Ch 14 Week 9 HCR 230
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Ch 14 Week 9 HCR 230

Course Number: HCR 240 HCR 240, Spring 2010

College/University: University of Phoenix

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ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing Introduction The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Chapter 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims Chapter 15 Patient Billing and Collections ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments...

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Medical ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing Introduction The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Chapter 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims Chapter 15 Patient Billing and Collections ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the steps payers follow to adjudicate claims. 2. List ten checks that automated medical edits perform. 3. Describe the procedures for following up on claims after they are sent to payers. 4. Identify the types of codes and other information contained on an RA/EOB. 5. List the points that are reviewed on an RA/EOB. 6. Explain the process for posting payments and managing denials. 7. Describe the purpose and general steps of the appeal process. 8. Discuss how appeals, postpayment audits, and overpayments may affect claim payments. 9. Describe the procedures for filing secondary claims. 10. Discuss procedures for complying with the Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) program. CHAPTER OUTLINE Claim Adjudication Monitoring Claim Status The Remittance Advice/Explanation of Benefits (RA/EOB) Reviewing and Processing RAs/EOBs Appeals, Postpayment Audits, Overpayments, and Grievances Billing Secondary Payers 448 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Key Terms adjudication aging appeal appellant autoposting claim adjustment group codes (GRP) claim adjustment reason codes (RC) claimant claim status category codes claim status codes claim turnaround time concurrent care determination development electronic funds transfer (EFT) explanation of benefits (EOB) grievance HIPAA X12 835 Health Care Payment and Remittance Advice (HIPAA 835) HIPAA X12 276/277 Health Care Claim Status Inquiry/Response (HIPAA 276/277) insurance aging report medical necessity denial Medicare Outpatient Adjudication remark codes (MOA) Medicare Redetermination Notice (MRN) Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) overpayments pending prompt-pay laws RA/EOB reconciliation redetermination remittance advice (RA) remittance advice remark codes (REM) suspended Claim follow-up and payment processing are important procedures in billing and reimbursement. Medical insurance specialists track claims that are due, process payments, check that claims are correctly paid, and file claims with secondary payers. These procedures help generate maximum appropriate reimbursement from payers for providers. Claim Adjudication When the payer receives claims, it issues an electronic response to the sender showing that the transmission has been successful. Each claim then undergoes a process known as adjudication, made up of steps designed to judge how it should be paid: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initial processing Automated review Manual review Determination Payment Initial Processing Each claims data elements are checked by the payers front-end claims processing system. Paper claims and any paper attachments are date-stamped and entered into the payers computer system, either by data-entry personnel or by the use of a scanning system. Initial processing might find such problems as the following: The patients name, plan identification number, or place of service code is wrong. The diagnosis code is missing or is not valid for the date of service. The patient is not the correct sex for a reported gender-specific procedure code. Claims with errors or simple mistakes are rejected, and the payer transmits instructions to the provider to correct errors and/or omissions and to re-bill the Billing Tip Minor Errors on Transmitted Claims When the practice finds or is notified about a minor errorsuch as a dataentry mistake or an incorrect place of service it can usually be corrected by asking the payer to reopen the claim and make the changes. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 449 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Billing Tip Proof of Timely Filing Payers may reduce payment for or deny claims filed after their deadline. Different payers may have different timelines; be familiar with the rules of each payer. Usually, providers cannot bill patients if they have missed the payers submission deadline. Practice management programs create a tamper-proof record of the filing date of every claim that can be used to prove timely filing. service. The medical insurance specialist should respond to such a request as quickly as possible by supplying the correct information and, if necessary, submitting a clean claim that is accepted by the payer for processing. Automated Review Payers computer systems then apply edits that reflect their payment policies. For example, a Medicare claim is subject to the Correct Coding Initiative (CCI) edits (see Chapters 7 and 10). The automated review checks for the following: 1. Patient eligibility for benefits: Is the patient eligible for the services that are billed? 2. Time limits for filing claims: Has the claim been sent within the payers 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. time limits for filing claims? The time limit is generally between 90 and 180 days from the date of service. Preauthorization and referral: Are valid preauthorization or referral numbers present as required under the payers policies? Some authorizations are for specific dates or number of service, so these data will be checked, too. Duplicate dates of service: Is the claim billing for a service on the same date that has already been adjudicated? Noncovered services: Are the billed services covered under the patients policy? Valid code linkages: Are the diagnosis and procedure codes properly linked for medical necessity? Bundled codes: Have surgical code bundling rules and global periods been followed? Medical review: Are the charges for services that are not medically necessary or that are over the frequency limits of the plan? The payers medical director and other professional medical staff have a medical review program to ensure that providers give patients the most appropriate care in the most cost-effective manner. The basic medical review edits that are done at this stage are based on its guidelines. Utilization review: Are the hospital-based health care services appropriate? Are days and services authorized consistent with services and dates billed? Concurrent care: If concurrent care is being billed, was it medically necessary? Concurrent care refers to medical situations in which a patient receives extensive care from two or more providers on the same date of service. For example, both a nephrologist and a cardiologist would attend a hospitalized patient with kidney failure who has had a myocardial infarction. Instead of one providers working under the direction of another, such as the relationship between a supervising surgeon and an anesthesiologist, in concurrent care each provider has an independent role in treating the patient. When two providers report services as attending physicians, rather than as one attending and one consulting provider, a review is done to determine whether the concurrent care makes sense given the diagnoses and the providers specialties. Manual Review If problems result from the automated review, the claim is suspended and set aside for developmentthe term used by payers to indicate that more information is needed for claim processing. These claims are sent to the medical re450 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 view department, where a claims examiner reviews the claim. The examiner may ask the provider for clinical documentation to check: Where the service took place Whether the treatments were appropriate and a logical outcome of the facts and conditions shown in the medical record That services provided were accurately reported Claims examiners are trained in the payers payment policies, but they usually have little or no clinical medical background. When there is insufficient guidance on the point in question, examiners may have it reviewed by staff medical professionalsnurses or physiciansin the medical review department. This step is usually followed, for example, to review the medical necessity of an unlisted procedure. Compliance Guideline Documentation is Essential If proper and complete documentation is not provided on time when requested during a manual review, claim denial or downcoding may result, with the risk for an investigation or audit. Supply both the date-ofservice record and any applicable patient or treatment information to support the facts that the service was provided as billed, was medically necessary, and has been correctly coded. Example As an example, the following table shows the benefit matrixa grid of benefits and policiesfor a preferred provider organizations coverage of mammography. BENEFIT MATRIX FEMALE PATIENT AGE GROUP 3539 One baseline screening 4049 One screening every two years, or more if recommended 50 and older One screening every year IN-NETWORK OUT-OF-NETWORK No charge No charge No charge 20 percent per visit after deductible 20 percent per visit after deductible 10 percent per visit after deductible Initial processing: The payers initial claim processing checks that the patient for whom a screening mammogram is reported is a female over age thirty-five. Automated review: The payers edits reflect its payment policy for female patients in each of the three age groups. If a claim reports a single screening mammogram for a forty-five-year-old in-network patient within a twentyfour-month period, it passes the edit. If the claim contains two mammograms in fewer than twenty-four months, the edit would flag the claim for manual review by the claims examiner. Manual review: If two mammograms are reported within a two-year period for a patient in the forty- to forty-nine-year age range, the claims examiner would require documentation that the extra procedure was recommended and then review the reason for the recommendation. If an X-ray is included as a claim attachment, the claims examiner would probably ask a staff medical professional to evaluate the patients condition and judge the medical necessity for the extra procedure. Billing Tip Medical Necessity Denials Understand payers regulations on medical necessity denials. Often, when claims are denied for lack of medical necessity, fees cannot be recovered from patients. For example, the participation contract may prohibit balance billing when a claim is denied for lack of medical necessity unless the patient agreed in advance to pay. Determination For each service line on a claim, the payer makes a payment determination a decision whether to (1) pay it, (2) deny it, or (3) pay it at a reduced level. If the service falls within normal guidelines, it will be paid. If it is not reimbursable, the item on the claim is denied. If the examiner determines that the service was at too high a level for the diagnosis, a lower-level code is assigned. When the level of service is reduced, the examiner has downcoded the service (see also Chapter 7). A medical necessity denial may result from a lack of clear, CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 451 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 correct linkage between the diagnosis and procedure. A medical necessity denial can also happen when a higher level of service was provided without first trying a lower, less invasive procedure. Some payers or polices require a patient to fail less invasive or more conservative treatment before more intense services are covered. Payment HIPAA 835 The HIPAA X12 835 Health Care Payment and Remittance Advice (HIPAA 835) is the HIPAA-mandated electronic transaction for payment explanation. If payment is due, the payer sends it to the provider along with a remittance advice (RA) or electronic remittance advice (ERA), a transaction that explains the payment decisions to the provider. In most cases, if the claim has been sent electronically, this transaction is also electronic; but it may sometimes be paper. An older term that now usually refers to the paper document is explanation of benefits (EOB). When the general term RA/EOB is used in this text, it means both formats. Thinking It Through 14.1 A payers utilization guidelines for preventive care and medical services benefits are shown below. SERVICE Pediatric: Birth1 year 15 years 610 years 1121 years Adult: 2229 years 3039 years 4049 years +50 years Vision Exam Gynecological Medical Office Visit Outpatient Therapy Allergy Services UTILIZATION Six exams Six exams One exam every two years One exam One exam every 5 years One exam every 3 years One exam every 2 years One exam every year Covered once every 24 months Covered once every year No preset limit 60 consecutive days per condition/year Maximum benefit: 60 visits in 2 years If a provider files claims for each of the following cases, what is the payers likely response? (Research the CPT codes in the current CPT before answering.) Explain your answers. An example is provided. PATIENT Case Example: Patient X 2. Carole Regalle 3. Mary Hiraldo AGE CPT CODE DOS 45 99212 92004 99385 99385 and 88150 88150 99386 99386 11/09/2008 11/08/2008 12/04/2008 11/08/2008 12/10/2008 10/20/2007 11/02/2008 PAYER RESPONSE? Pay the claim, because unlimited medical office visits are covered. 