Chap007
15 Pages

Chap007

Course Number: ECON 201, Spring 2010

College/University: Shoreline

Word Count: 5928

Rating:

Document Preview

Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior CHAPTER SEVEN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter may be omitted without damaging the continuity or understanding of the material in ensuing chapters. Those instructors who think it important to explain consumer decision-making on a more sophisticated level than that of previous chapters should assign this chapter. It may also be used as an enrichment chapter for...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Washington >> Shoreline >> ECON 201

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

07 Chapter - Consumer Behavior CHAPTER SEVEN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter may be omitted without damaging the continuity or understanding of the material in ensuing chapters. Those instructors who think it important to explain consumer decision-making on a more sophisticated level than that of previous chapters should assign this chapter. It may also be used as an enrichment chapter for brighter students. This chapter may be combined with Chapters 3 and 6. The law of diminishing marginal utility is developed further, leading into a detailed discussion of the theory of consumer choice. The numerical illustrations of the utility-maximizing rule should be viewed as a pedagogical technique, rather than an attempt to portray the actual choice-making process of consumers. When this illustration is explained by "order of purchase," the brief algebraic summary of consumer equilibrium should pose no great difficulties for most students. The discussion of the diamondwater paradox helps students look beyond what may be their first conclusions about the importance and value of products. The opportunity cost of time may be considered as a component of product price. This chapter concludes with a simplified integration of time into the theory of consumer behavior. The appendix to this chapter introduces indifference curve analysis for those intending to pursue further study in economics, or for those who desire a more rigorous explanation of consumer choice. This material is linked to the coverage provided in the rest of the chapter by using indifference curve analysis to develop an individual's demand curve for a product. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Define marginal utility and state the law of diminishing marginal utility. Explain and graph the relationship between marginal utility and total utility. List four assumptions made in the theory of consumer behavior. State the utility-maximizing rule. Use the utility-maximizing rule to determine a consumer's spending (and demand curve) when given income, utility, and price data. Use the theory of consumer behavior to define the market shift from videocassettes to DVDs since their introduction in 1997. Explain the diamond-water paradox. Explain how the value of time fits in the theory of consumer behavior and give two examples of implications that result. Describe how the theory of consumer behavior helps us understand different values placed on time. Explain why a cash gift will give the receiver more utility than a noncash gift costing the same amount. Define and identify terms and concepts listed at the end of the chapter. After completing the appendix, students should be able to: 7-1 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior a. Define a budget constraint line and explain shifts in a budget constraint line. b. Explain three characteristics of indifference curves. c. Identify a consumer's equilibrium position, given a set of indifference curves and a budget constraint line. d. Use indifference curve analysis to derive an individual's demand curve for a product by showing consumption responses to a change in the price of the product. e. Define and identify terms and concepts listed at the end of the appendix LECTURE NOTES I. Introduction A. Learning objectives In this chapter students will learn: 1. About total utility, marginal utility, and the law of diminishing marginal utility. 2. How rational consumers compare marginal utility-to-price ratios for products in purchasing combinations of products that maximize their utility. 3. How a demand curve can be derived by observing the outcomes of price changes in the utility-maximization model. 4. How the utility-maximization model helps highlight the income and substitution effects of a price change. 5. About budget lines, indifference curves, utility maximization, and demand derivation in the indifference curve model of consumer behavior. (Appendix) B. Americans spend trillions of dollars on goods and services each year--more than 95 percent of their after-tax incomes, yet no two consumers spend their incomes in the same way. How can this be explained? C. Why does a consumer buy a particular bundle of goods and services rather than others? Examining these issues will help us understand consumer behavior and the law of demand. II. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility A. Although consumer wants in general are insatiable, wants for specific commodities can be fulfilled. The more of a specific product that consumers obtain, the less they will desire more units of that product. This can be illustrated with almost any item. The text uses the automobile example, but houses, clothing, and even food items work just as well. B. Utility is a subjective notion in economics, referring to the amount of satisfaction a person gets from consumption of a certain item. C. Marginal utility refers to the extra utility a consumer gets from one additional unit of a specific product. In a short period of time, the marginal utility derived from successive units of a given product will decline. This is known as diminishing marginal utility. D. Figure 7.1 (Key Graph) and the accompanying table illustrate the relationship between total and marginal utility. 1. Total utility increases as each additional tacos is purchased through the first five, but utility rises at a diminishing rate since each tacos adds less and less to the consumer's satisfaction. 7-2 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior 2. At some point, marginal utility becomes zero and then even negative at the seventh unit and beyond. If more than six tacos were purchased, total utility would begin to fall. This illustrates the law of diminishing marginal utility. E. CONSIDER THIS ... Vending Machines and Marginal Utility 1. Newspaper vending machines normally allow one to take multiple papers; publishers allow this because they believe that people rarely take more than one paper because the marginal utility of the second paper is often zero, and it has little "shelf life." 2. Soft drink vending machines distribute one can or bottle at a time. Even if the marginal utility of the second unit of soda is low in the short run, the long shelf life would allow people to keep sodas for later consumption. III. Theory of consumer behavior uses the law of diminishing marginal utility to explain how consumers allocate their income. A. Consumer choice and the budget constraint: 1. Consumers are assumed to be rational, i.e. they are trying to get the most value for their money. 