. 8-31 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 128. Segment profitability asked marketers to consider segment size, segment adoption percentage, purchase behavior, profit margin percentage and fixed costs. Select three of these five elements and explain where marketers will find solid quantifiable information to make the calculations. 129. Ronaldo is developing an Internet auction-based business. After establishing his objectives, describing potential market segments, and evaluating the attractiveness of each segment, Ronaldo now has to choose which target market to focus his efforts on. What factors should influence his decision? 130. Create a positioning strategy for your school's business program. How do you want potential students to view your program? 8-32 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 131. There are three major competitors in the private package delivery market; UPS, Fedex, and DHL. The fourth competitor is the USPS. Take one of the four firms and describe their positioning efforts. 132. When developing a positioning strategy, marketers may choose to position their offering against the offering of a competitor. If you were to do so, what would you expect your competitors to do? 133. How do you create and use a perceptual map? What positioning criteria might toothpaste manufacturers use in creating a perceptual map? 134. In a perceptual map of two dimensions, how are these dimensions determined? 8-33 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 135. Segmentation, targeting and positioning involve a number of processes, many decisions and many different options. With all that effort, why are marketers so concerned with STP? 136. Describe an example of a repositioning effort you have observed. 137. For which types of products should marketers consider using an undifferentiated segmentation strategy? 138. NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. What type of segmentation was used based on the survey results? 8-34 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 139. What type of segmentation is possible when almost everyone living in Dragoon Island retirement community shopped at the fashion mall and drove expensive cars? 140. Create an example of geodemographic segmentation. 141. How have airline companies implemented loyalty segmentation? 142. Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is addressed when Magnolia Caf asks the question, "Are there enough employees in the government center to justify targeting the center for lunch delivery service." 8-35 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 143. Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is addressed when Magnolia Pizzeria asks the question, "Are private food service companies allowed to deliver pizzas on the military base?" 144. Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is assumed by the statement, "Build it, and they will come." 145. Rick's Computer and Copying Center has decided to target students at a new branch of the university. Which of the marketing mix variables will Rick use when developing a positioning strategy for his firm? 146. Why do marketers often use perceptual maps when developing positioning strategies? 8-36 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Chapter 08 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Answer Key True / False Questions 1. (p. 243-244) Coca-Cola launched Coke Zero to avoid cannibalizing current sales and to attract new customers in a segment they might not get with Diet Coke. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 2. (p. 245) When marketers adjust their marketing mix to give customers a clear, distinctive understanding of what their product does, they are engaging in psychographic segmentation. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 3. (p. 246) Every marketer should engage in positioning their product differently for each target market segment. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 1 Level: easy Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-37 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 4. (p. 246) For products like pencils and paperclips, marketers should probably use an undifferentiated segmentation strategy. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 1 Level: easy Topic: Segmentation Strategies 5. (p. 247) When deciding who to promote his new medical oncology center to, Dr. Dick decided he did not need to throw a large grand opening reception. Instead, he promoted the center to the six physicians who would likely refer patients to his center. Dr. Dick was engaged in a concentrated segmentation strategy. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 6. (p. 249) To decide how much segmentation to engage in, Phoenix University will likely weigh the value of segmentation versus the cost. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 7. (p. 249) Bathing suit marketers logically use geographic segmentation. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 8-38 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 8. (p. 250) NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. This is an example of psychographic segmentation. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 9. (p. 253) The Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS2) conducted by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence is a widely used tool for geographic segmentation. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 10. (p. 255) The fact that almost everyone living in Dragoon Island retirement community shopped at the fashion mall and drove expensive cars is an example of concentrated segmentation. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 11. (p. 255) Giant Food Stores in suburban Washington, adjusts its ethnic food aisle offerings based on the variety of ethnic groups living in each area. Giant Foods is using geodemographic segmentation. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 8-39 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 12. (p. 263) Positioning strategies generally focus on either how the product affects the consumer or how it is better than competitors' products. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 3 Level: easy Topic: Segment Evaluation 13. (p. 265) A self-values map displays the position of products or brands in the consumer's mind. FALSE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 14. (p. 266) Perceptual maps include both positions of current brands as well as ideal points where a segment would want a product to be. TRUE AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 4 Level: easy Topic: Positioning 8-40 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Multiple Choice Questions 15. (p. 243) Coca-Cola introduced Coke Zero to increase sales without taking away from its existing product sales. Which of the following is not true about this effort? A. Segmentation and targeting were of little use compared to developing appealing special advertising. B. The word "diet" was not used in promotion because the targeted segment of men did not react favorably to the "girly" connotations. C. A special fantasy football game was created to help promote the product to the targeted segment. D. Although Coke has more than 400 products, sales to a carefully targeted segment could greatly increase total sales. E. Although the market for cola is mature, Coke plans to adapt the current products and services to meet the needs of changing market climate using the segmentation ideas developed in the launch of Coke Zero AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 16. (p. 244-245) Sally is in the new marketing department of a mid-sized lawn and garden company. She is working on the first marketing plan the firm has ever used. She has defined the mission and objectives, and she just finished a situation analysis for the firm. The next step is to: A. develop an advertising plan to promote the upcoming sales. B. find marketing interns or hire new staff to help with implementation. C. create pro forma financial statements to complete the package. D. identify and evaluate opportunities by creating a segmentation, targeting and positioning analysis. E. use the internet, catalogs and vendor information to draw up a list of new products. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-41 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 17. (p. 245) Segmentation, targeting and positioning: A. are terms that can be used interchangeably in developing marketing plans. B. are part of a firm's marketing strategy. C. should be done simultaneously so synergies can help streamline the effort and avoid overanalyzing the situation. D. are part of the marketing plan but bear little direct relationship to the marketing mix or Four Ps. E. All of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 18. (p. 245) Alex has found that investment real estate buyers and residential real estate buyers both respond positively to his marketing communication message. Alex has identified ____________ that respond similarly to his marketing efforts. A. mass customization consumers B. geographic segments C. market segments D. self-concept customers E. geothermal demographics AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-42 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 19. (p. 245) For each target market, General Imaging Corporation, a manufacturer of imaging equipment, will engage in positioning, adjusting their marketing mix variables in order to give customers: A. better Medicaid and Medicare payments. B. a virtual perceptual map of the imaging landscape. C. a psychographic consultation based on value-enhanced manufacturing. D. a mass marketing dialogue based on one-to-one lifestyle customization. E. a clear, distinctive, and desirable understanding of their products relative to competing products. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 20. (p. 246) The first step in the segmentation process is to: A. create a perceptual map. B. produce a disclosure statement listing the strengths and weaknesses of the firm's past marketing strategies. C. clearly articulate the firm's vision or marketing strategy objectives. D. articulate the firm's self-concept. E. adapt the company's vision to current consumer lifestyles. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 21. (p. 246) For products like pencils and paperclips which provide the same benefit for all consumers, marketers should probably use a(n): A. concentrated segmentation strategy. B. lifestyle segmentation strategy. C. benefit segmentation strategy. D. undifferentiated segmentation strategy. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-43 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 22. (p. 246) In the classic example of segmentation strategy, years ago Swift Meat Company transformed turkey meat into "Butterball" turkeys. In the process, the company: A. differentiated its product. B. avoided the SARS virus. C. created a new class of micromarketing. D. raised consumers' self-concepts. E. redefined mass customization. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 1 Level: hard Topic: Segmentation Strategies 23. (p. 247) Adidas Group owns Reebok, Rockport, and Greg Norman brands. Adidas uses the different brands to pursue a(n) ________________________ strategy. A. concentrated segmentation B. micromarketing segmentation C. benefit segmentation D. differentiated segmentation E. undifferentiated segmentation AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 24. (p. 247) Adidas Group owns Reebok, Rockport, and Greg Norman brands. Having a variety of brands allows Adidas to: A. engage in targeted micromarketing for hard-to-fit shoe customers. B. obtain a bigger share of the shoe market. C. use mass marketing techniques. D. utilize geographic segmentation. E. generate economies of scale in advertising expenditures. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-44 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 25. (p. 247) One of the benefits of a differentiated segmentation strategy is it allows the firm to diversify its business and: A. decrease advertising spending. B. adjust its ideal point inventory. C. lowers overall risk. D. use undifferentiated strategies in micro markets. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 26. (p. 247) While a differentiated marketing strategy can allow a firm to obtain a bigger share of the overall market, one problem is it can also be: A. ideal. B. synthetic. C. cheap. D. expensive. E. invaluable. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 27. (p. 247) Firms use a differentiated segmentation strategy, targeting several market segments with a different offering each, because: A. it is easier than mass marketing. B. it helps to obtain a bigger share of the market. C. it is better than focusing on individual or small groups of potential customers. D. most market segments are too small to be profitable. E. banks are more willing to extend credit to companies with this strategic approach. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-45 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 28. (p. 247) When Penguin Catering Services first opened, the owner decided to target only events at nearby resorts. Penguin Catering was using a ______________ segmentation strategy. A. concentrated B. micromarketing C. benefit D. differentiated E. undifferentiated AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 29. (p. 248) __________________ is an extreme form of a segmentation strategy. A. Macromarketing B. Micromarketing C. Benefit marketing D. Differentiated segmentation E. Undifferentiated segmentation AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 1 Level: easy Topic: Segmentation Strategies 30. (p. 248) "Corporate pilot fish" are former employees who start a new business based primarily on contacts and contracts with their old company. Corporate pilot fish most likely pursue a ________________ segmentation strategy. A. mass customization B. micromarketing C. benefit D. differentiated E. undifferentiated AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 1 Level: hard Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-46 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 31. (p. 248) If you have ever ordered a personal computer from Dell, you know the online software allows you to adjust the components and accessories based on your needs and desires. Dell and companies like it are engaged in: A. mass customization. B. concentrated segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. differentiated wholesaling. E. undifferentiated marketing. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: hard Topic: Segmentation Strategies 32. (p. 248) Magazines sometimes contain ads for clothing companies in Hong Kong that will custom-make suits. These firms recognize that mass customization consumers are willing to: A. pay less for lower quality. B. adjust their ideal point perceptions to be congruent with one-to-one marketing concepts. C. concede psychographic segmentation benefits for brand name recognition. D. pay more and wait for delivery. E. just their lifestyles to the clothes they buy. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 33. (p. 248) Four frequently used segmentation strategies are micromarketing, undifferentiated or mass marketing, differentiated and ________________. A. opportunity segmentation strategy. B. proactive segmentation strategy. C. economies of scale segmentation strategy. D. global segmentation strategy. E. concentrated segmentation strategy. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 1 Level: easy Topic: Strategies 8-47 Chapter Segmentation 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 34. (p. 249) To decide how much segmentation to engage in, effective marketers will likely: A. evaluate the marginal cost versus the fixed costs. B. weigh the value of segmentation versus the cost. C. replace geographic segmentation with geodemographic segmentation. D. ask consumers how they feel about segmentation. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 35. (p. 249) When Mr. How, a Pennsylvania-based discount lumber and hardware chain, sent snow blowers to their Augusta, Georgia store in April, they were engaged in A. concentrated segmentation. B. geodemographic segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. psychographic segmentation. E. misguided geographic segmentation. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 36. (p. 249) Differences in weather and climate create opportunities for: A. concentrated segmentation. B. geographic segmentation. C. benefit segmentation. D. psychographic segmentation. E. geodemographic segmentation. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 8-48 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 37. (p. 250) NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. This is an example of ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. psychographic C. demographic D. benefits E. loyalty AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 38. (p. 250) ____________________ segmentation is the most common basis of consumer market segmentation because these segments are easy to define and usually easy to reach. A. Geographic B. Psychographic C. Self-value D. Benefit E. Demographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 39. (p. 250) Beer marketers know one very attractive segment is 25-40 year old, high schooleducated, working-class, males. This is a _______________ segment of the beer market. A. demographic B. psychographic C. self-value D. benefit E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-49 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 40. (p. 250) Television advertising has recently expanded to include mini-ads, short, 5-10 second ads. These ads are more likely to be useful in advertising to men than women since men are more likely to channel surf than women during commercial breaks. This type of advertising will be more useful to marketers engaged in ________________ segmentation. A. demographic B. psychographic C. self-value D. benefit E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 41. (p. 250) Demographic segmentation is segmentation based on: A. age. B. gender. C. education D. income. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 42. (p. 251) Marketers like Benetton want their ads to appeal to one's self-concept, suggesting to consumers: A. "Mass customization for the masses." B. "I'm like them, so I should buy their products." C. "I will never be rich, but I can dress like I am." D. "Be Peace." E. "All is fair in love, marketing, and war." AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-50 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 43. (p. 251) Psychographics is the segmentation method that delves into how consumers: A. adjust to demographic changes. B. allocate scarce incomes on a variety of goods and services. C. describe themselves. D. value their livelihoods. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 44. (p. 251) Determining psychographic segments involves understanding consumers': A. age, income, and education. B. gender, race, and religion. C. disposable personal income, benefit perceptions, and alternative egos. D. self-values, self-concept, and lifestyles. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 45. (p. 251) Paul is considering psychographics as a way to segment the market for his client, a small travel agency. This approach to segmentation offers him an enormous advantage because: A. it is based on behaviors and reasons people make choices. B. it is easier to use than demographics to determine the size of the segment. C. travel agencies represent a mature industry, which doesn't respond well to other approaches to segmentation. D. psychographics is the preferred method consultants use when dealing with small firms. E. travel agency customers are purchasing a service rather than a product, and services marketing cannot use other segmentation approaches. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-51 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 46. (p. 251) Education marketers recognize the primary motivations of most non-traditional college students are self-respect and self-fulfillment. Understanding the values of this market segment allows marketers to: A. emphasize the benefits these consumers are looking for in a college education. B. lower the price for this market segment. C. offer alternative curriculums based on their geographic location. D. employ loyalty marketing strategies. E. utilize micromarketing strategies. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 47. (p. 251) Travel marketers know Baby Boomers represent a huge demographic segment. They also know Baby Boomers are heavily motivated by self-fulfillment which creates the possibility of ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. self-concept C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-52 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 48. (p. 251) Beverage companies often use television commercials with images of young people laughing and enjoying themselves on a beach or in a club. These images are designed to appeal to consumers' ________________, suggesting "be like me." A. geographic choice B. self-concept C. loyalty references D. benefit perceptions E. ideal sociological point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 49. (p. 251) If values provide goals, and self-concept is the way we see ourselves, lifestyles are: A. images of how we should live our lives. B. marketing manipulation of consumers' fears. C. how we live our lives to achieve goals. D. motivations turned into perceptual maps. E. geodemographic relational configurations. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 50. (p. 252 Adding Value 8.1) MTV uses __________ segmentation to target individuals interested in doing good deeds, and in doing so, it helps add value without jeopardizing its financial success. A. altruistic B. corporate social responsibility C. millennial generation D. lifestyle E. socio-demographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-53 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 51. (p. 253) VALS is the most widely used __________________ tool. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 52. (p. 253) Which of the following is NOT one of the VALS segments? A. Innovators. B. Do-gooders. C. Thinkers. D. Achievers. E. Experimenters. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 53. (p. 253) Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, and Experiencers are VALS classifications based on: A. motivation. B. demographics. C. health. D. innovativeness. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-54 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 54. (p. 253) Marketers have found that ___________________ are often more useful for predicting consumer behavior than ________________. A. demographics; psychographics B. benefit segmentation; undifferentiated segmentation C. psychographics; demographics D. geodemographics; mass marketing E. demographics; loyalty segmentation AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 55. (p. 253) Firms might use multiple segmentation methods to: A. tailor communications B. design products C. determine the substance of the marketing message D. All of the above E. None of the above AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 56. (p. 254) Though marketers have found that psychographics are often more useful for predicting consumer behavior than demographics, psychographics have the limitation of not being as objective and: A. concentrated in more localized geographic areas. B. provide only undifferentiated segmentation possibilities. C. offer only one-to-one marketing potential. D. harder to identify potential customers. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-55 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 57. (p. 254) Because marketing is all about creating value for customers, dividing the market based on _____________ segmentation can be quite useful. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 58. (p. 254) A university targeting students based on the benefit of getting a degree quickly and without interfering with the rest of the students' lives would emphasize: A. providing classes at convenient times and asynchronous distance learning courses. B. discount pricing for students taking more than twelve credit hours. C. the higher average salaries earned by college graduates. D. the great variety of classes offered. E. all of the above AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 59. (p. 254) The beer commercial "less-filling, tastes great" was based on ______________ segmentation. A. geographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. benefit E. ideal point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-56 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 60. (p. 254) Toothpastes displayed in supermarkets offer whitening, fights gum disease, tartar control, kills germs for fresh breath, and more. Toothpaste marketers are using ________________ segmentation. A. benefit B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. ideal point AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 61. (p. 255) Golden Years Vitamin Corporation targeted consumers living in Florida who were over 50. Golden Years was using _______________ segmentation. A. benefit B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geodemographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 62. (p. 255) The phrase "birds of a feather flock together" captures the idea of ______________ segmentation. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-57 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 63. (p. 255) PRIZM and Tapestry by ESRI divide and sort small geographic areas using 60 or more characteristics. These market research tools are powerful examples of __________________ segmentation. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 64. (p. 255) Gloria is opening an upscale women's clothing store in a growing suburban residential area. Gloria knows her target market is upper-income women living within twenty miles. She can't afford to purchase a PRIZM or Tapestry analysis so she will most likely use ________________ as a basis for targeting her market. A. voter registration lists B. pizza delivery data C. real estate values by subdivision D. public school enrollment data E. new construction data AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-58 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 65. (p. 255) The ___________________ PRIZM cluster are service industry professionals and "techies" who rent, enjoy music, are less than 35 years old and travel to the Caribbean. A. Gray Power B. Boomtown singles C. Hispanic Mix D. Urban Tapestry E. Johnny Come Lately AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 66. (p. 255) Geodemographic segmentation can be particularly useful for _____________, because customers typically patronize stores close to their neighborhood. A. Internet marketers B. wholesalers C. retailers D. consumer goods manufacturers E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 67. (p. 255) Chain stores often use _____________________ data to identify other locations with similar demographics and purchasing behavior. A. geodemographic B. self-actualization C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-59 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 68. (p. 256) Marketers often create a special marketing mix for loyalty segments because these segments are: A. too large to service with undifferentiated segmentation. B. difficult to identify. C. cost too much to acquire. D. usually quite profitable. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 69. (p. 256) When Ron complained to his local credit union about the unprofessional behavior of one teller, the credit union management added a code into his accounts alerting all tellers that Ron was a special, valued customer and provide whatever service he requests. The credit union management included Ron in its _______________ segmentation. A. self-actualization B. geodemographic C. psychographic D. loyalty E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 70. (p. 256) Airlines were among the first retailers to embrace loyalty segmentation when they created: A. business-class seating. B. 30-day advance pricing. C. fuel surcharges. D. in flight movies. E. frequent flyer programs. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 8-60 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 71. (p. 256) One of the reasons marketers utilize loyalty segmentation is: A. the high cost of finding new customers. B. government tax incentives for loyalty. C. accounting difficulties associated with identifying new customers. D. rapid population increases. E. micromarketing no longer works. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 72. (p. 256) While demographic and geographic segmentation of retail customers is relatively easy, these characteristics do not help marketers determine: A. how old their customers are. B. what their customers need. C. where their customers live. D. which customers have young children. E. what income bracket their customers are in. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 73. (p. 256) Kim's Kayak Tours initially identified active retirees living in the retirement community nearby as one of her target markets. She then tailored her service and marketing message to the schedules and priorities of this audience. Kim initially used _______________ segmentation and then used ____________ segmentation. A. micro; loyalty B. lifestyle; macro C. geodemographic; lifestyle D. geographic; loyalty E. self-concept; geodemographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-61 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 74. (p. 256) Marketers often employ a combination of segmentation methods, using _____________ to identify and target their customers, and ________________ to design products and messages to appeal to them. A. substantial segmentation; one-to-one B. undifferentiated segmentation; differentiated segmentation C. loyalty segmentation; perceptual segmentation D. geodemographic segmentation; lifestyle or benefit segmentation E. lifestyle segmentation; geographic segmentation AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 75. (p. 256) Karen has identified four potential market segments for her Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. The next step is to: A. categorize each market segment by consumer demographics. B. establish her overall objectives C. decide whether to use undifferentiated segmentation. D. develop a positioning strategy. E. evaluate the attractiveness of each segment. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 76. (p. 256) Karen has identified four potential market segments for her Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. She will then evaluate whether each segment is: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-62 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 77. (p. 256) Carl has identified four potential market segments for his Rent-A-Chef home meal catering service. Carl will then compare segments to determine if they are distinct from each other. Carl will evaluate whether each segment is: A. identifiable. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 78. (p. 257) Greta is concerned that one of the potential market segments she has identified for her dog grooming service is too small and does not contain sufficient buying power. Greta is concerned with whether the segment is: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. profitable. D. reachable. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 79. (p. 257 Adding Value 8.2) CVS drugstores used both lifestyle and demographic segmentation to: A. assist federal drug enforcement agents to track down illegal use of over-the-counter drugs B. develop a product mix and set of promotion messages to reach their most frequent and regular shoppers. C. determine what stores in what cities should carry lifestyle products like condoms. D. close unprofitable stores, or stores that would become unprofitable in the near future. E. None of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-63 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 80. (p. 258) Ryan wants to sell personal Web site services to American soldiers in the Middle East. Ryan may well have trouble with this segment not being: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 81. (p. 258) As access to the Internet becomes nearly universal, it makes many potential market segments become more: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 82. (p. 258) Talbots target customers are college-educated women between 35 and 55 years old with average household income of $75,000 or more. This is Talbots' ________________ segment. A. self-actualization B. geodemographic C. psychographic D. demographic E. geographic AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-64 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 83. (p. 258) When Talbots, an upscale women's' clothing store, tries to portray an image of "traditional, conservative, and with good taste," they are appealing to their target market's: A. lifestyle. B. geodemographic. C. perceptual map. D. loyalty. E. geographic. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 84. (p. 258) College students are a less _______________ market segment because students' media habits are quite diverse. A. substantial B. perceptive C. identifiable D. reachable E. quantifiable AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 85. (p. 259) For a segmentation strategy to be successful, the customers in the segment must react similarly and positively to the firm's marketing mix. The market segment must be: A. substantial. B. perceptive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. responsive. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-65 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 86. (p. 259) When Starbucks first opened, many critics suggested, "No one will pay $4.00 for a cup of coffee." Starbucks' critics suggested consumers would not be _____________ to the company's offerings. A. responsive B. perceptive C. identifiable D. reachable E. quantifiable AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 87. (p. 259) The manager of Plantation River Country Club wanted members of the very upscale club to use the bar and dining facilities more frequently. He offered a two-for-one "happy hour" special but few members came. The manager did not have a grasp of what made his target market: A. substantial. B. responsive. C. identifiable. D. reachable. E. quantifiable. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-66 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 88. (p. 259) Caroline is assessing market growth, market competitiveness, and market access for each segment she has identified. Caroline is assessing ________________ of each potential market segment. A. substance B. responsiveness C. identification D. reach E. profitability AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 89. (p. 259) After assessing the market growth potential for his company's baby products in Mexico, Harmon wanted to evaluate market competitiveness. To do this, Harmon would consider: A. mass marketing distribution potential and logistical support. B. the current size of the market and expected growth rate. C. ease of pricing control and number of promotional outlets. D. the number of competitors, entry barriers, and product substitutes. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-67 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 90. (p. 259) After assessing the market growth potential and market competitiveness for his company's baby products in Mexico, Harmon wanted to evaluate market access. To do this, Harmon would consider: A. ease of accessing or developing distribution channels and brand familiarity. B. the current size of the market and expected growth rate. C. ease of pricing control and number of promotional outlets. D. the number of competitors, entry barriers, and product substitutes. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 91. (p. 259) Which of the following would NOT be used in calculating the profitability of a segment? A. segment perceptions. B. segment size. C. segment adoption percentage. D. profit margin percentage. E. fixed costs. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-68 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 92. (p. 260) Fiona wants to sell a local advertising calendar. She knows there are 1000 households in her community, and estimates 30 percent will buy the calendar. The printing company will charge a $100 set up fee and calendars will cost $4.00 each to print. What price will she need to charge to cover all costs and make a $500 profit. A. $6.00 B. $7.00 C. $8.00 D. $9.00 E. $10.00 AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 93. (p. 260) Paula is trying to determine whether the segments she is considering for her day care center will be profitable. Which of the following will not specifically help her in this analysis? A. the number of children needing day care in the immediate area B. the fixed costs of the center C. the percentage of parents in the area who can both afford to send their child or children to day care and who are willing to do so. D. the average number of older siblings of the children who might use the day care center. E. the rate she would charge minus the variable cost of providing service to each child. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-69 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 94. (p. 260-261) In addition to calculating the potential profitability of a market segment, marketers will also consider: A. customer loyalty. B. defection rates. C. cost of replacing customers. D. likely future sales to customers. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 95. (p. 262) Which of the following is perceived as an important ethical concern associated with Internet-based segmentation? A. charging consumers higher prices based on their online search behavior. B. offering discounts to online consumers. C. offering recommendations to online consumers based on their search behavior. D. retaining customer data to simplify future online transactions. E. offering one-to-one segmentation based on consumer behavior. AACSB: outcome 2 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 96. (p. 261) Ronaldo wants to develop an Internet auction-based business. After establishing his objectives, describing potential market segments, and evaluating the attractiveness of each segment, Ronaldo now has to: A. undifferentiate his product line. B. consider future customer loyalty. C. create a perceptual inventory. D. select a target market. E. divide demographic data by psychographic constants. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-70 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 97. (p. 261) When selecting a target market, firms should attempt to: A. determine consumers' objectives. B. describe potential opportunities for mass-optimization. C. evaluate the geographic constraints to psychographic segmentation. D. match the firm's competency with a market segment's attractiveness. E. identify potential repositioning strategies. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 98. (p. 262; Power of the Internet 8.1) Data collected via Internet purchase history can help marketers in many ways beyond just selling goods. Which of the following is not attractive to marketers? A. The ability to make recommendations to customers on the basis of previous purchases B. The ability to test promotions easily and quickly C. The ability to price merchandise geographically based on the zip code of the purchasers D. The ability to gather a great deal of information about an individual purchaser including what he or she did NOT purchase while visiting the website. E. The ability to reach all members of the segment with sophisticated offerings AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 99. (p. 263) _______________ involves defining the firm's marketing mix variables so that target customers have a clear, distinctive, and desirable understanding of the firm's offerings relative to competitors' offerings. A. Processing B. Perceptualizing C. Positioning D. Proportioning E. Prospecting AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 3 Level: easy Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-71 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 100. (p. 263) Whenever Donald calls on potential pest control customers, he emphasizes the fact that, unlike the national franchise competitors, he is a local business person and has been in business over twenty years. Donald is _______________ his business relative to his competition. A. segmenting B. packaging C. positioning D. pricing E. creating symbolic associations of AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 101. (p. 263) Reginald wants to position his financial services company. Reginald can position his services according to: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-72 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 102. (p. 264) Whenever the president of the local, public university promotes the institution, he emphasizes the university's price (much lower than neighboring private colleges) and quality. He is positioning the institution based on: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 103. (p. 264) We often see advertisements touting a product as being made with natural ingredients, or long-lasting. Marketers using these types of promotions are positioning their products based on: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. against competition. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 104. (p. 264) Alexis is working out how to position her fashion accessories store in a suburban strip mall. She has selected targets, and she will consider: A. value B. salient attributes C. symbols D. competition E. all of the above AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-73 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 105. (p. 264) Howard feels he can most effectively position his painting business on value by combining price and _______________. A. dollar signs and American flags on his promotional materials B. his commitment to the community C. his support and care of the people who work for him D. consumer's perception of quality E. all of the above AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 106. (p. 264) Marco was assigned to help create a positioning strategy for the manufacturing firm where he works by working on the salient attributes. He should consider: A. the features the engineers feel are most important for the quality of the product. B. the ways the sales representatives have been positioning the firm against the competitors. C. the characteristics that help his firm win a state-wide award for excellence in manufacturing. D. what the target marketing would consider the most important. E. the safety record of the firm and its products. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 107. (p. 265) Almost every political candidate uses a combination of red, white, and blue in their campaign posters. They are trying to position themselves in voters' minds using: A. value. B. salient attributes. C. symbols. D. the competition. E. all of the above. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-74 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 108. (p. 265) Jim wants to position his firm against his competitors. In doing so he should: A. never select a competitor in the same neighborhood. B. avoid making fun of the competitor's product. C. avoid looking too much like the competitor so that he'd confuse the target segment. D. avoid discussing the strengths of his product so the competitors won't be aware of his product quality. E. avoid discussing the weaknesses of his competitors so they won't retaliate. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 109. (p. 265) A ____________ is often used to illustrate the position of a firm's products or brands in consumers' minds. A. mass marketing analysis B. VALS summary C. perceptual map D. loyalty timeline E. globe AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 110. (p. 265-266) Within a perceptual map, a(n) _________________ represents where a particular market segment desired product would lie. A. lifestyle symbol B. strategic target C. self-value determination D. ideal point E. benefit congruency AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 8-75 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 111. (p. 266-267) "Why create a perceptual map?" asked David. Andy who was the senior marketing manager gave him four reasons. Which of the following was NOT one of Andy's reasons? A. "It's a quick way for senior managers to see not only our product but each of our competitors, all at once." B. "It's a way to demonstrate the dimensions that our customers are important." C. "It shows where we aren't - and where our competitors aren't - in our customers' and prospects' minds." D. "It's a way to show the position of the company in ten years." E. "We can easily show where we are positioned and how large the market is." AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 4 Level: hard Topic: Positioning 112. (p. 266-267) Whose perceptions are being measured in a perceptual map? A. Competitors B. The strategic planners C. A company's executive team D. Inventors of the products or the current R&D team E. Consumers AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 8-76 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 113. (p. 266) In a classic case of _______________________, the makers of Marlboro cigarettes initially targeted women smokers. Later, they created the Marlboro Man image targeting male smokers. A. lifestyle symbolization B. strategic target concentration C. self-value determination D. ideal point perception E. repositioning AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 114. (p. 267-268) Several years ago, General Motors ran an advertising campaign for their Oldsmobile line of cars using the slogan, "Not your father's automobile" and an attractive young woman as spokesperson. GM was attempting to _______________ the Oldsmobile line. A. reposition B. use salient feature differentiation for C. identify a target market for D. position E. coordinate micromarketing with an undifferentiated strategy for AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 4 Level: hard Topic: Positioning 8-77 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 115. (p. 268) Despite the short-term success of Tiffany & Co.'s effort to gain new customers for life, the appeal to younger less affluent customers alienated the older, more affluent customer base. Tiffany & Co. chose to reconnect with its traditional customer bases and began the difficult task of ____________________. A. segmenting B. positioning C. strategic course correction D. branding development E. repositioning AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 4 Level: hard Topic: Positioning Essay Questions 116. (p. 243-244) What lessons could Coca-Cola apply from its success with Coke Zero to other potential new products? The student should demonstrate above all an understanding of the segmentation, targeting and positioning process. More astute students will identify research. Most students will capture ideas about promotion, but responses should include much more than promotion. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-78 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 117. (p. 245) Why must a firm's STP strategy be consistent with and derived from the firm's mission and objectives? Segmentation, targeting, and positioning begins with the recognition that no firm has sufficient resources to be all things to all customers. When a firm's STP strategy is consistent with and derived from its mission and objectives, it focuses the firm towards opportunities that grow out of what the firm is doing well and not in a random, spurious direction. Focused STP strategy acknowledges weaknesses and threats and builds upon strengths and opportunities. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 118. (p. 248) In theory, why is micromarketing the ultimate in STP strategy? What is the weakness associated with micromarketing? Micromarketing or one-to-one marketing is tailoring a firm's products or services to suit an individual. Micromarketing then creates value on an individual basis, adjusting the product or service to meet the particular needs of each customer. The weakness is it can be very expensive. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-79 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 119. (p. 249-254) Assume you are the marketing consultant for your university. Your university wants to focus their marketing effort on retention of current students. You have a choice of segmenting the undergraduate student market on either a geographic or psychographic basis. What is the difference between the two? Which would you recommend, and why? Answers will vary by the type of institution. Geographic segmentation organizes customer on the basis of where they live. University students could be divided geographically into oncampus and off-campus segments or in-state and out-of-state basis. Psychographic segmentation divides students based on how students see themselves including self-values, self-concept, and lifestyles. For example, students could be divided into groups such as "nerds," "jocks," "socialites," and party goers. Which to recommend will vary but, since the university is focusing on retention, psychographics may be more appropriate since it addresses why people attend the school. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 120. (p. 249-255) Assume you are the marketing consultant for your university. Your university wants to focus their marketing effort on recruiting new students. You have a choice of segmenting the undergraduate student market on either a demographic or benefit basis. What is the difference between the two? Which would you recommend, and why? Answers will vary by the type of institution. Potential students could be segmented demographically by age, gender, or income. Knowing what past students valued by demographic characteristics would allow the university to create targeted messages for each demographic group. Benefit segmentation would divide students on a basis of what they expect or want from an education; jobs, prestige, social interaction, entry into graduate school etc. While this would be incredibly useful in developing a marketing campaign, it might be difficult to identify which potential students want which benefits. If possible, a combination of the two bases could be used to develop a strong marketing campaign. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-80 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 121. (p. 249) Consider the fast-food hamburger chain that is closest to where you are now. Describe the STP efforts that company employs. Answers will vary. Professors may want to substitute the name of the nearest fast-food hamburger chain. Taking McDonalds; the Golden Arches clearly are designed to attract the attention of young children. Even kids who cannot read, recognize the McDonalds' symbol. Parents with young kids have been known drive out of their way to avoid passing the local McDonalds! The colorful playgrounds and frequent promotional tie-ins with Disney are also targeted toward young children. Ronald McDonald is another effort to target young children. Food, the company's product, is in many ways secondary! AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 122. (p. 253) Using the Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS) tool, describe three market segments in your institution. Label each segment. Again, answers will vary but creative students will have fun with this. VALS divides consumers into eight segments based on resources (income, health, energy level) and degree of innovativeness. The textbook includes four segments; Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, and Experiencers. One segment student segment might be the Workers; middle or lower income students with high energy levels and motivation. Another segment might be the Floaters; middle or upper income students with low energy levels and low motivation. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-81 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 123. (p. 254) Marketers find psychographics a valuable segmentation approach. What are some of the limitations of psychographic segmentation and what can marketers do to offset those limitations? Psychographics are not as objective as demographics and not as easy to develop as geographic segmentation. As a result, marketers will often combine psychographics with other segmentation methods. Students should be able to contrast various segmentation methods. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 124. (p. 253) The text states that "geodemographic segmentation can be particularly useful for retailers. Use a local retailer to describe how geodemographic segmentation can be useful". Answers will vary. Professors might want to substitute the name of a local retailer students are familiar with. Responses should include a discussion defining geodemographic segmentation as segmentation based both on where people live and demographics including age, gender, race, education, and income. Geodemographic segmentation is particularly useful to brick and mortar retailers because customers typically patronize stores close to their neighborhood. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-82 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 125. (p. 256) Why does loyalty segmentation make so much sense? Describe how a local pizza restaurant could employ loyalty segmentation. Loyalty segmentation makes sense because loyal customers are repeat customers, create tremendous word-of-mouth referrals, and are usually a firm's most profitable segment. A local pizza restaurant could reinforce loyalty by a punch card with the tenth pizza free. It could also have an annual private pizza party for regulars. Simply by remembering regular customers' names and preferences reinforces loyalty. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 126. (p. 257) Kim's Kayak Tours identified active retirees living in the retirement community nearby as one of her potential target markets. She knows she can tailor her service and marketing message to the schedules and priorities of this audience. How will Kim evaluate the attractiveness of this segment? She has already identified the segment; active retirees in a local retirement community. Next, she will assess if the segment is substantial. That can be easily done by finding an estimate of the number of people living in the community. The next question is, is the segment reachable? Can she access this group or does the retirement community control access or already provide outdoor recreational services like kayaking? Her next criterion is responsiveness. Are the people in this segment likely to react similarly and positively to her marketing efforts? Lastly, she will assess profitability. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-83 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 127. (p. 260) Abigail wants to sell a local advertising calendar. She knows there are 2000 households in her community, and estimates 30 percent will buy the calendar. The printing company will charge a $400 set up fee and calendars will cost $4.00 each to print. What price will she need to charge to cover all costs and make a $2000 total profit. Show your calculations. She estimates she will sell 600 calendars; 2000 x .30 = 600. Total cost will be 600 x $4.00 + 400 (fixed cost) = $2800 + $2000 profit = $4800. Dividing $4800 by 600 calendar sales, Abigail needs to charge $8.00. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 128. (p. 260) Segment profitability asked marketers to consider segment size, segment adoption percentage, purchase behavior, profit margin percentage and fixed costs. Select three of these five elements and explain where marketers will find solid quantifiable information to make the calculations. Students' answers will depend on the choice they make. They should be able to identify internal and external sources. Their answers should also explore the nature of the data and how reliable it might be. New products will challenge the students. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-84 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 129. (p. 261) Ronaldo is developing an Internet auction-based business. After establishing his objectives, describing potential market segments, and evaluating the attractiveness of each segment, Ronaldo now has to choose which target market to focus his efforts on. What factors should influence his decision? His ability to pursue each target segment is a key factor. Since it is an Internet auction-based business, Ronaldo should be able to access information about past sales of similar products, number of bidders, and prices. This will help determine the attractiveness of each segment. He should also consider his strengths and weaknesses relative to the other competitors and looks for opportunities and potential threats. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 130. (p. 263) Create a positioning strategy for your school's business program. How do you want potential students to view your program? Answers will vary but should start with the goal of providing potential students with a clear, distinctive, and desirable understanding of what the business program is about and how it compares with other programs both on campus and at nearby competing institutions. A positioning strategy for the business program will likely include persuasive communication about value and product attributes, probably focusing on career opportunities, salaries, and reputation of the program. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-85 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 131. (p. 263) There are three major competitors in the private package delivery market; UPS, Fedex, and DHL. The fourth competitor is the USPS. Take one of the four firms and describe their positioning efforts. UPS uses its distinctive brown color both on trucks and delivery personnel. It acts as a strong symbol. UPS also enforces strict rules about professional dress and even facial hair for their employees. All four firms offer an array of delivery services, times, and prices with none of the competitors have a distinct position. Similarly, Fedex uses its red, white, and blue colors and more recently a green, white, and blue combination. Fedex also acquired Kinko's creating added convenience as a positioning strategy. Both Fedex and UPS emphasize global distribution. Fedex frequently uses placement advertising (think Tom Hanks in Castaway) to promote their services. DHL is less known in the U.S. market but well known in Europe. Their yellow and red trucks are distinctive and eye-catching. USPS, of course, has a government-created monopoly for mail delivery. USPS is generally known for reliability and universal delivery where the others do not deliver to P.O boxes. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 132. (p. 265) When developing a positioning strategy, marketers may choose to position their offering against the offering of a competitor. If you were to do so, what would you expect your competitors to do? Students should identify the dynamic nature of competition and expect the competition will respond accordingly. Some competitors will retaliate. Others may simple choose a different position. Others might engage in legal action if they feel sufficiently threatened. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 8-86 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 133. (p. 265) How do you create and use a perceptual map? What positioning criteria might toothpaste manufacturers use in creating a perceptual map? Creating a perceptual map involves five steps: - Determining consumers' perceptions and evaluations of a product in relation to competitors' - Identifying competitors' positions - Determining consumer preferences - Selecting a position - Monitoring the positioning strategy Toothpaste manufacturers might include criteria such as tartar control, gum diseaseprevention, helping bad breath, teeth whitening, taste, health or safety. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 4 Level: hard Topic: Positioning 134. (p. 266-267) In a perceptual map of two dimensions, how are these dimensions determined? Students should identify the marketing research component, but they should also stress the importance of customers' perceptions. Some may focus on the competitors' positions, but the key is consumer. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 135. (p. 244-267) Segmentation, targeting and positioning involve a number of processes, many decisions and many different options. With all that effort, why are marketers so concerned with STP? Students should demonstrate an overall understanding of STP, and they should reflect on the importance of leveraging resources, working with customers' needs, establishing value and creating the kinds of competitive advantages based on building relationships with customers. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: hard Topic: Segmentation Strategies 8-87 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 136. (p. 267) Describe an example of a repositioning effort you have observed. Answers will vary but start with the definition; repositioning is an attempt to change consumers' image of a product, brand, or service relative to competitors' offerings. A current effort is the attempt by wine marketers to change consumers' image of twist-off tops. Long associated with cheap wine, some major wineries are converting to twist-off tops after research indicated they were better at preserving the wine. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: hard Topic: Positioning 137. (p. 246) For which types of products should marketers consider using an undifferentiated segmentation strategy? An undifferentiated segmentation strategy is appropriate for commodities and products that provide the same benefits to everyone. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 1 Level: moderate Topic: Segmentation Strategies 138. (p. 250) NASCAR re-directed their marketing efforts when a survey indicated that almost fifty percent of their race fans were female. What type of segmentation was used based on the survey results? This is an example demographic segmentation. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Learning Objective: 2 Level: easy Topic: Market Segmentation 8-88 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 139. (p. 255) What type of segmentation is possible when almost everyone living in Dragoon Island retirement community shopped at the fashion mall and drove expensive cars? Geodemographic segmentation is possible. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 140. (p. 255) Create an example of geodemographic segmentation. Answers will vary but should combine geographic and demographic bases for segmentation. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Learning Objective: 2 Level: moderate Topic: Market Segmentation 141. (p. 256) How have airline companies implemented loyalty segmentation? Airlines started with frequent flyer programs and have added priority upgrades, seating, waitlisting and other services for their loyal customers. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 2 Level: hard Topic: Market Segmentation 8-89 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 142. (p. 257) Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is addressed when Magnolia Caf asks the question, "Are there enough employees in the government center to justify targeting the center for lunch delivery service." This addresses the question of whether the segment is substantial. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 143. (p. 258) Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is addressed when Magnolia Pizzeria asks the question, "Are private food service companies allowed to deliver pizzas on the military base?" This addresses the question of whether the segment is reachable. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 144. (p. 263) Which of the segmentation attractiveness criteria is assumed by the statement, "Build it, and they will come." This assumes the segment will be responsive. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: hard Topic: Segment Evaluation 8-90 Chapter 08 - Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 145. (p. 263) Rick's Computer and Copying Center has decided to target students at a new branch of the university. Which of the marketing mix variables will Rick use when developing a positioning strategy for his firm? All four Ps may be adjusted. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 3 Level: moderate Topic: Segment Evaluation 146. (p. 265) Why do marketers often use perceptual maps when developing positioning strategies? Perceptual maps help marketers visualize their product's position relative to competitor's offerings. AACSB: outcome 3 Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Learning Objective: 4 Level: moderate Topic: Positioning 8-91

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