1. Guy Montrachez 25 58 25 4. George Gilbert 48 452 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Monitoring Claim Status Practices closely track their accounts receivable (A/R)the money that is owed for services renderedusing the practice management program (PMP). The accounts receivable is made up of payments due from payers and from patients. For this reason, after claims have been accepted for processing by payers, medical insurance specialists monitor their status. Claim Status Monitoring claims during adjudication requires two types of information. The first is the amount of time the payer is allowed to take to respond to the claim, and the second is how long the claim has been in process. Billing Tip Prompt-Pay Laws for States The websites of states insurance commissions or departments cover their prompt-pay laws. Research the law in the state where claims are being sent to determine the payment time frames and the penalty for late payers. Claim Turnaround Time Just as providers have to file claims within a certain number of days after the date of service, payers also have to process clean claims within the claim turnaround time. The participation contract often specifies a time period of thirty to sixty days from claim submission. States have prompt-pay laws that obligate state-licensed carriers to pay clean claims for both participating and nonparticipating providers within a certain time period, or incur interest penalties, fines, and lawyers fees. ERISA (self-funded) plans claims are under federal prompt-pay rules. Aging The other factor in claim follow-up is aginghow long a payer has had the claim. The practice management program is used to generate an insurance aging report that lists the claims transmitted on each day and shows how long they have been in process with the payer. A typical report, shown in Figure 14.1 on page 454, lists claims that were sent fewer than thirty days ago, between thirty and sixty days ago, and so on. HIPAA Health Care Claim Status Inquiry/Response The medical insurance specialist examines the insurance aging report and selects claims for follow-up. Most practices follow up on claims that are aged less that thirty days in seven to fourteen days. The HIPAA X12 276/277 Health Care Claim Status Inquiry/Response is the standard electronic transaction to obtain information on the current status of a claim during the adjudication process. The inquiry is the HIPAA 276, and the response returned by the payer is the HIPAA 277. Figure 14.2 shows how this exchange is sent between provider and payer. The HIPAA 277 transaction from the payer uses claim status category codes for the main types of responses: A codes indicate an acknowledgment that the claim has been received. P codes indicate that a claim is pending; that is, the payer is waiting for information before making a payment decision. F codes indicate that a claim has been finalized. R codes indicate that a request for more information has been sent. E codes indicate that an error has occurred in transmission; usually these claims need to be re-sent. These codes are further detailed in claim status codes, as shown in Table 14.1. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 453 HIPAA Claim Status The HIPAA Claim Status transaction is the 276/277 Health Care Claim Status Inquiry/Response. ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 F I G U R E 1 4 . 1 Example of an Insurance Aging Report Working with Payers Billing Tip Automated Claim Status Requests Some medical billing programs can be set up to automatically track how many days claims have been unpaid and to send a claim status inquiry after a certain number of days. For example, if a particular payer pays claims on the twentieth day, the program transmits a 276 for unpaid claims aged day twenty-one. In order to have claims processed as quickly as possible, medical insurance specialists must be familiar with the payers claim-processing procedures, including: The timetables for submitting corrected claims and for filing secondary claims. The latter is usually a period of time from the date of payment by the primary payer. How to resubmit corrected claims that are denied for missing or incorrect data. Some payers have online or automated telephone procedures that can be used to resubmit claims after missing information has been supplied. How to handle requests for additional documentation if required by the payer. Requests for information should be answered as quickly as possible, and the answers should be courteous and complete. Medical insurance specialists use correct terms to show that they understand what the payer is asking. For example, a payer often questions an office visit (E/M) service that is reported on the same date of service as a procedure or a preventive physical examination on the grounds that the E/M should not be reimbursed separately. Saying well, the doctor did do both is less persuasive than saying the patients presenting problems required both the level of E/M as indicated as well as the reported procedure; note that we attached the modifier25 to indicate the necessity for this separate service. 454 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Claim (837) File acknowledgment Unsolicited claim status notification (277) Provider Request for additional information (277) Payer Claim status request (276) Claim status response (277) Claim payment/advice (835) F I G U R E 1 4 . 2 General Claim Status Request/Response Information Flow Table 14.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 12 15 16 29 30 31 32 33 Selected Claim Status Codes For more detailed information, see remittance advice. More detailed information in letter. Claim has been adjudicated and is awaiting payment cycle. This is a subsequent request for information from the original request. This is a final request for information. Balance due from the subscriber. Claim may be reconsidered at a future date. No payment will be made for this claim. One or more originally submitted procedure codes have been combined. One or more originally submitted procedure codes have been modified. Claim/encounter has been forwarded to entity. Subscriber and policy number/contract number mismatched. Subscriber and subscriber ID mismatched. Subscriber and policyholder name mismatched. Subscriber and policy number/contract number not found. Subscriber and subscriber ID not found. Claim Status Category Codes and Claim Status Codes http://www.wpc-edi.com A payer may fail to pay a claim on time without providing notice that the claim has problems, or the payer may miscalculate payments due. If the problem is covered in the participation contract, the recommended procedure is to send a letter pointing this out to the payer. This notice should be sent to the plan representative identified in the contract. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 455 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Billing Tip Medicare Professional Versus Institutional RAs A provider that submits claims to Medicare carriers or DMERCS receives a professional RA; one that submits claims to fiscal intermediaries receives an institutional RA. The Remittance Advice/Explanation of Benefits (RA/EOB) The remittance advice/explanation of benefits (RA/EOB) summarizes the results of the payers adjudication process. Whether sent electronically or in a paper format, the basic information in the transaction is the same, although the appearance of the documents is often different. Content of RAs/EOBs An RA/EOB covers a group of claims, not just a single claim. The claims paid on a single RA/EOB are not consecutive or logically grouped; they are usually for different patients claims and various dates of service. RAs/EOBs list claims that have been adjudicated within the payment cycle alphanumerically by the patient account number assigned by provider, alphabetically by client name, or numerically by the internal control number. A corresponding EOB sent to the patient, on the other hand, lists just the information for the recipient. RAs/EOBs, as shown in Figure 14.3, have four types of information, often located in separate sections: header information, claim information, totals, and a glossary (list of definitions for codes used on the form). Header Information The header information section (see section 1 in Figure 14.3) contains payer name and address; provider name, address, and NPI; date of issue; and the check or electronic funds transfer (EFT, see page 462) transaction number. There is a place for bulletin board information, made up of notes to the provider. Claim Information For each claim, section 2 contains the patients name, plan identification number, account number, and claim control number, and whether the provider accepts assignment (using the abbreviations ASG = Y or N) if this information applies. Under column headings, these items are shown: COLUMN HEADING PERF PROF SERV DATE POS NOS PROC MODS BILLED ALLOWED DEDUCT COINS GRP/RC AMT PROV PD PT RESP CLAIM TOTALS 456 PART 5 Payment Processing MEANING Performing provider Date(s) of service Place of service code Number of services rendered CPT/HCPCS procedure code Modifiers for the procedure code Amount provider billed for the service Amount payer allows Any deductible the beneficiary must pay to the provider Any coinsurance the beneficiary must pay to the provider Group (GRP) and reason (RC) adjustment codes (explained below) Amount of adjustments due to GRP/RC codes Total amount provider is paid for the service Total amount that the beneficiary owes the provider for the claim Total amount for each of these columns: BILLED, ALLOWED, DEDUCT, COINS, AMT, and PROV PD ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 F I G U R E 1 4 . 3 Sections of the RA/EOB Totals The third part (see section 3 in Figure 14.3) shows the totals for all the claims on the RA/EOB. At the end, the CHECK AMT field contains the amount of the check or EFT payment that the provider receives. Glossary The glossary section is the fourth area (see section 4 in Figure 14.3) of an RA/EOB. It lists the adjustment codes shown on the transaction with their meanings. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 457 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Adjustments Billing Tip Code Updates Claim adjustment reason codes and remark codes are updated three times each year. Access the website (http:www.wpc-edi.com/ codes) for updated lists. An adjustment on the RA/EOB means that the payer is paying a claim or a service line differently than billed. The adjustment may be that the item is: Denied Zero pay (if accepted as billed but no payment is due) Reduced amount paid (most likely paid according to the allowed amount) Less because a penalty is subtracted from the payment To explain the determination to the provider, payers use a combination of codes: (1) claim adjustment group code, (2) claim adjustment reason code, and (3) remittance advice remark code. Each of these is a HIPAA administrative code set, like place of service (POS) codes and taxonomy codes. Claim Adjustment Group Codes Claim adjustment group codes (group codes, abbreviated GRP) are: PRPatient Responsibility: Appears next to an amount that can be billed to the patient or insured. This group code typically applies to deductible and coinsurance/copayment adjustments. COContractual Obligations: Appears when a contract between the payer and the provider resulted in an adjustment. This group code usually applies to allowed amounts. CO adjustments are not billable to patients under the contract. CRCorrections and Reversals: Appears to correct a previous claim. OAOther Adjustments: Used only when neither PR nor CO applies, as when another insurance is primary. PIPayer Initiated Reduction: Appears when the payer thinks the patient is not responsible for the charge but there is no contract between the payer and the provider that states this. It might be used for medical review denials. Billing Tip Patient Balance Billing A group code PR with an associate reason code indicates whether a provider may or may not bill a beneficiary for the unpaid balance of the furnished services. Claim Adjustment Reason Codes http://www.wpc-edi.com/ codes/claimadjustment Claim Adjustment Reason Codes Payers use claim adjustment reason codes (reason codes, abbreviated RC) to provide details about adjustments. Examples of these codes and their meanings are provided in Table 14.2. Remittance Advice Remark Codes Remittance Advice Remark Codes http://www.wpc-edi.com/ codes/remittanceadvice Payers may also use remittance advice remark codes (remark codes, REM) for more explanation. Remark codes are maintained by CMS but can be used by all payers. Codes that start with M are from a Medicare code set that was in place before HIPAA but that is still used, including Medicare Outpatient Adjudication remark codes (MOA). Codes that begin with N are new. Table 14.3 on page 461 shows selected remark codes. 458 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 31 32 33 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 45 49 50 Selected Claim Adjustment Reason Codes Deductible amount Coinsurance amount Copayment amount The procedure code is inconsistent with the modifier used, or a required modifier is missing. The procedure code/bill type is inconsistent with the place of service. The procedure/revenue code is inconsistent with the patients age. The procedure/revenue code is inconsistent with the patients gender. The procedure code is inconsistent with the provider type/specialty (taxonomy). The diagnosis is inconsistent with the patients age. The diagnosis is inconsistent with the patients gender. The diagnosis is inconsistent with the procedure. The diagnosis is inconsistent with the provider type. The date of death precedes the date of service. The date of birth follows the date of service. Payment adjusted because the submitted authorization number is missing, is invalid, or does not apply to the billed services or provider. Claim/service lacks information that is needed for adjudication. Additional information is supplied using remittance advice remarks codes whenever appropriate. Payment adjusted because requested information was not provided or was insufficient/incomplete. Additional information is supplied using the remittance advice remarks codes whenever appropriate. Duplicate claim/service. Claim denied because this is a work-related injury/illness and thus the liability of the workers compensation carrier. Claim denied because this injury/illness is covered by the liability carrier. Claim denied because this injury/illness is the liability of the no-fault carrier. Payment adjusted because this care may be covered by another payer per coordination of benefits. Payment adjusted due to the impact of prior payer(s) adjudication including payments and/or adjustments. Payment for charges adjusted. Charges are covered under a capitation agreement/managed care plan. Payment denied. Your stop loss deductible has not been met. Expenses incurred prior to coverage. Expenses incurred after coverage terminated. The time limit for filing has expired. Claim denied as patient cannot be identified as our insured. Our records indicate that this dependent is not an eligible dependent as defined. Claim denied. Insured has no dependent coverage. Balance does not exceed copayment amount. Balance does not exceed deductible. Services not provided or authorized by designated (network/primary care) providers. Services denied at the time authorization/precertification was requested. Charges do not meet qualifications for emergency/urgent care. Discount agreed to in preferred provider contract. Charges exceed our fee schedule or maximum allowable amount. Charges exceed your contracted/legislated fee arrangement. These are noncovered services because this is a routine exam or screening procedure done in conjunction with a routine exam. These are noncovered services because this is not deemed a medical necessity by the payer. (continued on next page) CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 459 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.2 51 55 56 57 58 62 63 65 96 97 109 110 111 112 114 115 123 124 125 138 140 145 146 150 151 152 155 160 A0 A1 B5 B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 B18 B22 D7 D8 D21 W1 Selected Claim Adjustment Reason Codes (continued) These are noncovered services because this is a preexisting condition. Claim/service denied because procedure/treatment is deemed experimental/investigational by the payer. Claim/service denied because procedure/treatment has not been deemed proven to be effective by the payer. Payment denied/reduced because the payer deems that the information submitted does not support this level of service, this many services, this length of service, this dosage, or this days supply. Payment adjusted because treatment was deemed by the payer to have been rendered in an inappropriate or invalid place of service. Payment denied/reduced for absence of, or exceeded, precertification/authorization. Correction to a prior claim. Procedure code was incorrect. This payment reflects the correct code. Noncovered charge(s). Payment is included in the allowance for another service/procedure. Claim not covered by this payer/contractor. You must send the claim to the correct payer/contractor. Billing date predates service date. Not covered unless the provider accepts assignment. Payment adjusted as not furnished directly to the patient and/or not documented. Procedure/product not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Payment adjusted as procedure postponed or canceled. Payer refund due to overpayment. Payer refund amountnot our patient. Payment adjusted due to a submission/billing error(s). Additional information is supplied using the remittance advice remarks codes whenever appropriate. Claim/service denied. Appeal procedures not followed or time limits not met. Patient/insured health identification number and name do not match. Premium payment withholding. Payment denied because the diagnosis was invalid for the date(s) of service reported. Payment adjusted because the payer deems that the information submitted does not support this level of service. Payment adjusted because the payer deems that the information submitted does not support this many services. Payment adjusted because the payer deems that the information submitted does not support this length of service. This claim is denied because the patient refused the service/procedure. Payment denied/reduced because injury/illness was the result of an activity that is a benefit exclusion. Patient refund amount. Claim denied charges. Claim/service denied/reduced because coverage guidelines were not met. Services not documented in patients medical records. Previously paid. Payment for this claim/service may have been provided in a previous payment. Payment denied because only one visit or consultation per physician per day is covered. Payment adjusted because this procedure/service is not paid separately. Payment adjusted because new patient qualifications were not met. Payment denied because this procedure code and modifier were invalid on the date of service. This payment is adjusted based on the diagnosis. Claim/service denied. Claim lacks date of patients most recent physician visit. Claim/service denied. Claim lacks indicator that X-ray is available for review. This (these) diagnosis(es) is (are) missing or invalid. Workers Compensation State Fee Schedule adjustment. 460 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.3 M11 M12 M37 M38 M39 N14 N15 N16 N210 N211 Selected Remark Codes DME, orthotics, and prosthetics must be billed to the DME carrier who services the patients ZIP code. Diagnostic tests performed by a physician must indicate whether purchased services are included on the claim. Service not covered when the patient is under age 35. The patient is liable for the charges for this service, as you informed the patient in writing before the service was furnished that we would not pay for it, and the patient agreed to pay. The patient is not liable for payment for this service, as the advance notice of noncoverage you provided the patient did not comply with program requirements. Payment based on a contractual amount or agreement, fee schedule, or maximum allowable amount. Services for a newborn must be billed separately. Family/member out-of-pocket maximum has been met. Payment based on a higher percentage. You may appeal this decision. You may not appeal this decision. Thinking It Through 14.2 Review the RA/EOB from Medicare for assigned claims shown in Figure 14.4, locating the highlighted claims that contain these data: A. GRP/RC AMT B. GRP/RC AMT CO-42 $18.04 PR-96 $162.13 1. What do the adjustment codes mean in the first claim? 2. What do the adjustment codes mean in the second claim? 3. In the second claim, the modifier GY is appended to the E/M code 99397. What does this modifier mean? Check Chapter 10, Medicare, if necessary to interpret this information. Who is responsible for payment? F I G U R E 1 4 . 4 Medicare RA CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 461 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Reviewing and Processing RAs/EOBs An RA/EOB repeats the unique claim control number that the provider assigned to the claim when sending it. This number is the resource needed to match the payment to a claim. To process the RA/EOB, each claim is located in the practice management programeither manually or automatically by the computer system. The remittance data are reviewed and then posted to the PMP. Reviewing RAs/EOBs This procedure is followed to double-check the remittance data: 1. Check the patients name, account number, insurance number, and date of service against the claim. 2. Verify that all billed CPT codes are listed. 3. Check the payment for each CPT against the expected amount, which Billing Tips Paper Check Processing Because payments may be mailed, the practices mail should be opened daily and checks deposited according to the offices guidelines. All checks that come into the practice should be routed through the staff member who processes claims. may be an allowed amount or a percentage of the usual fee. Many practice management programs build records of the amount each payer has paid for each CPT code as the data are entered. When another RA/EOB payment for the same CPT is posted, the program highlights any discrepancy for review. 4. Analyze the payers adjustment codes to locate all unpaid, downcoded, or denied claims for closer review. 