2. Consumers have clear-cut preferences for various goods and services and can judge the utility they receive from successive units of various purchases. 3. Consumers' incomes are limited because their individual resources are limited. Thus, consumers face a budget constraint. (As we saw with the individual budget line in Chapter 1) 4. Goods and services have prices and are scarce relative to the demand for them. Consumers must choose among alternative goods with their limited money incomes. B. Utility maximizing rule explains how consumers decide to allocate their money incomes so that the last dollar spent on each product purchased yields the same amount of extra (marginal) utility. 1. A consumer is in equilibrium when utility is "balanced (per dollar) at the margin." When this is true, there is no incentive to alter the expenditure pattern unless tastes, income, or prices change. 2. Table 7.1 provides a numerical example of this for an individual named Holly with $10 to spend. Follow the reasoning process to see why 2 units of Apples and 4 of Oranges will maximize Holly's utility, given the $10 spending limit. 3. It is marginal utility per dollar spent that is equalized; that is, consumers compare the extra utility from each product with its cost. 4. As long as one good provides more utility per dollar than another, the consumer will buy more of the first good; as more of the first product is bought, its marginal utility diminishes until the amount of utility per dollar just equals that of the other product. 5. Table 7.2 summarizes the step-by-step decision-making process the rational consumer will pursue to reach the utility-maximizing combination of goods and services attainable. 6. The algebraic statement of this utility-maximizing state is that the consumer will allocate income in such a way that: MU of product A (Apples)/price of A (Apples)= MU of product B (Oranges)/price of B (Oranges) = etc. 7-3 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior IV. Utility Maximization and the Demand Curve A. Determinants of an individual's demand curve are tastes, income, and prices of other goods. B. Deriving the demand curve can be illustrated using item B, (Oranges) in Table 7.1 and considering alternative prices at which B (Oranges) might be sold. At lower prices, using the utility-maximizing rule, we see that more will be purchased as the price falls. C. The utility-maximizing rule helps to explain the substitution effect and the income effect. 1. When the price of an item declines, the consumer will no longer be in equilibrium until more of the item is purchased and the marginal utility of the item declines to match the decline in price. More of this item is purchased rather than another relatively more expensive substitute. 2. The income effect is shown by the fact that a decline in price expands the consumer's real income and the consumer must purchase more of this and other products until equilibrium is once again attained for the new level of real income. V. Applications and Extensions A. The iPod: 1. The iPod came on the market in November 2001. Less than six years later, Apple sold its 100 millionth unit. Furthermore, those units enabled Apple to sell more than 2.5 billion songs through its online iTunes store. a. The swift ascendancy of the Pod resulted mainly from a leapfrog in technology Not only is the iPod much more compact than the portable digital CD player that it replaced, it can hold a lot more songs. b. This example demonstrates a simple but important point: New products succeed by enhancing consumers' total utility. B. The diamond-water paradox: 1. Before marginal analysis, economists were puzzled by the fact that some essential goods like water had lower prices than luxuries like diamonds. 2. The paradox is resolved when we look at the abundance of water relative to diamonds. 3. Theory tells us that consumers should purchase any good until the ratio of its marginal utility to price is the same as that ratio for all other goods. a. The marginal utility of an extra unit of water may be low as is its price, but the total utility derived from water is very large. b. The total utility of all water consumed is much larger than the total utility of all diamonds purchased. c. However, society prefers an additional diamond to an additional drop of water, because of the abundant stock of water available. C. Time also has a value, so this must be considered in decision-making and utility maximization. The total price of an item must include the value of the time spent in consuming the product, i.e., the wage value of an hour of time. When time is considered, consumer behavior appears to be much more rational. 1. Highly paid doctors may not spend hours hunting for bargains because their time is more valuable than the money to be saved from finding the best buy. 7-4 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior 2. Foreigners observe that Americans waste material goods but conserve time. This could be because our high productivity makes our time more valuable than many of the goods we waste. D. Buying medical care or eating at a buffet: 1. Most Americans have health insurance for which they pay a fixed monthly premium, which covers, say, 80 percent of their health care costs. Therefore, the cost of obtaining care is only 20 percent of its stated price for the insured patient. 2. Following the law of demand, people purchase a larger quantity of medical care than if they had to pay the full price for each visit. 3. If you buy a meal at an "all-you-can-eat" buffet, you eat more than if you paid separately for each item. E. Cash and noncash gifts: 1. Noncash gifts may yield less utility to the receiver than a cash gift of equal monetary value because the noncash gift may not match the receiver's preferences. 2. Individuals know their own preferences better than the gift giver. 3. Look back at Table 7.1. If Holly had no income and was given $2 worth, she would rather have the cash transfer to spend on B than to be given 2 units of A. (She gets more utility or satisfaction by spending her $2 on B.) VI. LAST WORD: M&M's, Final Exams, and Retirement Savings: Insights from Behavioral Economics A. The key insight form traditional utility theory is that when we like a particular good or service, we typically like successive units of it less and less. However, researchers have found that this behavior is sometimes difficult to duplicate in a controlled setting. B. As an example, most students are not willing to pay $20 at the beginning of the semester to postpone the day of the final exam by one day. However, many more students are willing to pay the $20 to postpone the final exam by one day on the day before the final. This behavior is inconsistent with traditional utility theory when agents are rational and forward looking. This behavior is referred to as "time inconsistency". C. As another example some households also fail to save for retirement in a way that is consistent with economic theory. This provides a role for government, which is to ensure that these households save enough for retirement (Social Security). D. Most behavioral economists believe that this behavior dates back to our ancestors who had to struggle to survive on a daily basis. This `programming' is still part of our thought process. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 7: INDIFFERENCE CURVE ANALYSIS I. The Budget Constraint Line A. Show various combinations of two products which can be purchased with a given money income with knowledge of the prices of the two products. (Figure 1) B. A decrease in money income shifts the budget constraint line inward to the left in Figure 1; an increase in money income shifts the budget constraint line outward to the right in Fig. 1. 7-5 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior C. Price changes in either of the two products will rotate the budget constraint line. For example, in Figure 1, if the price of A rises, less of A will be purchased at each of the possible combinations of A and B, so the curve will fan downward along the vertical A-axis. A decrease in A's price would have the curve fanning upward along the A-axis. See Figure 5 (a). II. Indifference curves show all combinations of two products that will yield the same level of satisfaction or utility to the consumer. (Figure 2) A. Curves are downward sloping because the consumer will be able to maintain the same level of total utility by substituting more of B for less of A. B. Curves are convex to the origin. 1. The slope of the curve measures the marginal rate of substitution of one good for the other (B for A) for the consumer to have a constant level of satisfaction. 2. Rationale for this shape is related to diminishing marginal utility. If the consumer has a lot of A and very little of B, B is more valuable at the margin, while A has a lower marginal utility. The consumer will then be willing to give up a substantial amount of product A to get more units of B. However, as the consumer obtains more and more of B and gives up more and more A, this relationship changes. The consumer will not be willing to give up much A to get more of B. In other words, the slope of the curve diminishes, and the curve is, by definition, convex to the origin. C. An indifference map refers to successive indifference curves where each entails a different level of utility, meaning that indifference curves cannot cross. As one moves away from the origin on the map, the level of utility increases. See Figure 3 and CONSIDER THIS ... Indifference Maps and Topographical Maps. D. The consumer's utility-maximizing combination of A and B will occur on the highest attainable indifference curve. This is where the budget constraint line is tangent to an indifference curve, which is the highest attainable level of utility. Higher levels will be unattainable or off the budget line. Figure 4. (Key Question 3) E. The measurement of utility is not necessary when decisions are being made on a relative basis. The marginal rate of substitution is the ratio of the prices of the two goods, A and B. Also, the ratio of the marginal utilities at the maximizing point is equivalent to the ratio of the two prices. Therefore, the marginal rate of substitution is equivalent to the ratio of marginal utilities of two goods, and it is not necessary to find the absolute measure of marginal utility. F. The demand curve can be derived using the indifference curve approach and determining how the quantity purchased will change when the price of one good changes to various levels. Figure 5 illustrates this procedure. 7-6 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 7-1 (Key Question) Complete the following table and answer the questions below: Units consumed 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total utility 0 10 ___ 25 30 ___ 34 Marginal utility 10 8 ___ ___ 3 ___ a. At which rate is total utility increasing: a constant rate, a decreasing rate, or an increasing rate? How do you know? b. "A rational consumer will purchase only 1 unit of the product represented by these data, since that amount maximizes marginal utility." Do you agree? Explain why or why not. c. "It is possible that a rational consumer will not purchase any units of the product represented by these data." Do you agree? Explain why or why not. Missing total utility data top bottom: 18; 33. Missing marginal utility data, top bottom: 7; 5; 1. (a) A decreasing rate; because utility marginal is declining. (b) Disagree. The marginal utility of a unit beyond the first may be sufficiently great (relative to product price) to make it a worthwhile purchase. Consumers are interested in maximizing total utility, not marginal utility. (c) Agree. This product's price could be so high relative to the first unit's marginal utility that the consumer would buy none of it. 7-2 Mrs. Simpson buys loaves of bread and quarts of milk each week at prices of $1 and 80 cents, respectively. At present she is buying these two products in amounts such that the marginal utilities from the last units purchased of the two products are 80 and 70 utils, respectively. Is she buying the utility-maximizing combination of bread and milk? If not, how should she reallocate her expenditures between the two goods? Mrs. Wilson is not buying the utility-maximizing combination of bread and milk since the marginal utility per cent spent on each good is not equal. The marginal utility per cent of bread is 0.8 (= 80 utils/100 cents); the utility per cent of milk is 0.875 (= 70 utils/80 cents). Mrs. Wilson should buy more milk and less bread. 7-7 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior 7-3 (Key Question) Columns 1 through 4 in the table below show the marginal utility, measured in utils, that Ricardo would get by purchasing various amounts of products A, B, C, and D. Column 5 shows the marginal utility Ricardo gets from saving. Assume that the prices of A, B, C, and D are $18, $6, $4, and $24, respectively, and that Ricardo has an income of $106. Column 1 Unit s MU of A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 72 54 45 36 27 18 15 12 Column 2 Unit s MU of B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 24 15 12 9 7 5 2 1 Column 3 Unit s MU of C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15 12 8 7 5 4 3.5 3 Column 4 Unit s MU of D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 36 30 24 18 13 7 4 2 Column 5 No. of $ saved MU 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 4 3 2 1 1/2 1/4 1/8 a. What quantities of A, B, C, and D will Ricardo purchase in maximizing his utility? b. How many dollars will Ricardo choose to save? c. Check your answers by substituting them into the algebraic statement of the utility-maximizing rule. (a) 4 units of A; 3 units of B; 3 units of C, and 0 units of D. (b) Save $4. (c) 36/$18 = 12/$6 = 8/$4 = 2/$1. The marginal utility per dollar of the last unit of each product purchased is 2. 