Dictionary_of_Nursing
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Dictionary_of_Nursing

Course Number: PHILOSOPHY phil, Spring 2010

College/University: Indiana Tech

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DICTIONARY OF NURSING Specialist dictionaries Dictionary of Accounting Dictionary of Agriculture Dictionary of Aviation Dictionary of Banking and Finance Dictionary of Business Dictionary of Computing Dictionary of Economics Dictionary of Environment and Ecology Dictionary of Food Science and Nutrition Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management Dictionary of ICT Dictionary of Information and Library...

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OF NURSING Specialist DICTIONARY dictionaries Dictionary of Accounting Dictionary of Agriculture Dictionary of Aviation Dictionary of Banking and Finance Dictionary of Business Dictionary of Computing Dictionary of Economics Dictionary of Environment and Ecology Dictionary of Food Science and Nutrition Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management Dictionary of ICT Dictionary of Information and Library Management Dictionary of Law Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism Dictionary of Marketing Dictionary of Media Studies Dictionary of Medical Terms Dictionary of Politics and Government Dictionary of Publishing and Printing Dictionary of Science and Technology Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science Easier English titles Easier English Basic Dictionary Easier English Basic Synonyms Easier English Intermediate Dictionary Easier English Student Dictionary 978 0 7136 8286 1 978 0 7136 7778 2 978 0 7136 8734 7 978 0 7136 7739 3 978 0 7136 7918 2 978 0 7475 6622 9 978 0 7136 8203 8 978 0 7475 7201 5 978 0 7136 7784 3 978 0 7136 8142 0 978 0 7475 6990 9 978 0 7136 7591 7 978 0 7136 8318 9 978 0 7136 8545 9 978 0 7475 6621 2 978 0 7136 7593 1 978 0 7136 7603 7 978 0 7475 7220 6 978 0 7136 7589 4 978 0 7475 6620 5 978 0 7136 7785 0 978 0 7475 6644 1 978 0 7475 6979 4 978 0 7475 6989 3 978 0 7475 6624 3 Check Your English Vocabulary workbooks Academic English 978 0 7136 8285 4 Banking and Finance 978 0 7136 8250 2 Business and Administration 978 0 7136 7916 8 Computers and Information Technology 978 0 7136 7917 5 Human Resources 978 0 7475 6997 8 IELTS 978 0 7136 7604 4 Law 978 0 7136 7592 4 Living in the UK 978 0 7136 7914 4 Medicine 978 0 7136 7590 0 PET 978 0 7475 6627 4 Phrasal Verbs and Idioms 978 0 7136 7805 5 TOEFL 978 0 7136 8414 8 TOEIC 978 0 7136 7508 5 Visit our website for full details of all our books: www.acblack.com DICTIONARY OF NURSING second edition A & C Black London First edition published in 2003 by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. This second edition published 2007 by A&C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB Copyright A&C Black 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publishers. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978 0 7136 8287 8 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0206-0 Text Production and Proofreading Joel Adams, Sandra Anderson, Heather Bateman, Emma Djonokusumo, Ruth Hillmore, Daisy Jackson, Irene Lakhani, Sarah Lusznat, Katy McAdam, Howard Sargeant This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Text processed and typeset by A&C Black Printed in Spain by GraphyCems Preface This fully-updated dictionary provides the user with a complete guide to the vocabulary in current use by nurses and other health care professionals. Over 11,000 terms are explained in clear, straightforward English. Areas covered include diseases and conditions, instruments, drugs, treatments and patient care, as well as medical specialisations such as surgery, psychiatry and physiotherapy. Many informal and everyday terms used by patients in describing their condition are also included. A useful supplement also contains a guide to anatomical terms, illustrated with clear and simple diagrams. Thanks are due to Glenda Cornwell, Rosemary Cook, Stephen Curtis, Fiona McIntosh, Lynn Davy and Dinah Jackson for their advice on the first edition of this text, and to Kathryn Jones for her helpful comments during the production of this second edition. Publishers Note: While every effort has been made to be as accurate as possible, the author, advisors, editors and publishers of this book cannot be held liable for any errors and omissions, or actions that may be taken as a consequence of using it. Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary. Stress is indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark ( ) . Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Vowels ai a ai a i e e ei e i back harm stop type how hire hour course annoy head fair make go word keep happy about fit near annual pool book tour shut Consonants b d d f h j k l m n buck dead other jump fare gold head yellow cab leave mix nil sing print rest save shop take change theft value work loch measure zone p r s i i i u u t t v w x z Nursing.fm Page 1 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM A AA AA abbreviation Alcoholics Anonymous A & E / ei nd i /, A & E department / ei nd i di p tmnt/ noun same as accident and A&E | emergency department A & E medicine / ei nd i med()sin/ noun A & E medicine the medical procedures used in A & E departments ab- / b/ prefix away from ABC / ei bi si / noun the basic initial checks of a casualtys condition. Full form airway, breathabABC ing and circulation abdomen / bdmn/ noun a space inside the abdomen body below the diaphragm, above the pelvis and in front of the spine, containing the stomach, intestines, liver and other vital organs pain in the abdomen (NOTE: For other terms referring to the abdomen, see words beginning with coeli-, coelio-.) abdomin- / bdmin/ prefix same as abdomino- (used before vowels) abdominal / b dmin()l/ adjective located in abdominabdominal | operation that involves cutting out tissue in both the abdomen and the perineum abdominoposterior / b dminp stiri/ adjective referring to a position of a fetus in the uterus, where the fetuss abdomen is facing the mothers back abdominoscopy / b dmi nskpi/ noun an internal examination of the abdomen, usually with an endoscope abdominothoracic / b dmin r sik/ adjective referring to the abdomen and thorax abduce / b dju s/ verb same as abduct abducens nerve / b dju s()nz n v/ noun the sixth cranial nerve, which controls the muscle which makes the eyeball turn outwards abducent / b dju s()nt/ adjective referring to a muscle which brings parts of the body away from each other or moves them away from the central line of the body or a limb. Compare adduabdominoposterior | | abdominoscopy | | abdominothoracic | | abduce | abducens nerve | abducent | cent the abdomen, or relating to the abdomen abdominal aorta / b dmin()l ei t/ noun the part of the aorta which lies between the diaphragm and the point where the aorta divides into the iliac arteries. See illustration at KIDNEY in abdominal aorta | | Supplement abdominal cavity / b dmin()l k viti/ abdominal cavity | noun the space in the body below the chest abdominal pain / b dmin()l pein/ noun abdominal pain | pain in the abdomen caused by indigestion or more serious disorders abdominal viscera / b dmin()l visr/ plural noun the organs which are contained in the abdomen, e.g. the stomach, liver and intestines abdominal wall / b dmin()l w l/ noun muscular tissue which surrounds the abdomen abdomino- / bdmin/ prefix referring to the abdomen abdominopelvic / b dmin pelvik/ adjective referring to the abdomen and pelvis abdominoperineal / b dminperi ni l/ adjective referring to the abdomen and perineum abdominoperineal excision / b d minperi ni l ik si ()n/ noun a surgical abdominal viscera | abdominal wall | abdominoabdominopelvic | | abdominoperineal | | abdominoperineal excision | | | | abduct / b d kt/ verb (of a muscle) to pull a leg or arm in a direction which is away from the centre line of the body, or to pull a toe or finger away from the central line of a leg or arm. Compare adduct abduction / b d kn/ noun the movement of a part of the body away from the centre line of the body or away from a neighbouring part. Opposite adduction. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement abductor / b d kt/, abductor muscle / b d kt m s()l/ noun a muscle which pulls a part of the body away from the centre line of the body or away from a neighbouring part. Opposite | abduction | abductor | | abduct adductor aberrant aberrant / bernt/ adjective not usual or expected aberration / b rei()n/ noun an action or growth which is not usual or expected ablation / blei()n/ noun the removal of an organ or of a part of the body by surgery abnormal / b n m()l/ adjective not usual abnormal behaviour an abnormal movement abnormality / bn m liti/ noun a form or condition which is not usual (NOTE: For other | aberration | ablation | abnormal | abnormality | Nursing.fm Page 2 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM abocclusion terms referring to abnormality, see words beginning with terat-, terato-.) abocclusion / b klu ()n/ noun a condiabocclusion | 2 wrongly Heroin and cocaine are drugs which are commonly abused. 2. to treat someone badly sexually abused children He had physically abused his wife and child. a.c. adverb (used on prescriptions) before food. Full form ante cibum acanthosis / k n sis/ noun a disease of the prickle cell layer of the skin, where warts appear on the skin or inside the mouth acapnia /ei k pni/ noun the condition of not having enough carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues acaricide / k risaid/ noun a substance which kills mites or ticks acatalasia /ei k t leizi/ noun an inherited condition which results in a lack of catalase in all tissue accessory /k sesri/ noun something which helps something else to happen or operate, but may not be very important in itself adjective helping something else to happen or operate accident / ksid()nt/ noun 1. an unpleasant event which happens suddenly and harms someones health She had an accident in the kitchen and had to go to hospital. Three people were killed in the accident on the motorway. 2. chance, or something which happens by chance I met her by accident at the bus stop. accidental injury / ksident()l ind ri/ noun an injury that happens to someone in an accident accident and emergency department / ksid()nt nd i m d nsi di p tmnt/ noun the part of a hospital which deals with people who need urgent treatment because they have had accidents or are in sudden serious pain. Abbreviation A & E accident form / ksid()nt f m/, accident report form / ksid()nt ri p t f m/ noun a form to be filled in with details of an accident accident prevention / ksid()nt pri venn/ noun the work of taking action or changing procedures to prevent accidents from happening accident ward / ksid()nt w d/ noun a ward for urgent accident victims. Also called a.c. acanthosis | | acapnia | acaricide | acatalasia | | accessory | accident accidental injury accident and emergency department | | accident form | accident prevention | accident ward tion in which the teeth in the top and bottom jaws do not touch abort / b t/ verb to eject an embryo or fetus, or to cause an embryo or fetus to be ejected, and so end a pregnancy before the fetus is fully developed abortifacient / b ti fei()nt/ noun a drug or instrument which provokes an abortion abortion / b ()n/ noun a situation where a fetus leaves the uterus before it is fully developed, especially during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy, or a procedure which causes this to happen abortive / b tiv/ adjective not successful an abortive attempt abortus / b ts/ noun a fetus which is expelled during an abortion or miscarriage abortus fever / b ts fi v/ noun same as abort | abortifacient | | abortion | abortive | abortus | abortus fever | brucellosis ABO system / ei bi sistm/ noun a system of classifying blood groups. blood group abrasion / brei ()n/ noun a condition in which the surface of the skin has been rubbed off by a rough surface and bleeds abreaction / bri kn/ noun the treatment of a person with a neurosis by making him or her think again about past bad experiences abruptio placentae / br pti pl senti / noun an occasion when the placenta suddenly comes away from the uterus earlier than it should, often causing shock and bleeding abscess / bses/ noun a painful swollen area where pus forms She had an abscess under a tooth. The doctor decided to lance the abscess. abrasion | abreaction | abruptio placentae | | abscess ABO system (NOTE: The formation of an abscess is often accompanied by a high temperature. The plural is abscesses.) absorbable suture /b z bb()l su t/ noun a suture which will eventually be absorbed absorbable suture | into the body, and does not need to be removed absorbent cotton /b z bnt kt()n/ noun a soft white material used as a dressing to put on wounds absorption /b z pn/ noun the process by which a liquid is taken into a solid abstinence / bstinns/ noun a deliberate act of not doing something over a period of time, abstinence especially not eating or drinking from alcohol abulia / bu li/ noun a lack of willpower abuse noun / bju s/ 1. the act of using something wrongly the abuse of a privilege 2. the illegal use of a drug or overuse of alcohol substance abuse 3. same as child abuse 4. bad treatment of a person physical abuse sexual abuse verb / bju z/ 1. to use something absorbent cotton | absorption | abstinence abulia | abuse | | casualty ward accommodation accommodation / km dei()n/, accommodation reflex / km dei()n ri fleks/ noun (of the lens of the eye) the ability to focus on objects at different distances, using the ciliary muscle accommodative squint / kmdeitiv skwint/ noun a squint when the eye is trying to focus on an object which is very close accouchement / ku m/ noun the time when a woman is being looked after because her baby is being born, or has just been born | | | | accommodative squint | accouchement | Nursing.fm Page 3 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 3 acid reflux accountability / kant biliti/ noun the state of being responsible to someone else for an action developing and maintaining standards of accountability accountable / kantb()l/ adjective responsible to someone else for an action accountable to the public accretion / kri ()n/ noun a gradual increase in size, as through growth or external addition an accretion of calcium around the joint acebutolol / si bju tll/ noun a drug which reduces both the heart rate and how strongly the heart muscles contract, used in the treatment of high blood pressure and irregular heart rhythms ACE inhibitor / eis in hibit/ noun same as | | accountable | accretion | acebutolol | ACE inhibitor | accountability angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor acephalus /ei sefls/ noun a fetus born withacephalus | out a head acetabuloplasty / si t bjl pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair or rebuild the acetabulum acetabulum / si t bjlm/ noun the part of the pelvic bone, shaped like a cup, into which the head of the femur fits to form the hip joint. Also called cotyloid cavity (NOTE: The plural is acetabuloplasty | | acetabulum | ache /eik/ noun a pain which goes on for a time, but is not very severe He complained of various aches and pains. verb to have a pain in part of the body His tooth ached so much he went to the dentist. Achilles tendon / kili z tendn/ noun a tendon at the back of the ankle which connects the calf muscles to the heel and which acts to pull up the heel when the calf muscle is contracted achillorrhaphy / ki l rfi/ noun a surgical operation to stitch a torn Achilles tendon achillotomy / ki ltmi/ noun a surgical operation to divide the Achilles tendon achlorhydria / eikl haidri/ noun a condition in which the gastric juices do not contain hydrochloric acid, a symptom of stomach cancer or pernicious anaemia acholia /ei kli/ noun the absence or failure of the secretion of bile acholuria / eik lu ri/ noun the absence of bile colouring in the urine acholuric jaundice / eiklu rik d ndis/ noun a disease where unusually round red blood cells form, leading to anaemia, an enlarged spleen and the formation of gallstones. Also called Achilles tendon | achillorrhaphy | achillotomy | achlorhydria | acholia | acholuria | acholuric jaundice ache acetabula.) acetaminophen / si t minfn/ noun US same as paracetamol acetazolamide / si t zlmaid/ noun a drug which helps a person to produce more urine, used in the treatment of oedema, glaucoma and epilepsy acetonaemia / si t ni mi/ same as keto| | acetazolamide | | acetonaemia | | acetaminophen hereditary spherocytosis achondroplasia / eikndr pleizi/ noun an achondroplasia | naemia acetone acetone / sitn/ noun a colourless volatile substance formed in the body after vomiting or during diabetes. ketone acetonuria / si t nju ri/ noun the presence of acetone in the urine, shown by the fact that the urine gives off a sweet smell acetylcholine / sitail kli n/ noun a substance released from nerve endings, which allows nerve impulses to move from one nerve to another or from a nerve to the organ it controls acetonuria | | acetylcholine | inherited condition in which the long bones in the arms and legs do not grow fully while the rest of the bones in the body grow as usual, resulting in dwarfism achromatopsia / eikrm tpsi/ noun a rare condition in which a person cannot see any colours, but only black, white and shades of grey achy / eiki/ adjective feeling aches all over the body (informal ) aciclovir /ei saiklvi/ noun a drug that is effective against herpesviruses. Also called acyachromatopsia | achy aciclovir | clovir COMMENT: Acetylcholine receptors are of two types, muscarinic, found in parasympathetic post-ganglionic nerve junctions, and nicotinic, found at neuromuscular junctions and in autonomic ganglia. Acetylcholine acts on both types of receptors, but other drugs act on one or the other. acetylcoenzyme A / sitailk enzaim ei/ noun a compound produced in the metabolism of acetylcoenzyme A | carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids acetylsalicylic acid / sitail s lsilik sid/ noun aspirin achalasia / k leizi/ noun the condition of being unable to relax the muscles acetylsalicylic acid | achalasia | acidaemia / si di mi/ noun a state in which the blood has too much acid in it. It is a feature of untreated severe diabetes. acidbase balance / sid beis b lns/ noun the balance between acid and base, i.e. the pH level, in plasma acidity / siditi/ noun 1. the level of acid in a liquid The alkaline solution may help to reduce acidity. 2. same as hyperacidity acidosis / si dsis/ noun 1. a condition when there are more acid waste products such as urea than usual in the blood because of a lack of alkali 2. same as acidity acidotic / si dtik/ adjective relating to acidosis acid reflux / sid ri fl ks/ noun a condition caused by a faulty muscle in the oesophagus allowing the acid in the stomach to pass into the oesophagus | acidbase balance acidity | acidosis | acidotic | acid reflux acidaemia Nursing.fm Page 4 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM acid stomach acid stomach 4 acid stomach / sid st mk/ noun same as hyperacidity acinus / sins/ noun 1. a tiny sac which forms part of a gland 2. part of a lobule in the lung (NOTE: The plural is acini.) acne / kni/ noun an inflammation of the sebaacinus acne ceous glands during puberty which makes blackheads appear on the skin, usually on the face, neck and shoulders. These blackheads often then become infected. She is using a cream to clear up her acne. acne rosacea / kni r zei/ noun same as acne rosacea | rosacea acne vulgaris acne vulgaris / kni vl ris/ noun same as | acne acoustic / ku stik/ adjective relating to sound or hearing acoustic nerve / ku stik n v/ noun the eighth cranial nerve which governs hearing and balance acquired / kwaid/ adjective referring to a condition which is neither congenital nor hereditary and which a person develops after birth in reaction to his or her environment acquired immunity / kwaid i mju niti/ noun an immunity which a body acquires from having caught a disease or from immunisation, not one which is congenital acquired immunodeficiency syndrome / kwaid imjndi fi()nsi sindrm/, acquired immune deficiency syndrome / kwaid im ju n di fi()nsi sindrm/ noun a viral infection which breaks down the bodys immune system. Abbreviation AIDS. HIV acrivastine / kriv sti n/ noun a drug which reduces the amount of histamine produced by the body. It is used in the treatment of rhinitis, urticaria and eczema. acro- / kr/ prefix referring to a point or tip acrocephalia / krs feili/ noun same as | acoustic nerve | acquired | acquired immunity | | acquired immunodeficiency syndrome | | | | | acrivastine | acroacrocephalia | acoustic oxycephaly acrocyanosis acrocyanosis / krsai nsis/ noun a blue coloration of the extremities, i.e. the fingers, toes, ears and nose, which is due to poor circulation acrodynia / kr dini/ noun a childrens disease, caused by an allergy to mercury, where the childs hands, feet and face swell and become pink, and the child is also affected with fever and loss of appetite. Also called erythroedema, pink | acrodynia | disease acromegaly / kr me li/ noun a disease caused by excessive quantities of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland, causing a slow enlargement of the hands, feet and jaws in adults acromioclavicular / krmaikl vikjl/ adjective relating to the acromion and the clavicle | acromioclavicular acromegaly | acromion / krmin/ noun the pointed top of the scapula, which forms the tip of the shoulder acronyx / krniks, eikrniks/ noun a condition in which a nail grows into the flesh acroparaesthesia / krp ris i zi/ noun a condition in which the patient experiences sharp pains in the arms and numbness in the fingers after sleep acrophobia / kr fbi/ noun a fear of heights acrosclerosis / krskl rsis/ noun sclerosis which affects the extremities ACTH abbreviation adrenocorticotrophic hormone actinomycin / ktin maisin/ noun an antibiotic used in the treatment of children with cancer actinomycosis / ktinmai ksis/ noun a fungal disease transmitted to humans from cattle, causing abscesses in the mouth and lungs (pulmonary actinomycosis) or in the ileum (intestinal actinomycosis) action potential / kn p tenl/ noun a temporary change in electrical potential which occurs between the inside and the outside of a nerve or muscle fibre when a nerve impulse is sent active immunity / ktiv i mju niti/ noun immunity which is acquired by catching and surviving an infectious disease or by vaccination with a weakened form of the disease, which makes the body form antibodies activities of daily living / k tivitiz v deili livi/ noun a scale used by geriatricians and occupational therapists to assess the capacity of elderly or disabled people to live independently. Abbreviation ADLs activity / k tiviti/ noun 1. what someone does difficulty with activities such as walking and dressing 2. the characteristic behaviour of a chemical The drugs activity only lasts a few hours. antibacterial activity effective action against bacteria acuity / kju iti/ noun keenness of sight, hearing or intellect acupressure / kjpre/ noun a treatment which is based on the same principle as acupuncture in which, instead of needles, fingers are used on specific points on the body, called pressure points acupuncture / kjp kt/ noun a treatment based on needles being inserted through the skin into nerve centres in order to relieve pain or treat a disorder acute / kju t/ adjective referring to a disease or condition which develops rapidly and can be dangerous an acute abscess Opposite chronic | acronyx acroparaesthesia | acrophobia | acrosclerosis | ACTH actinomycin | actinomycosis | action potential | active immunity | activities of daily living | activity | acuity | acupressure acupuncture acute | acromion Nursing.fm Page 5 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 5 adenoids ADD acute abdomen / kju t bdmn/ noun any serious condition of the abdomen which requires surgery acute bed / kju t bed/ noun a hospital bed reserved for people requiring immediate treatment acute care / kju t ke/ noun medical or surgical treatment in a hospital, usually for a short period, for a patient with a sudden severe illness or injury acute disseminated encephalomyelitis / kju t di semineitid en keflmai laitis/ noun an encephalomyelitis or myelitis believed to result from an autoimmune attack on the myelin of the central nervous system acute glaucoma / kju t l km/ noun same as angle-closure glaucoma acute hospital / kju t hspit()l/ noun a hospital where people go for major surgery or intensive care of medical or surgical conditions acutely / kju tli/ adverb 1. having or causing a suddenly developing medical condition acutely ill patients acutely toxic chemicals 2. extremely (informal ) acute respiratory distress syndrome / kju t ri spirt()ri di stres sindrm/ noun an infection of the lungs, often following injury, which prevents them functioning properly. Abbreviation ARDS acute rheumatism / kju t ru mtiz()m/ noun same as rheumatic fever acute rhinitis / kju t rai naitis/ noun a virus infection which causes inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose and throat acute suppurative arthritis / kju t s pjrtiv raitis/ noun same as pyarthro| acute bed | acute care | acute disseminated encephalomyelitis | | | | acute glaucoma | | acute hospital | acutely | acute respiratory distress syndrome | | | acute rheumatism | acute rhinitis | | acute suppurative arthritis | | acute abdomen ADD abbreviation attention deficit disorder Addisons anaemia / dis()nz ni mi/ same as pernicious anaemia [Described 1849. Addisons anaemia | After Thomas Addison (17931860), from Northumberland, founder of the science of endocrinology.] Addisons disease / dis()nz di zi z/ noun Addisons disease | a disease of the adrenal glands, causing a change in skin colour to yellow and then to dark brown and resulting in general weakness, anaemia, low blood pressure and wasting away. Treatment is with corticosteroid injections. [Described 1849. After Thomas Addison (17931860), from Northumberland, founder of the science of endocrinology.] adducent / dju s()nt/ adjective referring to a adducent | muscle which brings parts of the body together or moves them towards the central line of the body or a limb. Compare abducent adduct / d kt/ verb (of a muscle) to pull a leg or arm towards the central line of the body, or to pull a toe or finger towards the central line of a leg or arm. Opposite abduct adducted / d ktid/ adjective referring to a body part brought towards the middle of the body adduction / d kn/ noun the movement of a part of the body towards the midline or towards a neighbouring part. Compare abduction. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement adductor / d kt/, adductor muscle / d kt m s()l/ noun a muscle which pulls a part of the body towards the central line of the body. Opposite abductor aden- / din/ prefix same as adeno- (used adduct | adducted | adduction | adductor | | aden- before vowels) sis acute toxicity / kju t tk sisiti/ noun a level of concentration of a toxic substance which makes people seriously ill or can cause death acyclovir /ei saiklvi/ noun same as aciclo| | acyclovir | acute toxicity vir acystia /ei sisti/ noun a condition in which a baby is born without a bladder Adams apple / dmz p()l/ noun a part of the thyroid cartilage which projects from the neck below the chin in a man. Also called laryngeal | Adams apple acystia prominence adapt / d pt/ verb 1. to change ones ideas or adapt | behaviour to fit into a new situation She has adapted very well to her new job in the childrens hospital. 2. to change something to make it more useful The brace has to be adapted to fit the patient. adaptation / d p tei()n/ noun 1. a change which has been or can be made to something 2. the act of changing something so that it fits a new situation adaptation | adenectomy / di nektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a gland adenine / dni n/ noun one of the four basic chemicals in DNA adenitis / di naitis/ noun inflammation of a gland or lymph node. lymphadenitis adeno- / din/ prefix referring to glands adenocarcinoma / dink si nm/ noun a malignant tumour of a gland adenohypophysis / dinhai pfisis/ noun the front lobe of the pituitary gland which secretes most of the pituitary hormones adenoid / dinid/ adjective like a gland adenoidal / di nid()l/ adjective referring to the adenoids adenoidal tissue / dinid()l tiu / noun same as adenoids adenoidectomy / dini dektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the adenoids adenoids / dinidz/ plural noun a mass of tissue at the back of the nose and throat that can restrict breathing if enlarged. Also called pha| adenine adenitis | adenoadenocarcinoma | | adenohypophysis | | adenoid adenoidal | adenoidal tissue adenoidectomy | adenoids adenectomy ryngeal tonsils Nursing.fm Page 6 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM adenoid vegetation 6 | adenoid vegetation / dinid ved tei()n/ noun a condition in children where the adenoidal tissue is covered with growths and can block the nasal passages or the Eustachian tubes adenolymphoma / dinlim fm/ noun a benign tumour of the salivary glands adenoma / di nm/ noun a benign tumour of a gland adenomyoma / dinmai m/ noun a benign tumour made up of glands and muscle adenopathy / di npi/ noun a disease of a gland adenosclerosis / dinskl rsis/ noun the hardening of a gland adenosine / densi n/ noun a drug used to treat an irregular heartbeat adenosine diphosphate / densi n dai fsfeit/ noun a chemical compound which provides energy for processes to take place within living cells, formed when adenosine triphosphate reacts with water. Abbreviation ADP adenosine triphosphate / densi n trai fsfeit/ noun a chemical which occurs in all cells, but mainly in muscle, where it forms the energy reserve. Abbreviation ATP adenosis / di nsis/ noun any disease or disorder of the glands adenovirus / din vairs/ noun a virus which produces upper respiratory infections and sore throats and can cause fatal pneumonia in infants ADH abbreviation antidiuretic hormone ADHD abbreviation attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhesion /d hi ()n/ noun a stable connection between two parts in the body, either in a healing process or between parts which are not usually connected adhesive dressing /d hi siv dresi/ noun a dressing with a sticky substance on the back so that it can stick to the skin adipose / dips/ adjective containing fat, or made of fat adipose degeneration / dips di d en rei()n/ noun an accumulation of fat in the cells of an organ such as the heart or liver, which makes the organ less able to perform its proper function. Also called fatty degeneration adiposis / di psis/ noun a state where too much fat is accumulated in the body adiposis dolorosa / di psis dl rs/ noun a disease of middle-aged women in which painful lumps of fatty substance form in the body. Also called Dercums disease adiposogenitalis / di ps d eni teilis/ noun same as Frhlichs syndrome adiposuria /dips ju ri/ noun the presence of fat in the urine adenolymphoma | adenoma | adenomyoma | adenopathy | adenosclerosis | adenosine | adenosine diphosphate | | adenosine triphosphate | | adenosis | adenovirus | ADH ADHD adhesion | adhesive dressing | adipose adipose degeneration | | adiposis | adiposis dolorosa | | adiposogenitalis | | | adiposuria | adenoid vegetation adiposus / di pss/ panniculus adipoadiposus | sus aditus / dits/ noun an opening or entrance to a passage adjustment / d stmnt/ noun a specific directional high-speed movement of a joint performed by a chiropractor adjuvant / d vnt/ adjective referring to treatment by drugs or radiation therapy after surgery for cancer noun a substance added to a drug to enhance the effect of the main ingredient adjuvant therapy / d vnt erpi/ noun therapy using drugs or radiation after cancer surgery ADLs abbreviation activities of daily living administer /d minist/ verb to give someone medicine or a treatment to administer orally to give a medicine by mouth admission /d mi()n/ noun the act of being registered as a hospital patient adnexa / d neks/ plural noun structures attached to an organ adolescence / d les()ns/ noun the period of life when a child is developing into an adult adolescent / d les()nt/ noun a person who is at the stage of life when he or she is developing into an adult adjective developing into an adult, or occurring at that stage of life adolescent boys and girls adolescent fantasies adoptive immunotherapy / dptiv imjn erpi/ noun a treatment for cancer in which the patients own white blood cells are used to attack cancer cells ADP abbreviation adenosine diphosphate adrenal / dri n()l/ adjective situated near the kidney noun same as adrenal gland adrenalectomy / dri n lektmi/ noun the surgical removal of one of the adrenal glands adrenal gland / dri n()l l nd/ noun one of two endocrine glands at the top of the kidneys which secrete cortisone, adrenaline and other hormones. Also called adrenal body, adrenal. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement adrenaline / drenlin/ noun a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands which has an effect similar to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system adrenal medulla / dri n()l me d l/ noun the inner part of the adrenal gland which secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline. Also called supraadjustment | adjuvant adjuvant therapy ADLs administer | admission | adnexa | adolescence | adolescent | adoptive immunotherapy | | ADP adrenal | adrenalectomy | | adrenal gland | adrenaline | adrenal medulla | | aditus renal medulla adrenergic adrenergic / dr n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor which is stimulated by adrenaline. beta blocker adrenergic receptor / drn d ik ri sept/ noun same as adrenoceptor | adrenergic receptor | COMMENT: Three types of adrenergic receptor act in different ways when stimulated by Nursing.fm Page 7 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 7 adrenaline. Alpha receptors constrict the bronchi, beta 1 receptors speed up the heartbeat and beta 2 receptors dilate the bronchi. adventitious bursa afferent nerve adventitious bursa / dvntis b s/ noun a bursa which develops as a result of continued pressure or rubbing adverse / dv s/ adjective harmful or unfavourable adverse occurrence / dv s k rns/ noun a harmful event which occurs during treatment advocacy / dvksi/ noun active support for something, especially in order to help people who would have difficulty in gaining attention without your help adynamic ileus /ei dain mik ilis/ noun same as paralytic ileus aegophony /i fni/ noun a high sound of the voice heard through a stethoscope, where there is fluid in the pleural cavity aer- /e/ prefix same as aero- (used before vowadverse adverse occurrence | advocacy adynamic ileus | aegophony | aer- adrenoceptor / dren sept/ noun a cell or neurone which is stimulated by adrenaline. Also called adrenoreceptor, adrenergic receptor adrenocortical / dri n k tik()l/ adjective relating to the cortex of the adrenal glands adrenocorticotrophic hormone / dri n k tktrfik h mn/ noun a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, which makes the cortex of the adrenal glands produce corticosteroids. Abbreviation ACTH. Also called cortico| | adrenocortical | | adrenocorticotrophic hormone | | adrenoceptor trophin adrenocorticotrophin / dri nk tk trfin/ noun adrenaline extracted from animals adrenal glands and used to prevent haemorrhages or to help asthmatic conditions adrenogenital syndrome / dri n d enit()l sindrm/ noun a condition caused by overproduction of male sex hormones, where boys show rapid sexual development and females develop male characteristics adrenolytic /dri n litik/ adjective acting against the secretion of adrenaline adrenoreceptor / drenri sept/ noun same as adrenoceptor adsorbent / d s bnt/ adjective being capable of adsorption adsorption / d s p()n/ noun the attachment of one substance to another, often the bonding of a liquid with a gas or vapour which touches its surface adult / d lt/ adjective grown-up Adolescents reach the adult stage about the age of eighteen or twenty. noun someone who is no longer a child adult coeliac disease / d lt si li k di zi z/ noun a condition in adults where the villi in the intestine become smaller and so reduce the surface which can absorb nutrients adult dentition / d lt den ti()n/ noun the 32 teeth which an adult has adulteration / d lt rei()n/ noun the act of making something less pure by adding another substance adult respiratory distress syndrome / d lt ri spirt()ri di stres sindrm/ noun a description of various lung infections which reduce the lungs efficiency. Abbreviation ARDS advanced trauma life support /d v nst tr ma laif s p t/ noun the management of a trauma patient during the critical first hour after injury. Abbreviation ATLS adventitious / dvn tis/ adjective on the outside or in an unusual place | | adrenogenital syndrome | | adrenolytic | adrenoreceptor | | adsorbent | adsorption | adult adult coeliac disease | adult dentition | adulteration | | adult respiratory distress syndrome | | advanced trauma life support | | adventitious | adrenocorticotrophin els) aeration /e rei()n/ noun the adding of air or oxygen to a liquid aero- /er/ prefix referring to air aeroba /e rb/, aerobe / erb/ noun a tiny organism which needs oxygen to survive aerobic /e rbik/ adjective needing oxygen to live, or taking place in the presence of oxygen aerogenous /e rd ns/ adjective referring to a bacterium which produces gas aerophagia / er feid /, aerophagy /e rfd i/ noun the habit of swallowing air when suffering from indigestion, so making the stomach pains worse aerosol / ersl/ noun tiny particles of a liquid such as a drug or disinfectant suspended in a gas under pressure in a container and used as a spray aetiology / i ti ld i/ noun 1. the cause or origin of a disease 2. the study of the causes and origins of diseases AfC abbreviation Agenda for Change afebrile /ei fi brail/ adjective with no fever affect / fekt/ verb to make something or someone change, especially to have a bad effect on something or someone Some organs are rapidly affected if the patient lacks oxygen for even a short time. noun same as affection affection / fek()n/, affect / fekt/ noun the general state of a persons emotions affective / fektiv/ adjective relating to a persons moods or feelings affective disorder / fektiv dis d/ noun a condition which changes someones mood, making him or her depressed or excited afferent / f()rnt/ adjective conducting liquid or electrical impulses towards the inside. Opposite efferent afferent nerve / f()rnt n v/ noun same as sensory nerve | aeroaeroba | aerobic | aerogenous | aerophagia | | aerosol aetiology | AfC afebrile | affect | affection | | affective | affective disorder | | afferent afferent nerve aeration Nursing.fm Page 8 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM afferent vessel afferent vessel 8 value, implemented in December 2004. Abbreviation AfC agenesis /ei d ensis/ noun the absence of an organ, resulting from a failure in embryonic development agent / eid nt/ noun 1. a chemical substance which makes another substance react 2. a substance or organism which causes a disease or condition 3. a person who acts as a representative of another person or carries out some kinds of work on his or her behalf agglutination / lu ti nei()n/ noun the act of coming together or sticking to one another to form a clump, as of bacteria cells in the presence of serum, or blood cells when blood of different types is mixed agglutinin / lu tinin/ noun a factor in a serum which makes cells stick together in clumps agglutinogen / lu tind n/ noun a factor in red blood cells which reacts with a specific agglutinin in serum agitation / d i tei()n/ noun a state of being very nervous and anxious aglossia /ei lsi/ noun the condition of not having a tongue from birth agnosia / nzi/ noun a brain disorder in which a person fails to recognise places, people, tastes or smells which they used to know well agonist / nist/ noun 1. a muscle which causes part of the body to move and another muscle to relax when it contracts. Also called prime mover 2. a substance which produces an observable physiological effect by acting through specific receptors. antagonist agony / ni/ noun a very severe physical or emotional pain He lay in agony on the floor. She suffered the agony of waiting for weeks until her condition was diagnosed. agoraphobia / ()r fbi/ noun a fear of being in open spaces. Compare claustrophobia agoraphobic / ()r fbik/ adjective afraid of being in open spaces. Compare clausagenesis | agent agglutination | | agglutinin | agglutinogen | agitation | aglossia | agnosia | agonist agony agoraphobia | agoraphobic | afferent vessel / f()rnt ves()l/ noun a tube which brings lymph to a gland affinity / finiti/ noun an attraction between two substances aflatoxin / fl tksin/ noun a poison produced by some moulds in some crops such as peanuts African trypanosomiasis / frikn tripns maisis/ noun same as sleeping affinity | aflatoxin | African trypanosomiasis | sickness afterbirth / ftb / noun the tissues, including the placenta and umbilical cord, which are present in the uterus during pregnancy and are expelled after the birth of a baby aftercare / ftke/ noun 1. the care of a person who has had an operation. Aftercare treatment involves changing dressings and helping people to look after themselves again. 