5. Decide whether any items on the RA/EOB need clarifying with the payer, and follow up as necessary. Procedures for Posting Many practices that receive RAs/EOBs authorize the payer to provide an electronic funds transfer (EFT) of the payment. Payments are deposited directly into the practices bank account. Otherwise, the payer sends a check to the practice, and the check is taken to the practices bank for deposit. Posting and Applying Payments and Adjustments Payment and adjustment transactions are entered in the practice management program. The data entry includes: Date of deposit. Payer name and type. Check or EFT number. Total payment amount. Amount to be applied to each patients account, including type of payment. Codes are used for payments, adjustments, deductibles, and the like. Some PMPs have an autoposting feature. Instead of posting payments manually, this feature automatically posts the payment data in the RA/EOB to the correct account. The software allows the user to establish posting rules, such as post a payment automatically only if the claim is paid at 100 percent, so that the medical insurance specialist can examine claims that are not paid as expected. Reconciling Payments The process of reconciliation means making sure that the totals on the RA/EOB check out mathematically. The total amount billed minus the adjustments 462 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 (such as for allowed amounts and patient responsibility to pay) should equal the total amount paid. For example, study this report for an assigned claim: POS 11 PROC MODS 99213 BILLED ALLOWED 85.00 57.87 DEDUCT 0.00 COINS 11.57 GRP/RC-AMT CO-42 27.13 PROV PD 46.30 Billing Tip Auditing Payments per Contract Terms Verify that payments are correct according to payers participation contracts. This double-check is particularly important if payments are autoposted. In this case, periodically post a representative number of RAs/EOBs manually as an audit to uncover any payment problems. RECONCILIATION Amount Billed (Coinsurance) (GRP/RC Amount) Payment $85.00 11.57 27.13 $46.30 In this case, the allowed amount (ALLOWED) of $57.87 is made up of the coinsurance (COINs) to be collected from the patient of $11.57 plus the amount the payer pays to the provider (PROV PD) of $46.30. The difference between the billed amount (BILLED) of $85.00 and the allowed amount of $57.87 is $27.13. This amount is written off unless it can be billed to the patient under the payers rules. Denial Management Typical problems and solutions are: Rejected claims: A claim that is not paid due to incorrect information must be corrected and sent to the payer according to its procedures. Procedures not paid: If a procedure that should have been paid on a claim was overlooked, another claim is sent for that procedure. Partially paid, denied, or downcoded claims: If the payer has denied payment, the first step is to study the adjustment codes to determine why. If a procedure is not a covered benefit or if the patient was not eligible for that benefit, typically the next step will be to bill the patient for the noncovered amount. If the claim is denied or downcoded for lack of medical necessity, a decision about the next action must be made. The options are to bill the patient, write off the amount, or challenge the determination with an appeal, as discussed on page 464. Some provider contracts prohibit billing the patient if an appeal or necessary documentation has not been submitted to the payer. To improve the rate of paid claims over time, medical insurance specialists track and analyze each payers reasons for denying claims. This record may be kept in a denial log or by assigning specific denial-reason codes for the practice management program to store and report on. Denials should be grouped into categories, such as: Coding errors (incorrect unbundling, procedure codes not payable by plan with the reported diagnosis codes) Registration mistakes, such as incorrect patient ID numbers Billing errors, such as failure to get required preauthorizations or referral numbers Payer requests for more information or general delays in claims processing The types of denials should be analyzed to find out what procedures can be implemented to fix the problems. For example, educating the staff members responsible for getting preauthorizations about each payers requirements may be necessary. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 463 Billing Tip Organize Before Calling Before calling a payer to question a claim determination, prepare by gathering the RA/EOB, the patients medical record, and the claim data. Be ready to explain the situation and to politely ask to speak to a supervisor if necessary. ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Thinking It Through 14.3 Based on the following RA/EOB: 1. What is the total amount paid by check? (Fill in the amount paid provider column before calculating the total.) 2. Were any procedures paid at a rate lower than the claim charge? If so, which? 3. Why do you think there is no insurance payment for services for Gloria Vanderhilt? 4. Was payment denied for any claim? For what reason? Appeals, Postpayment Audits, Overpayments, and Grievances After RAs/EOBs are reviewed and processed, events that may follow can alter the amount of payment. When a claim has been denied or payment reduced, an appeal may be filed with the payer for reconsideration, possibly reversing the nonpayment. Postpayment audits by payers may change the initial determination. Under certain conditions, refunds may be due to either the payer or the patient. In some cases, the practice may elect to file a complaint with the state insurance commissioner. The General Appeal Process An appeal is a process that can be used to challenge a payers decision to deny, reduce, or otherwise downcode a claim. A provider may begin the appeal process by asking for a review of the payers decision. Patients, too, have the right to request appeals. The person filing the appeal is the claimant or the appellant, whether that individual is a provider or a patient. Basic Steps Each payer has consistent procedures for handling appeals. These procedures are based on the nature of the appeal. The practice staff reviews the appropriate 464 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 procedure before starting an appeal and plans its actions according to the rules. Appeals must be filed within a specified time after the claim determination. Most payers have an escalating structure of appeals, such as (1) a complaint, (2) an appeal, and (3) a grievance. The claimant must move through the three levels in pursuing an appeal, starting at the lowest and continuing to the highest, final level. Some payers also set a minimum amount that must be involved in an appeal process, so that a lot of time is not spent on a small dispute. Options After Appeal Rejection A claimant can take another step if the payer has rejected all the appeal levels on a claim. Because they license most types of payers, state insurance commissions have the authority to review appeals that payers reject. If a claimant decides to pursue an appeal with the state insurance commission, copies of the complete case fileall documents that relate to the initial claim determination and the appeal processare sent, along with a letter of explanation. Medicare Appeals Medicare participating providers have appeal rights. Note, though, that there is no need to appeal a claim if it has been denied for minor errors or omissions. The provider can instead ask the Medicare carrier to reopen the claim so the error can be fixed, rather than going through the appeals process. However, if a claim is denied because of untimely submission (it was submitted after the timely filing deadline), it cannot be appealed. The current Medicare appeals process is the result of changes in the law; the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits and Improvement Act of 2000, known as BIPA, and the Medicare Modernization Act significantly changed these procedures. The Medicare appeal process involves five steps: 1. Redetermination: The first step, called redetermination, is a claim review Billing Tip Late Claims Not Appealable A claim that is denied because it was not timely filed is not subject to appeal. 2. 3. 4. 5. by an employee of the Medicare carrier who was not involved in the initial claim determination. The request, which must be made within 120 days of receiving the initial claim determination, is made by completing a form (Figure 14.5 on page 466) or writing a letter and attaching supporting medical documentation. the If decision is favorable, payment is sent. If the redetermination is either partially favorable or unfavorable, the answer comes as a letter (see Figure 14.6 on page 467) called the Medicare Redetermination Notice (MRN). The decision must be made within 60 days; and the letter is sent to both the provider and the patient. Reconsideration: The next step is a reconsideration request. This request must be made within 180 days of receiving the redetermination notice. At this level, the claim is reviewed by qualified independent contractors (QIC). Administrative law judge: The third level is a hearing by an administrative law judge. The amount in question must be over $110, and the hearing must be requested within 60 days of receiving the reconsideration notice. Department appeals board: The fourth level must be requested within 60 days of receiving the response from the hearing by the administrative law judge. No monetary amount is specified. Federal court (judicial) review: The fifth and final Medicare appeal level is a hearing in federal court. The amount in dispute must be at least $1,090, and the hearing must be requested within 60 days of receiving the department appeals board decision. Billing Tip Calendar Days, Not Working Days Note that the timelines for each appeal level are calendar days (including weekends), not working days. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 465 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Compliance Guideline F I G U R E 1 4 . 5 Medicare Request for Redetermination Form Patients Rights Under Medicare A beneficiary may request an itemized statement from the provider. A provider who does not comply within thirty days may be fined $100 per outstanding request. The beneficiary may examine the itemized statement and request review of questionable or unclear charges. The provider is required to work with the enrollee to explain discrepancies. Postpayment Audits Most postpayment reviews are used to build clinical information. Payers use their audits of practices, for example, to study treatments and outcomes for patients with similar diagnoses. The patterns that are determined are used to confirm or alter best practice guidelines. At times, however, the postpayment audit is done to verify the medical necessity of reported services or to uncover fraud and abuse. The audit may be based on the detailed records about each providers services that are kept by payers medical review departments. Some payers keep records that go back 466 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 F I G U R E 1 4 . 6 Medicare Redetermination Notice for many months or years. The payer analyzes these records to assess patterns of care from individual providers and to flag outliersthose that differ from what other providers do. A postpayment audit might be conducted to check the documentation of the providers cases or, in some cases, to check for fraudulent practices (see Chapters 2 and 7). CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 467 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Thinking It Through 14.4 In a large practice of forty providers, the staff responsible for creating claims and billing is located in one building, and the staff members who handle RAs/EOBs work at another location. In your opinion, what difficulties might this separation present? What strategies can be used to ensure the submission of complete and compliant claims? Refunds of Overpayments Billing Tip Medicare Beneficiaries and Overpayments Medicare beneficiaries are notified when their providers receive overpayment notices from Medicare. Patients may be given the choice of receiving refund checks from the provider or credits on their accounts. From the payers point of view, overpayments (also called credit balances) are improper or excessive payments resulting from billing errors for which the provider owes refunds. Examples are: A payer may mistakenly overpay a claim. A payers postpayment audit may find that a claim that has been paid should be denied or downcoded because the documentation does not support it. A provider may collect a primary payment from Medicare when another payer is primary. In such cases, reimbursement that the provider has received is considered an overpayment, and the payer will ask for a refund (with the addition of interest for Medicare). If the audit shows that the claim was for a service that was not medically necessary, the provider also must refund any payment collected from the patient. Often, the procedure is to promptly refund the overpayment. Many states require the provider to make the refund payment unless the overpayment is contested, which it may be if the provider thinks it is erroneous. A refund request may also be challenged because: Many practices set a time period beyond which they will not automatically issue a refund. State law may also provide for a reasonable time limit during which payers can recoup overpayments. For example, Missouri gives insurance companies twelve months from the date they processed the claim to request refunds; Marylands period is six months. Compliance Guideline Finding Overpayments Proactively Part of the practices compliance plan is a regular procedure to selfaudit and discover whether overbilling has occurred and to send the