7-4 (Key Question) You are choosing between two goods, X and Y, and your marginal utility from each is as shown in the table below. If your income is $9 and the prices of X and Y are $2 and $1, respectively, what quantities of each will you purchase to maximize utility? What total utility will you realize? Assume that, other things remaining unchanged, the price of X falls to $1. What quantities of X and Y will you now purchase? Using the two prices and quantities for X, derive a demand schedule (price-quantity-demanded table) for X. Units of X 1 2 3 4 5 6 MUx 10 8 6 4 3 2 Units of Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 MUy 8 7 6 5 4 3 7-8 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior Buy 2 units of X and 5 units of Y. Marginal utility of last dollar spent will be equal at 4 (= 8/$2 for X and 4/$1 for Y) and the $9 income will be spent. Total utility = 48 (= 10 + 8 for X plus 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 for Y). When the price of X falls to $1, the quantity of X demanded increases from 2 to 4 (income effect). Total utility is now 58 (= 10 + 8 + 6 + 4 for X plus 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 for Y). Demand schedule for X: P = $2; Q = 2. P = $1; Q = 4. 7-5 How can time be incorporated into the theory of consumer behavior? Explain the following comment: "Want to make a million dollars? Devise a product that saves Americans lots of time." Time is money. This expression is a time-saving way of making the point that for a person who can make so much per hour, every hour spent not working is so much money not made. A person can be said to "consume" a ball game or an evening at the theater. If the ball game costs $10 and the theater $20, at first sight one could say the ball game is a better deal. But if the person makes $20 an hour and is forgoing this in taking the time off, then we must take into account the time spent at the ball game and at the theater. If the ball game goes into extra innings and takes 4 hours, then its total cost is $90 (= $10 + $80). If the theater takes 3 hours, its total cost is $80 (= $20 + $60). Assuming the marginal utility of the ball game and attending the theater are the same, the theory of consumer behavior (with time taken into account) would therefore have this consumer going to the theater. A time-saving device would free the individual up to earn more income. As long as the amount of extra income earned is greater than the cost of the device, many Americans will buy the device. For many Americans, what is scarcest in their lives is time. 7-6 Explain: a. "Before economic growth, there were too few goods; after growth, there is too little time." b. "It is irrational for an individual to take the time to be completely rational in economic decision making." c. "Telling Santa what you want for Christmas makes sense in terms of utility maximization." (a) Before economic growth, most people lived at the subsistence level. By practically anyone's definition, this implies "too few goods." After economic growth, goods are in relative abundance. To make (or consume) more takes time, but the relative abundance of goods means that there are already many goods to enjoy. So, now there is a clash between the use of time to make more goods and the use of time to relax and enjoy the goods one already has. There just isn't enough time. (b) To be completely rational in economic decision making, provided one does not take time into consideration, one has to take account of every factor. This would take a great deal of time. One could not, for example, make any purchase without first searching the classifieds to see whether a better deal could be had, rather than simply heading for the nearest store. However, this would be most irrational, for time does have value. While making an extensive search before making any deal, one would be forgoing the income to make this or any deal. For every penny saved to make the perfect deal, one would be losing dollars in income because of the time spent in making the perfect deal. 7-9 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior (c) There is little time sacrificed in making a request to Santa for a specific item. If one receives it, the benefit will likely exceed the cost. It also reduces the probability of receiving a gift for which the market value (purchase price) exceeds the utility to the recipient. 7-7 In the last decade or so there has been a dramatic expansion of small retail convenience stores (such as Kwik Shops, 7-Elevens, Gas `N Shops) although their prices are generally much higher than those in the large supermarkets. What explains the success of the convenience stores? These stores are selling convenience as well as the goods that are purchased there. Because of their small size and convenient locations, they save busy consumers time. In an era when most consumers are working at least 40 hours per week, their time is valuable, and when only a few items are needed, the time saved must be worth the additional cost one pays for shopping at these convenience stores. (You seldom, if ever, see anyone buying a week's worth of groceries at such shops.) 7-8 Many apartment-complex owners are installing water meters for each individual apartment and billing the occupants according to the amount of water they use. This is in contrast to the former procedure of having a central meter for the entire complex and dividing up the water expense as part of the rent. Where individual meters have been installed, water usage has declined 10 to 40 percent. Explain this drop, referring to price and marginal utility. The way we pay for a good or service can significantly alter the amount purchased. An individual living in an apartment complex who paid a share of the water expense measured by a central meter would have little incentive to conserve. Individual restraint would not have much impact on the total amount of water used. Suppose there were 10 apartments in the complex, each apartment would be billed for one-tenth of the cost of the water. A single gallon of water would carry a price equal to one-tenth the amount charged by the water district. The very low price per gallon would encourage the use of water until the marginal utility of an additional gallon was correspondingly low. If the tenants paid separately for their own water, the full market price of water would be considered when making their consumption choices. 