2. the care of a mother who has just given birth after-effect / ftr i fekt/ noun a change which appears only some time after the cause The operation had some unpleasant after-effects. after-image / ftr imid / noun an image of an object which remains in a persons sight after the object itself has gone afterpains / ftpeinz/ plural noun regular pains in the uterus which are sometimes experienced after childbirth afunctional /ei f kn()l/ adjective which does not function properly agalactia / ei l kti/ noun a condition in which a mother is unable to produce milk after childbirth agammaglobulinaemia /ei m lbjli ni mi/ noun a deficiency or absence of immunoglobulins in the blood, which results in a reduced ability to provide immune responses agar / ei /, agar agar / ei ei / noun a culture medium based on an extract of seaweed used for growing microorganisms in laboratories age /eid / noun the number of years which a person has lived Whats your age on your next birthday? He was sixty years of age. The size varies according to age. verb to grow old age group / eid ru p/ noun all the people of a particular age or within a particular set of ages the age group 2025 agency / eid nsi/ noun 1. an organisation which carries out work on behalf of another organisation, e.g. one which recruits and employs nurses and supplies them to hospitals temporarily when full-time nursing staff are unavailable 2. the act of causing something to happen The disease develops through the agency of bacteria present in the bloodstream. Agenda for Change / d end f teind / noun a pay and reform package designed to ensure that all directly employed NHS staff are paid on the basis of equal pay for work of equal aftercare after-effect | after-image afterpains afunctional agalactia | agammaglobulinaemia | | agar age age group agency Agenda for Change | afterbirth | trophobic agranulocytosis / r njlsai tsis/ noun a usually fatal disease where the number of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, falls sharply because of a bone marrow condition agraphia /ei r fi/ noun the condition of being unable to put ideas into writing AHF abbreviation antihaemophilic factor aid /eid/ noun 1. help 2. a machine, tool or drug which helps someone do something He uses a walking frame as an aid to exercising his legs. verb to help someone or something The procedure is designed to aid the repair of tissues after surgery. AID / ei ai di / noun full form artificial insemination by donor. Now called DI | | | agraphia | AHF aid AID agranulocytosis Nursing.fm Page 9 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 9 AIDS aldosterone tebrae [After Frederick Houdlett Albee (1876 1945), US surgeon.] AIDS /eidz/, Aids noun a viral infection which breaks down the bodys immune system. Full form acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS dementia / eidz di men/ noun a form AIDS dementia | of mental degeneration resulting from infection with HIV AIDS-related complex / eidz ri leitid kmpleks/, AIDS-related condition / eidz ri leitid kn di()n/ noun early symptoms shown by someone infected with the HIV virus, e.g. weight loss, fever and herpes zoster. Abbreviation AIDS-related complex | | | ARC AIH abbreviation artificial insemination by husband ailment / eilmnt/ noun an illness, though not generally a very serious one Chickenpox is one of the common childhood ailments. air bed / e bed/ noun a mattress which is filled with air, used to prevent the formation of bedsores. conduction airborne infection / eb n in fekn/ noun an infection which is carried in the air air conduction / e kn d kn/ noun the process by which sounds pass from the outside to the inner ear through the auditory meatus air embolism / er embliz()m/ noun a blockage caused by bubbles of air, that stops the flow of blood in vessels air passage / e p sid / noun any tube which takes air to the lungs, e.g. the nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi airsickness / esikns/ noun a queasy feeling, usually leading to vomiting, caused by the movement of an aircraft airway / ewei/ noun a passage through which air passes, especially the trachea akathisia / eik isi/ noun restlessness akinesia / eiki ni zi/ noun a lack of voluntary movement, as in Parkinsons disease akinetic / eiki netik/ adjective without movement alacrima /ei l krim/ noun same as xerosis alactasia / eil k teizi/ noun a condition in which there is a deficiency of lactase in the intestine, making the patient incapable of digesting lactose, the sugar in milk alalia /ei leili/ noun a condition in which a person completely loses the ability to speak alanine / lni n/ noun an amino acid alanine aminotransferase / lni n mi n tr nsfreiz/ noun an enzyme which is found in the liver and can be monitored as an indicator of liver damage. Abbreviation ALT alar cartilage / eil k tilid / noun cartilage in the nose Albees operation / lbi z p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to fuse two or more verailment air bed airborne infection | air conduction | air embolism air passage airsickness airway akathisia | akinesia | akinetic | alacrima | alactasia | alalia | alanine alanine aminotransferase | | alar cartilage Albees operation | AIH albinism / lbiniz()m/ noun a condition in which a person lacks the pigment melanin and so has pink skin and eyes and white hair. It is hereditary and cannot be treated. vitiligo albino / l bi n/ noun a person who is deficient in melanin and has little or no pigmentation in the skin, hair or eyes albuginea oculi / lbjd ini kjlai/ noun same as sclera albumin / lbjmin/ noun a common protein, which is soluble in water, found in plant and animal tissue and digested in the intestine albuminuria / lbjmi njri/ noun a condition in which albumin is found in the urine, usually a sign of kidney disease, but also sometimes of heart failure albumose / lbjmz/ noun an intermediate product in the digestion of protein alcohol / lkhl/ noun a pure colourless liquid which is formed by the action of yeast on sugar solutions and forms part of drinks such as wine and whisky alcohol abuse / lkhl bju s/ noun the excessive use of alcohol adversely affecting a persons health alcohol addiction / lkhl dikn/ noun a condition in which a person is dependent on the use of alcohol alcohol-fast / lkhl f st/ adjective referring to an organ stained for testing which is not discoloured by alcohol alcoholic / lk hlik/ adjective containing alcohol noun a person who is addicted to drinking alcohol and shows changes in behaviour and personality alcoholic cirrhosis / lkhlik si rsis/ noun cirrhosis of the liver caused by alcoholism Alcoholics Anonymous / lkhliks nnims/ noun an organisation of former alcoholics which helps people to overcome their dependence on alcohol by encouraging them to talk about their problems in group therapy. Abbreviation AA alcoholism / lkhliz()m/ noun excessive drinking of alcohol which becomes addictive alcohol poisoning / lkhl piz()ni/ noun poisoning and disease caused by excessive drinking of alcohol alcoholuria / lkh ljri/ noun a condition in which alcohol is present in the urine albino | albuginea oculi albumin albuminuria | albumose alcohol alcohol abuse | alcohol addiction | alcohol-fast alcoholic | alcoholic cirrhosis | Alcoholics Anonymous | alcoholism alcohol poisoning alcoholuria | albinism (NOTE: The level of alcohol in the urine is used as a test for drivers who are suspected of driving while drunk.) aldosterone / l dstrn/ noun a hormone aldosterone | secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, which regulates the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and the amount of body fluid Nursing.fm Page 10 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM aldosteronism 10 | aldosteronism / l dst()rniz()m/ noun a condition in which a person produces too much aldosterone, so that there is too much salt in the blood. This causes high blood pressure and the need to drink a lot of liquids. aleukaemic / eilu ki mik/ adjective referring to a state where leukaemia is not present Alexander technique / li z nd tek ni k/ noun a method of improving the way a person stands and moves, by making them much more aware of how muscles behave alexia /ei leksi/ noun a condition in which the patient cannot understand printed words. Also called word blindness alfacalcidol / lf k lsidl/ noun a substance related to vitamin D, used by the body to maintain the right levels of calcium and phosphate, and also as a drug to help people who do not have enough vitamin D algesimeter / ld i simit/ noun an instrument to measure the sensitivity of the skin to pain -algia / ld i/ suffix a word ending that indicates a painful condition algid / ld id/ adjective referring to a stage in a disease that causes fever during which the body becomes cold alienation / eili nei()n/ noun a psychological condition in which a person develops the feeling of not being part of the everyday world, and as a result often becomes hostile to other people alignment / lainmnt/ noun the arrangement of something in a straight line, or in the correct position in relation to something else alimentary / li ment()ri/ adjective providing food, or relating to food or nutrition alimentary canal / li ment()ri k n l/ noun a tube in the body going from the mouth to the anus and including the throat, stomach and intestine, through which food passes and is digested aleukaemic | Alexander technique | | alexia | alfacalcidol | algesimeter | -algia algid alienation | alignment | alimentary | alimentary canal | | aldosteronism alkalinity / lk liniti/ noun the level of alkali in a body Hyperventilation causes fluctuating carbon dioxide levels in the blood, resulting in an increase of blood alkalinity. alkaloid / lklid/ noun one of many poisonous substances found in plants and used as medicines, e.g. atropine, morphine or quinine alkalosis / lk lsis/ noun a condition in which the alkali level in the body tissue is high, producing cramps alkaptonuria / lk pt njri/ noun a hereditary condition where dark pigment is present in the urine allantois / l ntis/ noun one of the membranes in the embryo, shaped like a sac, which grows out of the embryonic hindgut allele / li l/ noun one of two or more alternative forms of a gene, situated in the same area on each of a pair of chromosomes and each producing a different effect allergen / ld n/ noun a substance which produces hypersensitivity allergenic agent / ld enik eid nt/ noun a substance which produces an allergy allergic / l d ik/ adjective having an allergy to something She is allergic to cats. Im allergic to penicillin. allergy / ld i/ noun an unusual sensitivity to some substances such as pollen or dust, which cause a physical reaction such as sneezing or a rash in someone who comes into contact with them She has an allergy to household dust. He has a penicillin allergy. (NOTE: You have an | alkaloid alkalosis | alkaptonuria | allantois | allele | allergen allergenic agent allergic | allergy alkalinity allergy or you are allergic to something.) allergy bracelet / ld i breislt/ noun allergy bracelet medical alert bracelet allied health professional COMMENT: The alimentary canal is formed of the mouth, throat, oesophagus stomach and small and large intestines. Food is broken down by digestive juices in the mouth, stomach and small intestine, water is removed in the large intestine, and the remaining matter is passed out of the body as faeces. alimentation / limen tei()n/ noun the act alimentation | of providing food or nourishment aliquot / likwt/ noun a part of a larger thing, especially a sample of something which is taken to be examined alkalaemia / lk li mi/ noun an excess of alkali in the blood alkali / lklai/ noun one of many substances which neutralise acids and form salts (NOTE: The aliquot alkalaemia | alkali allied health professional / laid hel pr fe()n()l/ noun a professional working in medicine who is not a doctor or nurse, e.g. a physiotherapist or paramedic allo- / l/ prefix different allocation / l kei()n/ noun the way an amount of something is divided among the various departments of an organisation, or the amount which is received by a particular department allodynia / l dini/ noun pain of the skin caused by something such as clothing which usually does not cause pain allograft / l r ft/ noun same as homalloallocation | allodynia | allograft | ograft allopathy allopathy / lpi/ noun the treatment of a condition using drugs which produce opposite symptoms to those of the condition. Compare | homeopathy plural is alkalis.) alkaline / lklain/ adjective containing more alkaline alkali than acid allopurinol / l pjrinl/ noun a drug which helps to stop the body producing uric acid, used in the treatment of gout | allopurinol Nursing.fm Page 11 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 11 amentia into which a tooth fits. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is alveoli.) Alzheimer plaque / ltshaim pl k/ noun a Alzheimer plaque all or none law / l n n l / noun the rule that the heart muscle either contracts fully or does not contract at all allylestrenol / lail estrnl/ noun a steroid used to encourage pregnancy alopecia / l pi / noun a condition in which hair is lost. Compare hypotrichosis alopecia areata / lpi ri eit/ noun a condition in which the hair falls out in patches alpha / lf/ noun the first letter of the Greek alphabet alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist / lf dri nri sept n t nist/, alpha-adrenoceptor blocker / lf blk/ noun a drug which can relax smooth muscle, used to treat urinary retention and hypertension. Also called allylestrenol | alopecia | alopecia areata | alpha alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist | | | all or none law disc-shaped plaque of amyloid found in the brain in people who have Alzheimers disease Alzheimers disease / ltshaimz di zi z/ noun a disease where a person experiences progressive dementia due to nerve cell loss in specific brain areas, resulting in loss of mental faculties including memory [Described 1906. After Alzheimers disease | Alois Alzheimer (18641915), Bavarian physician.] amalgam / m l m/ noun a mixture of metamalgam | alpha blocker alpha-fetoprotein / lf fi t prti n/ noun a protein produced by the liver of the human | alpha-fetoprotein fetus, which accumulates in the amniotic fluid. A high or low concentration is tested for by amniocentesis in the antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida or Downs syndrome, respectively. Alports syndrome / lp ts sindrm/ noun a genetic disease of the kidneys which sometimes causes a person to lose his or her hearing and sight alprostadil / l prstdil/ noun a drug which makes blood vessels wider, used to treat impotence, prevent coagulation, and maintain babies with congenital heart conditions ALT abbreviation alanine aminotransferase alternative medicine / l t ntiv med()sin/ noun the treatment of illness using therapies such as homoeopathy or naturopathy which are not considered part of conventional Western medicine. complementary medicine altitude sickness / ltitju d sikns/ noun a condition caused by reduced oxygen in the air above altitudes of 7000 to 8000 feet (3600 metres). Symptoms include headaches, breathlessness, fatigue, nausea and swelling of the face, hands and feet. Also called high-altitude sickAlports syndrome alprostadil | ALT alternative medicine | altitude sickness als, based on mercury and tin, used by dentists to fill holes in teeth amaurosis / m rsis/ noun blindness caused by disease of the optic nerve amaurotic familial idiocy / m rtik f milil idisi/, amaurotic family idiocy / m rtik f m()li idisi/ noun same as amaurosis | amaurotic familial idiocy | Tay-Sachs disease amb- / mb/ prefix same as ambi- (used before vowels) ambi- / mbi/ prefix both ambidextrous / mbi dekstrs/ adjective ambambiambidextrous | ness, mountain sickness aluminium hydroxide / l minim hai drksaid/ noun a chemical substance used as an antacid to treat indigestion. Formula: Al(OH)3 or Al2O3.3H2O. alveolar / lvi l, l vi l/ adjective referring to the alveoli alveolar duct / lvi l d kt/ noun a duct in the lung which leads from the respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement alveolitis / lvi laitis/ noun inflammation of an alveolus in the lungs or the socket of a tooth alveolus / lvi ls, l vi ls/ noun a small cavity, e.g. an air sac in the lungs or the socket | | alveolar | | alveolar duct | alveolitis | alveolus | | aluminium hydroxide referring to a person who can use both hands equally well and who is not right- or left-handed ambisexual / mbi sekul/ adjective, noun same as bisexual amblyopia / mbli pi/ noun a lack of normal vision without a structural cause. A common example is squint and other forms may be caused by the cyanide in tobacco smoke or by drinking methylated spirits. amblyopic / mbli pik/ adjective affected by amblyopia amblyoscope / mbliskp/ noun an instrument for measuring the angle of a squint and how effectively someone uses both their eyes together. Also called orthoptoscope ambulatory / mbju leit()ri/ adjective referring to a patient who is not confined to bed but is able to walk ambulatory care / mbju leit()ri ke/ noun treatment of a patient which does not involve staying in hospital during the night amelia / mi li/ noun the absence of a limb from birth, or a condition in which a limb is short from birth amelioration / mi li rei()n/ noun the process of getting better ameloblastoma / milbl stm/ noun a tumour in the jaw, usually in the lower jaw amenorrhoea / eimen ri / noun the absence of one or more menstrual periods, usual during pregnancy and after the menopause amentia /ei men/ noun the fact of being mentally underdeveloped ambisexual | amblyopia | amblyopic | amblyoscope ambulatory | ambulatory care | amelia | amelioration | | ameloblastoma | amenorrhoea | amentia | Nursing.fm Page 12 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ametropia ametropia 12 | ametropia / mi trpi/ noun a condition in which the eye cannot focus light correctly onto the retina, as in astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia. Compare emmetropia amfetamine / m fetmi n/ noun an addictive drug, similar to adrenaline, used to give a feeling of wellbeing and wakefulness. Also called amfetamine | amphetamine amikacin / mi keisin/ noun a type of antibiamikacin | noun gamma aminobutyric acid aminoglycoside / mi n laiksaid/ noun aminoglycoside | | otic used to treat infections caused by aerobic bacteria amiloride / milraid/ noun a drug which helps to increase the production of urine and preserve the bodys supply of potassium amino acid / mi n sid/ noun a chemical compound which is broken down from proteins in the digestive system and then used by the body to form its own protein aminobutyric acid / mi nbjtirik sid/ amiloride | amino acid | aminobutyric acid | amniotic / mni tik/ adjective relating to the amnion amniotic fluid / mnitik flu id/ noun the fluid contained in the amnion which surrounds an unborn baby amniotomy / mni tmi/ noun a puncture of the amnion to help induce labour amoeba / mi b/ noun a form of animal life, made up of a single cell (NOTE: The plural is | amniotic fluid amniotomy | amoeba | amniotic amoebae.) a drug used to treat many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacterial infections (NOTE: Aminoglycosides include drugs with names ending in -cin: gentamicin.) aminophylline / mi nfili n/ noun a drug aminophylline | amoebiasis / mi baisis/ noun an infection caused by amoebae which can result in amoebic dysentery in the large intestine (intestinal amoebiasis) and sometimes affects the lungs (pulmonary amoebiasis) amoebic / mi bik/ adjective relating to or caused by amoebae amorphous / m fs/ adjective with no regular shape amoxicillin / mksisilin/ noun an antibiotic Amoxil / mksil/ a trade name for amoxicillin amphetamine / m fetmi n/ noun same as | amoebic | amorphous | amoxicillin | Amoxil | amphetamine | amoebiasis amfetamine amphiarthrosis that makes the bronchial tubes wider, used in the treatment of asthma amiodarone / mi drn/ noun a drug that makes the blood vessels wider, used in the treatment of irregular heartbeat amitosis / mi tsis/ noun the multiplication of a cell by splitting of the nucleus amitriptyline / mi triptili n/ noun a sedative drug used to treat depression and persistent pain amlodipine / m ldipi n/ noun a drug that helps to control the movement of calcium ions through cell membranes. It is used to treat hypertension and angina. ammonia / mni/ noun a gas with a strong smell, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is a usual product of human metabolism amnesia / m ni zi/ noun loss of memory amnihook / mnihk/ noun a hooked instrument used to induce labour by pulling on the amniotic sac amniocentesis / mnisen ti sis/ noun a procedure which involves taking a test sample of the amniotic fluid during pregnancy using a hollow needle and syringe amnion / mnin/ noun the thin sac containing the amniotic fluid which covers an unborn baby in the uterus. Also called amniotic sac amnioscope / mniskp/ noun an instrument used to examine a fetus through the cervical channel, before the amniotic sac is broken amnioscopy / mni skpi/ noun an examination of the amniotic fluid during pregnancy amiodarone | amitosis | amitriptyline | amlodipine | ammonia | amnesia | amnihook amniocentesis | amnion amnioscope amnioscopy | amphiarthrosis / mfi rsis/ noun a joint which only has limited movement, e.g. one of the joints in the spine amphotericin / mf terisin/ noun an antifungal agent, used against Candida ampicillin / mpi silin/ noun a type of penicillin, used as an antibiotic ampoule / mpu l/, ampule / mpju l/ noun a small glass container, closed at the neck, used to contain sterile drugs for use in injections ampulla / m pl/ noun a swelling of a canal or duct, shaped like a bottle (NOTE: The plural is | amphotericin | ampicillin | ampoule ampulla | ampullae.) amputation amputation / mpj tei()n/ noun the surgical removal of a limb or part of a limb amputee / mpj ti / noun someone who has had a limb or part of a limb removed in a surgical operation amygdala / mi dl/ noun an almond-shaped body in the brain, at the end of the caudate nucleus of the thalamus. Also called amygdaloid | amputee | amygdala | body amygdaloid body / mi dlid bdi/ noun same as amygdala amyl- / m()l/ prefix referring to starch amylase / mileiz/ noun an enzyme which converts starch into maltose amyl nitrate / m()l naitreit/ noun a drug used to reduce blood pressure (NOTE: Amyl nitrate | amylamylase amyl nitrate amygdaloid body is also used as a recreational drug.) amyloid amyloid / milid/ noun a waxy protein that forms in some tissues during the development of various diseases, e.g. forming disc-shaped plaques in the brain in Alzheimers disease Nursing.fm Page 13 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 13 amyloid disease anastomose anaesthetic amyloid disease / milid di zi z/ noun same as amyloidosis amyloidosis / mili dsis/ noun a disease of the kidneys and liver, where amyloid develops in the tissues. Also called amyloid disease amylopsin / mi lpsin/ noun an enzyme which converts starch into maltose amylose / milz/ noun a carbohydrate of starch amyotonia / eimai tni/ noun a lack of muscle tone amyotonia congenita / eimaitni kn d enit/ noun a congenital disease of children in which the muscles lack tone. Also called floppy | amyloidosis | amylopsin | amylose amyotonia | amyotonia congenita | baby syndrome amyotrophia /ei mai trfi/ noun a condiamyotrophia | | tion in which a muscle wastes away amyotrophic lateral sclerosis /ei maitrfik l tr()l skl rsis/ noun a motor neurone disease in which the limbs twitch and the muscles gradually waste away. Also called Gehrigs disease. Abbreviation ALS amyotrophy /ei mai trfi/ same as amyoamyotrophic lateral sclerosis | | amyotrophy | | trophia an- an- / n/ prefix same as ana- (used before vowels) ana- / n/ prefix without or lacking anabolic / n blik/ adjective referring to a substance which synthesises protein anabolic steroid / n blik stirid/ noun a drug which encourages the synthesis of new living tissue, especially muscle, from nutrients anabolism / n bliz()m/ noun the process of building up complex chemical substances on the basis of simpler ones anacrotism / n krtiz()m/ noun a second stroke in the pulse anaemia / ni mi/ noun a condition in which the level of red blood cells is less than usual or where the haemoglobin is less, making it more difficult for the blood to carry oxygen. The symptoms are tiredness and pale colour, especially pale lips, nails and the inside of the eyelids. The condition can be fatal if not treated. anaemic / ni mik/ adjective having anaemia anaerobe / nrb, n erb/ noun a microorganism which lives without oxygen, e.g. the tetanus bacillus anaerobic / n rbik/ adjective 1. not needing oxygen for metabolism anaerobic bacteria 2. without oxygen anaerobic conditions anaesthesia / ns i zi/ noun 1. a state, deliberately produced in a patient by a medical procedure, in which he or she can feel no pain, either in a part or in the whole of the body 2. a loss of feeling caused by damage to nerves (NOTE: anabolic | anabolic steroid | anabolism | anacrotism | anaemia | anaemic | anaerobe | anaerobic | anaesthesia | ana- anaesthetic / ns etik/ adjective inducing loss of feeling noun a substance given to someone to remove feeling, so that he or she can undergo an operation without pain anaesthetic induction / nsetik in d kn/ noun a method of inducing anaesthesia in a patient anaesthetic risk / nsetik risk/ noun the risk that an anaesthetic may cause serious unwanted side effects anaesthetise / ni staiz/, anaesthetize verb to produce a loss of feeling in a person or in part of the persons body anaesthetist / ni stist/ noun a specialist who administers anaesthetics anal / ein()l/ adjective relating to the anus analeptic / n leptik/ noun a drug used to make someone regain consciousness or to stimulate a patient analgesia / n()l d i zi/ noun a reduction of the feeling of pain without loss of consciousness analgesic / n()l d i zik/ adjective relating to analgesia noun a painkilling drug which produces analgesia and reduces pyrexia anally / ein()li/ adverb through the anus The patient is not able to pass faeces anally. analyse / nlaiz/ verb to examine something in detail The laboratory is analysing the blood When the food was analysed it was samples. found to contain traces of bacteria. analysis / n lsis/ noun an examination of a substance to find out what it is made of (NOTE: | anaesthetic induction | anaesthetic risk anaesthetise | anaesthetist | anal analeptic | analgesia | analgesic | anally analyse analysis | The plural is analyses.) analyst / nlist/ noun a person who examines analyst The US spelling is anesthesia.) samples of substances or tissue, to find out what they are made of anaphase / nfeiz/ noun a stage in cell division, after the metaphase and before the telophase anaphylactic / nfi l ktik/ adjective relating to or caused by extreme sensitivity to a substance anaphylactic shock / nfil ktik k/ noun a sudden severe reaction, which can be fatal, to something such as an injected substance or a bee sting anaphylaxis / nfi l ksis/ noun 1. extreme sensitivity to a substance introduced into the body 2. same as anaphylactic shock anaplasia / n pleisi/ noun the loss of a cells typical characteristics, caused by cancer anaplastic / n pl stik/ adjective referring to anaplasia anarthria / n ri/ noun the loss of the ability to speak words properly anasarca / n s k/ noun the presence of fluid in the body tissues. oedema anastomose / n stmz/ verb to join two blood vessels or tubular structures together anaphase anaphylactic | anaphylactic shock anaphylaxis | anaplasia | anaplastic | anarthria | anasarca | anastomose | Nursing.fm Page 14 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM anastomosis 14 | | anastomosis / n st msis/ noun a connection made between two blood vessels or tubular structures, either naturally or by surgery anatomical / n tmik()l/ adjective relating to the anatomy the anatomical features of a fetus anatomy / n tmi/ noun 1. the structure, especially the internal structure, of the body 2. the branch of science that studies the structure of the bodies of humans, animals and plants They are studying anatomy. ancillary worker / n silri w k/ noun someone who does a job for patients such cooking or cleaning which is supplementary to medical care anconeus / knis/ noun a small triangular muscle at the back of the elbow Ancylostoma / nsil stm/ noun a parasitic worm in the intestine which holds onto the wall of the intestine with its teeth and lives on the blood and protein of the carrier ancylostomiasis / nsilst maisis/ noun a disease of which the symptoms are weakness and anaemia, caused by a hookworm which lives on the blood of the carrier. In severe cases the person may die. androgen / ndrd n/ noun a male sex hormone, testosterone or androsterone, which increases the male characteristics of the body androgenic / ndr d enik/ adjective producing male characteristics andrology / n drld i/ noun the study of male sexual characteristics and subjects such as impotence, infertility and the male menopause androsterone / n drstrn/ noun one of the male sex hormones anencephalous / nen kefls/ adjective having no brain anencephaly / nen kefli/ noun the absence of a brain, which causes a fetus to die a few hours after birth anergy / nd i/ noun a state of severe weakness and lack of energy aneurine / njrin/ noun same as Vitamin B1 aneurysm / njriz()m/ noun a swelling caused by the weakening of the wall of a blood vessel angi- / nd i/ prefix same as angio- (used anatomical | anatomy | ancillary worker | anconeus | Ancylostoma | ancylostomiasis | androgen androgenic | andrology | androsterone | anencephalous | anencephaly | anergy aneurine | aneurysm angi- anastomosis before vowels) angiectasis / angiectasis angiitis nd i ektsis/ noun a swelling of the blood vessels angiitis / nd i aitis/ noun an inflammation of a blood vessel angina / n d ain/ noun a pain in the chest following exercise or eating, which is caused by an inadequate supply of blood to the heart muscles because of narrowing of the arteries. It is com| | angina | monly treated with nitrates or calcium channel blocker drugs. angina pectoris / n d ain pektris/ noun same as angina angio- / nd i/ prefix referring to a blood vessel angiocardiogram / nd i k di r m/ noun a series of pictures resulting from angiocardiography angiocardiography / nd ik di rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the cardiac system after injection with an opaque dye so that the organs show up clearly on the film angiodysplasia / nd idis pleizi/ noun a condition where the blood vessels in the colon dilate, resulting in loss of blood angiogenesis / nd i d ensis/ noun the formation of new blood vessels, e.g. in an embryo or as a result of a tumour angiogram / nd i r m/ noun an X-ray picture of blood vessels angiography / nd i rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of blood vessels after injection with an opaque dye so that they show up clearly on the film angiology / nd i ld i/ noun the branch of medicine which deals with blood vessels and the lymphatic system angioma / nd i m/ noun a benign tumour formed of blood vessels, e.g. a naevus angioneurotic oedema / nd inj rtik i di m/ noun a sudden accumulation of liquid under the skin, similar to nettle rash angiopathy / nd i pi/ noun a disease of vessels such as blood and lymphatic vessels angioplasty / nd i pl sti/ noun plastic surgery to repair a blood vessel, e.g. a narrowed coronary artery angiosarcoma / nd is km/ noun a malignant tumour in a blood vessel angiospasm / nd isp z()m/ noun a spasm which constricts blood vessels angiotensin / nd itensin/ noun a polypeptide which affects blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction and increasing extracellular volume angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor / nd itensin kn v ti enzaim in hibit/ noun a drug which inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which constricts arteries, used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Also called ACE inhibitor angina pectoris | angioangiocardiogram | angiocardiography | | angiodysplasia | angiogenesis | angiogram angiography | angiology | angioma | angioneurotic oedema | | | angiopathy | angioplasty | angiosarcoma | angiospasm angiotensin angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor | | (NOTE: ACE inhibitors have names ending in -pril: captopril.) angle-closure glaucoma / l kl l km/ noun an unusually high pressure of angle-closure glaucoma | fluid inside the eyeball caused by pressure of the Nursing.fm Page 15 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 15 iris against the lens, trapping the aqueous humour. Also called acute glaucoma angular vein / jl vein/ noun a vein which continues the facial vein at the side of the nose anhedonia / nhi dni/ noun a psychological condition in which a person is unable to enjoy all the experiences that most people enjoy anhidrosis / nhi drsis/ noun a condition in which sweating by the body is reduced or stops completely anhidrotic / nhi drtik/ adjective referring to a drug which reduces sweating anhydraemia / nhai dri mi/ noun a lack of sufficient fluid in the blood anhydrous / n haidrs/ adjective referring to compounds or crystals that contain no water anidrosis / ni drsis/ noun same as anhidangular vein anhedonia | anhidrosis | anhidrotic | anhydraemia | anhydrous | anidrosis | anomie anteflexion rosis aniridia / ni ridi/ noun a congenital absence of the iris anisocytosis / naissai tsis/ noun a variation in size of red blood cells anisomelia / nais mi li/ noun a difference in length of the legs anisometropia / naism trpi/ noun a state where the refraction in the two eyes is different ankle / kl/ noun the part of the body where the foot is connected to the leg ankyloblepharon / kil blefrn/ noun a state where the edges of the eyelids are stuck together ankylosing spondylitis / kilzi spndi laitis/ noun a condition occurring more frequently in young men, in which the vertebrae and sacroiliac joints are inflamed and become stiff ankylosis / ki lsis/ noun a condition in which the bones of a joint fuse together Ankylostoma / kil stm/ noun same as | anisocytosis | anisomelia | anisometropia | ankle ankyloblepharon | ankylosing spondylitis | ankylosis | Ankylostoma | aniridia Ancylostoma ankylostomiasis / kilst maisis/ noun same as ancylostomiasis annular / njl/ adjective shaped like a ring annulus / njls/ noun a structure shaped like | annular annulus ankylostomiasis a ring ano- / n/ prefix referring to the anus anodyne / ndain/ noun a drug which reduces pain, e.g. aspirin or codeine adjective referring to drugs that bring relief from pain or discomfort anomalous / nmls/ adjective different from what is usual anomaly / nmli/ noun something which is different from the usual anoanodyne anomalous | anomaly | anomie / nmi/ noun a psychological condition in which a person develops the feeling of not being part of the everyday world, and behaves as though they do not have any supporting social or moral framework anonychia / n niki/ noun a congenital absence of one or more nails anopheles / nfli z/ noun a mosquito which carries the malaria parasite anoplasty / einpl sti/ noun surgery to repair the anus, as in treating haemorrhoids anorchism / n kiz()m/ noun a congenital absence of testicles anorectal / ein rekt()l/ adjective referring to both the anus and rectum anorexia / n reksi/ noun loss of appetite anorexia nervosa / nreksi n vs/ noun a psychological condition, usually found in girls and young women, in which a person refuses to eat because of a fear of becoming fat anosmia / n zmi/ noun the lack of the sense of smell anovular / n vjl/ adjective without an ovum anovular bleeding / n vjl bli di/ noun bleeding from the uterus when ovulation has not taken place anovulation / n vj lei()n/ noun a condition in which a women does not ovulate and is therefore infertile anoxaemia / nk si mi/ noun a reduction of the amount of oxygen in the blood anoxia / nksi/ noun a lack of oxygen in body tissue anoxic / n ksik/ adjective referring to anoxia or lacking oxygen antacid / nt sid/ adjective preventing too much acid forming in the stomach or altering the amount of acid in the stomach noun a substance that stops too much acid forming in the stomach, used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal conditions such as ulcers, e.g. calcium carbonate or magnesium trisilicate antagonist / n t nist/ adjective 1. referring to a muscle which opposes another muscle in a movement 2. referring to a substance which opposes another substance noun a substance which acts through specific receptors to block the action of another substance, but which has no observable physiological effect itself Atropine is a cholinergic antagonist and blocks the effects of acetylcholine. ante- / nti/ prefix before ante cibum / nti tibm, nti si bm/ adverb full form of a.c. anteflexion / nti flekn/ noun the curving forward of an organ, e.g. the usual curvature of the uterus anonychia | anopheles | anoplasty anorchism | anorectal | anorexia | anorexia nervosa | anosmia | anovular | anovular bleeding | anovulation | | anoxaemia | anoxia | anoxic | antacid | antagonist | anteante cibum anteflexion | Nursing.fm Page 16 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM antemortem 16 | antemortem / nti m tm/ noun the period before death antenatal / nti neit()l/ adjective during the period between conception and childbirth antenatal clinic / nti neit()l klinik/ noun a clinic where expectant mothers are taught how to look after babies, do exercises and have medical checkups. Also called maternity clinic antenatal diagnosis / nti neit()l dai nsis/ noun a medical examination of a pregnant woman to see if the fetus is developing in the usual way. Also called prenatal diagnosis antepartum / nti p tm/ noun the period of three months before childbirth adjective referring to the three months before childbirth antepartum haemorrhage / ntip tm hemrid / noun bleeding from the vagina before labour. Abbreviation APH anterior / n tiri/ adjective in front. Opposite antenatal | antenatal clinic | antenatal diagnosis | | antepartum | antepartum haemorrhage | anterior | antemortem posterior anterior aspect / n tiri spekt/ noun a view of the front of the body, or of the front of part of the body. See illustration at ANATOMICAL | anterior aspect TERMS in Supplement anterior fontanelle / n tiri fnt nel/ noun the cartilage at the top of the head where the frontal bone joins the two parietals anterior nares / n tiri neri z/ plural noun the two nostrils. Also called external nares anterograde amnesia / ntr reid m ni zi/ noun a brain condition in which the person cannot remember things which happened recently anteversion / nti v ()n/ noun the tilting forward of an organ, whether usual, as of the uterus, or unusual anthelmintic / nel mintik/ noun a substance which removes worms from the intestine adjective removing worms from the intestine anthracosis / nr ksis/ noun a lung disease caused by breathing coal dust anthrax / nr ks/ noun a disease of cattle and sheep which can be transmitted to humans anthrop- / nrp/ prefix referring to human beings anthropology / nr pld i/ noun the study of human beings as a species, especially their culture or development. It differs from sociology in taking a more historical and comparative approach. anthropometry / nr pmtri/ noun the study of human body measurements (NOTE: The anterior fontanelle | | anterior nares | anterograde amnesia | anteversion | anthelmintic | anthracosis | anthrax anthropanthropology | anthropometry | antiarrhythmic / ntiei rimik/ adjective referring to a drug which corrects an irregular heartbeat antiasthmatic / nti s m tik/ adjective referring to a drug that is used to treat asthma antibacterial / ntib k tiril/ adjective destroying bacteria antibiotic / ntibai tik/ adjective stopping the spread of bacteria noun a drug which is developed from living substances and which stops the spread of bacteria, e.g. penicillin He was given a course of antibiotics. Antibiotics have no effect against viral diseases. antibody / ntibdi/ noun a protein that is stimulated by the body to produce foreign substances such as bacteria, as part of an immune reaction Tests showed that he had antibodies in his blood. antibody-negative / ntibdi ne tiv/ adjective showing none of a particular antibody in the blood The donor tested antibody-negative. antibody-positive / ntibdi pzitiv/ adjective showing the presence of particular antibodies in the blood The patient is HIV antibody-positive. anticholinergic / ntikli n d ik/ adjective blocking nerve impulses which are part of the stress response noun one of a group of drugs which are used to control stress anticholinesterase / ntiklin estreiz/ noun a substance which blocks nerve impulses by reducing the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase anticoagulant / ntik jlnt/ adjective slowing or stopping the clotting of blood noun a drug which slows down or stops the clotting of blood, used to prevent the formation of a thrombus (NOTE: Anticoagulants have names ending | antiasthmatic | antibacterial | antibiotic | antibody antibody-negative antibody-positive anticholinergic | anticholinesterase | | anticoagulant | antiarrhythmic in -parin: heparin.) uses of anthropometry include the design of ergonomic furniture and the examination and comparison of populations.) anti- anti- / nti/ prefix against anticonvulsant / ntikn v ls()nt/ adjective acting to control convulsions noun a drug used to control convulsions, as in the treatment of epilepsy, e.g. carbamazepine anti-D / nti di/, anti-D gamma-globulin m lbjlin/ noun Rh D immu/ nti di noglobulin, used to treat pregnant women who develop antibodies when the mother is Rh-negative and the fetus is Rh-positive antidepressant / ntidi pres()nt/ adjective acting to relieve depression noun a drug used to relieve depression by stimulating the mood of a depressed person. Examples are tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. anti-D immunoglobulin / nti di imjn lbjlin/ noun immunoglobulin administered to Rh-negative mothers after the birth of an Rhpositive baby, to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn in the next pregnancy | anti-D antidepressant | anti-D immunoglobulin | anticonvulsant Nursing.fm Page 17 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 17 antitetanus serum antidiuretic / ntidaij retik/ noun a substance which stops the production of excessive amounts of urine hormones which have an antidiuretic effect on the kidneys adjective preventing the excessive production of urine antidote / ntidt/ noun a substance which counteracts the effect of a poison There is no satisfactory antidote to cyanide. antiembolic / ntiem blik/ adjective preventing embolism antiemetic / ntii metik/ noun a drug which prevents vomiting adjective acting to prevent vomiting antiepileptic drug / ntiepi leptik dr / noun a drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, e.g. carbamazepine antifibrinolytic / ntifaibrin litik/ adjective acting to reduce fibrosis antifungal / nti f l/ adjective referring to a substance which kills or controls fungal and yeast infections, e.g. candida and ringworm | antidote antiembolic | antiemetic | antiepileptic drug | antifibrinolytic | antifungal | antidiuretic (NOTE: Antifungal drugs have names ending in -conazole: fluconazole.) antigen / ntid n/ noun a substance that antigen stimulates the body to produce antibodies, e.g. a protein on the surface of a cell or microorganism antigenic / nti d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which stimulates the formation of antibodies antihaemophilic factor / ntihi m filik f kt/ noun factor VIII, used to encourage blood-clotting in haemophiliacs. Abbreviation antigenic | antihaemophilic factor | AHF antihelminthic / ntihel minik/ noun a drug used in the treatment of worm infections such as threadworm, hookworm or roundworm antihistamine / nti histmi n/ noun a drug used to control the effects of an allergy which releases histamine, or reduces gastric acid in the stomach for the treatment of gastric ulcers (NOTE: | antihistamine | antihelminthic Antihistamines have names ending in -tidine: loratidine for allergies, cimetidine for gastric ulcers.) antihypertensive / ntihaip tensiv/ adjective acting to reduce blood pressure noun a antihypertensive | drug used to reduce high blood pressure anti-inflammatory / nti in fl mt()ri/ adjective referring to a drug which reduces inflammation antilymphocytic serum / ntilimf sitik sirm/ noun a serum used to produce immunosuppression in people undergoing transplant operations. Abbreviation ALS antimalarial / ntim leril/ noun a drug used to treat malaria and in malarial prophylaxis adjective treating or preventing malaria antimetabolite / ntim t blait/ noun a substance which can replace a cell metabolism, but which is not active anti-inflammatory | antilymphocytic serum | | antimalarial | antimetabolite | antimicrobial / ntimai krbil/ adjective acting against microorganisms that cause disease antimigraine / nti mai rein/ noun a drug used in the treatment of migraine antimitotic / ntimai ttik/ adjective preventing the division of a cell by mitosis antimuscarinic / ntim sk rinik/ adjective referring to a drug which blocks acetylcholine receptors found on smooth muscle in the gut and eye antimycotic / ntimai ktik/ adjective destroying fungi antinauseant / nti n zint/ adjective referring to a drug which helps to suppress nausea antioxidant / nti ksid()nt/ noun a substance which makes oxygen less damaging, e.g. in the body or in foods or plastics antioxidant vitamins antiperistalsis / ntiperi st lsis/ noun a movement in the oesophagus or intestine which causes their contents to move in the opposite direction to usual peristalsis, so leading to vomiting antiperspirant / nti p sp()rnt/ noun a substance which prevents sweating adjective preventing sweating antipruritic / ntipr ritik/ noun a substance which prevents itching adjective preventing itching antipsychotic / ntisai ktik/ noun a neuroleptic or major tranquilliser drug which calms disturbed people without causing sedation or confusion by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain antipyretic / ntipai retik/ noun a drug which helps to reduce a fever adjective reducing fever anti-Rh body / nti r eit bdi/ noun an antibody formed in a mothers blood in reaction to a Rhesus antigen in the blood of the fetus antisepsis / nti sepsis/ noun a procedure intended to prevent sepsis antiseptic / nti septik/ adjective preventing harmful microorganisms from spreading She gargled with an antiseptic mouthwash. noun a substance which prevents germs growing or spreading The nurse painted the wound with antiseptic. antiserum / nti sirm/ noun serum | antimigraine | antimitotic | antimuscarinic | antimycotic | antinauseant | antioxidant | antiperistalsis | antiperspirant | antipruritic | antipsychotic | antipyretic | anti-Rh body antisepsis | antiseptic | antiserum | antimicrobial (NOTE: The plural is antisera.) antisocial / nti s()l/ adjective referring to behaviour which is harmful to other people antispasmodic / ntisp z mdik/ noun a drug used to prevent spasms antitetanus serum / nti tetns sirm/ noun a serum which protects a patient against tetanus. Abbreviation ATS | antispasmodic | antitetanus serum | antisocial Nursing.fm Page 18 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM antithrombin antithrombin 18 | antithrombin / nti rmbin/ noun a substance present in the blood which prevents clotting antitoxic serum / ntitksik sirm/ noun an immunising agent, formed of serum taken from an animal which has developed antibodies to a disease, used to protect a person from that disease antitoxin / nti tksin/ noun an antibody produced by the body to counteract a poison in the body antitragus / nti trei s/ noun a small projection on the outer ear opposite the tragus antitussive / nti t siv/ noun a drug used to reduce coughing antivenin / nti venin/, antivenom / nti venm/, antivenene / ntiv ni n/ noun a substance which helps the body to fight the effects of a particular venom from a snake or insect bite antiviral / nti vairl/ adjective referring to a drug or treatment which stops or reduces the damage caused by a virus noun same as antiviral antitoxic serum antitoxin | antitragus | antitussive | antivenin | | | antiviral | drug antiviral drug antiviral drug / nti vairl dr / noun a drug which is effective against a virus (NOTE: Antiviral | drugs have names ending in -ciclovir.) antral antral / ntrl/ adjective referring to an antrum antrectomy / n trektmi/ noun the surgical removal of an antrum in the stomach to prevent gastrin being formed antroscopy / n trskpi/ noun an examination of an antrum antrostomy / n trstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the maxillary sinus to drain an antrum antrum / ntrm/ noun any cavity inside the body, especially one in bone (NOTE: The plural is antrectomy | antroscopy | antrostomy | antrum antra.) anuria / n jri/ noun a condition in which the patient does not make urine, either because of a deficiency in the kidneys or because the urinary tract is blocked anus / eins/ noun a short passage after the rectum at the end of the alimentary canal, leading outside the body between the buttocks and through which faeces are passed. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement, UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: For | anus anuria anxiety neurosis / zaiti nj rsis/ noun a neurotic condition where the patient is anxious and has morbid fears anxiolytic / ksi litik/ noun a drug used in the treatment of anxiety adjective treating anxiety aorta /ei t/ noun the main artery in the body, which sends blood containing oxygen from the heart to other blood vessels around the body. See illustration at HEART in Supplement aortic /ei tik/ adjective relating to the aorta aortic aneurysm /ei tik nj riz()m/ noun a serious aneurysm of the aorta, associated with atherosclerosis aortitis / ei taitis/ noun inflammation of the aorta aortography / ei t rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the aorta after an opaque substance has been injected into it apathetic / p etik/ adjective referring to a person who takes no interest in anything apathy / pi/ noun the condition of not being interested in anything, or of not wanting to do anything aperient / pirint/ noun a substance which causes a bowel movement, e.g. a laxative or purgative adjective causing a bowel movement aperistalsis / eiperi st lsis/ noun a lack of the peristaltic movement in the bowel Aperts syndrome / p ts sindrm/ noun a condition in which the skull grows tall and the lower part of the face is underdeveloped aperture / pt/ noun a hole apex / eipeks/ noun 1. the top of the heart or lung 2. the end of the root of a tooth Apgar score / p sk / noun a method of judging the condition of a newborn baby in which the baby is given a maximum of two points on each of five criteria: colour of the skin, heartbeat, breathing, muscle tone and reaction to stimuli | | anxiolytic | aorta | aortic | aortic aneurysm | | aortitis | aortography | apathetic | apathy aperient | aperistalsis | Aperts syndrome aperture apex Apgar score anxiety neurosis [Described 1952. After Virginia Apgar (1909 74), US anaesthesiologist.] APH abbreviation antepartum haemorrhage aphagia /ei feid i/ noun a condition in which APH aphagia | other terms referring to the anus, see anal and words beginning with ano-.) anvil / nvil/ noun same as incus anxiety / zaiti/ noun the state of being very worried and afraid anxiety disorder / zaiti dis d/ noun a mental disorder where someone is very worried and afraid, e.g. a phobia anxiety | anxiety disorder | | anvil a person is unable to swallow aphakia /ei feiki/ noun the absence of the crystalline lens in the eye aphakic /ei feikik/ adjective referring to aphakia aphasia /ei feizi/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to speak or write, or to understand speech or writing because of damage to the brain centres controlling speech aphonia /ei fni/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to make sounds aphrodisiac / fr dizi k/ noun a substance which increases sexual urges adjective increasing sexual desire aphakia | aphakic | aphasia | aphonia | aphrodisiac | Nursing.fm Page 19 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 19 aphtha aqueous humour aphtha / f/ noun a small white ulcer which appears in groups in the mouth in people who have the fungal condition thrush (NOTE: The plural is apthae.) aphthous stomatitis / fs stm taitis/ noun canker sores which affect the mucous membrane in the mouth apical / pik()l/ adjective situated at the top or tip of something apical abscess / pik()l bses/ noun an abscess in the socket around the root of a tooth apicectomy / pi sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the root of a tooth aplasia /ei pleizi/ noun a lack of growth of tissue aplastic /ei pl stik/ adjective unable to develop new cells or tissue aplastic anaemia /ei pl stik ni mi/ noun anaemia caused by the bone marrow failing to form red blood cells apnea / p ni / noun US same as apnoea apnoea / p ni / noun the stopping of breathing (NOTE: The US spelling is apnea.) apnoeic / p ni ik/ adjective where breathing has stopped apocrine / pkrain/ adjective referring to apocrine glands apocrine gland / pkrain l nd/ noun a gland producing body odour where parts of the glands cells break off with the secretions, e.g. a sweat gland apocrinitis / pkri naitis/ noun the formation of abscesses in the sweat glands apomorphine / p m fi n/ noun a substance that comes from morphine, used to make a person cough, sleep or be sick (NOTE: It is admin| apical apical abscess apicectomy | aplasia | aplastic | aplastic anaemia | | apnea | apnoea | apnoeic | apocrine apocrine gland apocrinitis | apomorphine | aphthous stomatitis istered under the skin and is used to treat drug overdose, accidental poisoning and Parkinsons disease.) aponeurosis / pnj rsis/ noun a band aponeurosis | of tissue which attaches muscles to each other apophyseal / p fizil/ adjective referring to apophysis apophysis / pfsis/ noun a growth of bone, not at a joint apophysitis / pfi saitis/ noun inflammation of an apophysis apoplexy / ppleksi/ noun same as cereapophyseal | apophysis | apophysitis | apoplexy brovascular accident (dated ) apoptosis / pptsis/ noun a form of cell apoptosis | death that is necessary both to make room for new cells and to remove cells whose DNA has been damaged and which may become cancerous appendage / pendid / noun a part of the body or piece of tissue which hangs down from another part appendage | appendiceal / pn disil/ adjective relating to the appendix There is a risk of appendiceal infection. appendicectomy / pendi sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of an appendix appendicitis / pendi saitis/ noun inflammation of the vermiform appendix appendicular / pn dikjl/ adjective 1. referring to body parts which are associated with the arms and legs 2. relating to the appendix appendicular skeleton / pen dikjl skelit()n/ noun part of the skeleton, formed of the pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle and the bones of the arms and legs. Compare axial skeleton appendix / pendiks/ noun 1. a small tube attached to the caecum which serves no function but can become infected, causing appendicitis. Also called vermiform appendix. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement 2. any small tube or sac hanging from an organ apperception / p sep()n/ noun the conscious recognition of a stimulus appetite / pitait/ noun the feeling of wanting food applanation tonometry / pl nei()n t nmtri/ noun the measuring of the thickness of the cornea appliance / plains/ noun a piece of apparatus used on the body He was wearing a surgical appliance to support his neck. applicator / plikeit/ noun an instrument for applying a substance apposition / p zi()n/ noun 1. the relative positioning of two things 2. cell growth in which layers of new material are deposited on existing ones appraisal / preiz()l/ noun a judgment or opinion on something or somebody, especially one which decides how effective or useful they are apprehension / pri hen()n/ noun a feeling of anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen apraxia /ei pr ksi/ noun a condition in which someone is unable to make proper movements apyrexia / eipai reksi/ noun the absence of fever apyrexial / eipai reksil/ adjective no longer having any fever aqua / kw/ noun water aqueduct / kwid kt/ noun a tube which carries fluid from one part of the body to another aqueous / eikwis, kwis/ adjective referring to a solution made with water noun a fluid in the eye between the lens and the cornea aqueous humour / eikwis hju m/ noun same as aqueous. See illustration at EYE in Supplement | appendicectomy | | appendicitis | | appendicular | appendicular skeleton | appendix | apperception | appetite applanation tonometry | | appliance | applicator apposition | appraisal | apprehension | apraxia | apyrexia | apyrexial | aqua aqueduct aqueous aqueous humour appendiceal Nursing.fm Page 20 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM AR AR 20 Arnold-Chiari malformation AR abbreviation attributable risk arachidonic acid / r kidnik sid/ noun an essential fatty acid arachnodactyly / r kn d ktili/ noun a congenital condition in which the fingers and toes are long and thin arachnoid / r knid/ noun the middle of th dura three membranes covering the brain. arachidonic acid | arachnodactyly | | arachnoid | Arnold-Chiari malformation / nld ki eri m lf mei()n/ noun a congenital condition in which the base of the skull is malformed, allowing parts of the cerebellum into the spinal canal [Described 1894. After Julius A. Arnold | | mater arachnoiditis / r kni daitis/ noun inflammation of the arachnoid arachnoid mater / r knid meit/, arachnoid membrane / r knid membrein/ noun same as arachnoid arachnoid villi / r knid vilai/ plural noun villi in the arachnoid which absorb cerebrospinal fluid arborisation / brai zei()n/, arborization noun the branching ends of some nerve fibres, of a motor nerve in muscle fibre or of venules, capillaries and arterioles arbovirus / bvairs/ noun a virus transmitted by blood-sucking insects arc / k/ noun a nerve pathway ARC abbreviation AIDS-related complex or AIDS-related condition arch / t/ noun a curved part of the body, especially under the foot arch- / t/ prefix chief, most important arcuate / kjut/ adjective arched arcuate artery / kjut tri/ noun a curved artery in the foot or kidney arcuate ligaments / kjut tri/ plural noun three ligaments forming a fibrous arch to which the diaphragm is attached arcus / ks/ noun an arch arcus senilis / ks s nailis/ noun an opaque circle around the cornea of the eye which can develop in old age ARDS / dz/ abbreviation adult respiratory distress syndrome areola / ri l/ noun the coloured part round a nipple areolar tissue / ri l tiu / noun a type of connective tissue arginine / d ini n/ noun an amino acid which helps the liver form urea Argyll Robertson pupil / ail rbtsn pju p()l/ noun a condition of the eye, in which the lens is able to focus but the pupil does not react to light. It is a symptom of tertiary syphilis or of locomotor ataxia. ariboflavinosis /ei raibfleivi nsis/ noun a condition caused by not having enough vitamin B2. The symptoms are very oily skin and hair and small cuts in the mouth. | | arachnoid mater | | arachnoid villi | arborisation | arbovirus arc ARC arch archarcuate arcuate artery arcuate ligaments arcus arcus senilis | ARDS areola | areolar tissue | arginine Argyll Robertson pupil | ariboflavinosis | | arachnoiditis (18351915), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Heidelberg, Germany, and Hans von Chiari (18511916), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Strasbourg and later at Prague, Czech Republic.] aromatherapy / rm erpi/ noun treataromatherapy | | ment to relieve tension and promote wellbeing in which fragrant oils and creams containing plant extracts are massaged into the skin arousal / raz()l/ noun 1. feelings and physical signs of sexual desire 2. the act of waking up from sleep, unconsciousness or a drowsy state arrector pili / rekt pailai m s()l/ noun a small muscle which contracts and makes the hair on the skin stand up when someone is cold or afraid arrest / rest/ noun the stopping of a bodily function. cardiac arrest arrhythmia / rimi/ noun a variation in the rhythm of the heartbeat arsenic / snik/ noun a chemical element which forms poisonous compounds such as arsenic trioxide and which was formerly used in some medicines (NOTE: The chemical symbol is arousal | arrector pili | arrest | arrhythmia | arsenic As.) artefact artefact / tif kt/ noun something which is made or introduced artificially arter- / t/ prefix same as arterio- (used before arter- vowels) arterial / tiril/ adjective relating to arteries arterial haemorrhage / tiril hem()rid / noun a haemorrhage of bright red blood from an artery arteriectomy / tiri ektmi/ noun the surgical removal of an artery or part of an artery arterio- / tiri/ prefix referring to arteries arteriogram / tiri r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of an artery, taken after injection with an opaque dye arteriography / tiri rfi/ noun the work of taking X-ray photographs of arteries after injection with an opaque dye arteriole / tiril/ noun a very small artery arteriopathy / tiri pi/ noun a disease of an artery arterioplasty / tiripl sti/ noun plastic surgery to make good a damaged or blocked artery arteriorrhaphy / tiri rfi/ noun the act of stitching an artery arteriosclerosis / tiriskl rsis/ noun the arterial disease atherosclerosis (dated ) | arterial haemorrhage | arteriectomy | | arterioarteriogram | arteriography | | arteriole | arteriopathy | | arterioplasty | arteriorrhaphy | | arteriosclerosis | | arterial Nursing.fm Page 21 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 21 ascites arteriotomy / tiri tmi/ noun a puncture made in the wall of an artery arteriovenous / tiri vi ns/ adjective referring to both an artery and a vein arteritis / t raitis/ noun inflammation of the walls of an artery artery / tri/ noun a blood vessel taking blood from the heart to the tissues of the body arthr- / r/ prefix same as arthro- (used before | | arteriovenous | | arteritis | artery arthr- arteriotomy vowels) arthralgia / r ld / noun pain in a joint arthrectomy / rektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a joint arthritic / ritik/ adjective affected by or relating to arthritis She has an arthritic hip. noun a person suffering from arthritis arthritis / raitis/ noun a painful inflammation of a joint. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid | arthrectomy | arthritic | arthritis | arthralgia arthritis arthro- / r/ prefix referring to a joint arthroclasia / r klei / noun removal of ankylosis in a joint arthrodesis / r di sis/ noun a surgical operation in which a joint is fused in position, so preventing pain from movement arthrodynia / r dini/ noun pain in a joint arthrography / r rfi/ noun X-ray photography of a joint arthrogryposis / r ri psis/ noun a group of disorders in which movement becomes progressively restricted arthropathy / rpi/ noun a disease in a joint arthroplasty / rpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair or replace a joint arthroscope / rskp/ noun an instrument which is inserted into the cavity of a joint to inspect it arthroscopy / rskpi/ noun a procedure to examine the inside of a joint by means of an arthroscope arthrosis / rsis/ noun the degeneration of a joint arthrotomy / rtmi/ noun a procedure that involves cutting into a joint to drain pus articular / tikjl/ adjective referring to joints articular cartilage / tikjl k tlid / noun a layer of cartilage at the end of a bone where it forms a joint with another bone. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement, SYNOVIAL JOINT in Supplement articulate / tikjleit/ verb to be linked with another bone in a joint articulation / tikj lei()n/ noun a joint or series of joints arthroclasia | arthrodesis | arthrodynia | arthrography | arthrogryposis | arthropathy | arthroplasty arthroscope arthroscopy | arthrosis | arthrotomy | articular | articular cartilage | articulate | articulation | | arthro- artificial / ti fi()l/ adjective 1. made by humans and not a natural part of the body artificial cartilage artificial kidney artificial leg 2. happening not as a natural process but through action by a doctor or another person or a machine artificial feeding artificial insemination / tifi()l in semi nei()n/ noun the introduction of semen into a womans uterus by artificial means artificial insemination by donor / tifi()l insemi nei()n bai dn/ noun same as donor insemination. Abbreviation AID artificial insemination by husband / tifi()l insemi nei()n bai h zbnd/ noun artificial insemination using the semen of the husband. Abbreviation AIH artificial lung / tifi()l l / noun a machine through which a persons deoxygenated blood is passed to absorb oxygen to take back to the bloodstream artificial respiration / tifi()l respi rei()n/ noun a way of reviving someone who has stopped breathing, e.g. mouth-to-mouth resuscitation artificial rupture of membranes / tifi()l r ptr v membreinz/ noun the breaking of the amniotic sac with an amnihook, so releasing the amniotic fluid arytenoid / ri ti nid/ adjective located at the back of the larynx arytenoid cartilage / ri ti nid k tilid / noun a small cartilage at the back of the larynx arytenoidectomy / ri ti nid ektmi/ noun an operation to remove the arytenoid cartilage asbestosis / sbe stsis/ noun a disease of the lungs caused by inhaling asbestos dust ascariasis / sk raisis/ noun a disease of the intestine and sometimes the lungs, caused by infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides Ascaris lumbricoides / skris l mbri kidi z/ noun a type of large roundworm which is a parasite in the human intestine ascending aorta / sendi ei t/ noun the first section of the aorta as it leaves the heart and turns upwards. Compare descending aorta ascending colon / sendi kln/ noun the first part of the colon which goes up the right side of the body from the caecum. Compare descending colon. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement Aschoff nodules / f ndju lz/, Aschoffs nodules / fs ndju lz/ plural noun nodules which are formed mainly in or near the heart in rheumatic fever ascites / saiti z/ noun an unusual accumulation of fluid from the blood in the peritoneal cavity, occurring in heart and kidney failure or as a result of malignancy | artificial insemination | | artificial insemination by donor | artificial insemination by husband | artificial lung artificial respiration | artificial rupture of membranes arytenoid | arytenoid cartilage | arytenoidectomy | | asbestosis | ascariasis | Ascaris lumbricoides | ascending aorta | | ascending colon | Aschoff nodules ascites | artificial Nursing.fm Page 22 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ascorbic acid ascorbic acid 22 aspirin | ascorbic acid / sk bik ASD -ase sid/ noun same as Vitamin C ASD abbreviation autistic spectrum disorders -ase /eiz, eis/ suffix enzyme asepsis /ei sepsis/ noun the absence of microasepsis | aspirin / sprin/ noun a common pain-killing drug, or a tablet containing this drug. Also called acetylsalicylic acid organisms which cause infection, usually achieved by sterilisation aseptic /ei septik/ adjective sterilised, or involving sterilisation, and therefore without infection aseptic technique /ei septik tek ni ks/ noun a method of doing something using sterilised equipment asexual /ei sekul/ adjective not sexual, not involving sexual intercourse Asian flu / ei ()n flu / noun flu -asis /sis/ -iasis asparagine / sp rd i n/ noun an amino acid aspartame / sp teim/ noun a protein produced from aspartic acid, used to make substances sweeter aspartate aminotransferase / sp teit mi n tr nsfreiz/ noun an enzyme found in heart muscle, liver cells, skeletal muscle cells and some other tissues. It is used in the diagnosis of liver disease and heart attacks. aspartic acid / sp tik sid/ noun an amino acid aspect / spekt/ noun a direction from which the body is viewed, e.g. the view from above is the superior aspect Aspergers syndrome / sp d z sindrm/ noun a developmental disorder characterised by difficulty in social interaction and a restricted range of interests, more common in boys than girls [Described 1944. After Hans aseptic | aseptic technique | | asexual | Asian flu -asis asparagine | aspartame | aspartate aminotransferase | | | aspartic acid | aspect Aspergers syndrome assay / sei, sei/ noun the testing of a substance. bioassay, immunoassay assessment / sesmnt/ noun 1. a judgment about something Further treatment will be based on your doctors assessment of your condition. 2. a method of deciding whether a student is continuous learning and progressing well assessment assimilation / simi lei()n/ noun the action of assimilating food substances assisted suicide / sistid su isaid/ noun the suicide of someone who is terminally ill with the help of a doctor or friend at the request of the person who is dying associate / ssieit/ verb to be related to or connected with something side effects which may be associated with the drug The condition is often associated with diabetes. associate nurse / ssit n s/ noun a nurse who assists a primary nurse by carrying out agreed care for someone based on a plan designed by a primary nurse asthenia / s i ni/ noun a condition in which someone is weak and does not have any strength asthenic / s enik/ adjective referring to a general condition in which someone has no strength and no interest in things asthenopia / si npi/ noun same as eye| assessment | assimilation | | assisted suicide | associate | associate nurse | asthenia | asthenic | asthenopia | assay strain asthma Asperger (190680), Austrian psychiatrist.] aspergillosis / sp d i lsis/ noun infecaspergillosis | tion of the lungs with the fungus Aspergillus aspermia /ei sp mi/ noun the absence of sperm in semen asphyxia / s fiksi/ noun a condition in which someone is prevented from breathing, e.g. by strangulation or breathing poisonous gas, and therefore cannot take oxygen into the bloodstream asphyxiation /s fiksi ei()n/ noun the state of being prevented from breathing, or the act of preventing someone from breathing. suffocaaspermia | asphyxia | asphyxiation | | asthma / sm/ noun a lung condition characterised by narrowing of the bronchial tubes, in which the muscles go into spasm and the person has difficulty breathing. cardiac asthma asthmatic / s m tik/ adjective having the lung disease asthma, or relating to asthma He has an asthmatic attack every spring. noun a person who has asthma asthmaticus / s m tiks/ adjective status asthmatic | asthmaticus | asthmaticus astigmatism tion aspiration aspiration / spi rei()n/ noun 1. the act of removing fluid from a cavity in the body, often using a hollow needle 2. same as vacuum suc| tion aspirator aspirator / spireit/ noun an instrument used to suck fluid out of a cavity such as the mouth or the site of an operation astigmatism / sti mtiz()m/ noun a condition in which the eye cannot focus vertical and horizontal lines simultaneously, leading to blurring of vision astringent / strind nt/ noun a substance which makes the skin tissues contract and harden adjective referring to an astringent astrocyte / strsait/ noun a star-shaped cell of the connective tissue of the nervous system astrocytoma / strsai tm/ noun a type of brain tumour which develops slowly in the connective tissue of the nervous system asymmetric / si metrik/ adjective shaped or arranged so that the two sides do not match or balance each other | astringent | astrocyte astrocytoma | asymmetric | Nursing.fm Page 23 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 23 atrophy asymmetry / simtri/ noun a state in which the two sides of the body or of an organ do not resemble each other asymptomatic / eisimpt m tik/ adjective not showing any symptoms of disease asynclitism / siklitiz()m/ noun in childbirth, a situation in which the head of the baby enters the vagina at an angle asynergia / si n d /, asynergy / sind i/ noun awkward movements and bad coordination, caused by a disorder of the cerebellum. Also called dyssynergia asystole /ei sistli/ noun a state in which the heart has stopped beating ataractic / t r ktik/ noun a drug which has a calming effect adjective calming ataraxia / t r ksi/, ataraxis / t r ksis/ noun the state of being calm and not worrying ataraxic / t r ksik/ noun, adjective same as | asymptomatic | asynclitism | asynergia | | asystole | ataractic | ataraxia | | ataraxic | asymmetry ataractic ataxia / t ksi/ noun a failure of the brain to ataxia | control movements ataxic / t ksik/ adjective having ataxia, or relating to ataxia ataxic gait / t ksik eit/ noun a way of walking in which the person walks unsteadily due to a disorder of the nervous system ataxy / t ksi/ noun same as ataxia atelectasis / t lektsis/ noun the failure of a lung to expand properly atenolol / tenll/ noun a drug used in controlling blood pressure and angina ateriovenous malformation / tiri vi ns m lf mei()n/ noun a condition in which the arteries and veins in the brain are not properly formed, leading to strokes or epilepsy. Abbreviation AVM atherogenic / r d enik/ adjective referring to something which may produce atheroma atheroma / rm/ noun thickening of the walls of an artery by deposits of a fatty substance such as cholesterol atheromatous / rmts/ adjective referring to atheroma atherosclerosis / rskl rsis/ noun a condition in which deposits of fats and minerals form on the walls of an artery, especially the aorta or one of the coronary or cerebral arteries, and prevent blood from flowing easily atherosclerotic / rskl rtik/ adjective referring to atherosclerosis athetosis / tsis/ noun repeated slow movements of the limbs, caused by a brain disorder such as cerebral palsy athletes foot / li ts ft/ noun an infectious skin disorder between the toes, caused by a fungus. Also called tinea pedis ataxic | ataxic gait | ataxy | atelectasis | atenolol | ateriovenous malformation | | | atherogenic | atheroma | atheromatous | atherosclerosis | atherosclerotic | athetosis | athletes foot atlas / tls/ noun the top vertebra in the spine, which supports the skull and pivots on the axis or second vertebra atom / tm/ noun the smallest part into which an element can be divided and still keep its properties. It consists of a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons. atomiser / tmaiz/ noun an instrument which sprays liquid in the form of very small drops like mist. Also called nebuliser atony / tni/ noun a lack of tone or tension in the muscles atopen / tpen/ noun an allergen which causes an atopy atopic eczema /ei tpik eksim/, atopic dermatitis /ei tpik d m taitis/ noun a type of eczema often caused by a hereditary allergy atopy / tpi/ noun a hereditary allergic reaction ATP abbreviation adenosine triphosphate atracurium / tr kjrim/ noun a drug used as a relaxant atresia / tri zi/ noun an unusual closing or absence of a tube in the body atretic / tretik/ adjective referring to atresia atri- /eitri/ prefix referring to an atrium atrial / eitril/ adjective referring to one or both of the atria of the heart atrial fibrillation / eitril faibri lei()n/ noun a rapid uncoordinated fluttering of the atria of the heart, which causes an irregular heartbeat atrioventricular / eitriven trikjl/ adjective referring to the atria and ventricles atrioventricular bundle / eitriven trikjl b nd()l/ noun a bundle of modified cardiac muscle which conducts impulses from the atrioventricular node to the septum and then divides to connect with the ventricles. Also called atom atomiser atony atopen atopic eczema | | | atopy ATP atracurium | atresia | atretic | atriatrial atrial fibrillation | atrioventricular | atrioventricular bundle | atlas AV bundle, bundle of His atrioventricular node / triven trikjl nd/ noun a mass of conducting tissue in the right atrium of the heart, which continues as the atrioventricular bundle and passes impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Also called AV node at-risk /t risk/ adjective exposed to danger or harm of some kind at-risk children atrium / eitrim/ noun one of the two upper chambers in the heart. See illustration at HEART in Supplement atrophic cirrhosis / trfik si rsis/ noun advanced portal cirrhosis in which the liver has become considerably smaller and clumps of new cells are formed on the surface of the liver where fibrous tissue has replaced damaged liver cells. Also called hobnail liver atrophy / trfi/ noun the wasting of an organ or part of the body verb (of an organ or part of the body) to waste away | at-risk atrium atrophic cirrhosis | | atrophy atrioventricular node Nursing.fm Page 24 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM atropine 24 atropine / trpi n/ noun an alkaloid substance derived from the poisonous plant belladonna and used, among other things, to enlarge the pupil of the eye, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions during anaesthesia and as a muscarinic antagonist ATS abbreviation antitetanus serum attack / t k/ noun a sudden occurrence of an illness He had an attack of fever. She had two attacks of laryngitis during the winter. attention deficit disorder / tenn defisit dis d/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to concentrate, does things without considering their actions properly and has little confidence. It occurs mainly in children. Abbreviation ADD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder / tenn defisit haipr k tiviti dis d/ noun a condition in which a child has an inability to concentrate and shows disruptive behaviour. Abbreviation ADHD attention deficit syndrome / tenn defisit sindrm/ noun same as attention ATS attack | attention deficit disorder | | attention deficit hyperactivity disorder | | | attention deficit syndrome | atropine deficit disorder attenuation attenuation / tenju ei()n/ noun a reduction in the effect or strength of something such as a virus, either because of environmental conditions or as a result of a laboratory procedure atticotomy / ti ktmi/ noun the removal of the wall in the inner ear. Also called cortical | | atticotomy | audit / dit/ noun a check on figures, scientific data or procedures a medical audit regarding the outpatient appointment system audit commission / dit k mi()n/ noun a government body which examines the accounts of public bodies such as hospital trusts to ensure that public money is being spent wisely audit cycle / dit saik()l/ noun the cycle in which medical topics are selected for review, observation and comparison with agreed standards and changes are decided on auditory / dit()ri/ adjective relating to hearing auditory acuity / dit()ri kju iti/ noun the ability to hear sounds clearly auditory canals / dit()ri k n lz/ plural noun the external and internal passages of the ear auditory nerve / dit()ri n v/ noun the eighth cranial nerve which governs hearing and balance. See illustration at EAR in Supplement. Also called vestibulocochlear nerve auditory ossicles / dit()ri sik()lz/ plural noun the three little bones, the malleus, incus and stapes, in the middle ear Auerbachs plexus / arb ks plekss/ noun a group of nerve fibres in the intestine wall audit commission | audit cycle auditory auditory acuity | auditory canals | auditory nerve auditory ossicles Auerbachs plexus audit [Described 1862. After Leopold Auerbach (182897), Professor of Neuropathology at Breslau, now in Poland.] aura / r/ noun a warning sensation which is aura mastoidectomy attitude attitude / titju d/ noun 1. an opinion or general feeling about something a positive attitude towards the operation 2. a way of standing or sitting attributable risk / tribjtb()l risk/ noun a measure of the excess risk of disease due to exposure to a particular risk. The excess risk of bacteriuria in oral contraceptive users attributable to the use of oral contraceptives is 1,566 per 100,000. Abbreviation AR atypical /ei tipik()l/ adjective not usual or expected an atypical renal cyst audio- / di/ prefix referring to hearing or sound audiogram / di r m/ noun a graph drawn by an audiometer audiologist / di ld ist/ noun a specialist who deals in the treatment of hearing disorders audiology / di ld i/ noun the scientific study of hearing, especially for diagnosing and treating hearing loss audiometer / di mit/ noun an apparatus for testing hearing, especially for testing the range of sounds that the human ear can detect audiometry / di mtri/ noun the science of testing hearing attributable risk | atypical | audioaudiogram audiologist | audiology | audiometer | audiometry | experienced before an attack of epilepsy, migraine or asthma aural / rl/ adjective referring to the ear auricle / rik()l/ noun the tip of each atrium in the heart auricular / rikjl/ adjective referring to the ear auricular vein / rikjl vein/ noun a vein which leads into the posterior facial vein auriscope / riskp/ noun an instrument for examining the ear and eardrum. Also called otoaural auricle auricular | auricular vein | auriscope scope auscultation / skl tei()n/ noun the act of listening to the sounds of the body using a stethoscope auscultatory / sk ltt()ri/ adjective referring to auscultation Australia antigen / streili ntid n/ noun an antigen produced on the surface of liver cells infected with the hepatitis B virus autism / tiz()m/ noun a condition developing in childhood, characterised by difficulty in social interaction, language and communication problems, learning difficulties and obsessional repetitive behaviour (NOTE: Autism is more com| auscultatory | Australia antigen | autism auscultation mon in boys than in girls.) autistic / tistik/ adjective affected by, or relating to, autism | autistic Nursing.fm Page 25 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 25 azathioprine parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system autonomy / tnmi/ noun the state of being autonomy | autistic spectrum disorders / tistik spektrm dis dz/ plural noun autism in all its different forms and degrees of severity. Abbreviation ASD auto- / t/ prefix self autoantibody / t ntibdi/ noun an antibody formed to attack antigens in the bodys own cells autoclave / tkleiv/ noun equipment for sterilising surgical instruments using heat under high pressure verb to sterilise equipment using heat under high pressure Autoclaving is the best method of sterilisation. autogenous / td ns/, autogenic / t d enik/ adjective produced either in the persons body, or using tissue from the persons own body an autogenous vein graft autograft / t r ft/ noun a transplant made using parts of the persons own body autoimmune / ti mju n/ adjective referring to an immune reaction in a person against antigens in their own cells autoimmune disease / ti mju n di zi z/ noun a disease in which the persons own cells are attacked by autoantibodies Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to be an autoimmune disease. autoimmunisation / t imjnai zei()n/, autoimmunization noun the process leading to an immune reaction in a person to antigens produced in their own body autoimmunity / ti mju niti/ noun a condition in which a persons own cells are attacked by autoantibodies autoinfection / tin fek()n/ noun an infection by a microorganism already in the body, or infection of one part of the body by another part autointoxication / tintksi kei()n/ noun the poisoning of the body by toxins produced in the body itself autologous / tl s/ adjective referring to a graft or other material coming from the same source autolysis / tlsis/ noun a situation in which cells destroy themselves with their own enzymes automatism / tmtiz()m/ noun a state in which a person acts without consciously knowing that he or she is acting autonomic / t nmik/ adjective governing itself independently autonomic nervous system / tnmik n vs sistm/ noun the nervous system formed of ganglia linked to the spinal column. It regulates the automatic functioning of the main organs such as the heart and lungs and works when a person is asleep or even unconscious. | | autoautoantibody | autoclave autogenous | | autograft autoimmune | autoimmune disease | | autoimmunisation | | autoimmunity | autoinfection | autointoxication | autologous | autolysis | automatism | autonomic | autonomic nervous system autistic spectrum disorders free to act as one wishes autoplasty / tpl sti/ noun the repair of someones body using tissue taken from another part of their body autopsy / tpsi/ noun the examination of a dead body by a pathologist to find out the cause of The autopsy showed that he had been death poisoned. Also called post mortem autosomal / t sm()l/ adjective referring to an autosome autosome / tsm/ noun a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome autotransfusion / ttr ns fju ()n/ noun an infusion into a person of their own blood avascular /ei v skjl/ adjective with no blood vessels, or with a deficient blood supply AV bundle / ei vi b nd()l/ noun same as autoplasty autopsy autosomal | autosome autotransfusion | avascular | AV bundle atrioventricular bundle aversion therapy / v ()n erpi/ noun a aversion therapy | treatment by which someone is cured of a type of behaviour by making him or her develop a great dislike for it avitaminosis /ei vitmi nsis/ noun a disorder caused by a lack of vitamins AVM abbreviation arteriovenous malformation AV node / ei vi nd/ noun same as atriovenavitaminosis | | AVM AV node tricular node AVPU AVPU / ei vi pi ju / noun a method of rating if a person is conscious: A = alert; V = verbal, responding to verbal commands; P = pain, responding to pain; U = unconscious avulsion / v ln/ noun an act of pulling away tissue or a body part by force avulsion fracture / v l()n fr kt/ noun a fracture in which a tendon pulls away part of the bone to which it is attached axial / ksil/ adjective referring to an axis axial skeleton / ksil skelit()n/ noun the bones that make up the vertebral column and the skull. Compare appendicular skeleton axillary / k silri/ adjective referring to the armpit axis / ksis/ noun 1. an imaginary line through the centre of the body 2. a central vessel which divides into other vessels 3. the second vertebra on which the atlas sits (NOTE: The plural is axes.) axon / ksn/ noun a nerve fibre which sends impulses from one neurone to another, linking with the dendrites of the other neurone. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement azathioprine / eiz aipri n/ noun a drug which suppresses the immune response, used after transplant surgery to prevent rejection avulsion | avulsion fracture | axial axial skeleton axillary | axis axon azathioprine | Nursing.fm Page 26 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM -azepam 26 -azepam / zip m/ suffix used in names of benzodiazepines diazepam azidothymidine / eizid aimidi n/ noun a drug used in the treatment of AIDS. Abbreviation AZT. Also called zidovudine azo- /eiz/ prefix containing a nitrogen group azoospermia /eiz sp mi/ noun the absence of sperm azidothymidine | azoazoospermia | -azepam azoturia / eiz tjri/ noun the presence of urea or other nitrogen compounds in the urine, caused by kidney disease AZT abbreviation azidothymidine azygous / zi s/ adjective single, not one of a pair azygous vein / zi s vein/ noun a vein which brings blood back into the vena cava from the abdomen | AZT azygous azygous vein azoturia Nursing.fm Page 27 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM B Babinski reflex /b binski ri fleks/, Babinskis reflex /b binskiz ri fleks/ noun an unusual curling upwards of the big toe when a finger is lightly run across the sole of the foot, while the others turn down and spread out, a sign of hemiplegia and pyramidal tract disease. Compare | | Babinski reflex plantar reflex [Described 1896. After Joseph Franois Felix Babinski (18571932), Frenchborn son of Polish refugees. A pupil of Charcot, he was head of the Neurological clinic at Hpital de la Piti, 18901927.] background carboxyhaemoglobin level / b k rand k bksi hi m lbin lev()l/ noun the level of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood of a person who is not exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide back pain / b k pein/ noun pain in the back, especially long-lasting or severe pain backside / b ksaid/ noun someones buttocks | | back pain backside background carboxyhaemoglobin level (informal ) back strain Babinski test /b binski test/ noun a test for a Babinski reflex baby / beibi/ noun a very young child who is not yet old enough to talk or walk Babies start to walk when they are about 12 months old. (NOTE: | baby Babinski test back strain / b k strein/ noun a condition in which the muscles or ligaments in the back have been strained bacteraemia / b kt ri mi/ noun the fact of having bacteria in the blood. Bacteraemia is not necessarily a serious condition. Compare septibacteraemia | If you do not know the sex of a baby you can refer to the child as it: The baby was sucking its thumb) baby blues caemia baby blues / beibi blu z/ plural noun same as postnatal depression (informal ) bacillaemia bacillaemia / b si li mi/ noun an infection of the blood by bacilli bacillary /b silri/ adjective referring to bacilli bacille Calmette-Gurin /b si l k lmet er n/ noun full form of BCG [After A. Cal| bacillary | bacille Calmette-Gurin | mette (18631933) and C. Gurin (18721961), French bacteriologists.] bacilluria / b si ljri/ noun the presence of bacilli in the urine bacillus /b sils/ noun a bacterium shaped like a rod (NOTE: The plural is bacilli.) back /b k/ noun 1. the part of the body from the neck downwards to the waist, which is made up of the spine and the bones attached to it (NOTE: For | bacillus | back bacilluria other terms referring to the back, see dorsal and words beginning with dorsi-, dorso-.) 2. the other side from the front She has a swelling on the back of her hand. dorsum backache / b keik/ noun pain in the back, often without a specific cause backbone / b kbn/ noun a series of bones, the vertebrae, linked together to form a flexible column running from the pelvis to the skull. Also called rachis, spine backache backbone bacteria /b k tiri/ plural of bacterium bacterial /b k tiril/ adjective relating to bacteria or caused by bacteria Children with sickle-cell anaemia are susceptible to bacterial infection. bacterial plaque /b k tiril pl k/ noun a hard smooth bacterial deposit on teeth bactericidal /b k tiri saidl/ adjective referring to a substance which destroys bacteria bactericide /b k tirisaid/ noun a substance which destroys bacteria bacteriological /b ktiri ld ik()l/ adjective referring to bacteriology bacteriologist /b k tiri ld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of bacteria bacteriology /b k tiri ld i/ noun the scientific study of bacteria bacteriolysin /b k tiri lisin/ noun a protein, usually an immunoglobulin, which destroys bacterial cells bacteriolysis /b k tiri lisis/ noun the destruction of bacterial cells bacteriolytic /b k tiri litik/ adjective referring to a substance which can destroy bacteria bacteriophage /b k tirifeid / noun a virus which affects bacteria | bacterial | bacterial plaque | bactericidal | | bactericide | bacteriological | bacteriologist | | bacteriology | | bacteriolysin | | bacteriolysis | | bacteriolytic | | bacteriophage | bacteria Nursing.fm Page 28 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bacteriostatic bacteriostatic 28 | | bacteriostatic /b k tiri st tik/ adjective referring to a substance which does not kill bacteria but stops them from multiplying bacterium /b k tirim/ noun a microscopic organism. Some types are permanently present in the gut and can break down food tissue, but many can cause disease. (NOTE: The plural is bacteria.) bacterium | ball which moves inside a metal cage to open and shut the valve ball and socket joint / b l nd skit d int/ noun a joint where the round end of a long bone is attached to a cup-shaped hollow in another bone in such a way that the long bone can move in almost any direction. Compare ginglyball and socket joint COMMENT: Bacteria can be shaped like rods (bacilli), like balls (cocci) or have a spiral form (spirochaetes). Bacteria, especially bacilli and spirochaetes, can move and reproduce very rapidly. bacteriuria /b k tiri jri/ noun a condibacteriuria | | mus balloon /b lu n/ noun a bag of light material inflated with air or a gas, used to unblock arteries balloon angioplasty /b lu n nd i pl sti/ noun same as percutaneous angi| balloon angioplasty | balloon | tion in which bacteria are present in the urine Bactrim / b ktrim/ a trade name for co-trimoxazole Baghdad boil / b d d bil/, Baghdad sore / b d d s / noun a skin disease of tropical countries caused by the parasite Leishmania. Also called Oriental sore BAHA abbreviation bone anchored hearing aid Bakers cyst / beikz sist/ noun a swelling filled with synovial fluid, at the back of the knee, caused by weakness of the joint membrane Bactrim Baghdad boil BAHA Bakers cyst oplasty [Described 1877. After William Morrant Baker (183896), member of staff at St Bartholomews Hospital, London, UK] bakers itch / beikz it/, bakers dermatitis / beikz d m taitis/ noun an irritation of the bakers itch | skin caused by handling yeast BAL abbreviation British anti-lewisite balanced diet / b lnst dait/ noun a diet which provides all the nutrients needed in the correct proportions balanitis / b l naitis/ noun inflammation of the glans of the penis balanoposthitis / b lnps aitis/ noun inflammation of the foreskin and the end of the penis balantidiasis / b lnti daisis/ noun an infestation of the large intestine by a parasite Balantidium coli, which causes ulceration of the wall of the intestine, leading to diarrhoea and finally dysentery balanus / b lns/ noun the round end of the penis. glans bald /b ld/ adjective with no hair, especially on the head baldness / b ldns/ noun the state of not having any hair BAL balanced diet balanitis | balanoposthitis | balantidiasis | balanus bald baldness ballottement /b ltmnt/ noun a method of examining the body by tapping or moving a part, especially during pregnancy balneotherapy / b lni erpi/ noun the treatment of diseases by bathing in hot water or water containing beneficial natural chemicals balsam / b ls()m/ noun a mixture of resin and oil, used to rub on sore joints or to put in hot water and use as an inhalant. friars balsam ban /b n/ verb to say that something is not permitted Smoking is banned throughout the building. Use of this drug has been banned. bandage / b ndid / noun a piece of cloth which is wrapped around a wound or an injured limb His head was covered with bandages. verb to wrap a piece of cloth around a wound She bandaged his leg. His arm is bandaged up. Bandls ring / b nd()lz ri/ same as retrac| balneotherapy | balsam ban bandage Bandls ring ballottement tion ring [After Ludwig Bandl (184292), German obstetrician.] Bankarts operation / b k ts p rei()n/ noun an operation to repair a recurrent dislocation of the shoulder [First performed 1923. After Arthur Sydney Blundell Bankart (18791951), first orthopaedic surgeon at the Middlesex Hospital, London, UK] Bantis syndrome / b ntiz sindrm/, Bantis disease / b ntiz di zi z/ noun same as splenic anaemia [Described 1882. After Guido Banti (18521925), Florentine pathologist and physician.] Barbados leg /b beids le / noun a form Bankarts operation | Bantis syndrome | Barbados leg | COMMENT: Baldness in men is hereditary; it can also occur in both men and women as a reaction to an illness or to a drug. Balkan frame / b lkn freim/, Balkan beam / b lkn bi m/ noun a frame fitted above Balkan frame a bed to which a leg in plaster can be attached. Pearson bed ball and cage valve / b l n keid v lv/ noun an artificial heart valve, formed of a silicon ball and cage valve of elephantiasis, a large swelling of the leg due to a Filaria worm barbers itch / b bz it/, barbers rash / b bz r / noun same as sycosis barbae barbiturate /b bitrt/ noun a sedative drug barbotage / b b t / noun a method of spinal analgesia by which cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn and then injected back barium / berim/ noun a chemical element, forming poisonous compounds, used as a contrast medium when taking X-ray photographs of soft tissue (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Ba.) barbers itch barbiturate | barbotage | barium Nursing.fm Page 29 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 29 Beck inventory of depression barium enema / berim enim/ noun a liquid solution containing barium sulphate which is put into the rectum to increase the contrast of an X-ray of the lower intestine barium meal / berim mi l/, barium solution / berim s lu ()n/ noun a liquid solution containing barium sulphate which someone drinks to increase the contrast of an X-ray of the alimentary tract Barlows disease / b lz di zi z/ noun scurvy in children, caused by a lack of vitamin C barium meal | Barlows disease | barium enema base /beis/ noun 1. the bottom part the base of the spine 2. the main ingredient of an ointment, as opposed to the active ingredient 3. a substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt verb to use something as a base Basedows disease / b zidz di zi z/ noun a form of hyperthyroidism [Described Basedows disease | base 1840. After Carl Adolph Basedow (17991854), general practitioner in Mersburg, Germany.] basement membrane / beismnt mem brein/ noun a membrane at the base of an epithebasement membrane | [Described 1882. After Sir Thomas Barlow (18451945), physician at various London hospitals and to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII and King George V.] Barlows sign / b lz sain/ noun a test for Barlows sign congenital dislocation of the hip, in which a sudden movement is felt and sometimes a sound is heard when the joint is manipulated baroreceptor / b rri sept/ noun one of a group of nerves near the carotid artery and aortic arch, which senses changes in blood pressure barotrauma / b r tr m/ noun an injury caused by a sharp increase in pressure Barr body / b bdi/ noun a dense clump of chromatin found only in female cells, which can be used to identify the sex of a baby before birth baroreceptor | barotrauma | Barr body [Described 1949. After Murray Llewellyn Barr (190895), head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.] Barr-Guillain syndrome / b rei i j n sindrm/ noun Guillain-Barr syndrome barrel chest / b rl test/ noun a chest Barr-Guillain syndrome barrel chest formed like a barrel, caused by asthma or emphysema barrier cream / b ri kri m/ noun a cream put on the skin to prevent the skin coming into contact with irritating substances barrier nursing / b ri n si/ noun the nursing of someone who has an infectious disease. It involves keeping them away from other patients and making sure that faeces and soiled bedclothes do not carry the infection to other patients. bartholinitis / b li naitis/ noun inflammation of the Bartholins glands Bartholins glands / b linz l ndz/ plural noun two glands at the side of the vagina and between it and the vulva, which secrete a lubricating substance. Also called greater vestibular barrier cream barrier nursing bartholinitis | Bartholins glands lium basilar / b zil/ adjective referring to a base basilic vein /b zilik vein/ noun a large vein running along the inside of the arm basophil / beisfil/ noun a type of white blood cell which has granules in its cytoplasm and contains histamine and heparin basophilia / beis fili/ noun an increase in the number of basophils in the blood basophilic granulocyte / beisfilik r njlsait/ noun same as basophil Battens disease / b t()nz di zi z/ noun a hereditary disease which affects the enzymes of the brain, causing cells in the brain and eye to die battered baby syndrome / b td beibi sindrm/, battered child syndrome / b td taild sindrm/ noun a condition in which a baby or small child is frequently beaten, usually by one or both of its parents, sustaining injuries such as multiple fractures battledore placenta / b t()ld pl sent/ noun a placenta where the umbilical cord is attached at the edge and not at the centre Bazins disease / beizinz di zi z/ noun same as erythema induratum [Described 1861. After basilar basilic vein | basophil basophilia | basophilic granulocyte Battens disease | battered baby syndrome battledore placenta | Bazins disease | Pierre Antoine Ernest Bazin (180778), dermatologist at Hpital St Louis, Paris, France. He was an expert in parasitology associated with skin conditions.] BC abbreviation bone conduction BCC abbreviation Breast Cancer Campaign B cell / bi sel/ noun same as beta cell BCG / bi si d i v ksi n/, BCG vaccine noun a vaccine which immunises against tuberculosis. Full form bacille Calmette-Gurin BCh abbreviation Bachelor of Surgery BDA abbreviation British Dental Association bearing down / beri dan/ noun a stage in BC BCC B cell BCG BCh BDA bearing down glands [After Caspar Bartholin (16551748), Danish anatomist.] basal / beis()l/ adjective located at the bottom basal of something, or forming its base basal metabolic rate / beisik met blik reit/ noun the amount of energy used by the body in exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide when at rest. It was formerly used as a way of testing thyroid gland activity. Abbreviation BMR basal metabolic rate | childbirth when the woman starts to push out the baby from the uterus bearing-down pain / beri dan pein/ noun pain felt in the uterus during the second stage of labour (NOTE: Bearing-down pain is also bearing-down pain associated with uterine prolapse.) Beck inventory of depression / bek invnt()ri v di pre()n/ noun one of the rating scales for depression, in which a series of 21 | Beck inventory of depression Nursing.fm Page 30 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM beclomethasone questions refers to attitudes frequently shown by people suffering from depression beclomethasone / bekl mesn/ noun a steroid drug usually used in an inhaler to treat asthma or hay fever becquerel / bekrel/ noun an SI unit of measurement of radiation. Abbreviation Bq (NOTE: beclomethasone | becquerel 30 behaviour should be studied to discover their psychological problems behaviourist /bi heivjrist/ noun a psychologist who follows behaviourism behaviour therapy /bi heivj erpi/ noun a form of psychiatric treatment in which someone learns how to improve their condition Behets syndrome / beisets sindrm/ noun a chronic condition of the immune system with no known cause, experienced as a series of attacks of inflammation of small blood vessels accompanied by mouth ulcers and sometimes genital ulcers, skin lesions and inflamed eyes behaviourist | behaviour therapy | Behets syndrome Now used in place of the curie.) bed bath / bed b / noun an act of washing the bed bath whole body of someone who is unable to get up to wash. Also called blanket bath bed blocking / bed blki/ noun the fact of people being kept in hospital because other forms of care are not available, which means that other people cannot be treated bedbug / bedb / noun a small insect which lives in dirty bedclothes and sucks blood bed occupancy / bed kjpnsi/ noun the percentage of beds in a hospital which are occupied bedpan / bedp n/ noun a dish into which someone can urinate or defecate without getting out of bed bed rest / bed rest/ noun a period of time spent in bed in order to rest and recover from an illness bedridden / bed rid()n/ adjective referring to someone who has been too ill to get out of bed over a long period of time bedside manner / bedsaid m n/ noun the way in which a doctor behaves towards a patient, especially a patient who is in bed a good bedside manner the ability to make patients feel comforted and reassured bedsore / beds / noun an inflamed patch of skin on a bony part of the body, which develops into an ulcer, caused by pressure of the part on the mattress after lying for some time in one position. Special beds such as air beds, ripple beds and water beds are used to try to prevent the formation of bedsores. Also called pressure sore, decubibed blocking bedbug bed occupancy bedpan bed rest bedridden | bedside manner bedsore [Described 1937. After Halushi Behet (1889 1948), Turkish dermatologist.] behind behind /bi haind/ noun same as buttock | (informal ) bejel / bed l/ noun a non-venereal form of syphilis which is endemic among children in some areas of the Middle East and elsewhere and is caused by a spirochaete strain of bacteria belch /belt/ noun the action of allowing air in the stomach to come up through the mouth verb to allow air in the stomach to come up through the mouth belching / belti/ noun the action of allowing air in the stomach to come up through the mouth. Also called eructation belladonna / bel dn/ noun 1. a poisonous plant with berries containing atropine. Also called deadly nightshade 2. a form of atropine extracted from the belladonna plant belle indiffrence / bel n difer ns/ noun an excessively calm state in a person, in a situation which would usually produce a show of emotion Bellocqs cannula /be lks k njl/, Bellocqs sound /be lks sand/ noun an instrument used to control a nosebleed [After Jean belch belching belladonna | belle indiffrence | Bellocqs cannula | | bejel tus ulcer bedstate Jacques Bellocq (17321807), French surgeon.] Bells mania bedstate / bedsteit/ noun a record of the current level of occupancy of beds in a hospital or care unit, updated as admissions and discharges occur bedwetting / bedweti/ noun same as nocturbedwetting Bells mania / belz meini/ noun a form of acute mania with delirium [After Luther Vose Bell (180662), American physiologist.] nal enuresis (NOTE: This term is used mainly about children.) Beers knife / biz naif/ noun a knife with a triangular blade, used in eye operations [After George Joseph Beer (17631821), German ophthalmologist.] behaviour /bi heivj/ noun a way of acting Beers knife behaviour | Bells palsy / belz p lzi/ noun paralysis of the facial nerve on one side of the face, preventing one eye being closed. Also called facial paralysis [Described 1821. After Sir Charles Bell (17741842), Scottish surgeon. He ran anatomy schools, first in Edinburgh and then in London. Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Academy.] belly Bells palsy His behaviour was very aggressive. behavioural /bi heivjrl/ adjective relating to behaviour behaviourism /bi heivjriz()m/ noun a psychological theory proposing that only someones behavioural | behaviourism | belly / beli/ noun 1. same as abdomen 2. the fatter central part of a muscle Bence Jones protein / bens d nz prti n/ noun a protein found in the urine of people who have myelomatosis, lymphoma, leukaemia and some other cancers [Described 1848. Bence Jones protein After Henry Bence Jones (181473), physician at St Georges Hospital, London, UK] Nursing.fm Page 31 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 31 bifocal that respond to adrenaline by speeding up the heart rate or dilating the bronchi beta blocker / bi t blk/ noun a drug which reduces the activity of the heart (NOTE: Beta beta blocker bends /bendz/ plural noun the bends caisson disease Benedicts solution / benidikts s lu ()n/ noun a solution used to carry out Benedicts test Benedicts test / benidikts test/ noun a test to see if sugar is present in the urine [Described 1915. After Stanley Rossiter Benedict (1884 1936), physiological chemist at Cornell University, New York, USA.] benign /b nain/ adjective generally harmless benign growth /b nain r/ noun same as benign tumour benign pancreatic disease /b nain p kri tik di zi z/ noun chronic pancreatitis benign prostatic hypertrophy /bi nain pr st tik hai p trfi/ noun a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate. Abbreviation BPH benign tumour /b nain tju m/ noun a bends Benedicts solution | Benedicts test benign | benign growth | benign pancreatic disease | | | benign prostatic hypertrophy | | | benign tumour | blockers have names ending in -olol: atenolol, propranolol hydrochloride.) beta cell / bi t sel/ noun a type of cell found in beta cell tumour which will not grow again or spread to other parts of the body if it is removed surgically, but which can be fatal if not treated. Also called benign growth. Opposite malignant tumour Bennetts fracture / benits fr kt/ noun a fracture of the first metacarpal, the bone between the thumb and the wrist [Described 1886. After Bennetts fracture Edward Halloran Bennett (18371907), Irish anatomist, later Professor of Surgery at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.] benzocaine / benzkein/ noun a drug with benzocaine anaesthetic properties used in some throat lozenges and skin creams benzodiazepine / benzdai zpi n/ noun a drug which acts on receptors in the central nervous system to relieve symptoms of anxiety and insomnia, although prolonged use is to be avoided benzodiazepine | (NOTE: Benzodiazepines have names ending in -azepam: diazepam.) benzoin / benzin/ noun a resin used to make benzoin friars balsam benzyl benzoate / benzil benzeit/ noun a colourless oily liquid which occurs naturally in balsams, used in medicines and perfumes bereavement /bi ri vmnt/ noun the loss of someone, especially a close relative or friend, through death beriberi / beri beri/ noun a disease of the nervous system caused by lack of vitamin B1 berylliosis /b rili sis/ noun poisoning caused by breathing in particles of the poisonous chemical compound beryllium oxide Besniers prurigo / benieiz pr rai / noun an itchy skin rash on the backs of the knees and the insides of the elbows [After Ernest Besbenzyl benzoate bereavement | beriberi | berylliosis | | Besniers prurigo | the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas, which produces insulin. Also called B cell Betadine / bi tdi n/ noun a trade name for a form of iodine betamethasone / bi t mesn/ noun a very strong corticosteroid drug betaxolol /bi t ksll/ noun a beta blocker drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure and glaucoma bethanechol /be nikl/ noun an agonist drug used to increase muscle tone after surgery Betnovate / betnveit/ noun a trade name for an ointment containing betamethasone bi- /bai/ prefix two or twice bias / bais/ noun a systematic error in the design or conduct of a study which could explain the results bicarbonate of soda /bai k bnt v sd/ noun same as sodium bicarbonate bicellular /bai seljl/ adjective having two cells biceps / baiseps/ noun any muscle formed of two parts joined to form one tendon, especially the muscles in the front of the upper arm (biceps brachii) and the back of the thigh (biceps femoris). triceps (NOTE: The plural is biceps.) bicipital /bai sipit()l/ adjective referring to a biceps muscle biconcave /bai kkeiv/ adjective referring to a lens which is concave on both sides biconvex /bai knveks/ adjective referring to a lens which is convex on both sides bicornuate /bai k njut/ adjective divided into two parts (NOTE: The word is sometimes Betadine betamethasone | betaxolol | bethanechol | Betnovate bibias bicarbonate of soda | bicellular | biceps bicipital | biconcave | biconvex | bicornuate | applied to a malformation of the uterus.) nier (18311909), French dermatologist.] beta / bi t/ noun the second letter of the Greek beta alphabet beta-adrenergic receptor / bi t dr n d ik/ noun one of two types of nerve endings beta-adrenergic receptor | bicuspid /bai k spid/ adjective with two points noun a premolar tooth bicuspid valve / bai k spid v lv/ noun same as mitral valve. See illustration at HEART in Supplement b.i.d. adverb (used on prescriptions) twice daily. Full form bis in die bidet / bi dei/ noun an object for washing the genital and anal areas. It looks like a low toilet. bifid / baifid/ adjective in two parts bifocal /bai fk()l/ adjective referring to lenses made with two sections which have different focal lengths, one for looking at things which are near, the other for looking at things which are far away | bicuspid valve | b.i.d. bidet bifid bifocal | bicuspid Nursing.fm Page 32 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bifocal glasses 32 Billings method | bifocal glasses /bai fk()l l siz/, bifocal lenses /bai fk()l lenziz/, bifocals /bai fk()lz/ plural noun spectacles with lenses which have two types of lens combined in the same piece of glass, the top part being used for seeing at a distance and the lower part for reading bifurcate adjective /bai f keit/ separating or branching off into two parts verb / baifkeit/ to split or branch off into two parts bifurcation / baif kei()n/ noun a place where something divides into two parts bigeminy /bai d emini/ noun same as pulsus | bifurcate | bifurcation | bigeminy | bifocal glasses | Billings method / biliz med/ noun a method of birth control which uses the colour and consistency of the cervical mucus as guides to whether ovulation is taking place Billroths operations / bilrs p rei()nz/ plural noun surgical operations in which the lower part of the stomach is removed and the part which is left is linked to the duodenum (Billroth I) or jejunum (Billroth II) Billroths operations bimanual | [Described 1881. After Christian Albert Theodore Billroth (182994), Prussian surgeon.] bimanual /bai m njul/ adjective done with | bigeminus big toe / bi big toe t/ noun the largest of the five toes, on the inside of the foot. Also called great toe biguanide /bai w naid/ noun a drug which lowers blood sugar, used in the treatment of Type II diabetes bilateral /bai l t()rl/ adjective affecting both sides bilateral pneumonia /bai l t()rl nju mni/ noun pneumonia affecting both lungs bile /bail/ noun a thick bitter brownish yellow fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and used to digest fatty substances and neutralise acids (NOTE: For other terms referring to | bilateral | bilateral pneumonia | | bile biguanide two hands, or needing both hands to be done binary / bainri/ adjective made of two parts binary fission / bainri fi()n/ noun the process of splitting into two parts in some types of cell division binaural /bain rl/ adjective using, or relating to, both ears binder / baind/ noun a bandage which is wrapped round a limb to support it Binets test / bineiz test/ noun an intelligence test for children [Originally described 1905 but binary binary fission binaural | binder Binets test later modified at Stanford University, California, USA. After Alfred Binet (18571911), French psychologist and physiologist.] binocular /bi nkjl/ adjective referring to binocular | bile, see words beginning with chol-.) bilharzia /bil h tsi/ noun 1. a fluke which bilharzia | enters the bloodstream and causes bilharziasis. Also called Schistosoma 2. same as bilharziasis (NOTE: Although strictly speaking, bilharzia is the name of the fluke, it is also generally used for the name of the disease: bilharzia patients; six cases of bilharzia.) bilharziasis / bilh tsaisis/ noun a tropical bilharziasis | disease caused by flukes in the intestine or bladder. Also called bilharzia, schistosomiasis bili- /bili/ prefix referring to bile (NOTE: For bili- other terms referring to bile, see words beginning with chol-, chole-.) biliary / biliri/ adjective referring to bile biliary colic / biliri klik/ noun pain in the biliary biliary colic abdomen caused by gallstones in the bile duct or by inflammation of the gall bladder bilious / bilis/ adjective 1. referring to bile 2. referring to nausea (informal ) biliousness / bilisns/ noun a feeling of indigestion and nausea (informal ) bilirubin / bili ru bin/ noun a red pigment in bile bilirubinaemia / biliru bi ni mi/ noun an excess of bilirubin in the blood biliuria / bili jri/ noun the presence of bile in the urine. Also called choluria biliverdin / bili v din/ noun a green pigment in bile, produced by oxidation of bilirubin bilious biliousness bilirubin | bilirubinaemia | biliuria | biliverdin | the two eyes binovular /bi nvjl/ adjective referring to twins who develop from two different ova bio- /bai/ prefix referring to living organisms bioassay / bai sei/ noun a test of the strength of a drug, hormone, vitamin or serum, by examining the effect it has on living animals or tissue bioavailability / baiveil biliti/ noun the extent to which a nutrient or medicine can be taken up by the body biochemistry / bai kemistri/ noun the chemistry of living tissues biocide / baisaid/ noun a substance which kills living organisms biodegradable / baidi reidb()l/ adjective easily decomposed by organisms such as bacteria or by the effect of sunlight, the sea, etc. biofeedback / bai fi db k/ noun the control of the autonomic nervous system by someones conscious thought, as he or she sees the results of tests or scans biohazard / bai h zd/ noun a danger to human beings or their environment, especially one from a poisonous or infectious agent biological / bai ld ik()l/ adjective referring to biology biological parent / bai ld ik()l pernt/ noun a parent who was physically involved in producing a child binovular | biobioassay | bioavailability | biochemistry | biocide biodegradable | biofeedback | biohazard | biological | biological parent | Nursing.fm Page 33 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 33 bite wing bipolar neurone biologist /bai ld ist/ noun a scientist who specialises in biology biology /bai ld i/ noun the study of living organisms biomaterial / baim tiril/ noun a synthetic material which can be used as an implant in living tissue biometry /bai mtri/ noun the science which applies statistics to the study of living things biometry of a fetus the measurement of the key parameters of growth of a fetus by ultrasound bionic ear /bai nik i/ noun a cochlear implant (informal ) bionics /bai niks/ noun the process of applying knowledge of biological systems to mechanical and electronic devices biophysical profile / baifizik()l prfail/ noun a profile of a fetus, based on such things as its breathing movement and body movement biopsy / baipsi/ noun the process of taking a small piece of living tissue for examination and diagnosis The biopsy of the tissue from the growth showed that it was benign. biorhythm / bairi()m/ noun a regular process of change which takes place within living organisms, e.g. sleeping, waking or the reproductive cycle (NOTE: Some people believe that bio| biology | biomaterial | biometry | bionic ear | bionics | biophysical profile biopsy biorhythm biologist bipolar neurone /bai pl njrn/ noun a nerve cell with two processes, a dendrite and an axon, found in the retina. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement. Compare multipolar neu| rone, unipolar neurone birth /b / noun the act of being born birth canal / b k n l/ noun the uterus, birth birth canal | vagina and vulva birth control / b kn trl/ noun same as birth control | contraception rhythms affect behaviour and mood.) biostatistics / baist tistiks/ plural noun biostatistics | statistics used in medicine and the study of disease biotechnology / baitek nld i/ noun 1. the use of biological processes in industrial production, e.g. in the production of drugs 2. same as biotechnology | genetic modification biotin / baitin/ noun a type of vitamin B found in egg yolks, liver and yeast BiPAP / baip p/ noun a breathing apparatus that allows air delivered through a mask to be set at one pressure for inhaling and another for exhaling, maximising breathing efficiency and minimising natural muscular effort. Full form bi-level BiPAP biotin positive airway pressure biparietal / baip rait()l/ adjective referring biparietal | birth control pill / b kn trl pil/ noun same as oral contraceptive birthing chair / b i te/ noun a special chair in which a woman sits to give birth birthing pool / b i pu l/ noun a special large bath in which pregnant women can relax before and when giving birth birthmark / b m k/ noun an unusual coloured or raised area on the skin which someone has from birth. Also called naevus birth mother / b m / noun the woman who gave birth to a child birth parent / b pernt/ noun one of the parents that physically produced a child birth plan / b pl n/ noun a list of a pregnant womans wishes about how the birth of her baby should take place, e.g. whether she wants a natural birth and what pain relief she should be given birth rate / b reit/ noun the number of births per year, shown per thousand of the population a birth rate of 15 per thousand There has been a severe decline in the birth rate. birth trauma / b tr m/ noun an injury caused to a baby during delivery birth weight / b weit/ noun the weight of a baby at birth bisacodyl / bais kdil/ noun a laxative drug bisexual /bai sekul/ adjective referring to a person who is sexually attracted to both males and females bisexuality / baiseku liti/ noun the state of being sexually attracted to both males and females bis in die / bis in di ei/ adverb full form of | birthing chair birthing pool birthmark birth mother birth parent birth plan birth rate birth trauma birth weight bisacodyl | bisexual | bisexuality | bis in die birth control pill to the two parietal bones biparous / biprs/ adjective producing twins bipennate /bai peneit/ adjective referring to a muscle with fibres which rise from either side of the tendon bipolar /bai pl/ adjective with two poles. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement bipolar disorder / baipl dis d/ noun a psychological condition in which someone moves between mania and depression and experiences delusion. Also called manic-depressive illbiparous bipennate | bipolar | bipolar disorder | b.i.d. bismuth bismuth / bizm/ noun a chemical element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Bi.) bistoury / bistri/ noun a sharp thin surgical bistoury ness, manic depression knife bite /bait/ verb 1. to cut into something with the teeth He bit a piece out of the apple. 2. (of an insect) to puncture someones skin noun 1. the action of biting or of being bitten 2. a place or mark where someone has been bitten a dog bite an insect bite bite wing / bait wi/ noun a holder for dental X-ray film, which a person clenches between the bite bite wing Nursing.fm Page 34 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Bitots spots teeth, so allowing an X-ray of both upper and lower teeth to be taken Bitots spots / bi tz spts/ plural noun small white spots on the conjunctiva, caused by vitamin A deficiency [Described 1863. After Bitots spots 34 bleeder Pierre A. Bitot (182288), French physician.] bivalve bivalve / baiv lv/ noun an organ which has two valves adjective referring to a bivalve organ black eye / bl k ai/ noun bruising and swelling of the tissues round an eye, usually caused by a blow blackhead / bl khed/ noun same as comedo black eye blackhead (informal ) black heel / bl k hi l/ noun a haemorrhage inside the heel, characterised by black spots black out / bl k at/ verb to have sudden loss of consciousness I suddenly blacked out and I cant remember anything more blackout / bl kat/ noun a sudden loss of conShe must have had a sciousness (informal ) blackout while driving. Also called fainting fit blackwater fever / bl kw t fi v/ noun a form of malaria where haemoglobin from red blood cells is released into plasma and makes the urine dark bladder / bl d/ noun any sac in the body, especially the sac where the urine collects before being passed out of the body He is suffering from bladder trouble. She is taking antibiotics for a bladder infection. Blalocks operation / bleilks p rei()n/, Blalock-Taussig operation / bleilk t si p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to connect the pulmonary artery to the subclavian artery, in order to increase blood flow to the lungs of someone who has tetralogy of Fallot bland /bl nd/ adjective referring to food which is not spicy, irritating or acid blanket bath / bl kit b / noun same as black out blackout blackwater fever bladder Blalocks operation | | bland blanket bath black heel bleeder / bli d/ noun 1. a blood vessel which bleeds during surgery 2. a person who has haemophilia (informal ) bleeding / bli di/ noun an unusual loss of blood from the body through the skin, through an orifice or internally bleeding time / bli di taim/ noun a test of the clotting ability of someones blood, by timing the length of time it takes for the blood to congeal blennorrhagia / blen reid / noun the discharge of mucus blennorrhoea / blen ri / noun the discharge of watery mucus bleomycin / bli maisin/ noun an antibiotic used to treat forms of cancer such as Hodgkins disease blephar- /blefr/ prefix same as blepharobleeding bleeding time blennorrhagia | blennorrhoea | bleomycin | blephar- (used before vowels) blepharitis / blef raitis/ noun inflammation blepharitis | bed bath blast /bl st/ noun 1. a wave of air pressure from an explosion which can cause concussion 2. blast an immature form of a cell before distinctive characteristics develop -blast /bl st/ suffix referring to a very early stage in the development of a cell blasto- /bl st/ prefix referring to a germ cell blastocoele / bl stsi l/ noun a cavity filled with fluid in a morula blastocyst / bl stsist/ noun an early stage in the development of an embryo Blastomyces / bl st maisi z/ noun a type of parasitic fungus which affects the skin blastomycosis / bl stmai ksis/ noun an infection caused by Blastomyces blastula / bl stjl/ noun the first stage of the development of an embryo in animals bleb /bleb/ noun a blister. Compare bulla -blast blastoblastocoele blastocyst Blastomyces | blastomycosis | blastula bleb of the eyelid blepharo- /blefr/ prefix referring to the eyelid blepharoconjunctivitis / blefrkn d kti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyelids blepharon / blefrn/ noun an eyelid blepharospasm / blefrsp z()m/ noun a sudden contraction of the eyelid, as when a tiny piece of dust gets in the eye blepharotosis / blefr tsis/ noun a condition in which the upper eyelid is half closed because of paralysis of the muscle or nerve blind /blaind/ adjective not able to see blind loop syndrome / blaind lu p sindrm/ noun a condition which occurs in cases of diverticulosis or of Crohns disease, with steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and megaloblastic anaemia blindness / blaindns/ noun the fact of not being able to see blind spot / blaind spt/ noun the point in the retina where the optic nerve joins it, which does not register light blind study / blaind st di/ noun an investigation to test an intervention such as giving a drug, in which a person does not know if he or she has taken the active medicine or the placebo blister / blist/ noun a swelling on the skin containing serum from the blood, caused by rubbing, burning or a disease such as chickenpox verb to produce blisters bloated / bltid/ adjective experiencing the uncomfortable sensation of a very full stomach block /blk/ noun 1. the stopping of a function 2. a large piece of something A block of wood fell on his foot. 3. a period of time The training is in two three-hour blocks. verb to fill the space in something and stop other things passing blepharoblepharoconjunctivitis | | blepharon blepharospasm blepharotosis | blind blind loop syndrome blindness blind spot blind study blister bloated block Nursing.fm Page 35 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 35 through it The artery was blocked by a clot. He swallowed a piece of plastic which blocked his oesophagus. blocking / blki/ noun a psychiatric disorder, in which someone suddenly stops one train of thought and switches to another blood /bl d/ noun a red liquid moved around the body by the pumping action of the heart (NOTE: blocking blood blood-letting blurred vision blood-letting / bl d leti/ noun same as phlebotomy For other terms referring to blood, see words beginning with haem-, haemo-, haemato-.) blood bank / bl d b k/ noun a section of a blood bank hospital or a special centre where blood given by donors is stored for use in transfusions blood blister / bl d blist/ noun a swelling on the skin with blood inside, caused by nipping the flesh blood-borne virus / bl d b n vairs/ noun a virus carried by the blood blood-brain barrier / bl d brein b ri/ noun the process by which some substances, which in other parts of the body will diffuse from capillaries, are held back by the endothelium of cerebral capillaries, preventing them from coming into contact with the fluids round the brain blood clot / bl d klt/ noun a soft mass of coagulated blood in a vein or an artery. Also called thrombus blood count / bl d kant/ noun a test to count the number and types of different blood cells in a sample of blood, in order to give an indication of the condition of the persons blood as a whole blood donor / bl d dn/ noun a person who gives blood which is then used in transfusions to other people blood dyscrasia / bl d dis kreizi/ noun any unusual blood condition such as a low cell count or platelet count blood gas / bl d s/ noun oxygen and carbon dioxide that are naturally present in blood, an imbalance of which may indicate a respiratory disorder blood-glucose level / bl d lu kz lev()l/ noun the amount of glucose present in the blood. The usual blood-glucose level is about 60100 mg of glucose per 100 ml of blood. blood group / bl d ru p/ noun one of the different groups into which human blood is classified. Also called blood type blood blister blood-borne virus blood-brain barrier blood clot blood count blood donor blood dyscrasia | blood gas blood-glucose level blood group blood loss / bl d ls/ noun loss of blood from the body by bleeding blood pigment / bl d pi mnt/ noun same as haemoglobin blood pressure / bl d pre/ noun the pressure, measured in millimetres of mercury, at which the blood is pumped round the body by the heart blood relationship / bl d ri lei()nip/ noun a relationship between people who come from the same family and have the same parents, grandparents or ancestors, as opposed to a relationship by marriage blood sample / bl d s mpl/ noun a sample of blood, taken for testing bloodshot / bl dt/ adjective referring to an eye with small specks of blood in it from a small damaged blood vessel blood sugar / bl d / noun glucose present in the blood blood sugar level / bl d lev()l/ noun the amount of glucose in the blood, which is higher after meals and in people with diabetes blood test / bl d test/ noun a laboratory test of a blood sample to analyse its chemical composition The patient will have to have a blood test. blood transfusion / bl d tr ns fju ()n/ noun a procedure in which blood given by another person or taken from the patient at an earlier stage is transferred into the patients vein blood type / bl d taip/ noun same as blood blood pigment blood pressure blood relationship | blood sample bloodshot blood sugar blood sugar level blood test blood transfusion | blood type blood loss group blood typing blood typing / bl d taipi/ noun the analysis of blood for transfusion factors and blood group blood vessel / bl d ves()l/ noun any tube which carries blood round the body, e.g. an artery, vein or capillary (NOTE: For other terms referring blood vessel to blood vessels, see words beginning with angi-, angio-.) blood volume COMMENT: Blood is classified in various ways. The most common classifications are by the agglutinogens (factors A and B) in red blood cells and by the Rhesus factor. Blood can therefore have either factor (Group A and Group B) or both factors (Group AB) or neither (Group O) and each of these groups can be Rhesus negative or positive. blood grouping / bl d ru pi/ noun the blood grouping process of classifying people according to their blood groups blood volume / bl d vlju m/ noun the total amount of blood in the body blot test / blt test/ noun Rorschach test blue baby / blu beibi/ noun a baby who has congenital cyanosis, born either with a congenital heart condition or with a collapsed lung, which prevents an adequate supply of oxygen reaching the tissues, giving the babys skin a slight blue colour (informal ) blue litmus / blu litms/ noun treated paper which indicates the presence of acid by turning red blurred vision / bl d vi ()n/ noun a condition in which someone does not see objects clearly blot test blue baby blue litmus blurred vision Nursing.fm Page 36 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM blush 36 gically into the skull, usually behind the ear. Abbreviation BAHA bone marrow / bn m r/ noun soft tissue in cancellous bone (NOTE: For other terms referbone marrow blush /bl / noun a rush of red colour to the skin of the face, caused by emotion verb to go red in the face because of emotion BM abbreviation Bachelor of Medicine BMA abbreviation British Medical Association BMI abbreviation body mass index BMR abbreviation basal metabolic rate BNF abbreviation British National Formulary body fluid / bdi flu id/ noun a liquid in the body, e.g. water, blood or semen body image / bdi imid / noun the mental image which a person has of their own body. Also called body schema body language / bdi l wid / noun the expression on your face, or the way you hold your body, interpreted by other people as unconsciously revealing your feelings body odour / bdi d/ noun an unpleasant smell caused by perspiration body scan / bdi sk n/ noun an examination of the whole of the body using ultrasound or other scanning techniques body schema / bdi ski m/ noun same as BM BMA BMI BMR BNF body fluid body image body language body odour body scan body schema blush ring to bone marrow, see words beginning with myel-, myelo-.) bone marrow transplant / bn m r tr nspl nt/ noun the transplant of marrow bone marrow transplant from a donor to a recipient bone scan / bn sk n/ noun a scan which tracks a radioactive substance injected into the body to find areas where a bone is breaking down or repairing itself Bonneys blue / bniz blu / noun a blue dye used as a disinfectant [After William Francis Vicbone scan Bonneys blue tor Bonney (18721953), British gynaecologist.] bony bony / bni/ adjective relating to bones, or made of bone bony labyrinth / bni l brin/ noun a hard part of the temporal bone surrounding the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Also called bony labyrinth body image body substance isolation / bdi s bstns ais lei()n/ noun making sure that a trauma victim is kept isolated from the possibility of infection from moist body substances body temperature / bdi temprit/ noun the internal temperature of the human body, usually about 37C Boecks disease / beks di zi z/, Boecks sarcoid / beks s kid/ noun same as sar| body temperature Boecks disease | body substance isolation osseous labyrinth boob /bu b/ noun a womans breast (informal ) booster / bu str in d ek()n/, booster injection noun a repeat injection of vaccine given boob booster | coidosis [Described 1899. After Caesar Peter Moeller Boeck (18451913), Professor of Dermatology at Oslo, Norway.] Bohns nodules / b nz ndju lz/, Bohns epithelial pearls / b nz epi i lil p lz/ plural noun tiny cysts found in the mouths of healthy Bohns nodules | infants boil /bil/ noun a tender raised mass of infected tissue and skin, usually caused by infection of a hair follicle by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Also called furuncle bolus / bls/ noun 1. a mass of food which has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed 2. a mass of food passing along the intestine bonding / bndi/ noun the process by which a psychological link is formed between a baby and its mother In autistic children bonding is difficult. bone /bn/ noun 1. calcified connective tissue 2. one of the calcified pieces of connective tissue which make the skeleton There are several small bones in the human ear. See illustration at boil bolus bonding bone some time after the first injection to maintain the immunising effect boracic acid /b r sik sid/ noun a soluble white powder used as a general disinfectant. Also called boric acid borax / b r ks/ noun a white powder used as a household cleaner and disinfectant borborygmus / b b ri ms/ noun a rumbling noise in the abdomen, caused by gas in the intestine (NOTE: The plural is borborygmi.) borderline / b dlain/ adjective 1. not clearly belonging to either one of two categories a borderline case 2. referring to a medical condition likely to develop in someone unless an effort is made to prevent it 3. characterised by emotional instability and self-destructive behaviour a borderline personality Bordetella / b d tel/ noun a bacterium of the family Brucellaceae (NOTE: Bordetella perboracic acid | borax borborygmus | borderline Bordetella | tussis causes whooping cough.) boric acid / b rik sid/ noun same as boracic acid boron / b rn/ noun a chemical element which boric acid boron in Supplement bone-anchored hearing aid / bn SYNOVIAL JOINT bone-anchored hearing aid kd hiri eid/ noun a hearing aid that is fitted sur- is present in borax, and essential for healthy plant growth (NOTE: The chemical symbol is B.) bosom / bz()m/ noun a womans chest or breasts bottom / btm/ noun 1. the part of the body on which you sit. buttock 2. the anus (informal ) bottom shuffling / btm f()li/ noun the process by which a baby who cannot yet walk moves around by moving itself along on its hands and buttocks bosom bottom bottom shuffling Nursing.fm Page 37 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 37 brain scan brachiocephalic artery botulinum toxin / btj lainm tksin/ noun a poison produced by the bacterium | botulinum toxin Clostridium botulinum and used, in small doses, to treat muscular cramps and spasms botulism / btliz()m/ noun a type of food poisoning, often fatal, caused by a toxin of Clostridium botulinum in badly canned or preserved food. Symptoms include paralysis of the muscles, vomiting and hallucinations. bougie / bu i / noun a thin tube which can be inserted into passages in the body such as the oesophagus or rectum, either to allow liquid to be introduced or to dilate the passage bovine spongiform encephalopathy / bvain sp nd if m en kef lpi/ noun a fatal brain disease of cattle. Abbreviation BSE. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Also called mad botulism bougie bovine spongiform encephalopathy | | brachiocephalic artery / breikis f lik tri/ noun the largest branch of the arch of the aorta, which continues as the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries brachiocephalic vein / breikis f lik vein/ noun one of a pair of large veins on opposite sides of the neck that join to form the superior vena cava. Also called innominate vein brachium / breikim/ noun an arm, especially the upper arm between the elbow and the shoulder | brachiocephalic vein | brachium (NOTE: The plural is brachia.) brachy- /br ki/ prefix short brachycephaly / br ki sefli/ noun a condibrachybrachycephaly | cow disease bowel bowel / bal/ noun the intestine, especially the large intestine (NOTE: Bowel is often used in the plural in everyday language.) bowel movement / bal mu vmnt/ noun 1. an act of passing faeces out of the body through bowel movement tion in which the skull is shorter than usual brachytherapy / br ki erpi/ noun a radioactive treatment in which the radioactive material actually touches the tissue being treated Bradfords frame / br dfdz freim/ noun a frame of metal and cloth, used to support a patient brachytherapy | Bradfords frame the anus The patient had a bowel movement this morning. Also called motion. defecation 2. the amount of faeces passed through the anus bowels / balz/ plural noun same as bowel Bowens disease / binz di zi z/ noun a form of carcinoma, appearing as red plaques on the skin bow legs / b le z/ noun a state where the ankles touch and the knees are apart when a person is standing straight. Also called genu varum Bowmans capsule / bmnz k psju l/ noun the expanded end of a renal tubule, surrounding a glomerular tuft in the kidney, which filters plasma in order to reabsorb useful foodstuffs and eliminate waste. Also called Malbowels Bowens disease | bow legs Bowmans capsule [After Edward Hickling Bradford (18481926), US orthopaedic surgeon.] brady- /br di/ prefix slow bradycardia / br di k di/ noun a slow rate bradybradycardia | pighian glomerulus, glomerular capsule [Described 1842. After Sir William Paget Bowman (181692), surgeon in Birmingham and later in London, who was a pioneer in work on the kidney and in ophthalmology.] BP abbreviation 1. blood pressure 2. British BP of heart contraction, shown by a slow pulse rate of less than 70 beats per minute bradykinesia / br dikai ni zi/ noun a condition in which the someone walks slowly and makes slow movements because of disease bradykinin / br di kainin/ noun a chemical produced in the blood when tissues are injured, that plays a role in inflammation. kinin bradypnoea / br dip ni / noun unusually slow breathing Braille /breil/ noun a system of writing using raised dots on the paper to indicate letters which a blind person can read by passing their fingers over the page The book has been published in Braille. [Introduced 182930. After Louis Braille bradykinesia | bradykinin | bradypnoea | Braille Pharmacopoeia BPH abbreviation benign prostatic hypertrophy Bq symbol becquerel brace /breis/ noun any type of splint or appliance worn for support, e.g. a metal support used on childrens legs to make the bones straight or on She wore a teeth which are forming badly brace on her front teeth. brachi- /breiki/ prefix same as brachio- (used BPH Bq brace brachi- (180952), blind Frenchman and teacher of the blind; he introduced the system which had originally been proposed by Charles Barbier in 1820.] brain /brein/ noun the part of the central nervous brain system situated inside the skull. Also called encephalon. See illustration at BRAIN in Supple- ment brain damage / brein d mid / noun damage brain damage before vowels) brachial / breikil/ adjective referring to the arm, especially the upper arm brachialis muscle / breiki eilis m s()l/ noun a muscle that causes the elbow to bend brachio- /breiki/ prefix referring to the arm brachialis muscle | brachio- brachial caused to the brain as a result of oxygen and sugar deprivation, e.g. after a haemorrhage, accident, or though disease brain death / brein de/ noun a condition in which the nerves in the brain stem have died, and the person can be certified as dead, although the heart may not have stopped beating brain haemorrhage /brein hem()rid / noun same as cerebral haemorrhage brain scan / brein sk n/ noun an examination of the inside of the brain, made by passing X-rays brain death brain haemorrhage brain scan Nursing.fm Page 38 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM brain stem through the head, using a scanner, and reconstituting the images on a computer monitor brain stem / brein stem/ noun the lower narrow part of the brain which connects the brain to the spinal cord brain tumour / brein tju m/ noun a tumour which grows in the brain bran /br n/ noun the outside covering of the wheat seed, removed when making white flour, but an important source of roughage in the diet branchia / br ki/ noun a breathing organ similar to the gill of a fish found in human embryos in the early stages of development brain stem brain tumour bran branchia 38 (NOTE: The plural is branchiae.) branchial / br kil/ adjective referring to the branchial branchiae branchial cyst / br kil sist/ noun a cyst on the side of the neck of an embryo branchial pouch / br kil pat/ noun a pouch on the side of the neck of an embryo Brauns frame / branz freim/, Brauns splint / branz splint/ noun a metal splint and frame to which pulleys are attached, used for holding up a fractured leg while the person is lying in bed [After Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm branchial cyst branchial pouch Brauns frame breast milk / brest milk/ noun the milk produced by a woman who has recently had a baby breast palpation / brest p l pei()n/ noun feeling a breast to see if a lump is present which might indicate breast cancer breast pump / brest p mp/ noun an instrument for taking milk from a breast breast reconstruction / brest ri kn str k()n/ noun the construction of a new breast for a woman who has had a breast removed because of cancer breath /bre/ noun air which goes in and out of the body when you breathe He ran so fast he was out of breath. Stop for a moment to get your breath back. She took a deep breath and dived into the water. breathe /bri / verb to take air in and blow air out through the nose or mouth The patient has begun to breathe normally. breath-holding attack / bre hldi t k/ noun a period when a young child stops breathing, usually because he or she is angry breathing / bri i/ noun same as respiration If breathing is difficult or has stopped, begin artificial ventilation immediately. (NOTE: For breast palpation | breast pump breast reconstruction | breath breathe breath-holding attack | breathing breast milk Braun (18621934), German surgeon.] Braxton-Hicks contractions / br kstn hiks kn tr knz/ plural noun contractions of the uterus which occur throughout a pregnancy and become more frequent and stronger towards the end [After Dr Braxton-Hicks, 19th century | Braxton-Hicks contractions other terms referring to breathing see words beginning with pneum-, pneumo-, pneumat-, pneumato-.) breathlessness / brelsns/ noun difficulty breathlessness British physician.] breakbone fever / breikbn fi v/ noun same as dengue break down / breik dan/ verb 1. to experience a sudden physical or psychological illness (informal ) After she lost her husband, her health broke down. 2. to start to cry and become She broke down as she upset (informal ) described the symptoms to the doctor. 