payer a notice of the situation and a refund. Grievances If a medical practice believes that it has been treated unfairly by an insurance company, it has the right to file a grievance with the state insurance commission. The law requires the state to investigate the complaint, and the state can require the insurance company to answer. Grievances, like appeals, require a good deal of staff time and effort. They should be filed when repeated unresolved problems cannot otherwise be worked out with payers. The state insurance commission sets the requirements and steps for pursuing this option. Billing Secondary Payers If a patient has additional insurance coverage, after the primary payers RA/EOB has been posted, the next step is billing the second payer. The primary claim, of course, gave that payer information about the patients secondary insurance pol468 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 icy. The secondary payer now needs to know what the primary payer paid on the claim in order to coordinate benefits. The primary claim crosses over automatically to the secondary payer in many casesMedicare-Medicaid and Medicare-Medigap claims, as well as othersand no additional claim is filed. For non-crossover claims, the medical insurance specialist prepares an additional claim for the secondary payer and sends it with a copy of the RA/EOB. Electronic Claims The medical insurance specialist transmits a claim to the secondary payer with the primary RA/EOB, sent either electronically or on paper, according to the payers procedures. The secondary payer determines whether additional benefits are due under the policys coordination of benefits (COB) provisions and sends payment with another RA/EOB to the billing provider. This flow is shown in Figure 14.7(a). The practice does not send a claim to the secondary payer when the primary payer handles the coordination of benefits transaction. In this case, the primary payer electronically sends the COB transaction, which is the same HIPAA 837 that reports the primary claim, to the secondary payer. This flow is shown in Figure 14.7(b). When the primary payer forwards the COB transaction, a message appears on the primary payers RA/EOB. For example, on the Medicare RA shown in Figure 14.4 on page 461, COB is indicated by the phrase CLAIM INFORMATION FORWARDED TO, followed by the name of the secondary payer, such as Worldnet Services Corporation, Anthem BCBS/CT State Retirement, Benefit Planners, and so forth. Medicare has a consolidated claims crossover process that is managed by a special coordination of benefits contractor (COBC). Plans that are supplemental to Medicare sign one national crossover agreement. Billing Tip Coordination of Benefits (COB) Many health plans receive Medicare claims automatically when they are the secondary payer. Do not send a paper claim to the secondary payer upon receipt of the RA/EOB; it will be coded as a duplicate claim and rejected. A Payer from 35 RA 8 First 837 Claim Payer A Primary Provider Second 837 Claim 835 R (a) A fro m Pay er B Payer B Secondary A fr 835 R om P ayer A Payer A Primary Second 837 Claim Claim has been reformatted to place Payer B Payer B information in Secondary Destination Payer position and Payer A information in COB loops. First 837 Claim Provider Includes all information on other insurers involved in this claim. 835 R (b) A fro m Pay er B F I G U R E 1 4 . 7 (a) Provider-to-Payer COB Model, (b) Provider-to-Payer-to-Payer COB Model CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 469 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Paper Claims PHI on RAs/EOBs Black out other patients protected health information (PHI) on printed RAs/EOBs being sent to secondary payers. If a paper RA/EOB is received, the procedure is to use the CMS-1500 to bill the secondary health plan that covers the beneficiary. The medical insurance specialist completes the claim form and sends it with the primary RA/EOB attached. The Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) Program, Claims, and Payments Benefits for a patient who has both Medicare and other coverage are coordinated under the rules of the Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) program. The Medicare Coordination of Benefits department receives inquiries regarding Medicare as second payer and has information on a beneficiarys eligibility for benefits and the availability of other health insurance that is primary to Medicare. If Medicare is the secondary payer to one primary payer, the claim must be submitted using the HIPAA 837 transaction unless the practice is excluded from electronic transaction rules. The 837 must report the amount the primary payer paid for the claim or for a particular service line (procedure) in the Allow Amount field. Claims for which more than one plan is responsible for payment prior to Medicare, however, should be submitted using the CMS-1500 claim form. The other payers RAs/EOBs must be attached when the claim is sent to Medicare for processing. Following MSP Rules Billing Tip Submit MSP Claims for Zero Balances Send an MSP claim to Medicare even when the primary payer has fully paid the bill and the patient owes nothing so that the amount paid can be credited to the patients Medicare Part B annual deductible. The medical insurance specialist is responsible for identifying the situations where Medicare is the secondary payer and for preparing appropriate primary and secondary claims. A form such as that shown in Figure 14.8 is used to gather and validate information about Medicare patients primary plans during the patient check-in process. Over Age Sixty-Five and Employed When an individual is employed and is covered by the employers group health plan, Medicare is the secondary payer. This is the case for employees who are on leaves of absence, even if they are receiving short- or long-term disability benefits. Medicare is also secondary when an individual over age sixty-five is covered by a spouses employer (even if the spouse is younger than sixty-five). On the other hand, Medicare is the primary carrier for: An individual who is working for an employer with twenty employees or fewer An individual who is covered by another policy that is not a group policy An individual who is enrolled in Part B but not Part A of the Medicare program An individual who must pay premiums to receive Part A coverage An individual who is retired and receiving coverage under a previous employers group policy Disabled If an individual under age sixty-five is disabled and is covered by an employer group health plan (which may be held by the individual, a spouse, or another family member), Medicare is the secondary payer. If the individual or family 470 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 F I G U R E 1 4 . 8 Medicare Secondary Payer Screening Questionnaire member is not actively employed, Medicare is the primary payer. Medicare is also the primary payer for: An individual and family members who are retired and receiving coverage under a group policy from a previous employer An individual and family members who are working for an employer with a hundred employees or fewer An individual and family members receiving coverage under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA; see Chapter 9) An individual who is covered by another policy that is not a group policy End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) During a coordination-of-benefits period, Medicare is the secondary payer for individuals who are covered by employer-sponsored group health plans and who fail to apply for ESRD-based Medicare coverage. The coordination-of-benefits CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 471 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 period begins the first month the individual is eligible for or entitled to Part A benefits based on an ESRD diagnosis. This rule is in effect regardless of whether the individual is employed or retired. Workers Compensation If an individual receives treatment for a job-related injury or illness, Medicare coverage (and private insurance) is secondary to workers compensation coverage (see Chapter 13). Included in this category is the Federal Black Lung Program, a government program that provides insurance coverage for coal miners. When an individual suffers from a lung disorder caused by working in a mine, Medicare is secondary to the Black Lung coverage. If the procedure or diagnosis is for something other than a mining-related lung condition, Medicare is the primary payer. Automobile, No-Fault, and Liability Insurance Medicare (and private insurance) is always the secondary payer when treatment is for an accident-related claim, whether automobile, no-fault (injuries that occur on private property, regardless of who is at fault), or liability (injuries that occur on private property when a party is held responsible). Veterans Benefits If a veteran is entitled to Medicare benefits, he or she may choose whether to receive coverage through Medicare or through the Department of Veterans Affairs. MSP Claims and Payments Table 14.4 provides details for completing an MSP CMS-1500. Three formulas are used to calculate how much of the patients coinsurance will be paid by Medicare under MSP Of the three amounts, Medicare will pay the lowest. The . formulas use Medicares allowable charge, the primary insurers allowable charge, and the actual amount paid by the primary payer. Medicare, as the secondary payer, pays 100 percent of most coinsurance payments if the patients Part B deductible has been paid. See Figure 14.9 on page 475. The three formulas are: 1. Primary payers allowed charge minus payment made on claim 2. What Medicare would pay (80 percent of Medicare allowed charge) 3. Higher allowed charge (either primary payer or Medicare) minus pay- Compliance Guideline Patient Coinsurance When Medicare Is Secondary Medicare patients should not be charged for the primary insurance coinsurance until the RA is received and examined, because the patient is entitled to have Medicare pay these charges. A patient who has not met the deductible is, however, responsible for the coinsurance, and that amount is applied toward the deductible. ment made on the claim Example A patients visit allowed charge from the primary payer is $100, and the primary payer pays $80, with a $20 patient coinsurance. Medicare allows $80 for the service. The patient has met the Part B deductible. The calculations using the three formulas result in amounts of (1) $100 - $80 = $20, (2) $80 80 percent = $64, and (3) $100 - $80 = $20. Medicare will pay $20, since this is the lowest dollar amount from the three calculations. Medicare pays up to the higher of two allowable amounts when another plan is primary. But if the primary payer has already paid more than the Medicare allowed amount, no additional payment is made. 472 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.4 Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) CMS-1500 (08/05) Claim Completion Item Number Content 1 1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9a-d 10a10c 10d 11 11a 11b Check both Medicare and either Group Health Plan or Other as appropriate for the patients primary insurance. Enter the Medicare health insurance claim number that appears on the patients Medicare card. Record the patients name exactly as it appears on the Medicare card, entering it in last name, first name, middle initial order. Enter the patients date of birth in eight-digit format; select male or female. Enter the name of the insured person who has the primary coverage. If the insured is the patient, enter SAME. Enter the patients mailing address. Select the appropriate box for the relationship: Self, spouse, child, or other. If the patient and the insured are the same person, leave blank. If the insureds address is the same as the patients, enter SAME. If the insureds address is different, enter the mailing address. Select the appropriate boxes for marital status and employment status. Leave blank. Choose the appropriate box to indicate whether the patients condition is the result of a work injury, an automobile accident, or another type of accident. Leave blank. Enter the insureds policy/group number. Enter the insureds date of birth and sex if they differ from the information in IN 3. If the policy is obtained through an employer or a school, enter the name in IN 11b; otherwise leave it blank. If the patients employment status has changedfor example, if the patient has retired enter RETIRED followed by the retirement date. Name or plan ID