7-9 Using the utility-maximization rule as your point of reference, explain the income and substitution effects of an increase in the price of product B, with no change in the price of product A. The utility-maximization rule compares the marginal utilities per dollar of goods under consideration (in this case A and B). An increase in the price of product B would reduce the marginal utility per dollar of B. This would discourage consumption of B, and with a pure income effect, would not alter consumption of A. If the increased price of B caused the marginal utility per dollar of the last unit of B to fall below the MU/$ of the next unit of A, we would expect the consumer to substitute A for B in consumption (substitution effect). 7-10 (Advanced analysis) A mathematically "fair bet" is one in which a gambler bets, say $100, for a 10 percent chance to win $1000 ($100 = .10 x 1000). Assuming diminishing marginal utility of dollars, explain why this is not a fair bet in terms of utility. Why is it even less fair a bet when the "house" takes a cut of each dollar bet? So is gambling irrational? Because the marginal utility of money diminishes the more you have, the utility of the $100 used to make the bet is greater than the $900 that you might gain ($1000 - $100) if you win the bet. It is even less of a "fair bet' when the "house" takes its cut, because the $100 bet has the possibility of yielding less than $900 in winnings. Maybe. The activity of gambling may provide enough extra utility to offset the poor utility odds of winning. 7-10 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior 7-11 (Advanced analysis) Let MUa = z = 10 - x and MUb = z = 21 -2y, where z is marginal utility measured in utils, x is the amount spent on product A, and y is the amount spent on B. Assume the consumer has $10 to spend on A and B; that is, x + y = 10. How is this $10 best allocated between A and B? How much utility will the marginal dollar yield? The consumer should spend $3 on A and $7 on B. The marginal dollar will yield 7 utils. Proof: Substituting in Substituting in z = 10 - x, z = 21 - 2 y, z = 10 - 3 = 7 z = 21 - 2 7 = 21 - 14 = 7 7-12 (Last Word) People at buffets put more on their plates and eat more the greater the variety of items they have to select from. How does this relate to the idea that diminishing marginal utility must be understood in context? Many people by to much on their credit cards, even though they know they will be sorry when they get their credit card bill. Relate this fact to the idea of time inconsistency. The greater the variety may reduce the rate at which diminishing marginal utility sets in because the goods are consumed together and there is more choice. This does not imply that diminishing marginal utility does not apply. The consumption of the good occurs immediately after the purchase of the good with a credit card (or quicker than), but the payment is in the future. This may result in time inconsistency if the individual does not fully internalize the future cost. Chapter 7-Appendix Questions 7A-1 What information is embodied in a budget line? What shifts will occur in the budget line as money income (a) increases and (b) decreases? What shifts will occur in the budget line as the product price shown on the horizontal axis (c) increases and (d) decreases? A budget line shows all the combinations of any two products that a consumer can purchase, given the prices of the products and the consumer's income. As money income (a) increases, the budget line shifts to the right (outward); (b) decreases, the budget line shifts to the left (inward). As the price of the product on the horizontal axis (a) increases, the budget line, while remaining anchored at its original position on the vertical axis, will fan to the left (inward); (b) decreases, the budget line, while remaining anchored at its original position on the vertical axis, will fan to the right (outward). 7A-2 What information is contained in an indifference curve? Why are such curves (a) downsloping and (b) convex to the origin? Why does total utility increase as the consumer moves to indifference curves further from the origin? Why can't indifference curves intersect? Every point on an indifference curve shows some combination of two products that will give equal utility to a consumer; that is, each combination of the two products has the same level of total utility. Indifference curves are: (a) downsloping because both products yield utility to the consumer. Going down the curve means more of one commodity is being consumed, thus increasing the consumer's total utility. To keep total utility constant, some amount of the other commodity must be given up to precisely offset the gain in total utility. Thus, the quantities of the two commodities are inversely related. Any curve showing an inverse relationship is downsloping. 7-11 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior (b) convex to the origin because the consumer's willingness to give up more of one commodity to get more of another diminishes as more and more of one commodity is substituted for the other. When the consumer has much of one commodity but little of the other, the consumer will resist more and more giving up what little still remains of the first commodity. This resistance is shown by the consumer demanding a great deal of the abundant commodity in exchange for a small amount of the scarce commodity. Technically expressed, the marginal rate of substitution declines as one moves southeast along an indifference curve. Total utility increases as the consumer moves to indifference curves further from the origin because each successive curve embodies larger amounts of both commodities. Indifference curves cannot intersect, because each curve shows a different level of total utility over its entire length, but a point of intersection of two curves would necessarily mean that at that point the two curves had the same total utility. 7A-3 (Key Question) Using Figure 4, explain why the point of tangency of the budget line with an indifference curve is the consumer's equilibrium position. Explain why any point where the budget line intersects an indifference curve will not be equilibrium. Explain: "The consumer is in equilibrium where MRS = PB/PA." The tangency point places the consumer on the highest attainable indifference curve; it identifies the combination of goods yielding the highest total utility. All intersection points place the consumer on a lower indifference curve. MRS is the slope of the indifference curve; PB/PA is the slope of the budge line. Only at the tangency point are these two slopes equal. If MRS > PB/PA or MRS < PB/PA, adjustments in the combination of products can be made to increase total utility (get to a higher indifference curve). 7A-4 Assume that the data in the accompanying table indicate an indifference curve for Mr. Chen. Graph this curve, putting A on the vertical and B on the horizontal axis. Assuming the prices of A and B are $1.50 and $1.00, respectively, and that Mr. Chen has $24 to spend, add his budget line to your graph. What combination of A and B will Mr. Chen purchase? Does your answer meet the MRS = PB/PA rule for equilibrium? 7-12 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior Units of A 16 12 8 4 Units of B 6 8 12 24 As shown in the graph, Mr. Chen will purchase 8A and 12B, spending his $24[ = ( 8 $1.50) + (12 $1.00) ]. The answer does meet the MRS = PB / PA rule. Thus, MRS = 8 / 12 = PB / PA = $1.00 / $1.50 = 2 / 3. 7A-5 Explain graphically how indifference analysis can be used to derive a demand curve. In the top graph appearing below, the initial equilibrium is at X, where the budget line is tangent to indifference curve I2. Money income is $12; the price of A is $1.50 and the price of B is $1.00. Dropping a perpendicular from X in the top diagram to the bottom diagram, we obtain X', a point on the demand curve of B. We note that at the price of $1.00, Q is 7. We now assume that the price of B rises to $2.00, causing the budget line to fan to the left (inwards) from its anchor on the vertical (A) axis to Q of 6 on the horizontal (B) axis. This causes the new budget line to be tangent, at Y, to an indifference curve, I1, closer to the origin-- one that gives less utility. Dropping a perpendicular from Y in the top diagram to the bottom diagram, we obtain Y', the second point on the demand curve of B. We note that at the higher price of $2.00, Q is 3. We can continue this procedure to obtain more points on the demand curve of B. 7-13 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior 7A-6 (Advanced analysis) First, graphically illustrate a doubling of income without price changes in the indifference curve model. Next, on the same graph, show a situation in which the person whose indifference curves you are drawing buys considerably more of good B than good A after the income increase. What can you conclude about the relative coefficients of the income elasticity of demand for goods A and B? 7-14 Chapter 07 - Consumer Behavior B A The income elasticity for good B is greater than that of good A. This must be true since income doubled and good B consumption increased by more than good A. In fact, since Good B consumption increased more than good A this implies that spending on good B more than bled and is income elastic. The opposite must be true for good A. 7-15

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

École Normale Supérieure - MACRO - 2101
Chapter 5Public Spending and Public ChoiceCopyright 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.IntroductionMany feel that ethanol-based motor fuel offers a winwin situation: less reliance on gasoline derived largely from foreign oil and reduced
Greenville College - PHY - 2426
University of Phoenix - CRT - 205
Axia College Material Appendix E Critical Analysis Forms Fill out one form for each source. Source 1 Title and Citation: Abstinence-Only Sex Education Is Ineffective Roffman, Deborah M. &quot;Abstinence-Only Sex Education Is Ineffective.&quot; Opposing Viewpoints:
University of Phoenix - CRT - 205
Week 9 Capstone CheckPoint Inscription is the foremost technique used to expand significant ideas. Writing skill needs decisive thinking, which is the procedure used to get clear ideas and to develop inspiration. Critical thinking will enable me to think
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Discussion Questions #2 CRT/205 Week 8 AssignmentState your stance on the Terri Schiavo case, and identify the moral value judgment that influenced you to choose your stance. An example of a stance is, Terri Schiavo should have been allowed to live, desp
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Discussion Questions #1 CRT/205 Week 8IworkatWalMartasanICSassociate(InventoryControlSpecialist).Onenightmycoworker decidedthathewouldbetextingwhileontheclock.Afterhecompletedhisjobsforthenighthe startedtotextandhashisphoneonthemusicplayer.Iwalkeduptohim
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Axia College MaterialAppendix D The Terri Schiavo ControversyThis is an information presentation about the different opinions Terri Schiavos parents and husband had about ending or preserving her life.BackgroundIn 1990, Terri Schiavo became severely m
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Argument Validity1Argument Validity Axia College of University of Phoenix June 16, 2010 Brett GrummArgument Validity2Argument Validity 1. The sign on the parking meter says Out of Order, so therefore the meter isnt working. (b) Probably true 2. The a
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Argument Evaluation 1Argument Evaluation Brett Grumm June 20, 2010Argument Evaluation 2The first argument I have chosen for this weeks assignment is how in America automobiles are compared to the attacks on 9/11. The premise of this argument is how the
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
CRT205Quizv.ACRT/205Quiz Date Date #Questions 10 #Correct 10 Confirmation# 13622136StartedCompleted06/16/2010(00:09AM) 06/16/2010(00:19AM)CRT/205 QuizUser First Name Last Name Confirmation # Score Total Questions: Total Correct Start: End: 902679018
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
DQ1 In the digital story there is a salesman trying to sell a vacuum cleaner to a man and shows how delightful it works by vacuuming up a pile of dirt from the rug. The man thought that this is a terrific product and he had to talk it over with his wife a
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 7 Quiz: Unstated Premises Quiz Student Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID: AAAA0P9J75 Results Reporter Out of 8 questions, you answered 7 correctly
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 7 Quiz: Evaluating Arguments Quiz Student Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID: AAAA0P9J75 Results Reporter Out of 7 questions, you answered 7 correct
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 7 Quiz: Deductive/Inductive Logic Quiz Student Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID: AAAA0P9J75 Results Reporter Out of 3 questions, you answered 2 co
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 7 Quiz: Argument Quiz I Student Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID: AAAA0P9J75 Results Reporter Out of 3 questions, you answered 3 correctly with a
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Identifying Fallacies2. Ad Hominem - In question number #2 the North State Record clearly strikes Andrea Keenes view from the beginning. This happens when they take her work and replace it to an expression without properly referencing to her work. Straw
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Axia College MaterialAppendix C Categorizing FallaciesCategorize each fallacy statement by copying and pasting it into the text box adjacent to its matching fallacy type.Fallacy Statements1. It takes someone with a really big heart to give to our char
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Axia College MaterialAppendix C Categorizing FallaciesCategorize each fallacy statement by copying and pasting it into the text box adjacent to its matching fallacy type.Fallacy Statements1. It takes someone with a really big heart to give to our char