of the primary insurance. Leave blank. Enter Signature on File,SOF, or a legal signature per practice policy. EnterSignature on File, SOF, or a legal signature to indicate that there is a signature on file assigning benefits to the provider from the primary insurance. Enter the date that symptoms first began for the current illness, injury, or pregnancy. Leave blank. Enter the dates the patient is employed but unable to work in the current occupation. Enter the name (first name, middle initial, last name) and credentials of the professional who referred or ordered the services or supplies on the claim. Enter the appropriate identifying number (either NPI or non-NPI/qualifier) for the referring physician. If the services provided are needed because of a related inpatient hospitalization, the admission and discharge dates are entered. For patients still hospitalized, the admission date is listed in the From box, and the To box is left blank. Complete according to the carriers instructions. Complete if billing for outside lab services. Enter up to four ICD-9-CM codes in priority order. At least one code must be reported. Leave blank. Enter the preauthorization number assigned by the payer or a CLIA number. Enter the date(s) of service. Enter the place of service (POS) code. Check with the payer to determine whether this element (emergency indicator) is necessary. If required, enter Y (yes) or N (no) in the unshaded bottom portion of the field. Enter the CPT/HCPCS codes and applicable modifiers for services provided. Do not use hyphens. Using the numbers (1, 2, 3, 4) listed to the left of the diagnosis codes in IN 21, enter the diagnosis for the each service listed in IN 24D. (continued on next page) 11c 11d 12 13 14 15 16 17 17a 18 19 20 21 22 23 24A 24B 24C 24D 24E CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 473 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.4 Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) CMS-1500 (08/05) Claim Completion continued Item Number Content 24F 24G 24H 24I24J 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 For each service listed in IN 24D, enter charges without dollar signs or decimals. If the claim reports an encounter with no charge, such as a capitated visit, a value of zero (0) may be used. Enter the number of days or units, as applicable. Leave blank. Enter the NPI or non-NPI/qualifier. Enter the physicians or suppliers federal tax identification number and check the appropriate box for SSN or EIN. Enter the patient account number used by the practices accounting system. If the physician accepts assignment for the primary payer and Medicare, select Yes. Enter the total of all charges in IN 24F. Enter the amount of the payments received for the services listed on this claim from the patient. Attach the RA/EOB to show what the primary payer paid. Leave blank. Enter the providers signature, the date of the signature, and credentials or SOF. Enter the name, address, city, state, and ZIP code of the location where the services were rendered if other than the physicians office or the patients home, or enter SAME. Enter the provider name, address, ZIP code, telephone number, NPI, non-NPI number, and appropriate qualifier. The NPI should be placed in FL 33a. Enter the identifying non-NPI number and qualifier in FL 33b. TRICARE CMS-1500 Secondary Claims When TRICARE is the secondary payer, six item numbers on a paper claim are filled in differently than when TRICARE is the primary payer: Item Number 11 11a 11b 11c 11d 29 Content Policy number of the primary insurance plan Birth date and gender of the primary plan policyholder Employer of the primary plan policyholder if the plan is a group plan through an employer Name of the primary insurance plan Select Yes or No as appropriate. Enter all payments made by other insurance carriers. Do not include payments made by the patient. Medicare and Medicaid If a patient is covered by both Medicare and Medicaid (a Medi-Medi beneficiary), Medicare is primary. The claim that is sent to Medicare is automatically crossed over to Medicaid for secondary payment. In this case, if a paper claim is completed, the Item Numbers are as indicated in Table 14.5 on pages 476477. 474 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 HEALTH INSURANCE CLAIM FORM APPROVED BY NATIONAL UNIFORM CLAIM COMMITTEE 08/05 PICA 1. MEDICARE MEDICAID PICA X RAMOS CARLA D (Medicare #) (Medicaid #) 5. PATIENTS ADDRESS (No., Street) TRICARE CHAMPUS (Sponsors SSN) CHAMPVA (Member ID#) 2. PATIENTS NAME (Last Name, First Name, Middle Initial) 3. PATIENTS BIRTH DATE MM DD YY X GROUP HEALTH PLAN (SSN or ID) FECA BLK LUNG (SSN) SEX M OTHER 1a. INSUREDS I.D. NUMBER (For Program in Item 1) (ID) 4. INSUREDS NAME (Last Name, First Name, Middle Initial) F 6. PATIENT RELATIONSHIP TO INSURED Self STATE 05 13 1933 X Spouse Single X 123455669A SAME 7. INSUREDS ADDRESS (No., Street) 28 PARK STREET CITY Child Other KANSAS CITY ZIP CODE MO TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 9. OTHER INSUREDS NAME (Last Name, First Name, Middle Initial) 64111 (816) 555 2185 Employed X X Married Full-Time Student Other ZIP CODE Part-Time Student TELEPHONE (INCLUDE AREA CODE) ( ) 10. IS PATIENTS CONDITION RELATED TO: 11. INSUREDS POLICY GROUP OR FECA NUMBER G2IX a. OTHER INSUREDS POLICY OR GROUP NUMBER a. EMPLOYMENT? (CURRENT OR PREVIOUS) YES b. OTHER INSUREDS DATE OF BIRTH MM DD YY M c. EMPLOYERS NAME OR SCHOOL NAME SEX F b. AUTO ACCIDENT? YES c. OTHER ACCIDENT? YES d. INSURANCE PLAN NAME OR PROGRAM NAME X X X a. INSUREDS DATE OF BIRTH MM DD YY M b. EMPLOYERS NAME OR SCHOOL NAME SEX F NO PLACE (State) NO CORELLI INC c. INSURANCE PLAN NAME OR PROGRAM NAME NO PLAINS HEALTH PLAN d. IS THERE ANOTHER HEALTH BENEFIT PLAN? YES NO 10d. RESERVED FOR LOCAL USE If yes, return to and complete item 9 a-d. READ BACK OF FORM BEFORE COMPLETING & SIGNING THIS FORM. 12. PATIENTS OR AUTHORIZED PERSONS SIGNATURE I authorize the release of any medical or other information necessary to process this claim. I also request payment of government benefits either to myself or to the party who accepts assignment below. SIGNED 13. INSUREDS OR AUTHORIZED PERSONS SIGNATURE I authorize payment of medical benefits to the undersigned physician or supplier for services described below. SOF ILLNESS (First symptom) OR INJURY (Accident) OR PREGNANCY(LMP) 17a. 17b. NPI DATE SIGNED SOF 14. DATE OF CURRENT: MM DD YY 15. IF PATIENT HAS HAD SAME OR SIMILAR ILLNESS. 16. DATES PATIENT UNABLE TO WORK IN CURRENT OCCUPATION DD YY MM DD YY MM DD YY GIVE FIRST DATE MM FROM TO 18. HOSPITALIZATION DATES RELATED TO CURRENT SERVICES MM DD YY MM DD YY FROM TO 20. OUTSIDE LAB? YES $ CHARGES NO 17. NAME OF REFERRING PHYSICIAN OR OTHER SOURCE 19. RESERVED FOR LOCAL USE 21. DIAGNOSIS OR NATURE OF ILLNESS OR INJURY. (Relate Items 1,2,3 or 4 to Item 24e by Line) 1. 22. MEDICAID RESUBMISSION CODE ORIGINAL REF. NO. 23. PRIOR AUTHORIZATION NUMBER X MM YY PLACE OF SERVICE EMG $ CHARGES EPSDT DAYS OR Family ID. UNITS Plan QUAL. 1 10 01 2008 2 10 01 2008 3 10 01 2008 4 5 6 25. FEDERAL TAX I.D. NUMBER 11 11 11 99204 92557 92567 1,2 1 1 128 00 95 00 10 00 1 1 1 NPI NPI NPI NPI NPI NPI SSN EIN 26. PATIENTS ACCOUNT NO. 27. ACCEPT ASSIGNMENT? (For govt. claims, see back) YES NO 28. TOTAL CHARGE $ 29. AMOUNT PAID $ 30. BALANCE DUE $ 016778002 X RAMO4 31. SIGNATURE OF PHYSICIAN OR SUPPLIER INCLUDING DEGREES OR CREDENTIALS (I certify that the statements on the reverse apply to this bill and are made a part thereof.) 32.SERVICE FACILITY LOCATION INFORMATION X 313 00 20 00 33. BILLING PROVIDER INFO & PHONE # SIGNED NUCC Instruction Manual available at: www.nucc.org SOF DATE a. SAME NPI b. RONALD R BERGEN 96 YORK AVE KANSAS CITY MO 64112 a. NPI NPI 0175328865 b. ( ) F I G U R E 1 4 . 9 CMS-1500 (08/05) Completion for Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) Claims CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 475 PHYSICIAN OR SUPPLIER INFORMATION 2. 24. A. 388 31 477 9 3. 4. B. C. D. PROCEDURES, SERVICES, OR SUPPLIES (Explain Unusual Circumstances) CPT/HCPCS MODIFIER E. DIAGNOSIS POINTER F. G. H. I. J. RENDERING PROVIDER ID.# DATE(S) OF SERVICE From To DD YY MM DD PATIENT AND INSURED INFORMATION 8. PATIENT STATUS CITY STATE CARRIER 1500 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.5 Medicare/Medicaid CMS-1500 (08/05) Claim Completion Item Number Content 1 1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9a 9b 9c 9d 10a10c 10d 11 11a-d 12 13 14 15 16 17 17a 18 Indicate Medicare and Medicaid. Enter the Medicare health insurance claim number that appears on the patients Medicare card. Record the patients name exactly as it appears on the Medicare card, entering it in last name, first name, middle initial order. Enter the patients date of birth in eight-digit format; make the appropriate selection for male or female. Enter the name of the insured if not the patient. Enter the patients mailing address. Select the appropriate box for the relationship: Self, spouse, child, or other. If the insureds address is the same as the patients, enter SAME. If it is different, enter the mailing address. Select the appropriate boxes for marital status and employment status. Enter Medicaid patients full name. Enter the Medicaid number here or in IN 10d, according to the payer. Medicaid insureds date of birth if different than patients. Leave blank. Leave blank. Choose the appropriate box to indicate whether the patients condition is the result of a work injury, an automobile accident, or another type of accident. Varies with the insurance plan; complete if instructed. Enter NONE. Leave blank. Enter Signature on File, SOF, or a legal signature, per practice policy. Leave blank. Enter the date that symptoms first began for the current illness, injury, or pregnancy. Leave blank. Enter the dates the patient is employed but unable to work in the current occupation. Enter the name and credentials of the professional who referred or ordered the services or supplies on the claim. Enter the appropriate identifying number (either NPI or non-NPI/qualifier) for the referring physician. If the services provided are needed because of a related inpatient hospitalization, the admission and discharge dates are entered. For patients still hospitalized, the admission date is listed in the From box, and the To box is left blank. Complete according to the carriers instructions. Complete if billing for outside lab services. Enter up to four ICD-9-CM codes in priority order. Leave blank. Enter the preauthorization number assigned by the payer or a CLIA number. Enter the date(s) of service, from and to. Enter the place of service (POS) code that describes the location at which the service was provided. Check with the payer to determine whether this element (emergency indicator) is necessary. If required, enter Y (yes) or N (no) in the unshaded bottom portion of the field. Enter the CPT/HCPCS codes and applicable modifiers for services provided. Do not use hyphens. Using the numbers (1, 2, 3, 4) listed to the left of the diagnosis codes in IN 21, enter the diagnosis for the each service listed in IN 24D. For each service listed in IN 24D, enter charges without dollar signs or decimals. If the claim reports an encounter with no charge, such as a capitated visit, a value of zero (0) may be used. Enter the number of days or units, as applicable. If only one service is performed, the numeral 1 must be entered. (continued on next page) 19 20 21 22 23 24A 24B 24C 24D 24E 24F 24G 476 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Table 14.5 Medicare/Medicaid CMS-1500 (08/05) Claim Completion continued Item Number Content 24H 24I24J 25 26 27 29 30 31 32 Leave blank. Enter NPI or non-NPI/qualifier. Enter the physicians or suppliers federal tax identification number and check the appropriate box for SSN or EIN. Enter the patient account number used by the practices accounting system. Select Yes. 28 Enter the total of all charges in IN 24F. Amount of the payments received for the services listed on this claim. If no payment was made, enter none or 0.00. Leave blank. Enter the providers or suppliers signature, the date of the signature, and the providers credentials (such as MD). Enter the name, address, city, state, and ZIP code of the location where the services were rendered if not the physicians office or the patients home, or enter SAME. The suppliers NPI is entered in IN 32a. Enter the payer-assigned identifying non-NPI number and qualifier of the service facility in IN 32b. Enter the billing providers or suppliers name, address, ZIP code, telephone number, NPI, non-NPI number, and appropriate qualifier. The NPI should be placed in IN 33a. Enter the identifying non-NPI number and qualifier of the billing provider in IN 33b. 33 Thinking It Through 14.5 Ron Polonsky is a seventy-one-year-old retired distribution manager. He and his wife Sandra live in Lincoln, Nebraska. Sandra is fifty-seven and is employed as a high-school science teacher. She has family coverage through a group health insurance plan offered by the state of Nebraska. Ron is covered as a dependent on her plan. The Medicare Part B carrier for Nebraska is Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas. Which carrier is Rons primary insurance carrier? Why? CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 477 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Steps to Success Read this chapter and review the Key Terms and the Chapter Summary. Answer the Review Questions and Applying Your Knowledge in the Chapter Review. Access the chapters websites and complete the Internet Activities to learn more about available professional resources. Complete the related chapter in the Medical Insurance Workbook to reinforce your understanding of processing payments from payers, handling appeals, and completing secondary claims. Chapter Summary 1. Payers first perform initial processing checks on claims, rejecting those with missing or clearly incorrect information. During the adjudication process that follows, claims are processed through the payers automated medical edits; a manual review is done if required; the payer makes a determination of whether to pay, deny, or reduce the claim; and payment is sent with a remittance advice/explanation of benefits (RA/EOB). 2. Automated edits check for (a) patient eligibility for benefits, (b) time limits for filing claims, (c) preauthorization and referral requirements, (d) duplicate dates of service, (e) noncovered services, (f) code linkage, (g) correct bundling, (h) medical review to confirm that services were appropriate and necessary, (i) utilization review, and (j) concurrent care. 3. Medical insurance specialists monitor claims by reviewing the insurance aging report and following up at properly timed intervals based on the payers promised turnaround time. The HIPAA X12 276/277 Heath Care Claim Status Inquiry/ Response (276/277) is used to track claim progress through the adjudication process. 4. The HIPAA X12 835 Health Care Payment and Remittance Advice (HIPAA 835) is the standard transaction payers use to transmit adjudication details and payments to providers. Electronic and paper RAs/EOBs contain the same essential data: (a) a heading with payer and provider information, (b) payment information for each claim, including adjustment codes, (c) total 478 amounts paid for all claims, and (d) a glossary that defines the adjustment codes that appear on the document. These administrative code sets are claim adjustment group codes, claim adjustment reason codes, and remittance advice remark codes. 5. The unique claim control number reported on the RA/EOB is first used to match up claims sent and payments received. Then basic data are checked against the claim; billed procedures are verified; the payment for each CPT is checked against the expected amount; adjustment codes are reviewed to locate all unpaid, downcoded, or denied claims; and items are identified for follow up. 6. Payments are deposited in the practices bank account, posted in the practice management program, and applied to patients accounts. Rejected claims must be corrected and re-sent. Missed procedures are billed again. Partially paid, denied, or downcoded claims are analyzed and appealed, billed to the patient, or written off. 7. An appeal process is used to challenge a payers decision to deny, reduce, or otherwise downcode a claim. Each payer has a graduated level of appeals, deadlines for requesting them, and medical review programs to answer them. In some cases, appeals may be taken beyond the payer to an outside authority, such as a state insurance commission. 8. Filing an appeal may result in payment of a denied or reduced claim. Postpayment audits are usually used to gather information about treat- ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 ment outcomes, but they may also be used to find overpayments, which must be refunded to payers. Refunds to patients may also be required. 9. Claims are sent to patients additional insurance plans after the primary payer has adjudicated claims. Sometimes the medical office prepares and sends the claims; in other cases, the primary payer has a coordination of benefits (COB) program that automatically sends the necessary data to secondary payers. 10. Under the Medicare Secondary Payer program, Medicare is the secondary payer when (a) the patient is covered by an employer group health insurance plan or is covered through an employed spouses plan; (b) the patient is disabled, under age sixty-five, and covered by an employee group health plan; (c) the patient is diagnosed with ESRD but is covered by an employer-sponsored group health plan; (d) the services are covered by workers compensation insurance; (e) the services are for injuries in an automobile accident; or (f) the patient is a veteran who chooses to receive services through the Department of Veterans Affairs. Review Questions Match the key terms with their definitions. A. medical necessity denial B. adjudication C. Medicare Redetermination Notice (MRN) D. insurance aging report E. adjustment F. accounts receivable (A/R) G. development H. electronic funds transfer I. concurrent care J. determination ____ 1. Analysis of how long a payer has held submitted claims ____ 2. Payer paying a service at a different amount than billed ____ 3. Medical situation in which a patient receives extensive independent care from two or more attending physicians on the same date of service ____ 4. A payers refusal to pay for a reported procedure that does not meet its medical necessity criteria ____ 5. Payer process to review claims ____ 6. Letter from Medicare to an appellant regarding a first-level appeal ____ 7. A payers decision regarding payment of a claim ____ 8. A banking service for directly transmitting funds from one bank to another ____ 9. Money that is due to the practice from payers and patients ____ 10. Payer action to gather clinical documentation and study a claim before payment Decide whether each statement is true or false. ____ 1. A claim may be rejected by a payer because the patient has not paid the premium for the reported date of service. ____ 2. The medical review program is created by the providers practice manager to adjudicate claims. ____ 3. A payers claims examiners are trained medical professionals. ____ 4. If a patients medical record clearly documents a high level of evaluation and management service, the associated procedure code is not likely to be reduced by the payer. ____ 5. The claim turnaround time is often specified by state regulations. ____ 6. The insurance aging report shows when patients received their statements. ____ 7. The EFT summarizes the results of the payers adjudication process. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 479 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 ____ 8. An appeal can be filed if the provider disagrees with the payers determination. ____ 9. The RA/EOB shows the patients financial responsibility, which is subtracted from the allowed charge to calculate the amount the provider is paid. ____ 10. The Medicare Secondary Payer program requires Medicaid to cost-share crossover claims. Select the letter that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. A payers initial processing of a claim screens for A. utilization guidelines B. medical edits C. basic errors in claim data or missing information D. claims attachments ____ 2. Some automated edits are for A. patient eligibility, duplicate claims, and noncovered services B. valid identification numbers C. medical necessity reduction denials D. clinical documentation ____ 3. A claim may be downcoded because A. the claim does not list a charge for every procedure code B. the claim is for noncovered services C. the documentation does not justify the level of service D. the procedure code applies to a patient of the other gender ____ 4. Payers should comply with the required A. insurance aging report B. claim turnaround time C. remittance advice D. retention schedule ____ 5. A person filing an appeal is called a A. guarantor B. claims examiner C. medical director D. claimant ____ 6. Appeals must always be filed A. within a specified time B. by the provider for the patient C. by patients on behalf of relatives D. with the state insurance commissioner ____ 7. If a postpayment audit determines that a paid claim should have been denied or reduced A. the provider is subject to civil penalties B. the provider must refund the incorrect payment C. the provider bills the patient for the denied amount D. none of the above 480 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 ____ 8. If a patient has secondary insurance under a spouses plan, what information is needed before transmitting a claim to the secondary plan? A. RA/EOB data B. 271 data C. PPO data D. none of the above ____ 9. The HIPAA standard transaction that is used to inquire and answer about the status of a claim is A. 837 B. 835 C. 276/277 D. 980 ____ 10. Which of the following appears only on secondary claims? A. primary insurance group policy number B. primary insurance employer name C. primary plan name D. primary payer payment Define the following abbreviations. 1. RA 2. EOB ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. MSP ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. EFT ___________________________________________________________________________________ Applying Your Knowledge Case 14.1 Auditing Claim Data The following data elements were submitted to a third-party payer. Using the ICD-9-CM, the CPT/HCPCS, and the place of service codes in Appendix B, audit the information in each case and advise the payer about the correct action. A. Dx 783.2 CPT 80048 POS 60 B. Dx 518.83 CPT 99241-22 C. Dx 662.30 CPT 54500 CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 481 ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Case 14.2 Calculating Insurance Math Claim Patient Payment Adjustment Allowed (Coinsurance and Reason PROV Amount Deductible) Code PAY $59.00 $50.00 $8.85 $7.50 2 2 $50.15 $42.50 Patient ID 537-88-5267 348-99-2537 Patient Name Ramirez, Gloria B. Finucula, Betty R. Ramirez, Gloria B. Jugal, Kurt T. Quan, Mary K. Plan R-1 R-1 Date of Service 02/13/2008 2/13/2008 01/15/2008 1/15/2008 02/14/2008 2/14/2008 02/16/2008 2/16/2008 02/16/2008 2/16/2008 Procedure 99214 99292 Provider Charge $105.60 $88.00 537-88-5267 R-1 90732 $38.00 0 $38.00 49 0 760-57-5372 R-1 93975 99204 20004 $580.00 $178.00 $192.00 $261.00 $103.00 $156.00 $139.15 $15.45 $31.20 12 $121.8 $87.55 $124.80 875-17-0098 PPO-3 2 TOTAL $426.85 The RA/EOB shown above has been received by a provider. A. What is the patient coinsurance percentage required under plan R-1? B. What is the patient coinsurance percentage required under plan PPO-3? C. What is Gloria Ramirezs balance due for the two dates of service listed? D. Kurt Jugals first visit of the year is the encounter shown for DOS 2/16/2008. What is the pa- tient deductible under plan R-1? (Hint: Since the deductible was satisfied by the patients payment for the first charge, that payment was made up of the deductible and the coinsurance under the plan.) 482 PART 5 Payment Processing ValeriusBayesNewbySeggern: Medical Insurance: An Integrated Claims Process Approach, Third Edition V. Payment Processing 14. Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims The McGrawHill Companies, 2008 Case 14.3 Using Insurance Terms Read this information from a Medicare carrier and answer the questions that follow. Noridian Administrative Services (a Medicare Carrier) denies Q4054 (Darbepoetin Alfa) and Q4055 (Epoetin alfa) services when coverage guidelines are not met using the adjustment reason code B5. In the past, we denied these services as beneficiary responsibility. It has now been determined that these denials are a medical necessity denial. As such, the Advance Beneficiary Notice (ABN) rules apply. Effective for claims received on/after (date), when these services are billed with a GA modifier, the beneficiary will be held liable for noncovered services. Claims submitted without a GA modifier will be denied as provider responsibility. A. Based on Table 14.2 on page 459, what is the meaning of adjustment reason code B5? B. Based on the information on ABNs in Chapter 10, what is the meaning of ABN modifier GA? C. If a GA modifier is attached to HCPCS codes Q4054 and Q4055 on a claim, can the patient be billed? D. If a GA modifier is not attached to the HCPCS codes Q4050 and Q4055 on a claim, can the provider balance-bill the patient? Internet Activities ____ 1. The administrative (nonclinical) code sets for HIPAA transactions are available on the Washington Publishing Company website. Visit this site at http://www.wpc-edi.com/codes. Select one of the code lists for review, and locate the Change List to view recent alterations. ____ 2. The American Health Lawyers website contains information about legal matters in health care. Visit http://www.healthlawyers.org and click Today in Health Law. Report on a topic related to medical billing and insurance. ____ 3. The American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC) has an examination for the certified professional coderpayer (CPC-P) credential. Those who pass this test are good candidates for employment by payers customer service departments and for the claim review and adjudication process. Study the requirements for this credential at http://www.aapc.com. ____ 4. Commercial companies offer effective appeal letters for purchase. Using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo, research two of these Web sites related to medical (or health insurance) appeals. Review the appeal letters that can be purchased. CHAPTER 14 Payments (RAs/EOBs), Appeals, and Secondary Claims 483