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
TO BE POSTED ON DAY 4 (THU) A person can only distinguish between prejudicial and non-prejudicial use of rhetorical devices if he/she is reading carefully and thinking critically. Prejudicial use of rhetorical device can be detected if a statement makes p
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
AuthorName:Moore SiteName:CriticalThinking Chapter:Chapter5 Quiz:PsychologicalFallaciesQuizIStudentName:BrettGrumm StudenteMailAddress:bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu SectionID:AAAA0P9J75ResultsReporterOutof29questions,youanswered28correctlywithafinalgradeof9
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
AuthorName:Moore SiteName:CriticalThinking Chapter:Chapter4 Quiz:PersuasionviaRhetoricQuizIIStudentName:BrettGrumm StudenteMailAddress:bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu SectionID:AAAA0P9J75ResultsReporterOutof23questions,youanswered22correctlywithafinalgradeof9
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
AuthorName:Moore SiteName:CriticalThinking Chapter:Chapter4 Quiz:PersuasionviaRhetoricQuizIStudentName:BrettGrumm StudenteMailAddress:bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu SectionID:AAAA0P9J75ResultsReporterOutof3questions,youanswered3correctlywithafinalgradeof100%
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
AuthorName:Moore SiteName:CriticalThinking Chapter:Chapter6 Quiz:MoreFallaciesQuizIIStudentName:BrettGrumm StudenteMailAddress:bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu SectionID:AAAA0P9J75ResultsReporterOutof27questions,youanswered25correctlywithafinalgradeof93%25cor
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
AuthorName:Moore SiteName:CriticalThinking Chapter:Chapter6 Quiz:MoreFallaciesQuizIStudentName:BrettGrumm StudenteMailAddress:bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu SectionID:AAAA0P9J75ResultsReporterOutof3questions,youanswered3correctlywithafinalgradeof100%3correc
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Discussion Question 1Open this envelope and youll get a check for three million dollars, if your name appears on our list of winners. Thisexamplemakescracksmeup.IusedtogetanemailsayingthisandIdorememberthatmy attentionwasnottoreadthewholeemail.NowIknowmo
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Response to Check PointCheckPoint:PartII ThereviewoftheoriginalnewssourcewasaboutAllanGreenspangivingclaimsabout thehousingmarketandhowpeoplearelosingtheirhomesbecauseoftheeconomy. ThearticledidntgivemuchinformationoranythingtobackupGreenspansclaims, whi
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Response to Check Point Check Point: Part II The review of the original news source was about Allan Greenspan giving claims about the housing market and how people are losing their homes because of the economy. The article didnt give much information or a
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Check Point Part 1: Argument Credibilityhttp:/www.pcworld.com/article/155118/obama_broadband_computers_part_of_sti mulus_package.htmlObama: Broadband, Computers Part of Stimulus Package (PC World)The claim that is being made here in the editorial from
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Who paid for each example to be created? - CNN paid for the Larry King Interview - Wendys paid for the Wendys commercial Can you detect a slantthat is, a secondary opinion conveyed by the examples creators? I was able to see a slant in the Larry King inte
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 2 Quiz: Writing Argumentative Essays Quiz IIStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID:Results ReporterOut of 6 questions, you answered 6 correct
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 2 Quiz: Vagueness Quiz Student Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail: bgrumm@email.phoenix.eduSection ID: AAAA0P9J75Results Reporter = Out of 11 questions, you answered 10 correctly with a final
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 1 Quiz: Subjectivism and Value Judgments QuizStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID:Results ReporterOut of 7 questions, you answered 7 correc
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 2 Quiz: Ambiguous Claims Quiz IStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID:Results ReporterOut of 11 questions, you answered 10 correctly with a f
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
CRT 205 Week 2 The way the email is written by Owen seem like he was in a rush typing too fast. He had used so many incomplete thoughts and that he would have discovered if he had proof read before sending the email. Some of Owenss writing could have offe
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
CRT week 2 DQ 1 Answer: I think critical thinking is an essential tool to success in breaking down piece of authority and to be more effective in writing. For me when I am reading I use my critical thinking skills often by breaking down the materials in p
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 1 Quiz: Claims and Arguments QuizStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID: AAAA0P9J75Results ReporterOut of 15 questions, you answered 14 corre
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 3 Quiz: Chapter Review QuizStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID:Results ReporterOut of 9 questions, you answered 9 correctly with a final g
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Author Name: Moore Site Name: Critical Thinking Chapter: Chapter 2 Quiz: Ambiguous Claims Quiz IStudent Name: Brett Grumm Student eMail Address: bgrumm@email.phoenix.edu Section ID:Results ReporterOut of 11 questions, you answered 10 correctly with a f
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
The use of the capital punishment, more specifically the death sentence, is a particularly heated debate in the United States. Most of this debate centers on ethical dilemmas. The question is should the United States continue to use the strict rules or sh
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - 205
Part A I think that the key issue in the comic strip was Anita's decision whether she should steal from her job or not steal and go ahead and turn her co-worker in. She suspended her judgment by thinking about it overnight and came to a decision the next
University of Phoenix - CRT205 - AAAA0P9J75
CRT 205 Course CalendarMonday Week 1 CRT 205 Week 2 CRT 205 Week 3 CRT 205 Week 4 CRT 205 Week 5 CRT 205 Week 6 CRT 205 Week 7 Day 1 Day 1 Day 2 DQ 1 Day 2 Day 3 Argument Validity CheckPoint 1 Day 1 Day 2 DQ 1 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 3 Day 4 DQ 2 Day 4 Cap
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS ON SCALAR &amp; CROSS PRODUCTS 1) Prove that a b + b a is orthogonal (perpendicular) to a b b a . 2) Let a = i + 2 j + 3 k , b = i + 2 j + k and c = 3 i + j . Find such that a + b c . 3) Find a b if a = 10 , b = 2 and a b = 12 .