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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 7 Homework Solutions7.1 Using a KMap, prove the SOP form of the consensus theorem (see section 3.5.5). Does the KMap help illustrate why the third term is redundant? The consensus theorem is: AC + AB + BC = AC + ABA BC 0 00 01 11 1 1
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 8 Homework Solutions8.1. Convert the following to unsigned binary, add the numbers together in binary, and check your result by converting it back to base-10: 4 + 5 =?. Use four bits for your operands and result. 0100 + 0101 -1001 4 +
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 9 Homework Solutions9.1 Implement an 8:1 MUX out of 4:1 MUX blocks. One example is shown below. Other solutions are possible.In0 In1 In2 In3I0 I1 I2 I32out I0 I1 I2 I32sel S1 S0outIn4 In5 In6 In7I0 I1 I2 I32sel out S2 S2se
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 10 Homework Solutions10.1 The figure below is a detailed timing diagram for a NAND-like gate. If you were interested in knowing how fast this gate would run for purposes of critical path analysis, what would you use for tprop ? Why?T
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 11 Homework Solutions11.1 Below is a timing diagram for the SR latch of Figure 11.1. Fill in the output waveform. Reflect approximate timing. See section 11.7 to remind you what is meant by approximate timing.Figure 11.1: SR LatchLa
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 12 Homework Solutions12.1 Design a 4-bit shift register with the following functionality: shift-left, shift-right, clear, load-all-1s. Use a 2-bit control input to select between these options (00=shift-left, 01=shift-right, 10=clear,
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 13 Homework Solutions13.1 If one desires to count to M, what is the minimum number of bits required in the resulting counter? The maximum number, M, that can be represented by K bits is 2K-1. In other words, a minimum of K bits are re
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 14 Homework Solutions14.1 Design a 2-bit gray code counter with a CLR input and a INC input. In the case CLR = INC = 1, have the counter also increment. CLR INC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q1 0 0 1
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 15 Homework Solutions15.1 Draw the state graph and corresponding transition table for a 3-bit counter with no control inputs and which counts in multiples of 3. That is, the count sequence is: 000 011 - 110 - 000. Use don't cares in t
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 16 Homework Solutions16.1 Draw the state graph for a car wash controller which has 3 different kinds of washes - a simple rinse-only wash, a rinse-soap-rinse wash, and a rinse-soap-rinse-blow dry wash. The first two of these wash type
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 17 Homework Solutions17.1 Design the FSM of Figure 16.5 using a one-hot encoding and reduce the design to gates. Recall that with the one-hot encoding we can easily design the FSM directly from the state diagram, without resorting to
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ECEn/CS 224 Chapter 18 Homework Solutions18.1 Plot the following function on a KMap and identify a minimum POS solution for it. Then, solve it a second time using hazard-free minimization. Show your work. F(A,B,C,D) = m0 + m1 + m2 + m4 + m5 + m6 + m9 + m
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ECEn/CS 224 LC-3 Control Homework Solutions1. Create a transition table for the states of the LC3 processor. Your transition table should include the fetch0, fetch1, fetch2, decode states as well as any states necessary to support the following instructi
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ECEn/CS 224 LC-3 Review Homework Solutions1. Describe the purpose of each of the following LC-3 architectural structures: a) Program Counter (PC): Contains the address pointing to the memory location where the next instruction to be executed is located.
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ECEn/CS 224 Register File Homework Solutions1. Write the logic equation which describes the data out after the next clock cycle. It should be in the form Dout+ = (logic equation here) and should use Dout, DataIn, and Write as literals in the equation. Wr
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ECEn/CS 224 ROM Homework Solutions1. Imagine you have a combinational logic problem to solve which has 7 inputs and 5 outputs. What size ROM must you buy to solve it with? Read the lecture notes to see how to indicate a ROM size. 27 x 5 = 128 x 52. Imag
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ECEn/CS 224 UART Homework Solutions1. Draw a serial waveform of the character 'B' (ASCII for 'B') being transmitted over the UART using even parity. Be sure to include the Start bit, 7 data bits, parity bit, and a single stop bit.B = 22 hex Start010
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Computer Systems A Programmers Perspective 1 (Beta Draft)Randal E. Bryant David R. OHallaron November 16, 20011c Copyright 2001, R. E. Bryant, D. R. OHallaron. All rights reserved.2ContentsPreface 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Information is Bits i
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ECEn 324 Winter 2010 Midterm #1 Solution1. a. b. c. d. Which of the following was NOT suggested by the text as a reason for the success of C? C was closely tied with Unix. C is small and simple. C was designed by an ANSI standard committee. C was designe
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ECEn 324 Winter 2010 Midterm #2 Solution1. a. b. c. d. Which of the following is NOT true of the Y86 ISA? Target addresses for jump instructions are represented as absolute addresses in 4 bytes. Instructions with explicit register operands can be as shor
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ECEn 324 Practice Exam: Midterm #11. a. b. c. d. Which of the following was developed as part of the GNU project? The C programming language The GCC compiler The Linux operating system The Unix operating system2. Which of the following statements is fal
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ECEn 324 Practice Exam: Midterm #21. a. b. c. d. In which of the following ways does the Y86 ISA differ from the x86 ISA? The Y86 has no condition codes. The Y86 has no stack-based instructions. No Y86 instruction accesses data memory twice. The Y86 has
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MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #71.aC= 0.5 nF1.337 mA iL(t) L= 1.1 mH R= 500 bNote: =2Mr/s. Do the following for the impedance to the right of the a, b terminals: a) Calculate complex power S = P + jQ. b) Calculate average (or DC) power. c) Calculate maximum in
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #7 prob 1 solutionEX:a C= 0.5 nF 1.337 mA iL(t) L= 1.1 mH R= 500 bNote: =2Mr/s. Do the following for the impedance to the right of the a, b terminals: a) Calculate complex power S = P + jQ. b) Calculate average (or DC) power. c) Cal
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #7 prob 2 solutionEX:R1 = 50 kC= 20 pFVgrms = 10030V R2 = 50 kIrmsL= 50 mHa) b)CalculateIrms. Note: =24/7 Mr/s. Calculate the complex power, S, for the components inside the box.SOL'N:R1C2L1igvgvoi1v1b)
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #7 prob 3 solutionEX: a AzlinezLYzgVgca zgVgab b zline B zLY NzgVgbc c Vgab=1230V Vgbc=123+120V zline zLY Czg= 0.93+j1.2 zline= j0.61Vgca=123120V zLY= 0.4j0.3 a) Draw the single phase equivalent circuit. b) Calculate Van. SOL'
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #7 probs 4 and 5 solutionEX: Va'n a' a AzgYzlinezLVb'n n b' zgY b zlineBzLzLzgY Vc'n c'czlineCVga'n=145.50V Vgb'n=145.5120VzgY= 0.1 resistor in series with 265.3 H inductor zline= 265.3 H inductorVgc'n=145.5+120V zL= 0.6
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #21.R2 = 13 kigt=0CL= 11 mH R1iAfter being open for a long time, the switch closes at t = 0. Give expressions for the following in terms of at most ig, R1, R2, L, and C: i( t = 0+ ) and di( t ) dt t = 0 +2. Find the numerical
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #2 prob 1 solutionEX:R2 = 13 kigt=0CL= 11 mH R1iAfter being open for a long time, the switch closes at t = 0. Give expressions for the following in terms of at most ig, R1, R2, L, and C:i( t = 0+ )SOL'N: anddi( t ) dt t = 0
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #2 prob 2 solutionEX:R2 = 13 kigt=0CL= 11 mH R1iAfter being open for a long time, the switch closes at t = 0. Find the numerical values of R1 and C to yield the following values of characteristic roots for the above circuit:s1
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #2 prob 3 solutionEX:R1C1+ v1 + v2 Li1 vg + C2 R2At t = 0, vg(t) switches instantly from vo to vo. a) Write the state-variable equations for the circuit in terms of the state vector: i1 r x = v1 v 2 b) Evaluate the state vector
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #2 prob 4 solutionEX:40.5 F+ v 50 H 4t=024 V + After being closed for a long time, the switch opens at t = 0. State whether v(t) is under-damped, over-damped, or critically-damped. SOL'N:
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #2 prob 5 solutionEX:R2 = 13 kigt=0CL= 11 mH R1iAfter being open for a long time, the switch closes at t = 0. Write a numerical time-domain expression for v (t), t > 0, the voltage acrossC in problem 4. This expression must not
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #31.+ vi a) b) c)R=100 k+ vo C=1 FDetermine the transfer function Vo/Vi. Plot |Vo/Vi| versus . Find the cutoff frequency, c.2.+ viR1 = 20 kL = 500 H+R3 = 3 kR2 = 30 kvo a) b) c) Determine the transfer function Vo/Vi. H
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #3 prob 1 solutionEX:+ vi a) b) c)R=100 k+ vo C=1 FDetermine the transfer function Vo/Vi. Plot |Vo/Vi| versus . Find the cutoff frequency, c.SOL'N: a) Filters are voltage-dividers. The output is measured across the C, so the tra
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #3 prob 2 solutionEX:+ viR1 = 20 kL = 500 H+R3 = 3 kR2 = 30 kvo a) b) c)Determine the transfer function Vo/Vi. Hint: use a Thevenin equivalent on the left side. Plot |Vo/Vi| versus . Find the cutoff frequency, c.SOL'N: a) Th
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #3 prob 3 solutionEX:L +C +vi8speakervoThe above circuit is part of a simple crossover network for driving a midrange speaker having an impedance of 8. The circuit is described at the following web site: http:/www.termpro.com/ar
MIT - ECE - ece 2260
2260F 09HOMEWORK #3 probs 4 and 5 solutionEX:L = 25 H+R1 = 2.5 C = 250 nF+viR2 = 5vo For the band-reject filter shown above, determine the transfer function Vo/Vi. Hint: Move R1 to the right of L and C, place R1 vertically, and suppose the out