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_MCV4U0 OPERATIONS WITH VECTORS TEST AANSWER ALL QUESTIONS on LEGAL SIZE PAPER. MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. 1) (1K) Let u = 2 j and v = 2 i + 4 j . What is u v 4)(1K) Which of the following statements is INCORRE
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
OPERATIONS WITH VECTORS 1) Let u = ( 9,2) and v = ( 3,9) . Find u v . A) 45 B) 23 C) (12,11) D)4) In which of the following diagrams do the vectors satisfy a + b + c = 0 ? A) B) C) ( 27,18) E) 132 2) Let u = ( 9,0,1) and v = ( 9,9,9) . Find u v . A
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_MCV4U0 OPERATIONS WITH VECTORS TEST BANSWER ALL QUESTIONS on LEGAL SIZE PAPER. MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. 1) (1K) Let u = 5 i + 2 j and v = 7 i + j . What 4)(1K) Which of the following statements is CORRECT? I)
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSDIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS II TEST A FULL SOLUTION: Answer each question on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided with COMPLETE STATEMENTS when required. 1) (4A, 1C) Let x( t ) = t 2 + 8 ln( t + 1) represent the position of a particle in meters on th
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSDIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS II TEST B FULL SOLUTION: Answer each question on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided with COMPLETE STATEMENTS when required. 1) Evaluate the following limits. Show all your work for full marks. a) (2K) lim3x 3 11x 2 4 x
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSTHE DERIVATIVE &amp; ITS APPLICATIONS REVIEW 1) Let y = x 2 x . Show thatdy = 2 x 2 x (1 + ln x ) . dx2) Find the exact value of sin arctan 1 2 . 3) Consider the graph of y = arc cot x to the right. Find the following limits: lim ( arc cot x ) a
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSPOLYNOMIAL SUPPLEMENTARY Problems: 1) If ( x 1) is a factor of 12 x 4 31x 3 + 14 x 2 + ax + b , then2a)find the values of a and b.b) find the other two factors. 2) Consider the function f ( x ) = 16 x 4 16 x 2 + 1 for the following questio
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSPOLYNOMIAL SUPPLEMENTARYProblems: 1) When completely factored, what is one of the factors of 5x 4 10 x 2 + 5 ? A) B) C) D) E)x4 2x2 + 1 x2 1 x2 + 1 5x + 1 5x 14) Which of the following is the graph off ( x ) = an ( x + 1)( x 2) where an &gt;
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSPOLYNOMIAL TEST A MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding the polynomial:f ( x) = x 2 x + 2 x
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME SOLUTIONSAP CALCULUSPOLYNOMIAL TEST A MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding the division statement: f
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSPRECALCULUS SUPPLEMENTARY Problems: 1) Find all positive values of k for which the equations3x + k = 2 have a common solution for x. kx + 3 = 22) A parabola has its vertex at the point with coordinates ( 1,3) and also passes through the poin
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSSPECIAL FUNCTIONS TEST A MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following is an oblique asymptote of the graph of 5x 3 + 18 x 2 + 17 x 9
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSSPECIAL FUNCTIONS TEST A MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following is an oblique asymptote of the graph of 4 x 3 + 8 x 2 + 13x f
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSSPECIAL FUNCTIONS TEST B MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following is an oblique asymptote of the graph 3x 3 + 5x 2 x + 3 of f (
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
NAME_AP CALCULUSSPECIAL FUNCTIONS TEST B MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the ONE BEST answer to each question. Place all your choices on the LEGAL SIZE paper provided. 1) (1K) Which of the following is an oblique 4 x 3 + 6x 2 + 8x asymptote of the graph of f (
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSEXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM SUPPLEMENTARY Problems:1) The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in April 1986 released radioactive Cesium137 into the air. The half life of Cesium137 is 28 years. a) Find a formula N ( t ) for the amount of Cesium13
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSSUMMER WORKSHOP I Problems: 1) Consider the points A( 2,3) , B( 5,6) , C( 2,3) and D( k ,2) . Find the value of k so that a) AB is parallel to CD b) AC is perpendicular to BD 2) Find the perimeter of the triangle formed by the coordinate axes
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSSUMMER WORKSHOP II Problems: 1) Solve for x: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)x 4 17 x 2 + 16 = 06) a) Show that ( cos x )( cos 2 x )( cos 4 x )( sin x ) =1 sin 8 x 8b) Find the exact values of2 4 cos cos cos 7 7 7 2 4 cos cos cos 9 9 9x 3 + 5x
York University - MATH - MATH 1025
AP CALCULUSSUMMER WORKSHOP III Problems: 1) (2004 Nova Scotia Math League, Game 2: Team Question) The parabola y = x 2 meets the parabolay = x 2 +6 x 4 at two points, P and Q. Find the equation of the line passing through P and Q.2) (2004 Nova Scotia M