3. to split or cause to split into smaller chemical components, as in the digestion of food breast /brest/ noun one of two glands in a woman which secrete milk. Also called mamma break down breast breakbone fever (NOTE: For other terms referring to breasts, see words beginning with mamm-, mammo-, mast-, masto-.) breastbone / brestbn/ noun a bone which is breastbone in the centre of the front of the thorax and to which the ribs are connected. Also called sternum breast cancer / brest k ns/ noun a malignant tumour in a breast breast-fed / brest fed/ adjective referring to a baby which is fed from the mothers breasts She was breast-fed for the first two months. breast implant / brest impl nt/ noun a sac containing silicone, implanted to improve the appearance of a breast breast-fed breast implant breast cancer in breathing enough air breech /bri t/ noun the buttocks, especially of a baby adjective describes a birth in which the baby is delivered buttocks first, not in the normal head first position, or describes a buttocks-first presentation breech birth / bri t b /, breech delivery / bri t di liv()ri/ noun a birth in which the babys buttocks appear first rather than its head breech presentation /bri t prez()n tei()n/ noun a position of the baby in the uterus in which the buttocks will appear first during childbirth bregma / bre m/ noun the point at the top of the head where the soft gap between the bones of a babys skull hardens bretylium tosylate /br tilim tsileit/ noun an agent used to block adrenergic transmitter release bridge /brid / noun 1. the top part of the nose where it joins the forehead 2. an artificial tooth or set of teeth which is joined to natural teeth which hold it in place 3. a part joining two or more other parts Brights disease / braits di zi z/ noun inflammation of the kidneys, characterised by albuminuria and high blood pressure. Also called breech breech birth | breech presentation | bregma bretylium tosylate | bridge Brights disease | glomerulonephritis [Described 1836. After Richard Bright (17891858), physician at Guys Hospital, London, UK] Nursing.fm Page 39 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 39 bronchopneumonia bromism British anti-lewisite / briti nti lu isait/ noun an antidote for gases which cause blistering, | British anti-lewisite also used to treat cases of poisoning such as mercury poisoning. Abbreviation BAL British Dental Association / briti dent()l ssi ei()n/ noun in the UK, a professional association of dentists. Abbreviation British Dental Association | BDA British Medical Association British Medical Association / briti medik()l ssi ei()n/ noun in the UK, a professional association of doctors. Abbreviation | BMA British National Formulary / briti n ()nl f mjlri/ noun a book listing key information on the prescribing, dispensing and administration of prescription drugs used in the UK. Abbreviation BNF British Pharmacopoeia / briti f mk pi / noun a book listing drugs approved in the UK and their dosages. Abbreviation BP brittle bone disease / brit()l bn di zi z/ noun 1. same as osteogenesis imperfecta 2. same as osteoporosis broad /br d/ adjective wide in relation to length Broadbents sign / br dbents sain/ noun a movement of someones left side near the lower ribs at each beat of the heart, indicating adhesion between the diaphragm and pericardium in cases of pericarditis [After Sir William Henry BroadBritish Pharmacopoeia | brittle bone disease | broad Broadbents sign British National Formulary bromism / brmiz()m/ noun chronic ill health caused by excessive use of bromides bromocriptine / brm kripti n/ noun a drug which functions like dopamine, used to treat excessive lactation, breast pain, some forms of infertility, growth disorder and Parkinsons disease bronch- /brk/, bronchi- /brki/ prefix same as broncho- (used before vowels) bronchi / brkai/ plural of bronchus bronchial / brkil/ adjective referring to the bronchi bronchial breath sounds / brkil bre sandz/ plural noun distinctive breath sounds from the lungs which help diagnosis bronchiectasis / brki ektsis/ noun a disorder of the bronchi which become wide, infected and filled with pus (NOTE: Bronchiectasis can bromocriptine | bronchbronchi bronchial bronchial breath sounds bronchiectasis | lead to pneumonia.) bent (18351907), British physician.] broad-spectrum antibiotic / br d spektrm ntibai tik/ noun an antibiotic used to control many types of microorganism Brocas aphasia / brkz feizi/ noun a condition in which someone is unable to speak or write, as a result of damage to Brocas area Brocas area / brkz eri/ noun an area on the left side of the brain which governs the motor aspects of speaking [Described 1861. After | Brocas aphasia | Brocas area broad-spectrum antibiotic bronchio- /brki/ prefix referring to the bronchioles bronchiolar / brki l/ adjective referring to the bronchioles bronchiole / brkil/ noun a very small air tube in the lungs leading from a bronchus to the alveoli. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement bronchiolitis / brki laitis/ noun inflammation of the bronchioles, usually in small children bronchitic /br kitik/ adjective referring to bronchitis bronchitis /br kaitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi broncho- /brk/ prefix referring to the windpipe bronchoconstrictor / brkkn strikt/ noun a drug which narrows the bronchi bronchodilator / brkdai leit/ noun a drug which makes the bronchi wider, used in the treatment of asthma and allergy (NOTE: Bronbronchiolar | bronchiole bronchiolitis | bronchitic | bronchitis | bronchobronchoconstrictor | | bronchodilator | bronchio- Pierre Henri Paul Broca (182480), French surgeon and anthropologist. A pioneer of neurosurgery, he also invented various instruments, described muscular dystrophy before Duchenne, and recognised rickets as a nutritional disorder before Virchow.] Brodies abscess chodilators usually have names ending in -terol; however, the most common bronchodilator is salbutamol.) bronchography /br k rfi/ noun an Xbronchography | Brodies abscess / brdiz bses/ noun an abscess of a bone, caused by staphylococcal osteomyelitis [Described 1832. After Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (17831862), British surgeon.] bromhidrosis / brmhi drsis/ noun a conbromhidrosis | dition in which body sweat has an unpleasant smell bromide / brmaid/ noun a bromine salt bromide (NOTE: Bromides are used as sedatives.) bromine / brmi n/ noun a chemical element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Br.) bromine ray examination of the lungs after an opaque substance has been put into the bronchi bronchomediastinal trunk / brk mi di stain()l tr k/ noun the set of lymph nodes draining part of the chest bronchomycosis / brkmai ksis/ noun an infection of the bronchi by a fungus bronchophony /br kfni/ noun vibrations of the voice heard over the lungs, indicating solidification in the lungs bronchopleural / brk plrl/ adjective referring to a bronchus and the pleura bronchopneumonia / brknju mni/ noun an infectious inflammation of the bronchibronchomediastinal trunk | | bronchomycosis | | bronchophony | bronchopleural | bronchopneumonia | | Nursing.fm Page 40 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bronchopulmonary oles, which may lead to general infection of the lungs bronchopulmonary / brk p lmn()ri/ adjective referring to the bronchi and the lungs bronchorrhoea / brk ri / noun the secretion of mucus by the bronchi bronchoscope / brkskp/ noun an instrument which is passed down the trachea into the lungs, which a doctor can use to inspect the inside passages of the lungs bronchoscopy /br kskpi/ noun an examination of a persons bronchi using a bronchoscope bronchospasm / brksp z()m/ noun a tightening of the bronchial muscles which causes the tubes to contract, as in asthma bronchospirometry / brkspai rmitri/ noun a procedure for measuring the volume of the lungs bronchostenosis / brkste nsis/ noun an unusual constriction of the bronchial tubes bronchotracheal / brktr ki l/ adjective referring to the bronchi and the trachea bronchus / brks/ noun one of the two air passages leading from the trachea into the lungs, where they split into many bronchioles. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement (NOTE: The plubronchopulmonary | bronchorrhoea | bronchoscope bronchoscopy | bronchospasm bronchospirometry | | bronchostenosis | | bronchotracheal | bronchus 40 bruised /bru zd/ adjective painful after a blow or showing the marks of a bruise a badly bruised leg bruising / bru zi/ noun an area of bruises The baby has bruising on the back and legs. bruit /bru t/ noun an unusual noise heard through a stethoscope Brunners glands / brnz l ndz/ plural noun glands in the duodenum and jejunum bruising bruit Brunners glands bruised [Described 1687. After Johann Konrad Brunner (16531727), Swiss anatomist at Heidelberg, then at Strasbourg.] ral is bronchi.) bronze diabetes bronze diabetes / brnz dai bi ti z/ noun same as haemochromatosis Broviac catheter / brvi k k it/ noun a type of thin catheter used to insert into a vein brow /bra/ noun same as eyebrow brown fat / bran f t/ noun dark-coloured body fat that can easily be converted to energy and helps to control body temperature Brown-Squard syndrome / bran seik sindrm/ noun a condition in which the spinal cord has been partly severed or compressed, with the result that the lower half of the body is paralysed on one side and loses feeling in the other side [Described 1851. After Charles Edouard | Broviac catheter brow brown fat Brown-Squard syndrome bruxism / br ksiz()m/ noun the action of grinding the teeth, as a habit BSE abbreviation bovine spongiform encephalopathy bubo / bju b/ noun a swelling of a lymph node in the groin or armpit bubonic plague /bju bnik plei / noun a usually fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis in the lymph system, transmitted to humans by fleas from rats buccal / b k()l/ adjective referring to the cheek or mouth buccinator / b ksineit/ noun a cheek muscle which helps the jaw to move when chewing BuddChiari syndrome / b d ki eri sindrm/ noun a disease of the liver, where thrombosis has occurred in the hepatic veins BSE bubo bubonic plague | buccal buccinator BuddChiari syndrome | bruxism [Described 1845. After George Budd (180882), Professor of Medicine at Kings College Hospital, London; Hans von Chiari (18511916), Viennese pathologist who was Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Strasbourg and later at Prague.] budesonide /bju desnaid/ noun a corticosteroid drug taken by inhalation or in tablets, used in the treatment of hay fever and nasal polyps Buergers disease / b z di zi z/ noun same as thromboangiitis obliterans [Described | Buergers disease | budesonide Brown-Squard (181794), French physiologist.] brucellosis / bru si lsis/ noun a disease brucellosis | 1908. After Leo Buerger (18791943), New York physician of Viennese origin.] which can be caught from cattle or goats or from drinking infected milk, spread by a species of the bacterium Brucella. The symptoms include tiredness, arthritis, headache, sweating, irritability and swelling of the spleen. Also called abortus fever, Malta fever, mountain fever, undulant fever bruise /bru z/ noun a dark painful area on the bruise skin, where blood has escaped under the skin following a blow. black eye verb to cause a bruise on part of the body She bruised her knee on the corner of the table. she bruises easily even a soft blow will give her a bruise buffer / b f/ noun a substance that keeps a constant balance between acid and alkali verb to prevent a solution from becoming acid buffer action / b fr kn/ noun the balancing process between acid and alkali buffered / b fd/ adjective prevented from becoming acid buffered aspirin bug /b / noun an infectious disease (informal ) He caught a bug on holiday. Half the staff have got a stomach bug. bulb /b lb/ noun a round part at the end of an organ or bone bulbar / b lb/ adjective 1. referring to a bulb 2. referring to the medulla oblongata buffer action buffered bug bulb bulbar buffer Nursing.fm Page 41 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 41 byssinosis Burkitts tumour bulbospongiosus muscle / b lbsp nd i ss m sl/ noun a muscle in the perineum behind the penis bulbourethral gland / b lbj ri rl l nd/ noun one of two glands at the base of the penis which secrete into the urethra. gland bulimia /bu limi/, bulimia nervosa /bu limi n vs/ noun a psychological condition in which a person eats too much and is incapable of controlling his or her eating. The eating is followed by behaviour designed to prevent weight gain, e.g. vomiting, use of laxatives or excessive exercise. bulla / bl/ noun a large blister (NOTE: The plu| | bulbourethral gland | bulimia | | | bulla bulbospongiosus muscle Burkitts tumour / b kits tju m/, Burkitts lymphoma / b kits lim fm/ noun a malignant tumour, usually on the maxilla, found especially in children in Africa [Described 1957. | After Denis Parsons Burkitt (191193), formerly Senior Surgeon, Kampala, Uganda; later a member of the Medical Research Council (UK).] burn /b n/ noun an injury to skin and tissue burn caused by light, heat, radiation, electricity or chemicals verb to harm or destroy something She burnt her hand on the hot frying by fire pan. Most of his hair or his skin was burnt off. (NOTE: burning burnt or burned) burning / b ni/ adjective referring to a feelburning ral is bullae.) bumetanide /bju metnaid/ noun a drug which helps a patient to produce urine, used in the treatment of swelling caused by fluid accumulating in the tissues bumper fracture / b mp fr kt/ noun a fracture in the upper part of the tibia (NOTE: It has | bumper fracture bumetanide this name because it can be caused by a blow from the bumper of a car.) bundle branch block / b nd()l br nt blk/ noun an unusual condition of the hearts bundle branch block ing similar to that of being hurt by fire She had a burning pain or in her chest. burr /b / noun a bit used with a drill to make holes in a bone such as the cranium or in a tooth bursa / b s/ noun a sac containing fluid, forming part of the usual structure of a joint such as the knee and elbow, where it protects against frequent pressure and rubbing (NOTE: The plural is burburr bursa sae.) conduction tissue bundle of His / b nd()l v his/ noun same as bundle of His atrioventricular bundle [Described 1893. After Ludwig His (18631934), Professor of Anatomy successively at Leipzig, Basle, Gttingen and Berlin.] bunion / b njn/ noun an inflammation and bunion swelling of the big toe, caused by tight shoes which force the toe sideways so that a callus develops over the joint between the toe and the metatarsal buphthalmos /b f lms/ noun a type of congenital glaucoma occurring in infants bupivacaine /bju pivkein/ noun a powerful local anaesthetic, used in epidural anaesthesia buprenorphine /bju prenfi n/ noun an opiate drug used in the relief of moderate to severe pain, and as an opioid substitute in treating drug addiction buphthalmos | bupivacaine | buprenorphine | bursitis /b saitis/ noun the inflammation of a bursa, especially in the shoulder Buscopan / b skp n/ a trade name for a form of hyoscine butobarbitone / bju t b bitn/ noun a barbiturate drug used as a sedative and hypnotic buttock / b tk/ noun one of the two fleshy parts below the back, on which a person sits, made up mainly of the gluteal muscles. Also called nates buttonhole surgery / b t()nhl s d ri/ noun a surgical operation through a small hole in the body, using an endoscope bypass / baip s/ noun 1. a surgical operation to redirect the blood, usually using a grafted blood vessel and usually performed when one of the persons own blood vessels is blocked 2. a new route for the blood created by a bypass operation byssinosis / bisi nsis/ noun a lung disease which is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaling cotton dust | Buscopan butobarbitone | buttock buttonhole surgery bypass byssinosis | bursitis Nursing.fm Page 42 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM C c symbol centiC symbol Celsius CABG abbreviation coronary artery bypass graft cachet / k ei/ noun a quantity of a drug wrapped in paper, to be swallowed cachexia /k keksi/ noun a state of ill health characterised by wasting and general weakness cadaver /k d v/ noun a dead body, especially one used for dissection cadaveric /k d vrik/, cadaverous /k d v()rs/ adjective referring to a person who is thin or wasting away caecal / si k()l/ adjective referring to the caecum caecosigmoidostomy / si k si mi dstmi/ noun an operation to open up a connection between the caecum and the sigmoid colon caecostomy /si kstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the caecum and the abdominal wall to allow faeces to be passed without going through the rectum and anus caecum / si km/ noun the wider part of the large intestine in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen at the point where the small intestine joins it and which has the appendix attached to it. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement. Also called cecum (NOTE: The plural is C CABG cachet cachexia | cadaver | cadaveric | | caecal caecosigmoidostomy | | caecostomy | caecum c caisson disease caisson disease / keis()n di zi z/ noun a condition in which a person experiences pains in the joints and stomach, and dizziness caused by nitrogen in the blood. Also called the bends, | compressed air sickness, decompression sickness calamine / k lmain/, calamine lotion / k lmain l()n/ noun a lotion, based on calamine zinc oxide, which helps relieve skin irritation, caused e.g. by sunburn or chickenpox calc- /k lk/ prefix same as calci- (used before calc- vowels) caeca.) caesarean /si zerin/, caesarean section /si zerin sekn/ noun a surgical operation to deliver a baby by cutting through the abdominal wall into the uterus. Compare vaginal delivery caesium / si zim/ noun a radioactive element, used in treatment by radiation (NOTE: The chem| | caesium caesarean ical symbol is Cs.) caesium-137 / si zim w n ri sev()n/ noun a radioactive substance used in radiology caf au lait spots / k fei lei spts/ plural noun brown spots on the skin, which are an indicaesium-137 caf au lait spots calcaemia /k l si mi/ noun a condition in which the blood contains an unusually large amount of calcium calcaneal /k l keinil/ adjective referring to the calcaneus calcaneus /k l keinis/, calcaneum /k l keinim/ noun the heel bone, situated underneath the talus. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement calcareous degeneration /k l keris di d en rei()n/ noun the formation of calcium on bones or at joints in old age calci- /k lsi/ prefix referring to calcium calcification / k lsifi kei()n/ noun a process of hardening caused by the formation of deposits of calcium salts calcified / k lsifaid/ adjective made hard Bone is calcified connective tissue. calcinosis / k lsi nsis/ noun a medical condition where deposits of calcium salts form in joints, muscles and organs calcitonin / k lsi tnin/ noun a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, which is believed to regulate the level of calcium in the blood. Also called thyrocalcitonin calcium / k lsim/ noun a metallic chemical element which is a major component of bones and teeth and which is essential for various bodily processes such as blood clotting (NOTE: The | calcaneal | calcaneus | | calcareous degeneration | | | calcicalcification | calcified calcinosis | calcitonin | calcium calcaemia cation of von Recklinghausens disease caffeine / k fi n/ noun an alkaloid found in coffee, tea and chocolate, which acts as a stimulant caffeine chemical symbol is Ca.) calcium antagonist / k lsim n t nist/ noun a drug which makes the arteries wider and calcium antagonist | slows the heart rate. It is used in the treatment of angina. Nursing.fm Page 43 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 43 canthoplasty calcium channel blocker / k lsim t n()l blk/, calcium blocker / k lsim blk/ noun a drug which affects the smooth muscle of the cardiovascular system, used in the treatment of angina and hypertension (NOTE: Calcium channel blockers have names ending in -dipine: nifedipine. Not to be used in heart failure as they reduce cardiac function further.) calculosis / k lkj lsis/ noun a condition calculosis | calcium channel blocker in which calculi exist in an organ calculus / k lkjls/ noun a hard mass like a little piece of stone, which forms inside the body. Also called stone (NOTE: The plural is calculi.) CaldwellLuc operation / k ldwel lu k p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to drain the maxillary sinus by making an incision above the canine tooth [Described 1893. After George calculus CaldwellLuc operation | Walter Caldwell (18341918), US physician; Henri Luc (18551925), French laryngologist.] calibrator / k libreit/ noun an instrument calibrator used to enlarge a tube or passage caliectasis / keili ektsis/ noun swelling of the calyces callisthenic / k lis enik/ adjective relating to callisthenics callisthenics / k lis eniks/ plural noun energetic physical exercises for improving fitness and muscle tone, including push-ups, sit-ups and star jumps callosity /k lsiti/ noun a hard patch on the skin, e.g. a corn, resulting from frequent pressure or rubbing. Also called callus callus / k ls/ noun 1. same as callosity 2. tissue which forms round a broken bone as it starts to mend, leading to consolidation Callus formation is more rapid in children and young adults than in elderly people. calor / k l/ noun heat caloric /k lrik/ adjective referring to calories or to heat calorie / k lri/ noun 1. a unit of measurement of heat or energy, equivalent to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C. Now called joule 2. also Calorie a unit of measurement of energy in food (informal ) a low-calorie diet Now called joule to count calories to be careful about how much you eat calvaria /k l veri/, calvarium /k l verim/ noun the top part of the skull calyx / keiliks/ noun a part of the body shaped like a cup especially the tube leading to a renal pyramid. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplecaliectasis | callisthenic | callisthenics | callosity | callus calor caloric | calorie calvaria | | calyx Campylobacter / k mpil b kt/ noun a bacterium which is a common cause of food poisoning in humans and of spontaneous abortion in farm animals canal /k n l/ noun a tube along which something flows canaliculitis / k nlikj laitis/ noun inflammation of the tear duct canal canaliculus / k n likjls/ noun a little canal, e.g. a canal leading to the Haversian systems in compact bone, or a canal leading to the lacrimal duct (NOTE: The plural is canaliculi.) cancellous bone / k nsls bn/ noun a light spongy bone tissue which forms the inner core of a bone and also the ends of long bones. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement cancer / k ns/ noun a malignant growth or tumour which develops in tissue and destroys it, which can spread by metastasis to other parts of the body and which cannot be controlled by the body itself Cancer cells developed in the lymph. She has been diagnosed as having lung cancer or as having cancer of the lung. (NOTE: | canal | canaliculitis | canaliculus | cancellous bone cancer Campylobacter For other terms referring to cancer, see words beginning with carcin-.) cancerophobia / k nsr fbi/ noun a cancerophobia | fear of cancer cancer phobia / k ns fbi/ noun same as cancer phobia cancerophobia cancrum oris ment (NOTE: The plural is calyces.) CAM / si ei em/ abbreviation complementary CAM and alternative medicine camphor / k mf/ noun white crystals with a strong smell, made from a tropical tree, used to keep insects away or as a liniment camphor cancrum oris / k krm ris/ noun severe ulcers in the mouth, leading to gangrene. Also called noma candidiasis / k ndi daisis/, candidosis / k ndi dsis/ noun infection with a species of the fungus Candida canicola fever /k nikl fi v/ noun a form of leptospirosis, giving high fever and jaundice canine / keinain/, canine tooth / keinain tu / noun a pointed tooth next to an incisor. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement canities /k niii z/ noun a loss of pigments, which makes the hair turn white cannabis / k nbis/ noun a drug made from the dried leaves or flowers of the Indian hemp plant. Recreational use of cannabis is illegal and its use to relieve the pain associated with conditions such as multiple sclerosis is controversial. Also called hashish, marijuana cannula / k njl/ noun a tube with a trocar or blunt needle inside, inserted into the body to introduce fluids canthal / k nl/ adjective referring to the corner of the eye cantholysis /k n lsis/ noun same as cancandidiasis | | canicola fever | canine canities | cannabis cannula canthal cantholysis | thoplasty canthoplasty canthoplasty / k npl sti/ noun 1. an operation to repair the canthus of the eye 2. an opera- Nursing.fm Page 44 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM canthus tion to cut through the canthus to enlarge the groove in the eyelid canthus / k ns/ noun a corner of the eye cap /k p/ noun 1. a covering which protects something 2. an artificial hard covering for a damaged or broken tooth CAPD abbreviation continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis capeline bandage / k plain b ndid / noun a bandage shaped like a cap, either for the head, or to cover a stump after amputation capillary /k pilri/ noun a tiny blood vessel between the arterioles and the venules, which carries blood and nutrients into the tissues capita / k pit/ plural of caput capitate / k piteit/, capitate bone / k piteit bn/ noun the largest of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist. See illustration at HAND in canthus cap CAPD capeline bandage capillary | capita capitate 44 vulsions. It is used in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and bipolar disorder. carbenoxolone / k b nksln/ noun a liquorice agent, used to treat stomach ulcers carbidopa / k bi dp/ noun an inhibitor used to enable levodopa to enter the brain in larger quantities in the treatment of Parkinsons disease carbimazole /k bimzl/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the formation of thyroid hormones, used in the management of hyperthyroidism carbohydrate / k b haidreit/ noun 1. a biological compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates derive from sugar and are an important source of food and energy. 2. food containing carbohydrates high carbohydrate drinks carbolic acid /k blik sid/ noun same as carbenoxolone | carbidopa | carbimazole | carbohydrate | carbolic acid | Supplement capitellum / k pi telm/ noun a rounded capitellum | phenol carbon enlarged part at the end of a bone, especially this part of the upper arm bone, the humerus, that forms the elbow joint with one of the lower bones, the radius. Also called capitulum of humerus (NOTE: The plural is capitella.) capitulum /k pitjlm/ noun the rounded end capitulum | carbon / k bn/ noun one of the common nonmetallic elements, an essential component of living matter and organic chemical compounds (NOTE: The chemical symbol is C.) carbon dioxide / k bn dai ksaid/ noun a carbon dioxide | of a bone which articulates with another bone, e.g. the distal end of the humerus (NOTE: The plural is capitula.) colourless gas produced by the bodys metabolism as the tissues burn carbon, and breathed out by the lungs as waste (NOTE: The chemical symbol is CO2.) capitulum of humerus /k pitjlm v hju mrs/ noun same as capitellum caplet / k plt/ noun a small oblong tablet with a covering that dissolves easily and which usually cannot be broken in two capsular / k psjl/ adjective referring to a capsule capsule / k psju l/ noun 1. a membrane round an organ or joint 2. a small hollow digestible case filled with a drug that is taken by swallowing She swallowed three capsules of painkiller. The doctor prescribed the drug in capsule form. capsulectomy / k psj lektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the capsule round a joint capsulitis / k psj laitis/ noun inflammation of a capsule capsulotomy / k psj ltmi/ noun a surgical procedure involving cutting into the capsule around a body part, e.g. cutting into the lens of the eye during the removal of a cataract captopril / k ptpril/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the arteries from being made narrower by an angiotensin. It is used to control high blood pressure. caput / k pt/ noun the head (NOTE: The plural | caplet capsular capsule capsulectomy | capsulitis | capsulotomy | captopril caput capitulum of humerus carbon dioxide snow / k bn dai ksaid sn/ noun solid carbon dioxide, used in treating skin growths such as warts, or to preserve tissue samples carbonic anhydrase /k bnik n haidreiz/ noun an enzyme which acts as a buffer and regulates the bodys water balance, including gastric acid secretion and aqueous humour production carbon monoxide / k bn m nksaid/ noun a poisonous gas found in fumes from car engines, from burning gas and cigarette smoke | carbonic anhydrase | | carbon monoxide | carbon dioxide snow (NOTE: The chemical symbol is CO.) carboxyhaemoglobin /k bksihi m lbin/ noun a compound of carbon monoxide carboxyhaemoglobin | | | and haemoglobin formed when a person breathes in carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke or car exhaust fumes carboxyhaemoglobinaemia /k bksihi m lbi ni mi/ noun the presence of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood carbuncle / k b kl/ noun a localised staphylococcal infection, which goes deep into the tissue carcin- /k sin/ prefix same as carcino- (used carboxyhaemoglobinaemia | | carbuncle carcin- | before vowels) carcino- is capita.) carbamazepine / k b m zpi n/ noun a drug which reduces pain and helps to prevent con| carbamazepine carcino- /k sin/ prefix referring to carcinoma or cancer carcinogen /k sind n/ noun a substance which produces a carcinoma or cancer carcinogen | Nursing.fm Page 45 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 45 cardiography cardiac index carcinogenesis / k sin d ensis/ noun the process of forming a carcinoma in tissue carcinogenic / k sin d enik/ adjective causing a carcinoma or cancer carcinoid / k sinid/, carcinoid tumour / k sinid tju m/ noun an intestinal tumour, especially in the appendix, which causes diarrhoea carcinoma / k si nm/ noun a cancer of the epithelium or glands carcinomatosis / k sinm tsis/ noun a carcinoma which has spread to many sites in the body carcinomatous / k si nmts/ adjective referring to carcinoma carcinosarcoma / k sins km/ noun a malignant tumour containing elements of both a carcinoma and a sarcoma cardia / k di/ noun an opening at the top of the stomach which joins it to the gullet cardiac / k di k/ adjective referring to the heart cardiac achalasia / k di k k leizi/ noun a condition in which the patient is unable to relax the cardia, the muscle at the entrance to the stomach, with the result that food cannot enter the stomach. cardiomyotomy cardiac arrest / k di k rest/ noun a condition in which the heart muscle stops beating cardiac asthma / k di k sm/ noun difficulty in breathing caused by heart failure cardiac catheter / k di k k it/ noun a catheter passed through a vein into the heart, to take blood samples, to record pressure or to examine the interior of the heart before surgery cardiac catheterisation / k di k k itrai zei()n/ noun a procedure which involves passing a catheter into the heart cardiac cirrhosis / k di k si rsis/ noun cirrhosis of the liver caused by heart disease cardiac compression / k di k km pre()n/ noun the compression of the heart by fluid in the pericardium cardiac conducting system / k di k kn d kti sistm/ noun the nerve system in the heart which links an atrium to a ventricle, so that the two beat at the same rate cardiac cycle / k di k saik()l/ noun the repeated beating of the heart, formed of the diastole and systole cardiac decompression / k di k di km pre()n/ noun the removal of a haematoma or constriction of the heart cardiac failure / k di k feilj/ noun same as heart failure cardiac glycoside / k di k laiksaid/ noun a drug used in the treatment of tachycardia and atrial fibrillation, e.g. digoxin | carcinogenic | carcinoid carcinoma | carcinomatosis | carcinomatous | carcinosarcoma | cardia cardiac cardiac achalasia | cardiac arrest | cardiac asthma cardiac catheter cardiac catheterisation | cardiac cirrhosis | cardiac compression | cardiac conducting system | cardiac cycle cardiac decompression | cardiac failure cardiac glycoside carcinogenesis cardiac index / k di k indeks/ noun the cardiac output per square metre of body surface, usually between 3.1 and 3.8l/min/m2 (litres per minute per square metre) cardiac infarction noun same as myocardial cardiac infarction infarction cardiac monitor / k di k mnit/ noun same as electrocardiograph cardiac murmur / k di k m m/ noun same as heart murmur cardiac muscle / k di k m s()l/ noun a muscle in the heart which makes the heart beat cardiac neurosis / k di k nj rsis/ noun same as disordered action of the heart cardiac notch / k di k nt/ noun 1. a point in the left lung, where the right inside wall is bent. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement 2. a notch at the point where the oesophagus joins the greater curvature of the stomach cardiac orifice / k di k rifis/ noun an opening where the oesophagus joins the stomach cardiac output / k di k atpt/ noun the volume of blood expelled by each ventricle in a specific time, usually between 4.8 and 5.3l/min (litres per minute) cardiac pacemaker / k di k peismeik/ noun an electronic device implanted on a patients heart, or which a patient wears attached to the chest, which stimulates and regulates the heartbeat cardiac reflex / k di k ri fleks/ noun the reflex which controls the heartbeat automatically cardiac surgery / k di k s d ri/ noun surgery to the heart cardiac tamponade / k di k t mp neid/ noun pressure on the heart when the pericardial cavity fills with blood. Also called heart tamcardiac murmur cardiac muscle cardiac neurosis | cardiac notch cardiac orifice cardiac output cardiac pacemaker cardiac reflex cardiac surgery cardiac tamponade | cardiac monitor ponade cardiac vein / k di k vein/ noun one of the veins which lead from the myocardium to the right atrium cardinal / k din()l n mb/ adjective most important cardinal ligaments / k din()l li mnts/ plural noun ligaments forming a band of connective tissue that extends from the uterine cervix and vagina to the pelvic walls. Also called Mackencardinal cardinal ligaments cardiac vein rodts ligaments cardio- /k di/ prefix referring to the heart cardiogenic / k di d enik/ adjective resultcardiocardiogenic | ing from activity or disease of the heart cardiogram / k di r m/ noun a graph showing the heartbeat, produced by a cardiograph cardiograph / k di r f/ noun an instrument which records the heartbeat cardiography / k di rfi/ noun the action of recording the heartbeat cardiogram cardiograph cardiography | Nursing.fm Page 46 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cardiologist 46 | cardiologist / k di ld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of the heart cardiology / k di ld i/ noun the study of the heart, its diseases and functions cardiomegaly / k di me li/ noun an enlarged heart cardiomyopathy / k dimai pi/ noun a disease of the heart muscle cardiomyoplasty / k di mai pl sti/ noun an operation to improve the functioning of the heart, by using the latissimus dorsi as a stimulant cardiomyotomy / k dimai tmi/ noun an operation to treat cardiac achalasia by splitting the ring of muscles where the oesophagus joins the stomach. Also called Hellers operation cardiopathy / k di pi/ noun any kind of heart disease cardiophone / k difn/ noun a microphone attached to a patient to record sounds, usually used to record the heart of an unborn baby cardioplegia / k di pli d i/ noun the stopping of a patients heart, by chilling it or using drugs, so that heart surgery can be performed cardiopulmonary / k di p lmn()ri/ adjective relating to both the heart and the lungs cardiopulmonary bypass / k di p lmn()ri baip s/ noun a machine or method for artificially circulating the patients blood during open-heart surgery. The heart and lungs are cut off from the circulation and replaced by a pump. cardiopulmonary resuscitation / k di p lmn()ri ri s si tei()n/ noun an emergency technique to make a persons heart start beating again. It involves clearing the airways and then alternately pressing on the chest and breathing into the mouth. Abbreviation CPR cardiopulmonary system / k di p lmn()ri sistm/ noun the heart and lungs considered together as a functional unit cardioscope / k diskp/ noun an instrument formed of a tube with a light at the end, used to inspect the inside of the heart cardiospasm / k disp z()m/ noun same as cardiac achalasia cardiothoracic / k di r sik/ adjective referring to the heart and the chest region a cardiothoracic surgeon cardiotocography / k dit k rfi/ noun the recording of the heartbeat of a fetus cardiotomy / k di tmi/ noun an operation that involves cutting the wall of the heart cardiotomy syndrome / k di tmi sindrm/ noun fluid in the membranes round the heart after cardiotomy cardiotoxic / k di tksik/ adjective which is toxic to the heart cardiology | cardiomegaly | cardiomyopathy | cardiomyoplasty | | cardiomyotomy | cardiopathy | cardiophone cardioplegia | cardiopulmonary | cardiopulmonary bypass | cardiopulmonary resuscitation | | | cardiopulmonary system | cardioscope cardiospasm cardiothoracic | cardiotocography | | cardiotomy | cardiotomy syndrome | cardiotoxic | cardiologist cardiovascular / k di v skjl/ adjective referring to the heart and the blood circulation | cardiovascular system cardiovascular disease / k di v skjl di zi z/ noun any disease which affects the circulatory system, e.g. hypertension cardiovascular system / k di v skjl sistm/ noun the system of organs and blood vessels by means of which the blood circulates round the body and which includes the heart, arteries and veins cardioversion / k di v ()n/ noun a procedure to correct an irregular heartbeat by applying an electrical impulse to the chest wall. deficardiovascular disease | | cardiovascular system | cardioversion | brillation carditis /k daitis/ noun inflammation of the connective tissue of the heart care pathway / ke p wei/ noun the entire process of diagnosis, treatment and care that a patient goes through care plan / ke pl n/ noun a plan drawn up by the nursing staff for the treatment of an individual patient caries / keri z/ noun decay in a tooth or bone carina /k ri n/ noun a structure shaped like the bottom of a boat, e.g. the cartilage at the point where the trachea branches into the bronchi cariogenic / keri d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which causes caries carminative / k mintiv/ noun a substance which relieves colic or indigestion adjective relieving colic or indigestion carneous mole / k nis ml/ noun matter in the uterus after the death of a fetus carotenaemia / k rti ni mi/ noun an excessive amount of carotene in the blood, usually as a result of eating too many carrots or tomatoes, which gives the skin a yellow colour. Also called xanthaemia carotene / k rti n/ noun an orange or red pigment in carrots, egg yolk and some oils, which is converted by the liver into vitamin A carotid /k rtid/, carotid artery /k rtid tri/ noun either of the two large arteries in the neck which supply blood to the head carotid artery thrombosis /k rtid tri rm bsis/ noun the formation of a blood clot in the carotid artery carp- /k p/ prefix same as carpo- (used before | care pathway care plan caries carina | cariogenic | carminative carneous mole carotenaemia | carotene carotid | | carotid artery thrombosis | | carp- carditis vowels) carpal carpal / k p()l/ adjective referring to the wrist carpal bones / k p()l bnz/, carpals / k p()lz/ plural noun the eight bones which make up the carpus or wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement carpal tunnel release / k p()l t n()l ri li s/ noun an operation to relieve the compression of the median nerve carpal bones carpal tunnel release | Nursing.fm Page 47 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 47 catarrh carpal tunnel syndrome / k p()l t n()l sindrm/ noun a condition, usually affecting women, in which the fingers tingle and hurt at night. It is caused by compression of the median nerve. carphology /k fld i/ noun the action of pulling at the bedclothes, a sign of delirium in typhoid and other fevers. Also called floccitation carpo- /k p/ prefix referring to the wrist carpometacarpal joint / k pmet k p()l d int/ noun one of the joints between the carpals and metacarpals. Also called CM joint carpopedal spasm / k ppi d()l sp z()m/ noun a spasm in the hands and feet caused by lack of calcium carpus / k ps/ noun the bones by which the lower arm is connected to the hand. Also called wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement carphology | carpocarpometacarpal joint | | carpopedal spasm carpus carpal tunnel syndrome (NOTE: The plural is carpi.) carrier / k ri/ noun 1. a person who carries carrier caseinogen / keisi ind n/ noun the main protein in milk, from which casein is formed Caseys model / keisiz md()l/ noun a model for the care of child patients, where the parents are involved in the treatment castor oil / k str il/ noun a plant oil which acts as a laxative castration /k strei()n/ noun the surgical removal of the sexual organs, usually the testicles, in males casualty / k ulti/ noun 1. a person who has had an accident or who is suddenly ill The fire caused several casualties. The casualties were taken by ambulance to the nearest hospital. 2. also casualty department same as accident The accident and emergency department victim was rushed to casualty. casualty ward / k ulti w d/ noun same as | Caseys model castor oil castration | casualty casualty ward caseinogen bacteria of a disease in his or her body and who can transmit the disease to others without showing any signs of being infected with it Ten per cent of the population are believed to be unwitting carriers of the bacteria. 2. an insect which carries disease and infects humans 3. a healthy person who carries a chromosome variation that gives rise to a hereditary disease such as haemophilia or Duchenne muscular dystrophy cartilage / k tilid / noun thick connective tissue which lines and cushions the joints and which forms part of the structure of an organ. Cartilage in small children is the first stage in the formation of bones. cartilaginous / k ti l d ins/ adjective made of cartilage cartilaginous joint / k ti l d ins d int/ noun 1. primary cartilaginous joint same as cartilage cartilaginous | cartilaginous joint | accident ward CAT /k t/ noun same as computerised axial tomography cata- /k t/ prefix downwards catabolic / k t blik/ adjective referring to CAT catacatabolic | catabolism catabolism /k t bliz()m/ noun the process of breaking down complex chemicals into simple chemicals catalase / k tleiz/ noun an enzyme present in the blood and liver which catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen catalepsy / k tlepsi/ noun a condition often associated with schizophrenia, where a person becomes incapable of sensation, the body is rigid and he or she does not move for long periods catalyse / k tlaiz/ verb to act as a catalyst and help make a chemical reaction take place (NOTE: catabolism | catalase catalepsy catalyse synchondrosis 2. secondary cartilaginous joint same as symphysis caruncle /k r kl/ noun a small swelling cascara /k sk r/, cascara sagrada /k sk r s r d/ noun a laxative made from caruncle | cascara | | | The US spelling is catalyze.) catalyst / k tlist/ noun a substance which catalyst the bark of a tropical tree case /keis/ noun a single occurrence of a disease There were two hundred cases of cholera in the recent outbreak. caseation / keisi ei()n/ noun the process by which dead tissue decays into a firm and dry mass. It is characteristic of tuberculosis. case control study /keis kn trl st di/ noun an investigation in which a group of patients with a disease are compared with a group without the disease in order to study possible causes case history / keis hist()ri/ noun details of what has happened to a patient undergoing treatment casein / keisiin/ noun one of the proteins found in milk case caseation | case control study | case history casein produces or helps a chemical reaction without itself changing an enzyme which acts as a catalyst in the digestive process catalytic / k t litik/ adjective referring to catalysis catamenia / k t mi ni/ noun menstruation catalytic | catamenia | (technical ) cataplexy cataplexy / k tpleksi/ noun a condition in which a persons muscles become suddenly rigid and he or she falls without losing consciousness, possibly caused by a shock cataract / k tr kt/ noun a condition in which the lens of the eye gradually becomes hard and opaque cataractous lens / k t r kts lenz/ noun a lens on which a cataract has formed catarrh /k t / noun inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose and throat, creating an excessive amount of mucus cataract cataractous lens | catarrh | Nursing.fm Page 48 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM catatonia 48 cauterisation | catatonia / k t tni/ noun a condition in which a psychiatric patient is either motionless or shows violent reactions to stimulation catatonic / k t tnik/ adjective referring to behaviour in which a person is either motionless or extremely violent catchment area / k tmnt eri/ noun an area around a hospital which is served by that hospital catecholamines /k t klmi nz/ plural noun the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline which are released by the adrenal glands catgut / k t t/ noun a thread made from part of the intestines of sheep, now usually artificially hardened, used to sew up cuts made during surgery catharsis /k sis/ noun purgation of the bowels cathartic /k tik/ adjective laxative or purgative catheter / k it/ noun a tube passed into the body along one of the passages in the body catheterisation / k itrai zei()n/, catheterization noun the act of putting a catheter into a patients body CAT scan / k t sk n/, CT scan / si ti sk n/ noun same as CT scan cat-scratch disease / k t skr t di zi z/, cat-scratch fever / k t skr t fi v/ noun an illness in which the patient has a fever and swollen lymph glands, thought to be caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by the scratch of a cat. It may also result from scratching with other sharp points. cauda equina / k d i kwain/ noun a group of nerves which go from the spinal cord to the lumbar region and the coccyx caudal / k d()l/ adjective (in humans) referring to the cauda equina caudal anaesthetic / k d()l ns etik/ noun an anaesthetic, injected into the base of the spine to remove feeling in the lower part of the body. It is often used in childbirth. caudal analgesia / k d()l n()l d i zi/ noun a method of pain relief that involves injecting an anaesthetic into the base of the spine to remove feeling in the lower part of the body caul /k l/ noun 1. a membrane which sometimes covers a babys head at birth 2. same as catatonic | catchment area catecholamines | catgut catharsis | cathartic | catheter catheterisation | CAT scan cat-scratch disease | cauda equina | caudal caudal anaesthetic | caudal analgesia | caul catatonia cauterisation / k trai zei()n/, cauterizaThe growth tion noun the act of cauterising was removed by cauterisation. cauterise / k traiz/, cauterize verb to use burning, radiation or laser beams to remove tissue or to stop bleeding cautery / k tri/ noun a surgical instrument used to cauterise a wound cavernous / k vns/ adjective hollow cavitation / k vi tei()n/ noun the forming of a cavity cavity / k viti/ noun a hole or space inside the body cc abbreviation cubic centimetre CCU abbreviation coronary care unit CD4 / si di f / noun a compound consisting of a protein combined with a carbohydrate which is found in some cells and helps to protect the body against infection CD4 count a test used to monitor how many CD4 cells have been destroyed in people with HIV CDH abbreviation congenital dislocation of the hip cefaclor / sefkl / noun an antibacterial drug used to treat septicaemia cefotaxime / sef t ksi m/ noun a synthetic cephalosporin used to treat bacterial infection by pseudomonads -cele /si l/ suffix referring to a swelling cell /sel/ noun a tiny unit of matter which is the base of all plant and animal tissue (NOTE: For | cauterise cautery cavernous cavitation | cavity cc CCU CD4 CDH cefaclor cefotaxime | -cele cell other terms referring to cells, see words beginning with cyt-, cyto-.) cellular / seljl/ adjective 1. referring to cells, or formed of cells 2. made of many similar parts cellular connected together cellulite / seljlait/ noun lumpy deposits of subcutaneous fat, especially in the thighs and buttocks cellulitis / selj laitis/ noun a usually bacterial inflammation of connective tissue or of the subcutaneous tissue cellulose / seljls/ noun a carbohydrate which makes up a large percentage of plant matter Celsius / selsis/ noun a metric scale of temperature on which 0 is the point at which water freezes and 100 is the point at which water boils under average atmospheric conditions. Also called centigrade. Fahrenheit (NOTE: It is cellulite cellulitis | cellulose Celsius omentum causalgia /k z ld / noun burning pain in a limb, caused by a damaged nerve causal organism / k z()l niz()m/ noun an organism that causes a particular disease caustic / k stik/ noun a chemical substance that destroys tissues that it touches adjective corrosive and destructive | causal organism caustic causalgia usually written as a C after the degree sign: 52C (say: fifty-two degrees Celsius).) [Described 1742. After Anders Celsius (1701 44), Swedish astronomer and scientist.] Celsius temperature / selsis temprit/ noun temperature as measured on the Celsius Celsius temperature scale CEMACH / si m / noun a UK research project investigating the causes of infant deaths and stillCEMACH Nursing.fm Page 49 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 49 births. Full form Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health cement /si ment/ noun 1. an adhesive used in cement | centrum cerebral infarction dentistry to attach a crown to the base of a tooth 2. same as cementum cementum /si mentm/ noun a layer of thick hard material which covers the roots of teeth census / senss/ noun a systematic count or survey -centesis /senti sis/ suffix puncture centi- /senti/ prefix one hundredth (10-2). Symbol c centigrade / senti reid/ noun same as Celcementum | census -centesis centicentigrade centrum / sentrm/ noun the central part of an organ (NOTE: The plural is centra.) cephal- /sefl/ prefix same as cephalo- (used cephal- before vowels) cephalalgia cephalalgia / sef l ld / noun same as | headache sius centile chart / sentail t t/ noun a chart showing the number of babies who fall into each percentage category, as regards, e.g., birth weight centilitre / sentili t/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one hundredth of a litre. Symbol cl centimetre / sentimi t/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one hundredth of a metre. Symbol cm central / sentrl/ adjective referring to the centre central line / sentrl lain/ noun a catheter inserted through the neck, used to monitor central venous pressure in conditions such as shock where fluid balance is severely upset central nervous system / sentrl n vs sistm/ noun the brain and spinal cord which link together all the nerves central temperature / sentrl temprit/ noun the temperature of the brain, thorax and abdomen, which is constant central venous pressure / sentrl vi ns pre/ noun blood pressure in the right atrium of the heart, which can be measured by means of a catheter centrifugal / sentri fju ()l, sen trifj ()l/ adjective moving away from the centre centrifugation / sentrifju ei()n/, centrifuging / sentrifju d i/ noun the process of separating the components of a liquid in a centrifuge centrifuge / sentrifju d / noun a device to separate the components of a liquid by rapid spinning centriole / sentril/ noun a small structure found in the cytoplasm of a cell, which involved in forming the spindle during cell division centripetal / sentri pi t()l, sen tripit()l/ adjective moving towards the centre centromere / sentrmi/ noun a constricted part of a chromosome, seen as a cell divides centrosome / sentrsm/ noun the structure in the cytoplasm of a cell, near the nucleus, and containing the centrioles centilitre centimetre central central line central nervous system central temperature central venous pressure centrifugal | | centrifugation | centrifuge centriole centripetal | | centromere centrosome centile chart cephalexin / sef leksin/ noun an antibiotic used to treat infections of the urinary system or respiratory tract cephalhaematoma / seflhi m tm/ noun a swelling found mainly on the head of babies delivered with forceps cephalic /s f lik/ adjective referring to the head cephalo- /sefl/ prefix referring to the head cephalocele / seflsi l/ noun a swelling caused by part of the brain passing through a weak point in the bones of the skull cephalogram / sefl r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of the bones of the skull cephalometry / sef lmitri/ noun measurement of the head cephalopelvic disproportion / sefl pelvik dispr p ()n/ noun a condition in which the pelvic opening of the mother is not large enough for the head of the fetus cephalosporin / sefl sp rin/ noun a drug used in the treatment of bacterial infection cephradine / sefrdi n/ noun an antibacterial drug used to treat sinusitis and urinary tract infections cerclage /s kl / noun the act of tying things together with a ring cerebellar / ser bel/ adjective referring to the cerebellum cerebellar cortex / serbel k teks/ noun the outer covering of grey matter which covers the cerebellum cerebellum / ser belm/ noun a section of the hindbrain, located at the back of the head beneath the back part of the cerebrum. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement cerebr- /serbr/ prefix same as cerebro- (used | cephalhaematoma | | cephalic | cephalocephalocele cephalogram cephalometry | cephalopelvic disproportion | | cephalosporin | cephradine cerclage | cerebellar | cerebellar cortex cerebellum | cerebr- cephalexin before vowels) cerebral / serbrl/ adjective referring to the cerebrum or to the brain in general cerebral dominance / serbrl dminns/ noun the usual condition where the centres for various functions are located in one cerebral hemisphere cerebral haemorrhage / serbrl hem()rid / noun bleeding inside the brain from a cerebral artery. Also called brain haemorcerebral dominance cerebral haemorrhage cerebral rhage cerebral infarction / serbrl in f kn/ noun the death of brain tissue as a result of reduc| cerebral infarction tion in the blood supply to the brain Nursing.fm Page 50 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cerebral ischaemia 50 cervical | cerebral ischaemia / serbrl i ski mi/ noun failure in the blood supply to the brain cerebral palsy cerebral ischaemia cerebral palsy / serbrl p lzi/ noun a disorder mainly due to brain damage occurring before birth, or due to lack of oxygen during birth, associated with poor coordination of muscular movements, impaired speech, hearing and sight, and sometimes mental impairment (NOTE: Premature babies are at higher risk.) cervical / s vik()l, s vaik()l/ adjective referring to the neck cervical canal / s vik()l k n l/ noun a tube running through the cervix, from the point where the uterus joins the vagina to the entrance of the uterine cavity. Also called cervicouterine | cervical canal | canal cerebral peduncle / serbrl pi d k()l/ noun a mass of nerve fibres connecting the cerebral hemispheres to the midbrain. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement cerebral thrombosis / serbrl rm bsis/ noun same as cerebrovascular acci| cerebral thrombosis cerebral peduncle | dent cerebration cerebration / ser brei()n/ noun brain activity cerebro- /serbr/ prefix referring to the cerebrum cerebrospinal / serbr spain()l/ adjective referring to the brain and the spinal cord cerebrospinal fever / serbrspain()l fi v/ noun same as meningococcal meningi| cerebrocerebrospinal | cerebrospinal fever | tis cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid / serbrspain()l flu id/ noun fluid which surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. Abbreviation CSF | COMMENT: CSF is found in the space be- tween the arachnoid mater and pia mater of the brain, within the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord. It consists mainly of water, with some sugar and sodium chloride. Its function is to cushion the brain and spinal cord and it is continually formed and absorbed to maintain the correct pressure. cerebrovascular / serbr v skjl/ adjective referring to the blood vessels in the | cerebrovascular brain cerebrovascular accident / serbr v skjlr ksid()nt/ noun a sudden blocking of or bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain resulting in temporary or permanent paralysis or death. Also called stroke cerebrum /s ri brm/ noun the largest part of the brain, formed of two sections, the cerebral hemispheres, which run along the length of the head. The cerebrum controls the main mental processes, including the memory. Also called telcerebrovascular accident cerebrum | cerumen | | encephalon cerumen /s ru men/ noun wax which forms inside the ear. Also called earwax ceruminous gland /s ru mins l nd/ noun a gland which secretes earwax. See illustraceruminous gland | tion at EAR in Supplement cervic- /s vik/ prefix same as cervico- (used cervic- before vowels) cervical cancer / s vik()l k ns/ noun a cancer of the cervix of the uterus cervical collar / s vik()l kl/ noun a special strong orthopaedic collar to support the head of a person with neck injuries or a condition such as cervical spondylosis cervical erosion / s vik()l i r ()n/ noun a condition in which the epithelium of the mucous membrane lining the cervix uteri extends outside the cervix cervical ganglion / s vik()l lin/ noun one of the bundles of nerves in the neck cervical incompetence / s vik()l inkmpit()ns/ noun a dysfunction of the cervix of the uterus which is often the cause of spontaneous abortions and premature births and can be remedied by Shirodkars operation cervical intraepithelial neoplasia / s vik()l intrepi i lil ni plei / noun changes in the cells of the cervix which may lead to cervical cancer. Abbreviation CIN cervical nerve / s vik()l n v/ noun spinal nerve in the neck cervical node / s vik()l nd/ noun lymph node in the neck cervical plexus / s vik()l plekss/ noun a group of nerves in front of the vertebrae in the neck, which lead to nerves supplying the skin and muscles of the neck, and also the phrenic nerve which controls the diaphragm cervical rib / s vik()l rib/ noun an extra rib sometimes found attached to the vertebrae above the other ribs and which may cause thoracic outlet syndrome cervical smear / s vik()l smi/ noun a test for cervical cancer, where cells taken from the mucus in the cervix of the uterus are examined cervical spondylosis / s vik()l spndi lsis/ noun a degenerative change in the neck bones. spondylosis cervical vertebrae / s vik()l v tibri / plural noun the seven bones which form the neck cervicectomy / s vi sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the cervix uteri cervicitis / s vi saitis/ noun inflammation of the cervix uteri cervico- /s vik/ prefix referring to the neck cervicouterine canal / s vik ju train k n l/ noun same as cervical canal cervix / s viks/ noun 1. any narrow neck of an organ 2. the neck of the uterus, the narrow lower cervical collar cervical erosion | cervical ganglion cervical incompetence cervical intraepithelial neoplasia | | cervical nerve cervical node cervical plexus cervical rib cervical smear cervical spondylosis | cervical vertebrae cervicectomy | cervicitis | cervicocervicouterine canal | | cervix cervical cancer Nursing.fm Page 51 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 51 part of the uterus leading into the vagina. Also called cervix uteri CESDI abbreviation Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy. CEMACH cesium / si zim/ noun US same as caesium cetrimide / setrimaid/ noun a mixture of ammonium compounds, used in disinfectants and antiseptics CFT abbreviation complement fixation test chafe /teif/ verb to rub something, especially to rub against the skin The rough cloth of the collar chafed the girls neck. Chagas disease / s di zi z/ noun a type of sleeping sickness found in South America, transmitted by insect bites which pass trypanosomes into the bloodstream. Children are mainly affected and if untreated the disease can cause fatal heart block in early adult life. [Described CESDI cesium cetrimide CFT chafe Chagas disease | chart chemotaxis 1909. After Carlos Chagas (18791934), Brazilian scientist and physician.] CHAI chart /t t/ noun a record of information shown as a series of lines or points on graph paper a temperature chart charting / t ti/ noun the preparation and updating of a hospital patients chart by nurses and doctors CHC abbreviation 1. child health clinic 2. community health council CHD abbreviation coronary heart disease check-up / tek p/ noun a general examination by a doctor or dentist She went for a checkup. He had a heart check-up last week. cheek /ti k/ noun 1. one of two fleshy parts of the face on each side of the nose 2. either side of the buttocks (informal ) cheekbone / ti kbn/ noun an arch of bone in the face beneath the cheek which also forms the lower part of the eye socket cheil- /kail/ prefix same as cheilo- (used before charting CHC CHD check-up cheek cheekbone cheil- vowels) CHAI abbreviation Commission for Healthcare Audit and Improvement chalasia /t leizi/ noun an excessive relaxation of the oesophageal muscles, which causes regurgitation chalazion /k leizin/ noun same as meibochalasia | chalazion | mian cyst chalone / keiln, k ln/ noun a hormone which stops a secretion, as opposed to those hormones which stimulate secretion chancre / k/ noun a sore on the lip, penis or eyelid which is the first symptom of syphilis chancroid / krid/ noun a venereal sore with a soft base, situated in the groin or on the genitals and caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. Also called soft chancre characterise / k riktraiz/, characterize verb to be a typical or special quality or feature of something or someone The disease is characterised by the development of lesions throughout the body. charcoal / t kl/ noun a highly absorbent substance, formed when wood is burnt in the absence of oxygen, used to relieve diarrhoea or intestinal gas and in cases of poisoning Charcots joint / kz d int/ noun a joint which becomes deformed because the patient cannot feel pain in it when the nerves have been damaged by syphilis, diabetes or leprosy chancre chancroid characterise charcoal Charcots joint chalone cheilitis /kai laitis/ noun inflammation of the lips cheilo- /kail/ prefix referring to the lips cheiloschisis / kail aisis/ noun a double cleft upper lip cheilosis /kai lsis/ noun swelling and cracks on the lips and corners of the mouth caused by lack of vitamin B cheiro- /keir/ prefix referring to the hand cheiropompholyx / keir pmfliks/ noun a disorder of the skin in which tiny blisters appear on the palms of the hand chelating agent / ki leiti eid nt/ noun a chemical compound which can combine with some metals, used as a treatment for metal poisoning chemical symbol / kemik()l simbl/ noun letters which represent a chemical substance Na is the symbol for sodium. chemistry / kemistri/ noun the study of substances, elements and compounds and their reactions with each other chemo / ki m/ noun chemotherapy | cheilocheiloschisis | cheilosis | cheirocheiropompholyx | chelating agent chemical symbol chemistry chemo cheilitis (informal ) chemo- [Described 1868. After Jean-Martin Charcot (182593), French neurologist.] Charcots triad / kz trai d/ noun three symptoms of multiple sclerosis: rapid eye movement, tremor and scanning speech Charnley clamps / t nli kl mps/ plural noun metal clamps fixed to a rod through a bone to hold it tight Charnley clamps Charcots triad chemo- /kem, ki m/ prefix referring to chemistry chemoreceptor / ki mri sept/ noun a cell which responds to the presence of a chemical compound by activating a nerve, e.g. a taste bud reacting to food or cells in the carotid body reacting to lowered oxygen and raised carbon dioxide in the blood chemosis /ki msis/ noun swelling of the conjunctiva chemotaxis / ki m t ksis/ noun the movement of a cell when it is attracted to or repelled by a chemical substance chemoreceptor | chemosis | chemotaxis | Nursing.fm Page 52 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM chemotherapeutic agent chemotherapeutic agent 52 | | chemotherapeutic agent / ki mer pju tik eid nt/ noun a chemical substance used to treat a disease chemotherapy / ki m erpi/ noun the use of drugs such as antibiotics, painkillers or antiseptic lotions to fight a disease, especially using toxic chemicals to destroy rapidly developing cancer cells chest /test/ noun 1. the upper front part of the body between the neck and stomach. Also called thorax 2. same as thorax (NOTE: For other terms chemotherapy | chest referring to the chest, see pectoral and words beginning with steth-, thorac-, thoraco-.) chest pain / test pein/ noun pain in the chest chest pain noun optic chiasma chickenpox / tikin pks/ noun an infectious chickenpox | which may be caused by heart disease chesty / testi/ adjective having phlegm in the lungs, or having a tendency to chest complaints CheyneStokes respiration / tein stks respi rei()n/, CheyneStokes breathing / tein stks bri i/ noun irregular breathing, usually found in people who are unconscious, with short breaths gradually increasing to deep breaths, then reducing again, until breathing appears to stop chiasm / kai z()m/, chiasma /kai zm/ chesty CheyneStokes respiration | chiasm | disease of children, with fever and red spots which turn into itchy blisters. Also called varicella Chief Medical Officer /ti f medik()l fis/ noun in the UK, a government official responsible for all aspects of public health. Abbreviation CMO Chief Nursing Officer / ti f n si fis/ noun in the UK, an official appointed by the Department of Health to advise Government Ministers and provide leadership to nurses and midwives. Abbreviation CNO chilblain / tilblein/ noun a condition in which the skin of the fingers, toes, nose or ears becomes red, swollen and itchy because of exposure to cold. Also called erythema pernio child /taild/ noun a young boy or girl. Child is the legal term for a person under 14 years of age. Chief Nursing Officer chilblain child Chief Medical Officer her own home, especially when the parents or guardians are working child protection / taild pr tekn/ noun the measures taken to avoid abuse, neglect or exploitation of any kind towards children children / tildrn/ plural of child chill /til/ noun a short illness causing a feeling of being cold and shivering, usually the sign of the beginning of a fever, of flu or a cold Chinese medicine / taini z med()sin/ noun a system of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness developed in China over many centuries. It uses herbs, minerals and animal products, exercise, massage and acupuncture. Chinese restaurant syndrome / taini z rest()rnt sindrm/ noun an allergic condition which gives people severe headaches after eating food flavoured with monosodium glutamate (informal ) chiro- /kair/ prefix referring to the hand chiropodist /ki rpdist/ noun a person who specialises in treatment of minor disorders of the feet chiropody /ki rpdi/ noun the study and treatment of minor diseases and disorders of the feet chiropractic / kair pr ktik/ noun the treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system by making adjustments primarily to the bones of the spine chiropractor / kair pr kt/ noun a person who treats musculoskeletal disorders by making adjustments primarily to the bones of the spine chiropracty / kair pr kti/ noun same as child protection | children chill Chinese medicine Chinese restaurant syndrome chirochiropodist | chiropody | chiropractic | chiropractor | chiropracty | chiropractic (informal ) Chlamydia /kl midi/ noun a bacterium that Chlamydia | causes trachoma and urogenital diseases in humans and psittacosis in birds, which can be transmitted to humans. It is currently a major cause of sexually transmitted disease. chloasma /kl zm/ noun the presence of brown spots on the skin from various causes chlor- /kl r/ prefix same as chloro- (used chloasma | chlor- before vowels) (NOTE: The plural is children. For other terms referring to children, see words beginning with paed-, paedo- or ped-, pedo-.) child abuse / taild bju s/ noun cruel treatchild abuse | ment of a child by an adult, including physical and sexual harm childbirth / taildb / noun the act of giving birth. Also called parturition child health clinic / taild hel klinik/ noun a special clinic for checking the health and development of small children under school age. Abbreviation CHC childminder / taildmaind/ noun somebody who looks after other peoples children in his or childbirth child health clinic childminder chlorambucil /kl r mbjsil/ noun a drug which is toxic to cells, used in cancer treatment chloramphenicol / kl r m fenikl/ noun a powerful antibiotic which sometimes causes the collapse of blood cell production, so is used only for treating life-threatening diseases such as meningitis chlordiazepoxide / kl dai zi pksaid/ noun a yellow crystalline powder, used as a tranquilliser and treatment for alcoholism chlorhexidine /kl heksidi n/ noun a disinfectant mouthwash chlorination / kl ri nei()n/ noun sterilisation by adding chlorine | chloramphenicol | chlordiazepoxide | | chlorhexidine | chlorination | chlorambucil Nursing.fm Page 53 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 53 cholesterol chlorine / kl ri n/ noun a powerful greenish gas, used to sterilise water (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cl.) chlorine chlormethiazole / kl me aizl/ noun a sedative used in the treatment of people with alcoholism chloro- /kl r/ prefix referring to chlorine chloroform / klrf m/ noun a powerful drug formerly used as an anaesthetic chloroma /kl rm/ noun a bone tumour associated with acute leukaemia chlorosis /kl rsis/ noun a type of severe anaemia due to iron deficiency, affecting mainly young girls chlorothiazide / kl r aizaid/ noun a drug which helps the body to produce more urine, used in the treatment of high blood pressure, swelling and heart failure chloroxylenol / kl r zailnl/ noun a chemical used as an antimicrobial agent in skin creams and in disinfectants chlorpheniramine / kl fen airmi n/, chlorpheniramine maleate / kl fenairmi n m lieit/ noun an antihistamine drug chlorpromazine hydrochloride /kl prmzi n haidr kl raid/ noun a drug used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses chlorpropamide /kl prpmaid/ noun a drug which lowers blood sugar, used in the treatment of diabetes chlorthalidone /kl lidn/ noun a diuretic choana / kn/ noun any opening shaped like a funnel, especially the one leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx (NOTE: The plural is | chlorochloroform chloroma | chlorosis | chlorothiazide | chloroxylenol | chlorpheniramine | | chlorpromazine hydrochloride | | chlorpropamide | chlorthalidone | choana chlormethiazole choanae.) chocolate cyst chocolate cyst / tklt sist/ noun an ovarian cyst containing old brown blood chol- /kl/ prefix same as chole- (used before chol- vowels) cholaemia /k li mi/ noun the presence of an unusual amount of bile in the blood cholagogue / kl / noun a drug which encourages the production of bile cholangiocarcinoma /k l nd i k si nm/ noun a rare cancer of the cells of the bile ducts cholangiography /k l nd i rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the bile ducts and gall bladder cholangiolitis /k l nd i laitis/ noun inflammation of the small bile ducts cholangiopancreatography /k l nd i p kri t rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the bile ducts and pancreas cholangitis / kl n d aitis/ noun inflammation of the bile ducts chole- /kli/ prefix referring to bile | cholagogue cholangiocarcinoma | | | cholangiography | | cholangiolitis | | cholangiopancreatography | | cholangitis | chole- cholaemia cholecalciferol / klik l sifrl/ noun a form of vitamin D found naturally in fish-liver oils and egg yolks cholecystectomy / klisi stektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the gall bladder cholecystitis / klisi staitis/ noun inflammation of the gall bladder cholecystoduodenostomy / klisist dju di nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the gall bladder to the duodenum to allow bile to pass into the intestine when the main bile duct is blocked cholecystography / klisi st rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the gall bladder cholecystokinin / klisist kainin/ noun a hormone released by cells at the top of the small intestine. It stimulates the gall bladder, making it contract and release bile. cholecystotomy / klisi sttmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the gall bladder, usually to remove gallstones choledoch- /kledk/ prefix referring to the common bile duct choledocholithiasis /k ledkli aisis/ noun same as cholelithiasis choledocholithotomy /k ledikli tmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a gallstone by cutting into the bile duct choledochostomy /k led kstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in a bile duct choledochotomy /kled ktmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the common bile duct to remove gallstones cholelithiasis / klili aisis/ noun a condition in which gallstones form in the gall bladder or bile ducts. Also called choledocholithiasis cholelithotomy / klili tmi/ noun the surgical removal of gallstones by cutting into the gall bladder cholera / klr/ noun a serious bacterial disease spread through food or water which has been infected by Vibrio cholerae A cholera epidemic broke out after the flood. choleresis /k lirsis/ noun the production of bile by the liver choleretic / kli retik/ adjective referring to a substance which increases the production and flow of bile cholestasis / kli steisis/ noun a condition in which all bile does not pass into the intestine but some remains in the liver and causes jaundice cholesteatoma /k lesti tm/ noun a cyst containing some cholesterol found in the middle ear and also in the brain cholesterol /k lestrl/ noun a fatty substance found in fats and oils, also produced by the liver and forming an essential part of all cells | cholecystectomy | cholecystitis | cholecystoduodenostomy | | cholecystography | cholecystokinin | cholecystotomy | choledochcholedocholithiasis | | | choledocholithotomy | | | choledochostomy | | choledochotomy | cholelithiasis | cholelithotomy | cholera choleresis | choleretic | cholestasis | cholesteatoma | | cholesterol | cholecalciferol Nursing.fm Page 54 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cholesterolaemia 54 chorionic gonadotrophin | | cholesterolaemia /k lestr leimi/ noun a high level of cholesterol in the blood cholesterosis /k lest rsis/ noun inflammation of the gall bladder with deposits of cholesterol cholic acid / klik sid/ noun one of the bile acids choline / kli n/ noun a compound involved in fat metabolism and the precursor for acetylcholine cholinergic / kli n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor which responds to acetylcholine cholinesterase / kli nestreiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down a choline ester choluria /k ljri/ noun same as biliuria chondr- /kndr/ prefix referring to cartilage chondritis /kn draitis/ noun inflammation of a cartilage chondroblast / kndrbl st/ noun a cell from which cartilage develops in an embryo chondrocalcinosis / kndr k lsi nsis/ noun a condition in which deposits of calcium phosphate are found in articular cartilage chondrocyte / kndrsait/ noun a mature cartilage cell chondrodysplasia / kndrdis pleizi/ noun a hereditary disorder of cartilage which is linked to dwarfism chondrodystrophy / kndr distrfi/ noun any disorder of cartilage chondroma /kn drm/ noun a tumour formed of cartilaginous tissue chondromalacia / kndrm lei/ noun degeneration of the cartilage of a joint chondrosarcoma / kndrs km/ noun a malignant, rapidly growing tumour involving cartilage cells chorda / k d/ noun a cord or tendon (NOTE: cholesterosis | | cholic acid choline cholinergic | cholinesterase | choluria | chondrchondritis | chondroblast chondrocalcinosis | | chondrocyte chondrodysplasia | | chondrodystrophy | chondroma | chondromalacia | chondrosarcoma | | chorda cholesterolaemia chorionic gonadotrophin /k ri nik nd trfin/ noun human chorionic | | gonadotrophin chorionic villi /k ri nik vilai/ plural noun tiny finger-like folds in the chorion chorionic villus sampling /k ri nik vils s mpli/ noun an antenatal screening test carried out by examining cells from the chorionic villi of the outer membrane surrounding an embryo, which have the same DNA as the fetus choroid / k rid/ noun the middle layer of tissue which forms the eyeball, between the sclera and the retina. See illustration at EYE in Supplement choroiditis / k ri daitis/ noun inflammation of the choroid in the eyeball choroidocyclitis /k ridsai klaitis/ noun inflammation of the choroids and ciliary body Christmas disease / krisms di zi z/ noun same as haemophilia B [After Mr Christmas, the | chorionic villus sampling | choroid choroiditis | choroidocyclitis | | | Christmas disease | chorionic villi person in whom the disease was first studied in detail.] Christmas factor / krisms f kt/ noun same as Factor IX chrom- /krm/ prefix same as chromo- (used before vowels) -chromasia /krmeizi/ suffix referring to colChristmas factor chrom-chromasia The plural is chordae.) chordee / k di / noun a painful condition where the erect penis is curved, a complication of gonorrhoea chorditis /k daitis/ noun inflammation of the vocal cords chordotomy /k dtmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a cord such as a nerve pathway in the spinal cord in order to relieve intractable pain chorea /k ri / noun a sudden severe twitching, usually of the face and shoulders, which is a symptom of disease of the nervous system chorion / k rin/ noun a membrane covering the fertilised ovum chorionic / k ri nik/ adjective referring to the chorion chorditis | chordotomy | chorea | chorion chorionic | chordee our chromatid / krmtid/ noun one of two parallel filaments making up a chromosome chromatin / krmtin/ noun a network which forms the nucleus of a cell and can be stained with basic dyes chromatography / krm t rfi/ noun a method of separating chemicals through a porous medium, used in analysing compounds and mixtures chromatophore /kr m tf / noun any pigment-bearing cell in the eyes, hair and skin chromic acid / krmik sid/ noun an unstable acid existing only in solution or in the form of a salt, sometimes used in the removal of warts chromicised catgut / krmisaizd k t t/ noun catgut which is hardened with chromium to make it slower to dissolve in the body chromium / krmim/ noun a metallic trace element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cr.) chromo- /krm/ prefix referring to colour chromosomal / krm sm()l/ adjective referring to chromosomes chromosome / krmsm/ noun a rodshaped structure in the nucleus of a cell, formed of DNA, which carries the genes chromosome mapping / krmsm m pi/ noun a procedure by which the position of genes on a chromosome is established chromatid chromatin chromatography | chromatophore | chromic acid chromicised catgut chromium chromochromosomal | chromosome chromosome mapping Nursing.fm Page 55 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 55 cineplasty chronic / krnik/ adjective 1. referring to a disease or condition which lasts for a long time He has a chronic chest complaint. Opposite acute 2. referring to serious pain (informal ) chronic abscess / krnik bses/ noun an abscess which develops slowly over a period of time chronic appendicitis / krnik pendi saitis/ noun a condition in which the vermiform appendix is always slightly inflamed. grumchronic abscess chronic appendicitis | | chronic bling appendix chronic catarrhal rhinitis chronic catarrhal rhinitis / krnik k t rl rai naitis/ noun a persistent form of inflammation of the nose where excess mucus is secreted by the mucous membrane chronic fatigue syndrome / krnik f ti sindrm/ noun same as myalgic encephalo| | chronic fatigue syndrome | myelitis chronic granulomatous disease chronic granulomatous disease / krnik r nj lmts di zi z/ noun a type of inflammation where macrophages are converted into epithelial-like cells as a result of infection, as in tuberculosis or sarcoidosis chronic obstructive airways disease / krnik b str ktiv eweiz di zi z/ noun abbreviation COAD. Now called chronic | | chronic obstructive airways disease | | obstructive pulmonary disease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease / krnik b str ktiv p lmn()ri di zi z/ noun any of a group of progressive respiratory disorders where someone experiences loss of lung function and shows little or no response to steroid or bronchodilator drug treatments, e.g. emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Abbreviation COPD chronic pancreatitis / krnik p kri taitis/ noun a persistent inflammation occurring after repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis, where the gland becomes calcified chronic periarthritis / krnik peri raitis/ noun inflammation of tissues round the shoulder joint. Also called scapulohumeral arthritis chronic pericarditis / krnik perik daitis/ noun a condition in which the pericardium becomes thickened and prevents the heart from functioning normally. Also called constrictive | | chronic pancreatitis | chronic periarthritis | chronic pericarditis | chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pericarditis Chronic Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 /krnik sik n dis eib()ld p s()nz kt/ noun an Act of Parliament in the UK which provides benefits such as alterations to their homes for people with long-term conditions chronic toxicity / krnik tk sisiti/ noun exposure to harmful levels of a toxic substance over a period of time chrysotherapy / krais erpi/ noun treatment which involves gold injections Chvosteks sign /t vsteks sain/ noun an indication of tetany, where a spasm is produced if the facial muscles are tapped | chronic toxicity | chrysotherapy | Chvosteks sign | Chronic Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 chyle /kail/ noun a fluid in the lymph vessels in the intestine, which contains fat, especially after a meal chylomicron / kail maikrn/ noun a particle of chyle present in the blood chyluria /kai ljri/ noun the presence of chyle in the urine chyme /kaim/ noun a semi-liquid mass of food and gastric juices, which passes from the stomach to the intestine chymotrypsin / kaim tripsin/ noun an enzyme which digests protein Ci abbreviation curie cicatrix / siktriks/ noun same as scar -ciclovir /siklvi/ suffix used in the names of antiviral drugs -cide /said/ suffix referring to killing cilia / sili/ plural of cilium ciliary / siliri/ adjective referring to cilia ciliary body / siliri bdi/ noun the part of the eye which connects the iris to the choroid. See illustration at EYE in Supplement ciliary ganglion / siliri lin/ noun a parasympathetic ganglion in the orbit of the eye, supplying the intrinsic eye muscles ciliary muscle / siliri m s()l/ noun a muscle which makes the lens of the eye change its shape to focus on objects at different distances. See illustration at EYE in Supplement ciliary processes / siliri prsesiz/ plural noun the ridges behind the iris to which the lens of the eye is attached ciliated epithelium / silieitid epi i lim/ noun simple epithelium where the cells have tiny hairs or cilia cilium / silim/ noun 1. an eyelash 2. one of many tiny hair-like processes which line cells in passages in the body and by moving backwards and forwards drive particles or fluid along the passage (NOTE: The plural is cilia.) -cillin /silin/ suffix used in the names of penicillin drugs amoxycillin cimetidine /si metidi n/ noun a drug which reduces the production of stomach acid, used in peptic ulcer treatment cimex / saimeks/ noun a bedbug or related insect which feeds on birds, humans and other mammals (NOTE: The plural is cimices.) CIN abbreviation cervical intraepithelial neoplasia -cin /sin/ suffix referring to aminoglycosides gentamicin cinematics / sini m tiks/ noun the science of movement, especially of body movements cineplasty / sinipl sti/ noun an amputation where the muscles of the stump of the amputated limb are used to operate an artificial limb chylomicron | chyluria | chyme chymotrypsin | Ci cicatrix -ciclovir -cide cilia ciliary ciliary body ciliary ganglion ciliary muscle ciliary processes ciliated epithelium | cilium -cillin cimetidine | cimex CIN -cin cinematics | cineplasty chyle Nursing.fm Page 56 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cineradiography cineradiography 56 | cineradiography / sinireidi rfi/ noun the practice of taking a series of X-ray photographs for diagnosis, or to show how something moves or develops in the body cinesiology /si ni si ld i/ noun the study of muscle movements, particularly in relation to treatment cinnarizine / sinrzi n/ noun an antihistaminic used to treat Mnires disease ciprofloxacin / saipr flkssin/ noun a powerful antibiotic used in eye drops to treat corneal ulcers and surface infections of the eye, and in the treatment of anthrax in humans circadian /s keidin/ adjective referring to a pattern which is repeated approximately every 24 hours circle of Willis / s k()l v wilis/ noun a circle of branching arteries at the base of the brain formed by the basilar artery, the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, the anterior and posterior communicating arteries and the internal carotid arteries [Described 1664. After Thomas Willis cinesiology | | cinnarizine ciprofloxacin | circadian | circle of Willis acid metabolism, which takes place in the mitochondria in the cell. Also called Krebs cycle citrulline / sitrli n, sitrlain/ noun an amino acid CJD abbreviation Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cl abbreviation centilitre clamp /kl mp/ noun a surgical instrument to hold something tightly, e.g. a blood vessel during an operation verb to hold something tightly clap /kl p/ noun same as gonorrhoea (slang) classification / kl sifi kei()n/ noun the work of putting references or components into order so as to be able to refer to them again and identify them easily the ABO classification of blood claudication / kl di kei()n/ noun the fact of limping or being lame claustrophobia / kl str fbi/ noun a fear of enclosed spaces or crowded rooms. Compare citrulline CJD cl clamp clap classification | claudication | claustrophobia | agoraphobia (162175), English physician and anatomist.] circulatory system / s kj leit()ri sistm/ noun a system of arteries and veins, circulatory system | together with the heart, which makes the blood circulate around the body circum- /s km/ prefix around circumcision / s km si ()n/ noun the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis circumduction / s km d kn/ noun the action of moving a limb so that the end of it makes a circular motion circumflex / s kmfleks/ adjective bent or curved circumoral / s km rl/ adjective referring to rashes surrounding the lips circumvallate papillae /s km v leit p pili / plural noun large papillae at the base of the tongue, which have taste buds cirrhosis /s rsis/ noun a progressive disease of the liver, often associated with alcoholism, in which healthy cells are replaced by scar tissue cirrhotic /si rtik/ adjective referring to cirrhosis The patient had a cirrhotic liver. cirs- /s s/ prefix referring to dilation cirsoid / s sid/ adjective referring to a varicose vein which is dilated cisplatin /sis pleitin/ noun a chemical substance which may help fight cancer by binding to DNA. It is used in the treatment of ovarian and testicular cancer. cistern / sistn/, cisterna /si st n/ noun a space containing fluid citric acid / sitrik sid/ noun an acid found in fruit such as oranges, lemons and grapefruit citric acid cycle / sitrik sid saik()l/ noun an important series of events concerning amino circumcircumcision | circumduction | circumflex circumoral | circumvallate papillae | | cirrhosis | cirrhotic | cirscirsoid cisplatin | cistern | citric acid citric acid cycle claustrophobic / kl str fbik/ adjective afraid of being in enclosed spaces or crowded rooms. Compare agoraphobic clavicle / kl vik()l/ noun same as collarbone clavicular /kl vikjl/ adjective referring to the clavicle clavus / kleivs/ noun 1. a corn on the foot 2. severe pain in the head, like a nail being driven in claw foot / kl ft/ noun a deformed foot with the toes curved towards the instep and with a very high arch. Also called pes cavus claw hand / kl h nd/ noun a deformed hand with the fingers, especially the ring finger and little finger, bent towards the palm, caused by paralysis of the muscles clean /kli n/ adjective 1. free from dirt, waste products or unwanted substances 2. sterile or free a clean dressing a clean from infection wound 3. not using recreational drugs cleavage / kli vid / noun the repeated division of cells in an embryo cleavage lines / kli vid lainz/ plural noun same as Langers lines cleft /kleft/ noun a small opening or hollow place in a surface or body part adjective referring to a surface or body part which has separated into two or more sections cleft foot / kleft ft/ noun same as talipes cleft lip / kleft lip/ noun a congenital condition in which the upper lip fails to form in the usual way during fetal development. Also called hare| clavicle clavicular | clavus claw foot claw hand clean cleavage cleavage lines cleft cleft foot cleft lip claustrophobic lip cleft palate cleft palate / kleft p lt/ noun a congenital condition in which the palate does not fuse during fetal development, causing a gap between the mouth and nasal cavity in severe cases cleido- /klaid/ prefix referring to the clavicle cleido- Nursing.fm Page 57 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 57 clotting factors cleidocranial dysostosis / klaidkreinil diss tsis/ noun a hereditary bone malformation, with protruding jaw, lack of collarbone and malformed teeth client / klaint/ noun a person visited by a health visitor or social worker climacteric /klai m ktrik/ noun a period of diminished sexual activity in a man who reaches middle age climax / klaim ks/ noun 1. an orgasm 2. the point where a disease is at its worst verb to have an orgasm clindamycin / klind maisin/ noun a powerful antibiotic used to treat severe infections and acne clinic / klinik/ noun 1. a small hospital or a department in a large hospital which deals only with out-patients or which specialises in the treatment of particular medical conditions He is She was being treated in a private clinic. referred to an antenatal clinic. 2. a group of students under a doctor or surgeon who examine patients and discuss their treatment clinical / klinik()l/ adjective 1. referring to the physical assessment and treatment of patients by doctors, as opposed to a surgical operation, a laboratory test or experiment 2. referring to instruction given to students at the bedside of patients as opposed to class instruction with no patient present 3. referring to a clinic clinical audit / klinik()l dit/ noun an evaluation of the standard of clinical care clinical care / klinik()l ke/ noun the care and treatment of patients in hospital wards or in doctors surgeries clinical effectiveness / klinik()l i fektivns/ noun the ability of a procedure or treatment to achieve the desired result clinical governance / klinik()l v()nns/ noun the responsibility given to doctors to coordinate audit, research, education, use of guidelines and risk management to develop a strategy to raise the quality of medical care Clinical Management Plan / klinik()l m nid mnt pl n/ noun a comprehensive statement of a patients condition that details what medicines and treatments may be used in ongoing care, forming part of the patients records clinical medicine / klinik()l med()s()n/ noun the study and treatment of patients in a hospital ward or in the doctors surgery, as opposed to in the operating theatre or laboratory clinical nurse manager / klinik()l n s m nid / noun the administrative manager of the clinical nursing staff of a hospital clinical nurse specialist / klinik()l n s spe()list/ noun a nurse who specialises in a particular branch of clinical care | client climacteric | climax clindamycin | clinic clinical clinical audit clinical care clinical effectiveness | clinical governance Clinical Management Plan clinical medicine clinical nurse manager clinical nurse specialist cleidocranial dysostosis clinical pathology / klinik()l p ld i/ noun the study of disease as applied to the treat| clinical pathology ment of patients clinical psychologist / klinik()l sai kld ist/ noun a psychologist who studies and treats sick patients in hospital clinical trial / klinik()l trail/ noun a trial carried out in a medical laboratory on a person or on tissue from a person clinician /kli ni()n/ noun a doctor, usually not a surgeon, who has considerable experience in treating patients clinodactyly / klain d ktili/ noun the permanent bending of a finger to one side clip /klip/ noun a piece of metal with a spring, used to attach things together clitoris / klitris/ noun a small erectile female sex organ, situated at the anterior angle of the vulva, which can be excited by sexual activity. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) clinical psychologist | clinical trial clinician | clinodactyly | clip clitoris in Supplement cloaca /kl eik/ noun the end part of the cloaca | hindgut in an embryo clomipramine /kl miprmi n/ noun a drug used to treat depression, phobias and obsessivecompulsive disorder clonazepam /kl n zip m/ noun a drug used to treat epilepsy clone /kln/ noun a group of cells derived from a single cell by asexual reproduction and so identical to the first cell verb to reproduce an individual organism by asexual means clonic / klnik/ adjective referring to clonus clonic spasms / klnik sp z()mz/ plural noun spasms which recur regularly clonidine / klnidi n/ noun a drug which relaxes and widens the arteries, used in the treatment of hypertension, migraine headaches and heart failure clonus / klns/ noun the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of a muscle, usually a sign of upper motor neurone lesions closed fracture / klzd fr kt/ noun same as simple fracture Clostridium /kl stridim/ noun a type of bacteria clot /klt/ noun a soft mass of coagulated blood in a vein or an artery The doctor diagnosed a blood clot in the brain. Blood clots occur in thrombosis. verb to change from a liquid to a semi-solid state, or to cause a liquid to do this His blood does not clot easily. (NOTE: clotting clomipramine | clonazepam | clone clonic clonic spasms clonidine clonus closed fracture Clostridium | clot clotted) clotrimazole clotrimazole /kl trimzl/ noun a drug used to treat yeast and fungal infections clotting / klti/ noun the action of coagulating clotting factors / klti f ktz/ plural noun substances in plasma, called Factor I, Factor II, | clotting clotting factors Nursing.fm Page 58 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM clubbing and so on, which act one after the other to make the blood coagulate when a blood vessel is damaged COMMENT: Deficiency in one or more of the clotting factors results in haemophilia. clubbing / kl bi/ noun a thickening of the clubbing 58 cocci ends of the fingers and toes, a sign of many different diseases club foot / kl b ft/ noun same as talipes cluster headache / kl st hedeik/ noun a headache which occurs behind one eye for a short period Cluttons joint / kl t()nz d int/ noun a swollen knee joint occurring in congenital syphilis [Described 1886. After Henry Hugh Clutton club foot cluster headache Cluttons joint cocci / kki/ plural of coccus coccus / kks/ noun a bacterium shaped like a ball (NOTE: The plural is cocci.) coccy- /kksi/ prefix referring to the coccyx coccydynia / kksi dini/ noun a sharp pain in the coccyx, usually caused by a blow. Also called coccus coccycoccydynia | coccygodynia (18501909), surgeon at St Thomass Hospital, London, UK] cm abbreviation centimetre CMHN abbreviation community mental health cm CMHN nurse CM joint / si em d int/ noun same as carCM joint coccygeal vertebrae /kk sid il v tibrei/ plural noun the fused bones in the coccyx coccyges /kk said i z/ plural of coccyx coccygodynia / kksi dini/ noun same as coccydynia coccyx / kksiks/ noun the lowest bone in the backbone (NOTE: The plural is coccyges.) cochlea / kkli/ noun a spiral tube inside the inner ear, which is the essential organ of hearing. See illustration at EAR in Supplement (NOTE: | coccyges | coccygodynia | coccyx cochlea coccygeal vertebrae The plural is cochleae.) pometacarpal joint CMO abbreviation Chief Medical Officer CMV abbreviation cytomegalovirus C/N abbreviation charge nurse CNS abbreviation central nervous system coagulant /k jlnt/ noun a substance CMO CMV C/N CNS coagulant | which can make blood clot coagulase /k jleiz/ noun an enzyme produced by a staphylococcal bacteria which makes blood plasma clot coagulate /k jleit/ verb to change from liquid to semi-solid, or cause a liquid to do this His blood does not coagulate easily. clot coagulation /k j lei()n/ noun the action of clotting coagulum /k jlm/ noun same as blood coagulase | coagulate | coagulation | | coagulum | clot (NOTE: The plural is coagula.) coalesce / k les/ verb to combine, or to coalesce | cause things to combine, into a single body or group coalescence / k les()ns/ noun the process by which wound edges come together when healing coarctation / k k tei()n/ noun the process of narrowing coat /kt/ noun a layer of material covering an organ or a cavity verb to cover something with something else coated tongue / ktid t / noun same as coalescence | coarctation | coat coated tongue cochlear / kkli/ adjective referring to the cochlea cochlear implant / kkli impl nt/ noun a type of hearing aid for profound hearing loss Cochrane database / kkrn deitbeis/ noun a database of regular reviews carried out on research code /kd/ noun 1. a system of numbers, letters or symbols used to represent language or information 2. same as genetic code verb 1. to convert instructions or data into another form 2. (of a codon or gene) to provide the genetic information which causes a specific amino acid to be produced Genes are sections of DNA that code for a specific protein sequence. codeine / kdi n/, codeine phosphate / kdi n fsfeit/ noun a common painkilling drug that can also be used to suppress coughing and in the treatment of diarrhoea code of conduct / kd v knd kt/ noun a set of general rules showing how a group of people such as doctors or nurses should work cod liver oil / kd livr il/ noun a fish oil which is rich in calories and vitamins A and D -coele /si l/ suffix referring to a hollow (NOTE: cochlear implant Cochrane database code codeine code of conduct cod liver oil -coele cochlear The US spelling is usually -cele.) coeli- coeli- /si li/ prefix same as coelio- (used before vowels) (NOTE: The US spelling is usually celi-.) furred tongue cobalt / kb lt/ noun a metallic element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Co.) cocaine /k kein/ noun a narcotic drug not cobalt cocaine | generally used in medicine because its use leads to addiction, but sometimes used as a surface anaesthetic coeliac / si li k/ adjective referring to the abdomen coeliac artery / si li k tri/, coeliac axis ksis/ noun the main artery in the / si li k abdomen leading from the abdominal aorta and dividing into the left gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. Also called coeliac trunk coeliac disease / si li k di zi z/ noun same as gluten-induced enteropathy coeliac artery coeliac disease | coeliac Nursing.fm Page 59 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 59 coeliac ganglion colloid colectomy coeliac ganglion / si li k lin/ noun a ganglion on each side of the origins of the diaphragm, connected with the coeliac plexus coeliac trunk / si li k tr k/ noun same as coeliac trunk colectomy /k lektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole or part of the colon | coeliac artery coelio- /si li/ prefix referring to a hollow, usucoelio- (NOTE: The plural is colectomies.) colic / klik/ noun 1. pain in any part of the intestinal tract. Also called enteralgia, tormina 2. crying and irritability in babies, especially from colic ally the abdomen coelioscopy / si li skpi/ noun an examination of the peritoneal cavity by inflating the abdomen with sterile air and passing an endoscope through the abdominal wall (NOTE: The plural is coelioscopy | coelioscopies.) coffee ground vomit / kfi rand vmit/ noun vomit containing dark pieces of blood, indicating that the person is bleeding from the stomach or upper intestine cognition /k ni()n/ noun the mental action or process of gaining knowledge by using your mind or your senses, or knowledge gained in this way cognitive / k nitiv/ adjective referring to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment and reasoning a cognitive impairment cognitive disorder / k nitiv dis d/ noun impairment of any of the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment and reasoning cognitive therapy / k nitiv erpi/ noun a treatment of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression which encourages people to deal with their negative ways of thinking cohort / kh t/ noun a group of people sharing a particular characteristic such as age or gender who are studied in a scientific or medical investigation cohort study / kh t st di/ noun an investigation in which a group of people are classified according to their exposure to various risks and studied over a period of time to see if they develop a specific disease, in order to evaluate the links between risk and disease coil /kil/ noun a device fitted into a womans uterus as a contraceptive cold /kld/ adjective not warm or hot noun an illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose She had a heavy cold. Also called common cold, coryza cold burn / kld b n/ noun an injury to the skin caused by exposure to extreme cold or by touching a very cold surface cold cautery / kld k tri/ noun the removal of a skin growth using carbon dioxide snow cold pack / kld p k/ noun a cloth or a pad filled with gel or clay which is chilled and put on the body to reduce or increase the temperature cold sore / kld s / noun a painful blister, usually on the lips or nose, caused by herpes simplex Type I cognition | cognitive cognitive disorder | cognitive therapy cohort cohort study coil cold cold burn cold cautery cold pack cold sore coffee ground vomit stomach pains coliform bacterium / klif m b k tirim/ plural noun any bacterium which is similar to Escherichia coli colistin /k listin/ noun an antibiotic which is effective against a wide range of organisms and is used to treat gastrointestinal infections colitis /k laitis/ noun inflammation of the colon. Also called colonitis collaborative care /k l b()rtiv ke/ noun treatment that involves collaboration between different medical departments or agencies, or involves active collaboration between the patient and the providers of treatment collagen / kld n/ noun a thick protein fibre forming bundles, which make up the connective tissue, bone and cartilage collapse /k l ps/ noun 1. a condition in which someone is extremely exhausted or semi-conscious She was found in a state of collapse. 2. a condition in which an organ becomes flat or loses air lung collapse verb 1. to fall down in a semi-conscious state After running to catch his train he collapsed. 2. to become flat, or lose air collapsed lung /k l pst l / noun same as coliform bacterium | colistin | colitis | collaborative care | collagen collapse | collapsed lung | pneumothorax collarbone / klbn/ noun one of two long collarbone thin bones which join the shoulder blades to the breastbone. Also called clavicle (NOTE: Collarbone fracture is one of the most frequent fractures in the body.) collateral /k l t()rl/ adjective secondary or collateral | less important Colles fracture / klis(iz) fr kt/ noun a fracture of the lower end of the radius with displacement of the wrist backwards, usually when someone has stretched out a hand to try to break a fall [After Abraham Colles (17731843), Irish Colles fracture surgeon.] colliculus colliculus /k likjls/ noun one of four small projections (superior colliculi and inferior colliculi) in the midbrain. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is colliculi.) collodion /k ldin/ noun a liquid used for painting on a clean wound, where it dries to form a flexible covering colloid / klid/ noun 1. a mass of tiny particles of one substance dispersed in another substance 2. the particles which are suspended in a colloid solution 3. a thick jelly-like substance which stores hormones, produced in the thyroid gland | collodion | colloid Nursing.fm Page 60 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM collyrium adjective relating to or resembling a colloid 60 colloid acne collyrium /k lirim/ noun a solution used to bathe the eyes (NOTE: The plural is collyria.) colo- /kl/ prefix referring to the colon coloboma / kl bm/ noun a condition in which part of the eye, especially part of the iris, is missing colon / kln/ noun the main part of the large intestine, running from the caecum at the end of the small intestine to the rectum colonic /k lnik/ adjective referring to the colon colonic irrigation /k lnik iri ei()n/ noun the washing out of the contents of the large intestine using a tube inserted in the anus colonoscope /k lnskp/ noun a surgical instrument for examining the interior of the colon colonoscopy / kl nskpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the colon, using a colonoscope passed through the rectum (NOTE: The plucollyrium | colocoloboma | colon colonic | colonic irrigation | | colonoscope | colonoscopy | colporrhaphy /kl prfi/ noun a surgical operation to stitch a prolapsed vagina (NOTE: The | colporrhaphy plural is colporraphies.) colposcope colposcope / klpskp/ noun a surgical instrument used to examine the inside of the vagina. Also called vaginoscope colposcopy /kl pskpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the vagina (NOTE: The plural colposcopy | is colposcopies.) colposuspension colposuspension / klps spenn/ noun a surgical operation to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles to prevent incontinence colpotomy /kl ptmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the vagina (NOTE: The plu| colpotomy | ral is colpotomies.) column / klm/ noun vertebral column coma / km/ noun a state of unconsciousness column coma ral is colonoscopies.) colony / klni/ noun a group or culture of colony microorganisms colostomy /k lstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall to allow faeces to be passed out without going through the rectum (NOTE: The colostomy | from which a person cannot be awakened by external stimuli comatose / kmts/ adjective unconscious or in a coma combined therapy /km baind erpi/ noun the use of two or more treatments at the same time comedo / kmid/ noun a small point of dark, hard matter in a sebaceous follicle, often found associated with acne on the skin of adolescents comatose combined therapy | comedo (NOTE: The plural is comedones.) comforter / k mft/ noun 1. someone who comforter plural is colostomies.) colostomy bag /k lstmi b colostomy bag | colostrum / noun a bag attached to the opening made by a colostomy, to collect faeces as they are passed out of the body colostrum /k lstrm/ noun a fluid rich in antibodies and low in fat, secreted by the mothers breasts at the birth of a baby, before the true milk starts to flow colour blindness / k l blaindns/ noun a condition of being unable to tell the difference between specific colours colour index / k lr indeks/ noun the ratio between the amount of haemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in a specific amount of blood colp- /klp/ prefix same as colpo- (used before | colour blindness colour index colp- helps to make another person less anxious or unhappy 2. a babys dummy commando operation /k m nd prei()n/, commando procedure /k m nd pr si d / noun a major operation to combat cancer of the face and neck. It involves the removal of facial features, which are later rebuilt. commensal /k mensl/ noun an animal or plant which lives on another animal or plant but does not harm it in any way. Both may benefit from the association. Candida is a commensal in the mouths of 50% of healthy adults. (NOTE: If commando operation | | | commensal | a commensal causes harm, it is a parasite.) adjective living on another animal or plant comminuted / kminju tid/ adjective refercomminuted comminuted fracture vowels) colpo- /klp/ prefix referring to the vagina colpocystitis / klpsi staitis/ noun inflammation of both the vagina and the urinary bladder colpohysterectomy / klphist rektmi/ noun a surgical operation in which the womb is removed through the vagina (NOTE: The plural is colpocystitis | colpohysterectomy | colpo- colpohysterectomies.) colpopexy / klppeksi/ noun a surgical opercolpopexy ation to fix a prolapsed vagina to the abdominal wall (NOTE: The plural is colpopexies.) colpoplasty / klppl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair a damaged vagina (NOTE: The colpoplasty plural is colpoplasties.) ring to a fracture where the bone is broken in several places comminuted fracture / kminju tid fr kt/ noun a fracture where the bone is broken in several places Commission for Health Improvement /k mi()n f hel im pru vmnt/ in the UK, the independent inspection body for the National Health Service, with the role of helping to raise standards of patient care. It aims to identify where improvement is required and share good practice. Abbreviation CHI commissure / kmisj/ noun a structure which joins two similar tissues, e.g. a group of nerves which crosses from one part of the central Commission for Health Improvement | | commissure Nursing.fm Page 61 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 61 nervous system to another. grey commissure Committee on Safety of Medicines competency corpus callosum, | Committee on Safety of Medicines /k miti n seifti v med()sinz/ noun the official body which advises the British Government on the safety and quality of medicines commode /k md/ noun a special chair with a removable basin used as a toilet by people with limited mobility common bile duct / kmn bail d kt/ noun a duct leading to the duodenum, formed of the hepatic and cystic ducts common carotid artery / kmn k rtid tri/ noun the main artery running up each side of the lower part of the neck. Also called carotid common cold / kmn kld/ noun same as commode | common bile duct common carotid artery | common cold cold common hepatic duct / kmn hi p tik d kt/ noun a duct from the liver formed when the right and left hepatic ducts join common iliac artery / kmn ili k tri/ noun one of two arteries which branch from the aorta in the abdomen and in turn divide into the internal iliac artery, leading to the pelvis, and the external iliac artery, leading to the leg communicable disease /k mju nikb()l di zi z/ noun a disease which can be passed from one person to another or from an animal to a person. contagious disease, infectious disease communicating artery /k mju nikeiti tri/ noun one of the arteries which connect the blood supply from each side of the brain, forming part of the circle of Willis community /k mju niti/ noun a group of people who live and work in a district The health services serve the local community. community care /k mju niti ke/ noun the providing of help to people such as those who are elderly or mentally ill in order to allow them to stay in their own homes, rather than requiring them to be cared for in hospitals or care homes community health /k mju niti hel/ noun the health of a local community, or provision of services for a local community community health council /k mju niti hel kansl/ noun a statutory body of interested people from outside the medical professions charged with putting forward the patients point of view on local health issues. Abbreviation CHC community hospital /k mju niti hspit()l/ noun a hospital serving a local community community midwife /k mju niti midwaif/ noun a midwife who works in a community as part of a primary health care team community nurse /k mju niti n s/ noun a nurse who treats people in a local community | common iliac artery communicable disease | | communicating artery | community | community care | community health | community health council | community hospital | community midwife | community nurse | common hepatic duct community paediatrician /k mju niti pi di tri()n/ noun a paediatrician serving a local community community pharmacist /k mju niti f msist/, retail pharmacist / ri teil f msist/ noun a person who makes medicines and sells them in a chemists shop community psychiatric nurse /k mju niti saiki trik/ noun. Also called community mental health nurse. Abbreviation CPN community trust /k mju niti tr st/ noun an independent non-profit-making body set up to represent an area of public concern compact bone / kmp kt bn/ noun a type of bone tissue which forms the hard outer layer of a bone. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement compartment /km p tmnt/ noun one of the areas into which an enclosed space is divided compatibility /km p ti biliti/ noun the ability of two drugs not to interfere with each other when administered together compatible /km p tib()l/ adjective able to function together without being rejected The surgeons are trying to find a compatible donor or a donor with a compatible blood group. compensate / kmpnseit/ verb 1. to give someone an amount of money or something else to pay for loss or damage 2. (of an organ) to make good the failure of an organ by making another organ, or the undamaged parts of the same organ, function at a higher level The heart has to beat more strongly to compensate for the narrowing of the arteries. 3. to emphasise a particular ability or personality characteristic in order to make the lack of another one seem less bad compensation / kmpn sei()n/ noun 1. something which makes something else seem less bad or less serious 2. an amount of money or something else given to pay for loss or damage The drugs caused him to develop breathing problems, so he thinks hes entitled to medical compensation. 3. the act of giving money to pay for loss or damage compensation for loss of a limb 4. a situation where the body helps to correct a problem in a particular organ by making another organ, or the undamaged parts of the same organ, function at a higher level 5. behaviour that emphasises a particular ability or personality characteristic in order to make the lack of another one seem less bad competence / kmpit()ns/ noun the ability to do something well, measured against a standard, especially ability which you get through experience or training encouraging the development of professional competence in the delivery of care to patients competency / kmpit()nsi/ noun a guideline, usually one of several, for the medical treat| | community pharmacist | community psychiatric nurse | | community trust | compact bone compartment | compatibility | | compatible | compensate compensation | competence competency community paediatrician Nursing.fm Page 62 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM complaint ment that is to be given in particular circumstances complaint /km pleint/ noun 1. an expression of dissatisfaction about something or someone The hospital administrator wouldnt listen to the complaints of the consultants. 2. an illness a chest complaint a nervous complaint complement noun / kmplimnt/ a substance which forms part of blood plasma and is essential to the work of antibodies and antigens verb / kmpliment/ to complete something by providing useful or pleasing qualities which it does not itself have complementary / kmpli ment()ri/ adjective 1. combining with or adding to something else Ultrasound and CT provide complementary information. 2. used in or using complementary medicine complementary therapies 3. referring to genes which are necessary to each other and produce their effect only when they are present together complementary medicine / kmpliment()ri med()sin/ noun the forms of alternative medicine which are now accepted by practitioners of conventional Western medicine, e.g. acupuncture and osteopathy complete abortion /km pli t b ()n/ noun an abortion where the whole contents of the uterus are expelled complete blood count /km pli t bl d kant/ noun a test to find the exact numbers of each type of blood cell in a sample of blood. Abbreviation CBC complicated fracture / kmplikeitid fr kt/ noun a fracture with an associated injury of tissue, as when a bone has punctured an artery complication / kmpli kei()n/ noun 1. a condition in which two or more conditions exist in someone, whether or not they are connected He was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia with complications. 2. a situation in which someone develops a second condition which changes the course of treatment for the first She appeared to be improving, but complications set in and she died in a few hours. compos mentis / kmps mentis/ adjective not affected by a mental disorder (NOTE: The complaint | complement complementary | complementary medicine complete abortion | | complete blood count | complicated fracture complication | compos mentis 62 compression /km pre()n/ noun 1. the act of squeezing or pressing The first-aider applied compression to the chest of the casualty. 2. a serious condition in which the brain is compressed by blood or cerebrospinal fluid accumulating in it or by a fractured skull compression stocking /km pre()n stki/ noun a strong elastic stocking worn to support a weak joint in the knee or to hold varicose veins tightly compulsion /km p l()n/ noun 1. an act of forcing someone to do something, or the fact of being forced to do something You are under no compulsion to treat a violent patient. 2. a strong psychological force which makes someone do something, often unwillingly She felt a sudden compulsion to wash her hands again. compulsive /km p lsiv/ adjective referring to a feeling which cannot be stopped She has a compulsive desire to steal. compulsiveobsessive disorder /km p lsiv b sesiv dis d/ noun same as obses| compression stocking | compulsion | compulsive | compulsiveobsessive disorder | | compression | sivecompulsive disorder compulsory admission /km p lsri d mi()n/ noun the process of admitting someone who is mentally ill to hospital for treatment whether or not they consent computed tomography /km pju tid t m rfi/ noun same as computerised axial tomography. Abbreviation CT computerised axial tomography /km pju traizd ksil t m rfi/ noun a system of examining the body in which a narrow X-ray beam, guided by a computer, photographs a thin section of the body or of an organ from several angles, using the computer to build up an image of the section. Abbreviation CAT. Also called | | computed tomography | | computerised axial tomography | | compulsory admission computed tomography -conazole /knzl/ suffix used in the names -conazole phrase is from Latin and means of sound mind.) compound fracture / kmpand fr kt/ noun a fracture where the skin surface is damaged or where the broken bone penetrates the surface of the skin. Also called open fracture compress noun / kmpres/ a wad of cloth soaked in hot or cold liquid and applied to the skin to relieve pain or swelling, or to force pus out of an infected wound verb /km pres/ to squeeze or press something compressed air sickness /km prest e sikns/ noun same as caisson disease compress | compressed air sickness | compound fracture of antifungal drugs fluconazole concave / knkeiv/ adjective curving towards the inside a concave lens concept / knsept/ noun a thought or idea, or something which someone might be able to imagine conception /kn sepn/ noun the point at which a woman becomes pregnant and the development of a baby starts conceptual framework /kn septul freimw k/ noun the theoretical basis on which something is formed conceptus /kn septs/ noun an embryo or fetus together with all the tissues that surround it during pregnancy (NOTE: The plural is concepconcave concept conception | conceptual framework | conceptus | tuses.) concha / kk/ noun a part of the body shaped like a shell (NOTE: The plural is conchae.) concordance /kn k d()ns/ noun 1. a state in which two or more things are in the correct or concordance | concha Nursing.fm Page 63 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 63 expected relationship to each other. For example, the atrioventricular concordance is the relationship between the atria and the ventricles in the heart. 2. the fact of two related people sharing the same genetic characteristic the concordance of schizophrenia in identical twins 3. an agreement between a professional and a patient on a course of treatment, especially related to use of medicines concretion /kn kri ()n/ noun a mass of hard material which forms in the body, e.g. a gallstone or deposits on bone in arthritis concussion /kn k ()n/ noun 1. the act of applying force to any part of the body 2. loss of consciousness for a short period, caused by a blow to the head condition /kn di()n/ noun 1. the particular state of someone or something in poor condition Her condition is getting worse. The conditions in the hospital are very good. 2. a particuHe is being lar illness, injury or disorder treated for a heart condition. conditioned reflex /kn di()nd ri fleks/ noun an automatic reaction by a person to a stimulus, or an expected reaction to a stimulus which comes from past experience conditioned response /kn di()nd ri spns/ noun a response to a stimulus as a result of associating it with an earlier stimulus concretion | concussion | condition | conditioned reflex | conditioned response | | congenital malformation jaw which forms the head of the jaw, joining the jaw to the skull condyloma / kndi lm/ noun a growth usually found on the vulva (NOTE: The plural is condyloma | condylomas or condylomata.) cone /kn/ noun 1. a shape with a circular base cone COMMENT: The classic example of a condi- tioned response is Pavlovs experiment with dogs in which they produced saliva, ready to eat their food, when a bell rang, because on previous occasions they had been fed when the bell was rung. condom / kndm/ noun a rubber sheath worn condom on the penis during intercourse as a contraceptive and also as a protection against sexually transmitted disease conducting system /kn d kti sistm/ noun the nerve system in the heart which links an atrium to a ventricle, so that the two beat at the same rate conduction /kn d kn/ noun the process of passing heat, sound or nervous impulses from one part of the body to another conductive deafness /kn d ktiv defns/, conductive hearing loss /kn d ktiv hiri ls/ noun deafness caused by inadequate conduction of sound into the inner ear conductor /kn d kt/ noun 1. a substance or object which allows heat, electricity, light or sound to pass along it or through it 2. a tube with a groove in it along which a knife is slid to cut open a sinus condyle / kndail/ noun a rounded end of a bone which articulates with another condyloid process / kndilid prses/ noun a projecting part at each end of the lower conducting system | conduction | conductive deafness | | conductor | condyle condyloid process or top and a part that tapers to a point, or an object with this shape 2. one of two types of cell in the retina of the eye which is sensitive to light, used especially in the perception of bright light and colour. rod verb to show a rapid change for the worse in neurological condition due to herniation of the midbrain through the foramen magnum in the skull, caused by raised pressure inside the brain (NOTE: cones coning coned) cone biopsy / kn bai psi/ noun the removing of a cone of tissue from the cervix for examination confabulation /kn f j lei()n/ noun the act of making up plausible stories to cover up loss of memory confidentiality / knfideni liti/ noun an obligation not to reveal professional information about a person or organisation confounding factor /kn fandi f kt/ noun a factor which has an association with both a disease and a risk factor and thus complicates the nature of the relationship between them confused /kn fju zd/ adjective unable to Many severely think clearly or act rationally confused patients do not respond to spoken communication. confusion /kn fju ()n/ noun the state of being confused congenital /kn d enit()l/ adjective existing at or before birth congenital aneurysm /kn d enit()l njriz()m/ noun a weakening of the arteries at the base of the brain, present at birth congenital cataract /kn d enit()l k tr kt/ noun a cataract which is present at birth congenital dislocation of the hip /kn d enit()l disl kei()n v hip/ noun a condition in which a person is born with weak ligaments in the hip, so that the femur does not stay in position in the pelvis congenital heart disease /kn d enit()l h t di zi z/, congenital heart defect /kn d enit()l h t di fekt/ noun a heart condition existing at birth congenital hyperthyroidism /kn d enit()l haip airidiz()m/ noun a disease caused by a malfunction of the thyroid before birth or in early life congenital malformation /kn d enit()l m lf mei()n/ noun a malformation which is present at birth, e.g. a cleft palate cone biopsy | confabulation | | confidentiality | confounding factor | confused | confusion | congenital | congenital aneurysm | congenital cataract | congenital dislocation of the hip | | congenital heart disease | | | congenital hyperthyroidism | | congenital malformation | | Nursing.fm Page 64 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM congenital syphilis 64 | congenital syphilis /kn d enit()l sifilis/ noun syphilis which is passed on from a mother to her unborn child congenital toxoplasmosis /kn d enit()l tkspl z msis/ noun a condition in which a baby has been infected with toxoplasmosis by its mother while still in the uterus congestion /kn d estn/ noun an accumulation of blood in an organ. nasal congestion congestive /kn d estiv/ adjective referring to congestion conisation / knai zei()n/, conization noun the surgical removal of a cone-shaped piece of tissue conjoined twins /kn d ind twinz/ plural noun twins who are joined together at birth. Also called Siamese twins congenital toxoplasmosis | | congestion | congestive | conisation | conjoined twins | congenital syphilis COMMENT: Conjoined twins are always identical and can be joined at the head, chest or hip. In some cases they can be separated by surgery, but this is not possible if they share a single important organ such as the heart. conjugate / knd eit/, conjugate diameter / knd t dai mit/ noun a measureconjugate | which aims to get everyone to agree on what actions should be taken consent /kn sent/ noun agreement to allow The parents gave someone to do something their consent for their sons heart to be used in the transplant operation. consent form /kn sent f m/ noun a form which a patient signs to show that he or she agrees to have a particular operation conservative treatment /kn s vtiv tri tmnt/ noun medical or surgical treatment which is limited to conventional measures rather than more extreme or risky procedures Symptoms usually resolve with conservative treatment. consolidation /kn sli dei()n/ noun a stage in mending a broken bone in which the callus formed at the break changes into bone constipation / knsti pei()n/ noun difficulty in passing faeces constrictive pericarditis /kn striktiv perik daitis/ noun same as chronic pericarconsent | consent form | conservative treatment | consolidation | | constipation | constrictive pericarditis | | ditis ment of space in a womans pelvis, used to calculate if it is large enough for a child to be delivered conjunctiva / knd k taiv/ noun a membrane which covers the front of the eyeball and the inside of the eyelids. See illustration at EYE in conjunctiva | Supplement (NOTE: The plural is conjunctivas or conjunctivae.) conjunctival / knd k taiv()l/ adjective conjunctival | referring to the conjunctiva conjunctivitis /kn d kti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the conjunctiva from a range of causes connective tissue /k nektiv tiu / noun tissue which forms the main part of bones and cartilage, ligaments and tendons, in which a large proportion of fibrous material surrounds the tissue cells Conns syndrome / knz sindrm/ noun a condition in which excessive production of the hormone aldosterone causes fluid retention and high blood pressure consanguinity / kns winiti/ noun a blood relationship between people conscious / kns/ adjective 1. awake and aware of what is happening He became conscious in the recovery room two hours after the a conoperation. 2. deliberate and intended scious choice -conscious /kns/ suffix giving importance to health-conscious safety-conscious consciousness / knsns/ noun the state of being mentally alert and knowing what is happening consensus management /kn senss m nid mnt/ noun a form of management conjunctivitis | | connective tissue | Conns syndrome consanguinity | conscious -conscious consciousness consensus management | constrictor /kn strikt/ noun a muscle which squeezes an organ or which makes an organ contract consultant /kn s ltnt/ noun 1. a doctor who is a senior specialist in a particular branch of medicine and who is consulted by GPs She was referred to a consultant at the orthopaedic hospital. 2. a senior specialised doctor in a hospital consumption /kn s mp()n/ noun 1. the act of taking food or liquid into the body the patients increased consumption of alcohol 2. a former name for pulmonary tuberculosis contact dermatitis / knt kt d m taitis/ noun inflammation of the skin caused by touch, e.g. by touching some types of plant, soap or chemical. Also called irritant dermatitis contact lens / knt kt lenz/ noun a tiny plastic lens which fits over the eyeball and is worn instead of spectacles to improve eyesight contact tracing / knt kt treisi/ noun the process of tracing people with whom someone with an infectious disease has been in contact contagious /kn teid s/ adjective able to be transmitted by touching an infected person or objects which an infected person has touched contagious disease /kn teid s di zi z/ noun a disease which can be transmitted by touching an infected person or objects which an infected person has touched. communicable | consultant | consumption | contact dermatitis | contact lens contact tracing contagious | contagious disease | | constrictor disease, infectious disease containment containment /kn teinmnt/ noun 1. action taken to restrict the spread of something undesirable or dangerous such as a disease government policy of containment of the SARS virus 2. the eradication of a global disease such as smallpox by removing it region by region | Nursing.fm Page 65 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 65 convex contaminate /kn t mineit/ verb 1. to make something impure by touching it or by adding something to it Supplies of drinking water were contaminated by refuse from the factories. The whole group of tourists fell ill after eating contaminated food. 2. to spread infection to someone or something continence / kntinns/ noun 1. the ability to control the discharge of urine and faeces 2. selfrestraint continent / kntinnt/ adjective able to exercise control over the discharge of urine and faeces continuing education /kn tinjui edj kei()n/ noun regular courses or training designed to bring professional people up to date with the latest developments in their particular field continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis /kn tinjus mbjlt()ri perit ni l dai lsis/ noun a method of dialysis of people while they are walking about. Abbreviation | continence continent continuing education | | continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis | | | contaminate CAPD continuous positive airways pressure /kn tinjus pzitiv eweiz pre/ noun a method used in intensive care which forces air into the lungs of someone with lung collapse. Abbreviation CPAP contra- /kntr/ prefix against, opposite, contrasting contraception / kntr sepn/ noun the prevention of pregnancy, e.g. by using devices such as a condom or an IUD, or drugs in the form of contraceptive pills or injections at regular intervals. Also called birth control contraceptive / kntr septiv/ adjective preventing conception a contraceptive device or drug noun a drug or device which prevents pregnancy contraceptive sheath / kntr septiv i / noun same as condom contraceptive sponge / kntr septiv sp nd / noun a piece of synthetic sponge impregnated with spermicide, which is inserted into the vagina before intercourse contractibility / kntr ktibiliti/ noun the capacity to contract contraction /kn tr kn/ noun 1. the act of making something smaller or of becoming smaller the contraction of dental services 2. a tightening movement which makes a muscle shorter, which makes the pupil of the eye smaller or which makes the skin wrinkle contracture /kn tr kt/ noun a permanent tightening of a muscle caused by fibrosis contraindication / kntrindi kei()n/ noun something which suggests that someone should not be treated with a specific drug or not continue with a specific treatment because circumstances make that treatment unsuitable | contracontraception | contraceptive | contraceptive sheath | contraceptive sponge | contractibility contraction | contracture | contraindication | continuous positive airways pressure contralateral / kntr l trl/ adjective located on or affecting the opposite side of the body. Opposite ipsilateral contrast medium / kntr st mi dim/ noun a radio-opaque dye, or sometimes gas, put into an organ or part of the body so that it will show clearly in an X-ray photograph In an MRI scan no contrast medium is required; in a CAT scan iodine-based contrast media are often required. contrecoup / kntrku / noun an injury to one point of an organ such as the brain, caused by a blow received on an opposite point of the organ control /kn trl/ verb 1. to have the ability or authority to direct someone or something Sometimes we need help to control people who think they have waited too long. 2. to limit or restrain something administered drugs to control the pain noun 1. the ability or authority to control something After her stroke she had no control over her left arm. The administrators are in control of the admissions policy. 2. a person or group whose test data are used as a comparison in a study 3. a comparison in a study controlled drug /kn trld dr / noun a drug which is not freely available, which is restricted by law and classified as A, B, or C and of which possession may be an offence. Also called controlled substance controlled substance /kn trld s bstns/ noun same as controlled drug controlled trial /kn trld trail/ noun a trial in which members of one group are treated with a test substance and those of another group are treated with a placebo as a control controls assurance /kn trlz rns/ noun a process designed to provide evidence that NHS organisations are doing their best to manage themselves both in order to meet their objectives and to protect patients, staff and the public against risks of all kinds contused wound /kn tju zd wu nd/ noun a wound caused by a blow where the skin is bruised as well as torn and bleeding contusion /kn tju ()n/ noun same as | contrast medium contrecoup control | controlled drug | controlled substance | controlled trial | controls assurance | | contused wound | contusion | contralateral bruise convalescence convalescence / knv les()ns/ noun a period of time when someone is convalescing convergent strabismus /kn v d nt str bizms/, convergent squint /kn v d nt skwint/ noun a condition in which one or both of a persons eyes look towards the nose. Also called cross eye conversion /kn v ()n/ noun the process of changing one thing into another the conversion of nutrients into tissue convex / knveks/ adjective curving towards the outside a convex lens | convergent strabismus | | | conversion | convex Nursing.fm Page 66 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM convoluted 66 convoluted / knvlu tid/ adjective folded and twisted convolution / knv lu ()n/ noun a twisted shape the convolutions of the surface of the cerebrum convulsion /kn v ln/ noun the rapid involuntary contracting and relaxing of the muscles in several parts of the body The child had convulsions. fit (NOTE: Often used in the plural.) Cooleys anaemia / ku liz ni mi/ noun same as thalassaemia [Described 1927. After convolution | convulsion | Cooleys anaemia | convoluted cornea / k ni/ noun a transparent part of the front of the eyeball. See illustration at EYE in Sup- cornea plement (NOTE: The plural is corneae. For other terms referring to the cornea, see words beginning with kerat-, kerato-.) corneal / k nil/ adjective relating to a cornea corneal graft / k nil r ft/ noun 1. a surcorneal corneal graft Thomas Benton Cooley (18711945), Professor of Paediatrics at Wayne College of Medicine, Detroit, USA.] Coombs test / ku mz test/ noun a test for Coombs test antibodies in red blood cells, used as a test for erythroblastosis fetalis and other haemolytic syndromes [Described 1945. After Robin Royston Amos Coombs (19212006), Quick Professor of Biology, and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK] coordination /k di nei()n/ noun 1. the coordination | | gical operation to graft corneal tissue from a donor or from a dead person to replace diseased tissue. Also called corneal transplant, keratoplasty 2. a piece of corneal tissue used in a graft corneal reflex / k nil ri fleks/ noun a reflex from touching or hitting the cornea which makes the eyelid close corneal transplant / k nil tr nspl nt/ noun same as corneal graft cornification / k nifi kei()n/ noun same as corneal reflex corneal transplant cornification | keratinisation cornu / k nju / noun a structure in the body cornu combining of two or more things as an effective unit, or the way things combine effectively requires coordination between nursing staff and doctors 2. the ability to use two or more parts of the body at the same time to carry out a movement or task The patient showed lack of coordination between eyes and hands. COPD abbreviation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease coping mechanism / kpi mekniz()m/ noun a method of dealing with situations which cause psychological stress copper / kp/ noun a metallic trace element COPD coping mechanism copper (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cu.) copr- /kpr/ prefix faeces coprolith / kprli/ noun a lump of hard faecoprcoprolith ces in the bowel cor /k / noun the heart coraco-acromial / krk krmil/ adjective referring to the coracoid process and the acromion coracoid process / krkid prses/ noun a projecting part on the shoulder blade cord /k d/ noun a long flexible structure in the body like a thread cordectomy /k dektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a vocal cord (NOTE: The plucor coraco-acromial | coracoid process cord cordectomy | ral is cordectomies.) cordotomy /k dtmi/ noun another spelling of chordotomy corium / k rim/ noun same as dermis corn /k n/ noun a hard painful lump of skin cordotomy | corium corn usually on a foot, where something such as a tight shoe has rubbed or pressed on the skin. Also called heloma which is shaped like a horn corona /k rn/ noun a structure in the body which is shaped like a crown coronal / krn()l, k rn()l/ adjective referring to a corona coronal plane / krn()l plein/ noun a plane at right angles to the median plane, dividing the body into dorsal and ventral halves. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement coronal suture / krn()l su t/ noun a horizontal joint across the top of the skull between the parietal and frontal bones coronary / krn()ri/ noun same as coronary thrombosis (informal ) adjective referring to any structure shaped like a crown, but especially to the arteries which supply blood to the heart muscles coronary artery / krn()ri tri/ noun one of the two arteries which supply blood to the heart muscles coronary artery bypass graft / krn()ri tri baip s r ft/, coronary artery bypass / krn()ri tri baip s/ noun a surgical operation to treat angina by grafting pieces of vein around the diseased part of a coronary artery coronary care unit / krn()ri ke ju nit/ noun the section of a hospital caring for people who have heart disorders or who have had heart surgery. Abbreviation CCU coronary heart disease / krn()ri h t di zi z/ noun any disease affecting the coronary arteries, which can lead to strain on the heart or a heart attack. Abbreviation CHD coronary sinus / krn()ri sains/ noun a vein which takes most of the venous blood from the heart muscles to the right atrium coronary thrombosis / krn()ri rm bsis/ noun a blood clot which blocks the corcorona | coronal | coronal plane coronal suture coronary coronary artery coronary artery bypass graft coronary care unit coronary heart disease | coronary sinus coronary thrombosis | Nursing.fm Page 67 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 67 onary arteries, leading to a heart attack. Also called coronary coronavirus /k rn vairs/ noun a type of virus which has been identified in people who have the common cold coroner / krn/ noun a public official, either a doctor or a lawyer, who investigates sudden or violent deaths coronoid process / krnid prses/ noun a projecting piece of bone on the ulna corpora plural of corpus corpse /k ps/ noun the body of a dead person corpus / k ps/ noun any mass of tissue coronavirus | | coroner coronoid process corpora corpse corpus corticospinal | counselling corticospinal / k tik spain()l/ adjective referring to both the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord corticosteroid / k tik stirid/ noun 1. any steroid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands 2. a drug which reduces inflammation, used in asthma, gastro-intestinal disease and in adrenocortical insufficiency corticotrophin / k tik trfin/ noun same as adrenocorticotrophic hormone cortisol / k tisl/ noun same as hydrocorticorticosteroid | corticotrophin | cortisol sone (NOTE: The plural is corpora.) corpus callosum / k ps k lsm/ noun the thick band of nerve fibres that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is corpora callosa.) corpus cavernosum / k ps k v nsm/ noun a part of the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: The plural | corpus cavernosum | corpus callosum cortisone / k tizn/ noun a hormone secreted in small quantities by the adrenal cortex The doctor gave her a cortisone injection in the ankle. Corynebacterium /k rainib k tirim/ noun a genus of bacteria which includes the bacterium which causes diphtheria coryza /k raiz/ noun an illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose (technical ) Also called cold, common Corynebacterium | | coryza | cortisone cold is corpora cavernosa.) corpuscle / k p s()l/ noun 1. a small round mass 2. a cell in blood or lymph corpus luteum / k ps lu tim/ noun a body which forms in each ovary after a Graafian follicle has ruptured. The corpus luteum secretes the hormone progesterone to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilised ovum. (NOTE: The corpus luteum corpuscle cosmetic surgery /kz metik s d ri/ noun a surgical operation to improve a persons | cosmetic surgery appearance cost- /kst/ prefix same as costo- (used before cost- vowels) costal plural is corpora lutea.) corpus spongiosum corpus spongiosum / k ps sp n i sm/ noun the part of the penis round the urethra, forming the glans. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: | costal / kst()l/ adjective referring to the ribs costive / kstiv/ noun a drug which causes constipation costo- /kst/ prefix referring to the ribs cot death / kt de/ noun sudden infant costive costocot death death syndrome The plural is corpora spongiosa.) corrective /k rektiv/ adjective intended to correct an irregularity or problem corrective lenses noun a drug which changes the harmful effect of another drug Corrigans pulse / kri nz p ls/ noun a condition occurring in the arterial pulse in the neck in which there is a visible rise in pressure followed by a sudden collapse, caused by aortic regurgitation. Also called water-hammer pulse corrugator muscle / kr eit m s()l/ noun one of the muscles which produce vertical wrinkles on the forehead when someone frowns cortex / k teks/ noun the outer layer of an organ, as opposed to the soft inner medulla | Corrigans pulse corrugator muscle cortex corrective (NOTE: The plural is cortices or cortexes.) Corti Corti / k ti/ organ of Corti cortical mastoidectomy / k tik()l m sti dektmi/ noun same as atticotomy cortices plural of cortex cortical mastoidectomy | cortices co-trimoxazole / k trai mkszl/ noun a drug used to combat bacteria in the urinary tract cotyledon / kti li d()n/ noun one of the divisions of a placenta cotyloid cavity / ktilid k viti/ noun same as acetabulum couching / kati/ noun a surgical operation to displace the opaque lens of an eye as a treatment for cataracts cough /kf/ noun a reflex action, caused by irritation in the throat, when the glottis is opened and air is sent out of the lungs suddenly an infection that causes coughing She has a bad cough and cannot make the speech. verb to send air out of the lungs suddenly because the throat is irritated The smoke made him cough. She has a cold and keeps on coughing and sneezing. cough medicine / kf med()sin/, cough linctus / kf likts/, cough mixture / kf mikst/ noun a liquid taken to soothe the irritation which causes a cough counselling / kansli/ noun a method of treating especially psychiatric disorders in which | cotyledon | cotyloid cavity couching cough cough medicine counselling co-trimoxazole Nursing.fm Page 68 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM counterextension a specialist talks with a person about his or her condition and how to deal with it counterextension / kantrik stenn/ noun an orthopaedic treatment in which the upper part of a limb is kept fixed and traction is applied to the lower part of it counterirritant / kantr irit()nt/ noun a substance which alleviates the pain in an internal organ by irritating an area of skin whose sensory nerves are close to those of the organ in the spinal cord coupling / k pli/ noun 1. an act of joining together or linking two people, things or processes 2. something which joins two things, especially a device for connecting two pieces of pipe, hose or tube couvade /ku v d/ noun an act of copying the actions of having a baby while a woman is actually giving birth, done by the father in some Native South American societies Cowpers glands / ku pz l ndz/ plural noun two glands at the base of the penis which secrete into the urethra. Also called bulbourecounterextension | counterirritant | coupling couvade | Cowpers glands 68 one arm under the thigh and the other under the upper back cradle cap / kreid()l k p/ noun a yellow deposit on the scalp of babies, caused by seborrhoea cramp /kr mp/ noun a painful involuntary spasm in the muscles, in which the muscle may stay contracted for some time crani- /kreini/ prefix same as cranio- (used cradle cap cramp crani- before vowels) crania crania plural of cranium cranial / kreinil/ adjective referring to the skull cranio- /kreini/ prefix the skull craniometry / kreini mitri/ noun the process of measuring skulls to find differences in size and shape craniopharyngioma / kreinif rind i m/ noun a tumour in the brain originating in the hypophyseal duct (NOTE: The plural is cranicranial craniocraniometry | craniopharyngioma | | thral glands [Described 1700. After William Cowper (16661709), English surgeon.] cowpox / kapks/ noun an infectious viral cowpox opharyngiomas or craniopharyngiomata.) craniostenosis / kreiniste nsis/, craniosynostosis / kreini sin stsis/ noun craniostenosis | | | disease of cattle which can be transmitted to humans. It was used as a constituent of the first vaccines for smallpox. cox- /kks/ prefix the hip joint coxa / kks/ noun the hip joint (NOTE: The plucoxcoxa ral is coxae.) the early closing of the bones in a babys skull, so making the skull contract craniotabes / kreini teibi z/ noun thinness of the bones in the occipital region of a childs skull, caused by rickets, marasmus or syphilis craniotomy / kreini tmi/ noun a surgical operation on the skull, especially one cutting away part of the skull (NOTE: The plural is cranicraniotabes | craniotomy | coxalgia /kk s ld / noun pain in the hip joint coxa vara / kks ver/ noun an unusual development of the hip bone, making the legs bow Coxsackie virus /kk s ki vairs/ noun one of a group of enteroviruses which enter the cells of the intestines and can cause diseases such as aseptic meningitis and Bornholm disease [After | coxa vara Coxsackie virus | coxalgia otomies.) cranium cranium / kreinim/ noun same as skull (NOTE: The plural is craniums or crania.) CRB check CRB check / si bi tek/ noun a check with the Criminal Records Bureau to establish whether a candidate has any convictions that disallow him or her from working with children or other vulnerable members of society. Also called disclosure check creatine Coxsackie, New York, where the virus was first identified.] CPAP abbreviation continuous positive airways CPAP pressure CPN abbreviation community psychiatric nurse CPR abbreviation cardiopulmonary resuscitation crab /kr b/, crab louse / kr b las/ noun a louse, Phthirius pubis, which infests the pubic region and other parts of the body with coarse hair. Also called pubic louse crack /kr k/ noun a thin break Theres a crack in one of the bones in the skull. verb to make a thin break in something, or become split She cracked a bone in her leg. cradle / kreid()l/ noun a metal frame put over a person in bed to keep the weight of the bedclothes off the body verb to carry a child with CPN CPR crab crack cradle creatine / kri iti n/ noun a compound of nitrogen found in the muscles, produced by protein metabolism and excreted as creatinine creatinine /kri tni n/ noun a substance which is the form in which creatine is excreted creatinuria /kri ti njri/ noun excess creatine in the urine creatorrhoea / kri t ri / noun the presence of undigested muscle fibre in the faeces, occurring in some pancreatic diseases Creds method /kre deiz med/ noun 1. a method of extracting a placenta by massaging the uterus through the abdomen 2. the putting of silver nitrate solution into the eyes of a baby born to a mother who has gonorrhoea, in order to prevent gonococcal conjunctivitis [Described 1860. After creatinine | creatinuria | | creatorrhoea | Creds method | Karl Sigmund Franz Cred (181992), German gynaecologist.] Nursing.fm Page 69 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 69 crura intestinal tract, characterised by thickening and scarring of the intestinal wall and obstruction [Described 1932. After Burrill Bernard Crohn (18841983), New York physician.] COMMENT: No certain cause has been found for Crohns disease, where only one section of the intestine becomes inflamed and can be blocked. cromolyn sodium / krmlin sdim/ noun a drug that helps to prevent the release of cromolyn sodium creeping eruption / kri pi i r pn/ noun an itching skin complaint, caused by larvae of various parasites which creep under the skin crepitation / krepi tei()n/ noun an unusual soft crackling sound heard in the lungs through a stethoscope. Also called rale crepitus / krepits/ noun a harsh crackling sound heard through a stethoscope in a person with inflammation of the lungs crest /krest/ noun a long raised part on a bone crest of ilium / krest v ilim/ noun same as | crepitation | crepitus crest crest of ilium creeping eruption iliac crest Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease / kritsfelt j kb di zi z/ noun a disease of the nervous system caused by a slow-acting prion which eventually affects the brain. It may be linked to BSE in cows. Abbreviation CJD. variant CJD | [Described 1920 by H.G. Creutzfeldt (1885 1964); 1921 by A.M. Jakob (18841931), German psychiatrists] cribriform / kribrif m/ adjective having small cribriform holes like a sieve cribriform plate / kribrif m pleit/ noun the top part of the ethmoid bone which forms the roof of the nasal cavity and part of the roof of the eye sockets cricoid / kraikid/ adjective relating to the lowest part of the cartilage of the larynx cricoid cartilage / kraikid k tlid / noun ring-shaped cartilage in the lower part of the larynx. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement cri-du-chat syndrome / kri dju sindrm/ noun a congenital condition, caused by loss of part of chromosome 5, which is characterised in babies by a cry suggestive of that of a cat Crigler-Najjar syndrome / kri l n d sindrm/ noun a genetically controlled condition in which bilirubin cannot be formed, leading to jaundice or even brain damage crista / krist/ noun 1. a ridge, e.g. the border of a bone 2. a fold in the inner membrane of a mitrochondrion (NOTE: The plural is cristae.) crista galli / krist lai/ noun a projection from the ethmoid bone criterion /krai tirin/ noun an accepted standard used in making a decision or judgment about something (NOTE: The plural is criteria.) critical care / kritik()l ke/ noun specialist nursing and medical treatment given to patients who are critically ill critical list / kritik()l list/ noun the list of patients in a hospital whose condition is medically life-threatening CRNA abbreviation certified registered nurse anaesthetist Crohns disease / krnz di zi z/ noun a persistent inflammatory disease, usually of the lower cribriform plate cricoid cricoid cartilage cri-du-chat syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome crista crista galli criterion | critical care critical list CRNA Crohns disease | histamine and other substances which cause many of the symptoms of asthma and hay fever cross-dresser / krs dres/ noun someone who wears clothes usually worn by people of the opposite sex, e.g. a transvestite cross-dressing / krs dresi/ noun the practice of wearing clothes usually worn by people of the opposite sex, e.g. by transvestites cross-infection / krs in fekn/ noun an infection passed from one patient to another in hospital, either directly or from nurses, visitors or equipment crossmatch /krs m t/ verb (in transplant surgery) to match a donor to a recipient as closely blood as possible to avoid tissue rejection. cross-dresser cross-dressing cross-infection | crossmatch | group crossmatching crossmatching /krs m ti/ noun the process of matching a transplant donor to a recipient as closely as possible to avoid tissue rejection cross-resistance / krs ri zistns/ noun the development by a disease agent of resistance to a number of similar drugs or chemicals of the same class crotamiton /kr t mit()n/ noun a chemical that kills mites, used to treat scabies crotch /krt/ noun the point where the legs meet the body, where the genitals are. Also called | cross-resistance | crotamiton | crotch crutch croup /kru p/ noun acute infection of the upper respiratory passages which blocks the larynx, affecting children crown /kran/ noun the top part of a tooth above the level of the gums verb to put an artificial crown on a tooth crowning / krani/ noun 1. the act of putting an artificial crown on a tooth 2. a stage in childbirth in which the top of the babys head becomes visible cruciate / kru it/ adjective shaped like a cross cruciate ligament / kru it li mnt/ noun any ligament shaped like a cross, especially either of two ligaments behind the knee which prevent the knee from bending forwards crude death rate / kru d de reit/ noun the number of deaths in a year, divided by the total population crura plural of crus crown crowning cruciate cruciate ligament crude death rate crura croup Nursing.fm Page 70 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM crural crural 70 cryptosporidia crural / krrl/ adjective referring to the thigh, leg or shin crura of the diaphragm / krr v daifr m/ plural noun the long muscle fibres joining the diaphragm to the lumbar vertebrae crus /kr s/ noun a long projecting part (NOTE: crura of the diaphragm crus cryptosporidia / kriptsp ridi/ plural of | cryptosporidium The plural is crura.) crus cerebri / kr s seribrai/ noun each of the crus cerebri nerve tracts between the cerebrum and the medulla oblongata (NOTE: The plural is crura cerebri.) cryptosporidiosis / kriptsp ridi sis/ noun an infectious condition of humans and domestic animals, spread by an intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Its symptoms are fever, diarrhoea and stomach cramps. cryptosporidium / kriptsp ridim/ noun a parasite which contaminates drinking water supplies, causing intestinal infection (NOTE: The | | cryptosporidium | cryptosporidiosis plural is cryptosporidia.) crypts of Lieberkhn crush fracture / kr fr kt/ noun a fracture by compression of the bone crush syndrome / kr sindrm/ noun a condition in which a limb has been crushed, as in an accident, causing kidney failure and shock crutch /kr t/ noun 1. a strong support for someone with an injured leg, formed of a stick with a T-bar which fits under the armpit, especially formerly, or a holding bar and elbow clasp 2. same as crotch cry- /krai/ prefix same as cryo- (used before crush syndrome crutch cry- crush fracture crypts of Lieberkhn / kripts v li bku n/ plural noun tubular glands found in the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine, especially those between the bases of the villi in the small intestine. Also called Lieberkhns glands [Described 1745. After Johann Nathaniel Lieberkuhn (171156), Berlin anatomist and physician.] CSF abbreviation cerebrospinal fluid CT abbreviation computed tomography CT scan / si ti sk n/ noun a computer picCSF CT CT scan vowels) cryaesthesia / kraii s i zi/ noun the fact of being sensitive to cold cryo- /krai/ prefix cold cryobank / kraib k/ noun a place where biological material such as semen and body tissue can be stored at extremely low temperatures cryoprecipitate / kraipri sipitt/ noun a precipitate such as from blood plasma, which separates out on freezing and thawing cryoprobe / kraiprb/ noun an instrument used in cryosurgery with a tip that is kept very cold to destroy tissue cryosurgery / krai s d ri/ noun surgery which uses extremely cold instruments to destroy tissue cryotherapy / krai erpi/ noun treatment using extreme cold, as in removing a wart with dry ice crypt /kript/ noun a small cavity in the body crypto- /kript/ prefix hidden cryptococcal meningitis / kriptkk()l menin d aitis/ noun a form of meningitis that is a feature of cryptococcosis cryptococcosis / kriptk ksis/ noun an infection mainly affecting the brain or nervous system, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in people with HIV infection. cryptomenorrhoea / kriptmen ri / noun the retention of menstrual flow, usually caused by an obstruction cryptorchidism /krip t kidiz()m/, cryptorchism /krip t kiz()m/ noun a condition in a young male in which the testicles do not move down into the scrotum | cryocryobank cryoprecipitate | cryoprobe cryosurgery | cryotherapy | crypt cryptocryptococcal meningitis | cryptococcosis | cryptomenorrhoea | cryptorchidism | | cryaesthesia ture of a slice of the body or an organ produced by a CT scanner. Also called CAT scan cubital / kju bit()l/ adjective referring to the ulna cubitus / kju bits/ noun same as ulna cuboid / kju bid/, cuboid bone / kju bid bn/ noun one of the tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement cuff /k f/ noun an inflatable ring put round the arm and inflated when blood pressure is being measured cuirass respirator /kwi r s respireit/ noun a type of artificial respirator which surrounds only the chest culdoscope / k ldskp/ noun an instrument used to inspect the interior of a womans pelvis, introduced through the vagina culdoscopy /k l dskpi/ noun an examination of the interior of a womans pelvis using a culdoscope culture / k lt/ noun 1. the shared values and behaviour of a group 2. microoorganisms or tissues grown in a culture medium in a laboratory verb to grow microorganisms or tissues in a culture medium cumulative / kju mjltiv/ adjective growing by adding cuneiform / kju nif m bnz/, cuneiform bone / kju nif mz/ noun one of the three tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supcubital cubitus cuboid cuff cuirass respirator | culdoscope culdoscopy | culture cumulative cuneiform plement cupola / kju pl/ noun a dome-shaped struccupola ture curare /kj r ri/ noun a drug derived from South American plants, antagonist to acetylcholine and used surgically to paralyse muscles durcurare | Nursing.fm Page 71 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 71 ing operations without causing unconsciousness (NOTE: Curare is the poison used to make poison arrows.) cutis cutis anserina cyclotomy curettage /kj retid / noun the procedure of scraping the inside of a hollow organ, often the uterus, to remove a growth or tissue for examination. Also called curettement curette /kj ret/ noun a surgical instrument like a long thin spoon, used for scraping the inside of an organ verb to scrape an organ with a curette (NOTE: curettes curetting curetted.) curettement /kj retmnt/ same as curet| curette | curettement | curettage cutis / kju tis/ noun the skin cutis anserina / kju tis nserain/ noun a reaction of the skin when someone is cold or frightened, the skin being raised into many little bumps by the action of the arrector pili muscles. Also called goose bumps CVA abbreviation cerebrovascular accident cyan- /sain/ prefix same as cyano- (used CVA cyan- before vowels) tage curie / kjri/ noun a former unit of measurement of radioactivity, replaced by the becquerel. Symbol Ci Curlings ulcer / k liz ls/ noun an ulcer of the duodenum following severe injury to the body curvature / k vt/ noun the way in which something bends from a straight line greater or lesser curvature of the stomach cushingoid / kiid/ adjective showing symptoms of Cushings disease Cushings disease / kiz di zi z/, Cushings syndrome / kiz sindrm/ noun a condition in which the adrenal cortex produces too many corticosteroids [Described 1932. After Curlings ulcer curvature cushingoid Cushings disease | curie Harvey Williams Cushing (18691939), surgeon, Boston, USA.] cusp /k sp/ noun 1. the pointed tip of a tooth 2. a flap of membrane forming a valve in the heart cuspid / k spid/ noun same as canine cut /k t/ noun 1. a reduction in the number or amount of something 2. a place where the skin has been penetrated by a sharp instrument She had a bad cut on her left leg. The nurse will put a bandage on your cut. verb 1. to make an opening in something using a knife, scissors or other sharp thing The surgeon cut the diseased tissue away with a scalpel. She cut her finger on the broken glass. 2. to reduce the number or amount of something Accidents have been cut by 10%. (NOTE: cutting cut) cut- /kju t/ prefix referring to the skin cutaneous /kju teinis/ adjective referring to the skin cutaneous leishmaniasis /kju teinis li m naisis/ noun a form of skin disease caused by the tropical parasite Leishmania. Also called Delhi boil cutdown / k tdan/ noun the procedure of cutting a vein to insert a cannula or administer an intravenous drug cuticle / kju tik()l/ noun same as epidermis cuspid cut cutcutaneous | cutaneous leishmaniasis | | cutdown cuticle cusp cyanide / sainaid/ noun a poison which kills very rapidly when drunk or inhaled cyano- /sain/ prefix blue cyanocobalamin / saink b lmin/ same as Vitamin B12 cyanosed / sainst/ adjective with blue skin The patient was cyanosed round the lips. cyanosis / sai nsis/ noun a condition characterised by a blue colour of the peripheral skin and mucous membranes, a symptom of lack of oxygen in the blood, e.g. in heart or lung disease cyanotic / sai ntik/ adjective referring to or having cyanosis cycle / saik()l/ noun a series of events which recur regularly cyclic / siklik, saiklik/ adjective 1. occurring or repeated in cycles 2. referring to organic compounds composed of a closed ring of atoms cyclical / siklik()l/ adjective referring to cycles -cycline /saiklin/ suffix used in names of antibiotics tetracycline cyclitis /si klaitis/ noun inflammation of the ciliary body in the eye cyclo- /saikl/ prefix cycles cyclodialysis / saikldai lsis/ noun a surgical operation to connect the anterior chamber of the eye and the choroid, as a treatment of glaucoma cyclopentolate / saikl pentleit/ noun a drug used to paralyse the ciliary muscle cyclophosphamide / saikl fsfmaid/ noun a drug which suppresses immunity, used in the treatment of leukaemia, lymphoma, Hodgkins disease and tumours cycloplegia / saikl pli d / noun paralysis of the ciliary muscle which makes it impossible for the eye to focus properly cyclopropane / saikl prpein/ noun a flammable hydrocarbon gas used as a general anaesthetic and in organic synthesis cyclothymia / saikl aimi/ noun a mild form of bipolar disorder in which the person experiences alternating depression and excitement cyclotomy /sai kltmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the ciliary body (NOTE: The cyanocyanocobalamin | cyanosed cyanosis | cyanotic | cycle cyclic cyclical -cycline cyclitis | cyclocyclodialysis | cyclopentolate | cyclophosphamide | cycloplegia | cyclopropane | cyclothymia | cyclotomy | cyanide plural is cyclotomies.) Nursing.fm Page 72 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM -cyclovir 72 called vesicofixation (NOTE: The plural is cystopexies.) cystoplasty -cyclovir /saiklvi/ suffix used in the names of antiviral drugs cyesis /sai i sis/ noun same as pregnancy cyesis | -cyclovir (technical ) cyst /sist/ noun an unusual growth in the body cyst cystoplasty / sist pl sti/ noun a surgical operation on the bladder (NOTE: The plural is | shaped like a pouch, containing liquid or semiliquid substances cyst- /sist/ prefix the bladder cystadenoma / sistdi nm/ noun an adenoma in which fluid-filled cysts form (NOTE: The cystcystadenoma | cystoplasties.) cystoscope / sistskp/ noun an instrument cystoscope made of a long tube with a light at the end, used to inspect the inside of the bladder cystoscopy /si stskpi/ noun an examination of the bladder using a cystoscope (NOTE: The plucystoscopy | plural is cystadonomas or cystadonomata.) cystalgia /si st ld / noun pain in the urinary cystalgia | bladder cystectomy /si stektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of the urinary bladder (NOTE: The plural is cystectomies.) cystic / sistik/ adjective 1. referring to cysts 2. referring to a bladder cysticercosis / sistis ksis/ noun a disease caused by infestation of tapeworm larvae from pork cystic fibrosis / sistik fai brsis/ noun a hereditary disease in which there is malfunction of the exocrine glands such as the pancreas, in particular those which secrete mucus, causing respiratory difficulties, male infertility and malabsorption of food from the gastrointestinal tract. Also called fibrocystic disease, mucoviscidocystectomy | cystic cysticercosis | cystic fibrosis | ral is cystoscopies.) cystostomy /si ststmi/, cystotomy /si sttmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an cystostomy | | opening between the bladder and the abdominal wall to allow urine to pass without going through the urethra. Also called vesicostomy (NOTE: The plurals are cystostomies and cystotomies.) cystourethrography / sist jri r rfi/ noun X-ray examination of the bladder and urecystourethrography | | thra cystourethroscope / sistj ri rskp/ noun an instrument used to inspect the bladder and urethra cyt- /sait/ prefix same as cyto- (used before cystourethroscope | cyt- vowels) cyto- /sait/ prefix cell cytochemistry / sait kemistri/ noun the cytocytochemistry | sis cystine / sisti n/ noun an amino acid. It can cause stones to form in the urinary system of people who have a rare inherited metabolic disorder. cystinosis / sisti nsis/ noun a disorder affecting the absorption of amino acids, resulting in excessive amounts of cystine accumulating in the kidneys cystinuria / sisti njri/ noun cystine in the urine cystitis /si staitis/ noun inflammation of the urinary bladder, which makes someone pass water often and with a burning sensation cystocele / sistsi l/ noun a hernia of the urinary bladder into the vagina cystogram / sist r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of the urinary bladder cystography /si st rfi/ noun an examination of the urinary bladder by X-rays after radioopaque dye has been introduced cystolithiasis / sistli aisis/ noun a condition in which stones are formed in the urinary bladder cystometer /si stmit/ noun an apparatus which measures the pressure in the bladder cystometry /si stmitri/ noun measurement of the pressure in the bladder cystopexy /si stpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to fix the bladder in a different position. Also cystinosis | cystinuria | cystitis | cystocele cystogram cystography | cystolithiasis | cystometer | cystometry | cystopexy | cystine study of the chemical activity of cells cytogenetics / saitd netiks/ noun a branch of genetics which studies the function of cells, especially chromosomes, in heredity cytokine / saitkain/ noun a protein secreted by cells of the lymph system which is involved in controlling response to inflammation cytokinesis / saitkai ni sis/ noun changes in the cytoplasm of a cell during division cytological smear / saitld ik()l smi/ noun a sample of tissue taken for examination under a microscope cytology /sai tld i/ noun the study of the structure and function of cells cytolysis /sai tlisis/ noun the breaking down of cells cytomegalovirus / sait me l vairs/ noun one of the herpesviruses which can cause serious congenital disorders in a fetus if it infects the pregnant mother. Abbreviation CMV cytometer /sai tmit/ noun an instrument attached to a microscope, used for measuring and counting the number of cells in a specimen cytopenia / sait pi ni/ noun a deficiency of cellular elements in blood or tissue cytoplasm / saitpl z()m/ noun a substance inside the cell membrane which surrounds the nucleus of a cell cytoplasmic / sait pl zmik/ adjective referring to the cytoplasm of a cell cytogenetics | cytokine cytokinesis | cytological smear cytology | cytolysis | cytomegalovirus | | cytometer | cytopenia | cytoplasm cytoplasmic | Nursing.fm Page 73 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 73 cytosine cytotoxin sion 2. referring to cells in the immune system which destroy other cells cytotoxic drug / saittksik dr / noun a drug which reduces the reproduction of cells, used to treat cancer cytotoxin / sait tksin/ noun a substance which has a toxic effect on cells cytotoxic drug cytotoxin | cytosine / saitsi n/ noun one of the four basic chemicals in DNA cytosome / saitsm/ noun the body of a cell, not including the nucleus cytotoxic / sait tksik/ adjective 1. referring to a drug or agent which prevents cell divicytosome cytotoxic | Nursing.fm Page 74 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM D d d symbol decida symbol decada Costas syndrome /d kstz sindrm/ noun same as disordered action of da da Costas syndrome Daltonism / d ltniz()m/ noun the commonest form of colour blindness, in which someone cannot see the difference between red and green. Also called protanopia [Described 1794. After John Dalton (17661844), English chemist and physician. Founder of the atomic theory, he himself was colour-blind.] D & C /di n/ abbreviation dilatation and curetD&C Daltonism the heart [Described 1871. After Jacob Mendes da Costa (18331900), Philadelphia surgeon, who described this condition in soldiers in the American Civil War.] dacryo- /d kri/ prefix tears dacryoadenitis / d kri di naitis/ noun dacryodacryoadenitis | inflammation of the lacrimal gland dacryocystitis / d krisi staitis/ noun inflammation of the lacrimal sac when the tear duct, which drains into the nose, becomes blocked dacryocystography / d krisi st rfi/ noun contrast radiography to determine the site of an obstruction in the tear ducts dacryocystorhinostomy / d kri sistrai nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to bypass a blockage from the tear duct which takes tears into the nose. Abbreviation DCR (NOTE: dacryocystitis | dacryocystography | dacryocystorhinostomy | | The plural is dacryocystorhinostomies.) dacryolith / d krili/ noun a stone in the dacryolith lacrimal sac dacryoma / d kri m/ noun a benign swelling in one of the tear ducts (NOTE: The plural is dacryoma | tage dander / d nd/ noun very small fragments that fall from the feathers, hair or skin of animals or people dandruff / d ndrf/ noun pieces of dead skin from the scalp which fall out when the hair is combed. Also called pityriasis capitis, scurf D and V / di n vi / abbreviation diarrhoea and vomiting Dandy-Walker syndrome / d ndi w k sindrm/ noun a congenital condition in which there is no Magendies foramen in the brain dark adaptation /d k d p tei()n/ noun the reflex changes which enable the eye to continue to see in dim light. For example, the pupil becomes larger and the rods in the retina become more active than the cones. data / deit/ plural noun information in words or figures about a particular subject, especially information which is available on computer dander dandruff D and V Dandy-Walker syndrome dark adaptation | data dacryomas or dacryomata.) dactyl / d ktil/ noun a finger or toe dactyl- /d ktil/ prefix same as dactylo- (used before vowels) dactylitis / d kti laitis/ noun inflammation of dactyl dactyldactylitis | (NOTE: In scientific usage, data is used with a plural verb: The data are accurate. In everyday language, data is often used with a singular verb: The recent data supports our case.) data bank / deit b k/ noun a store of infordata bank the fingers or toes, caused by bone infection or rheumatic disease dactylo- /d ktil/ prefix referring to the fingers or toes dactylology / d kti lld i/ noun signs made with the fingers in place of words when talking to a person who is unable to hear, or when a person who is unable to hear or speak wants to communicate dactylomegaly / d ktil me li/ noun a condition in which a person has longer fingers than usual DAH abbreviation disordered action of the heart dactylodactylology | dactylomegaly | DAH mation in a computer The hospital keeps a data bank of information about possible kidney donors. database / deitbeis/ noun a structured collection of information in a computer that can be automatically retrieved and manipulated Data Protection Act / deit pr tek()n kt/ noun a parliamentary act intended to protect information about individuals that is held on computers. It ensures that all information is stored securely and allows people to have access to their entries. daughter / d t/ noun a female child of a parent They have two sons and one daughter. database Data Protection Act | daughter Nursing.fm Page 75 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 75 day blindness decimetre debility day blindness / dei blaindns/ noun same as hemeralopia day care / dei ke/ noun supervised recreation day care or medical care provided during the day for people who need special help, e.g. some elderly people or small children day case / dei keis/ noun same as day patient day case surgery / dei keis s d ri/ noun same as day surgery day centre / dei sent/ noun a place providing day care day nursery / dei n s()ri/ noun a place where small children can be looked after during the daytime while their parents or guardians are at work day patient / dei pei()nt/ noun a patient who is in hospital for treatment for a day and does not stay overnight. Also called day case day patient care / dei pei()nt ke/ noun care for patients who are resident in a hospital during the daytime only day recovery ward / dei ri k v()ri w d/ noun a ward where day patients who have had minor operations can recover before going home day surgery / dei s d ri/ noun a surgical operation which does not require the patient to stay overnight in hospital. Also called day case day case day case surgery day centre day nursery day patient day patient care day recovery ward | day surgery surgery dB abbreviation decibel DCR abbreviation dacryocystorhinostomy DDS abbreviation US doctor of dental surgery DDT abbreviation dichlorodiphenyltrichlodB DCR DDS DDT debility /di biliti/ noun general weakness debridement /di bri dmnt/ noun the removal of dirt or dead tissue from a wound to help healing deca- /dek/ prefix ten. Symbol da Decadron / dekdrn/ a trade name for dexamethasone decalcification /di k lsifi kei()n/ noun the loss of calcium salts from teeth and bones decannulation /di k nj lei()n/ noun the removal of a tracheostomy tube decapitation /di k pi tei()n/ noun the act or process of cutting off the head of a person or animal decapsulation /di k psj lei()n/ noun a surgical operation to remove a capsule from an organ, especially from a kidney decay /di kei/ noun 1. the process by which tissues become rotten, caused by the action of microorganisms and oxygen 2. damage caused to tissue or a tooth by the action of microorganisms, especially bacteria verb (of tissue) to rot The surgeon removed decayed matter from the wound. deci- /desi/ prefix one tenth (10-1) decigram Symbol d decibel / desibel/ noun a unit of measurement of the loudness of sound, used to compare different levels of sound. Symbol dB decidua /di sidju/ noun a membrane which lines the uterus after fertilisation (NOTE: The plu| debridement | decaDecadron decalcification | | decannulation | | decapitation | | decapsulation | | decay | decidecibel decidua | roethane de- /di / prefix removal or loss dead fingers / ded fi z/, dead mans fingers / ded m nz fi z/ noun same as Raydedead fingers nauds disease dead space /ded speis/ noun a breath in the dead space ral is deciduas or deciduae.) COMMENT: The decidua is divided into several parts: the decidua basalis, where the embryo is attached, the decidua capsularis, which covers the embryo and the decidua vera which is the rest of the decidua not touching the embryo. It is expelled after the birth of the baby. last part of the process of breathing in air which does not get further than the bronchial tubes deaf /def/ adjective not able to hear in circumstances where most people would. hearingdeaf decidual /di sidjul/ adjective referring to the decidua deciduoma /di sidju m/ noun a mass of decidual tissue remaining in the uterus after birth | deciduoma | | decidual impaired deaf and dumb / def n d m/ noun not able to hear or to speak (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) deafness / defns/ noun the fact of being unadeafness deaf and dumb (NOTE: The plural is deciduomas or deciduomata.) deciduous /di sidjus/ adjective referring to deciduous | ble to hear in circumstances where most people would deamination /di mi nei()n/ noun the process by which amino acids are broken down in the liver and urea is formed death /de/ noun the permanent end of all natural functions death rate / de reit/ noun the number of deaths per year per thousand of population The death rate from cancer of the liver has remained stable. deamination | | death death rate teeth discarded at a later stage of development deciduous dentition /di sidjus den ti()n/ noun the set of twenty teeth which are gradually replaced by the permanent teeth as a child grows older deciduous tooth /di sidjus tu / noun same as primary tooth decilitre / desili t/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one tenth of a litre. Symbol dl (NOTE: The US spelling is deciliter.) decimetre / desimi t/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one tenth of a metre. Symbol dm (NOTE: The US spelling is decimeter.) deciduous dentition | | deciduous tooth | decilitre decimetre Nursing.fm Page 76 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM decompensation 76 | | decompensation /di kmpn sei()n/ noun a condition in which an organ such as the heart cannot cope with extra stress placed on it and so is unable to perform its function properly decomposition / di kmp zi()n/ noun the process where dead matter is rotted by the action of bacteria or fungi decompression / di km pre()n/ noun 1. reduction of pressure 2. a controlled reduction of atmospheric pressure which occurs as a diver returns to the surface decompression sickness / di km pre()n sikns/ noun same as caisson disdecomposition | decompression | decompression sickness | decompensation ease decongestant / di kn d estnt/ adjective reducing congestion and swelling noun a drug which reduces congestion and swelling, sometimes used to unblock the nasal passages decontamination / di knt mi nei()n/ noun the removal of a contaminating substance such as radioactive material decortication /di k ti kei()n/ noun the surgical removal of the cortex of an organ decrudescence / di kru des()ns/ noun a reduction in the symptoms of a disease decubitus /di kju bits/ noun the position of a person who is lying down decubitus ulcer /di kju bits ls/ noun same as bedsore decussation / di k sei()n/ noun the crossing of nerve fibres in the central nervous system. Also called chiasm deep /di p/ adjective located, coming from or reaching relatively far inside the body. Opposite | decontamination | decortication | | decrudescence | decubitus | decubitus ulcer | decussation | deep decongestant superficial defecation / def kei()n/, defaecation noun the act of passing out faeces from the bowels defence /di fens/ noun resistance against an attack of a disease defence mechanism /di fens mekniz()m/ noun a subconscious reflex by which a person prevents himself or herself from showing emotion deferent / defrnt/ adjective going away from the centre defervescence / def ves()ns/ noun a period during which a fever is subsiding defibrillation /di fibri lei()n/ noun a procedure to correct an irregular heartbeat by applying a large electrical impulse to the chest wall, especially in potentially life-threatening circumstances. Also called cardioversion defibrillator /di fibrileit/ noun an apparatus used to apply an electric impulse to the heart to make it beat regularly defibrination /di faibri nei()n/ noun the removal of fibrin from a blood sample to prevent clotting deficiency /di fi()nsi/ noun a lack of something necessary deficit / defisit/ noun the amount by which something is less than it should be defloration / di fl rei()n/ noun the act of breaking the hymen of a virgin, usually at the first sexual intercourse deflorescence / di fl res()ns/ noun the disappearance of a rash deformans /di f mnz/ osteitis deform| defence | defence mechanism | deferent defervescence | defibrillation | | defibrillator | defibrination | | deficiency | deficit defloration | deflorescence | deformans | defecation deep cervical vein / di p s vik()l vein/ noun a vein in the neck which drains into the vertebral vein deep dermal burn / di p d m()l b n/ noun a burn which is so severe that a graft will be necessary to repair the skin damage. Also called deep dermal burn deep cervical vein ans deformity full thickness burn deep facial vein / di p fei()l vein/ noun a deep facial vein small vein which drains from the pterygoid process behind the cheek into the facial vein deep plantar arch / di p pl ntr t/ noun a curved artery crossing the sole of the foot deep vein / di p vein/ noun a vein which is inside the body near a bone, as opposed to a superficial vein near the skin deep-vein thrombosis / di p vein rm bsis/ noun a condition arising when a thrombus formed in the deep veins of a leg or the pelvis travels to a lung where it may cause death. The condition may affect anyone who is inactive for long periods. Also called phlebothrombosis. Abbreviation DVT deep plantar arch deep vein deep-vein thrombosis | deformity /di f miti/ noun an unusual shape of part of the body degeneration /di d en rei()n/ noun a change in the structure of a cell or organ so that it no longer works properly degenerative disease /di d en()rtiv di zi z/, degenerative disorder /di d en()rtiv dis d/ noun a disease or disorder in which there is progressive loss of function of a part of the body, or in which a part of the body fails to repair itself deglutition / di lu ti()n/ noun the action of passing food or liquid, and sometimes also air, from the mouth into the oesophagus (technical ) Also called swallowing dehiscence /di his()ns/ noun the act of opening wide dehydration / di hai drei()n/ noun a dangerous lack of water in the body resulting from inadequate intake of fluids or excessive loss through sweating, vomiting or diarrhoea | degeneration | | degenerative disease | | | | deglutition | dehiscence | dehydration | Nursing.fm Page 77 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 77 deoxygenated blood dehydrogenase / di hai drd neiz/ noun an enzyme that transfers hydrogen between chemical compounds dj vu / dei vu / noun an illusion that a new situation is a previous one being repeated, usually caused by a disease of the brain deleterious / deli tiris/ adjective damaging or harmful Delhi boil / deli bil/ noun same as cutane| dj vu deleterious | Delhi boil dehydrogenase ous leishmaniasis delirium /di lirim/ noun a mental state in delirium | which someone is confused, excited and restless and has hallucinations delirium alcoholicum /di lirim lk hlikm/ noun delirium tremens delirium tremens /di lirim tri menz/, lk delirium alcoholicum /di lirim hlikm/ noun a state of mental illness usually found in long-term alcoholics who attempt to give up alcohol consumption. It includes hallucinations about insects, trembling and excitement. Abbreviation DTs delivery /di liv()ri/ noun the birth of a child delta / delt/ noun the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet deltoid / deltid/, deltoid muscle / deltid m s()l/ noun a big triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and attached to the humerus, which lifts the arm sideways delusion /di lu ()n/ noun a false belief which a person holds which cannot be changed by reason He suffered from the delusion that he was wanted by the police. dementia /di men/ noun the loss of mental ability and memory due to organic disease of the brain, causing disorientation and personality changes demi- /demi/ prefix half demography /di m rfi/ noun the study of populations and environments or changes affecting populations demulcent /di m lsnt/ noun a soothing substance which relieves irritation in the stomach demyelinating /di mailineiti/ adjective relating to the destruction of the myelin sheath round nerve fibres demyelination /di maili nei()n/ noun the destruction of the myelin sheath round nerve fibres, caused, e.g. by injury to the head, or as the main result of multiple sclerosis dendrite / dendrait/ noun a branched structure growing out from a nerve cell, which receives impulses from the nerve endings of other nerve cells at synapses. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement. Also called dendron dendritic /den dritik/ adjective referring to a dendrite dendron / dendrn/ noun same as dendrite delirium alcoholicum | | delirium tremens | | | delivery | delta deltoid delusion | dementia | demidemography | demulcent | demyelinating | demyelination | | dendrite dendritic | dendron denervation / di n vei()n/ noun the stopping or cutting of the nerve supply to a part of the body dengue / de i/ noun a tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes, characterised by high fever, pains in the joints, headache and rash. Also called breakbone fever denial /di nail/ noun a persons refusal to accept that he or she has a serious medical problem Denis Browne splint / denis bran splint/ noun a metal splint used to correct a club foot | dengue denial | Denis Browne splint denervation [Described 1934. After Sir Denis John Wolko Browne (18921967), Australian orthopaedic and general surgeon working in Britain.] dens /denz/ noun a tooth, or something shaped dens like a tooth dent- /dent/ prefix referring to a tooth or teeth dental / dent()l/ adjective referring to teeth or to the treatment of teeth dental caries dental surgeon dental hygiene / dent()l haid i n/ noun procedures to keep the teeth clean and healthy dental impaction / dent()l im p k()n/ noun a condition in which a tooth is closely pressed against other teeth and cannot grow normally dental plate / dent()l pleit/ noun a prosthesis made to the shape of the mouth, which holds artificial teeth dental prosthesis / dent()l prs i sis/ noun one or more false teeth dentine / denti n/ noun a hard substance which surrounds the pulp of teeth, beneath the enamel dentistry / dentistri/ noun the profession of a dentist, or the branch of medicine dealing with teeth and gums dentition /den ti()n/ noun the number, arrangement and special characteristics of all the teeth in a persons jaws dentdental dental hygiene dental impaction | dental plate dental prosthesis | dentine dentistry dentition | COMMENT: Children have incisors, canines and molars, which are replaced over a period of years by the permanent teeth: eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars and twelve molars, the last four molars being called the wisdom teeth. dentoid / dentid/ adjective shaped like a tooth denture / dent/ noun a set of false teeth, fixed dentoid denture to a device which fits inside the mouth deodorant /di d()rnt/ noun a substance which hides or prevents unpleasant smells adjective hiding or preventing odours deontology / di n tld i/ noun the ethics of duty and of what is morally right or wrong deoxygenate /di ksid neit/ verb to remove oxygen from something deoxygenated blood /di ksid neit bl d/ noun blood from which most of the oxydeodorant | deontology | deoxygenate | deoxygenated blood | Nursing.fm Page 78 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM deoxyribonucleic acid gen has been removed by the tissues. It is darker than arterial oxygenated blood. Also called venous blood. Compare deoxygenated blood deoxyribonucleic acid /di ksiraibnju kleiik sid/ noun full form of DNA. RNA Department of Health /di p tmnt v hel/ noun in the UK, the government department in charge of health services. Abbreviation deoxyribonucleic acid | Department of Health | 78 or want sleep deprivation 2. the lack of basic necessities of life deradenitis /di r di naitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck Dercums disease / d kmz di zi z/ noun same as adiposis dolorosa [Described 1888. deradenitis | | Dercums disease | | DH dependant /di pendnt/ noun a person who is looked after or supported by someone else He has to support a family of six children and several dependants. dependence /di pendns/, dependency /di pendnsi/ noun the fact of needing the suuport of something or someone such as a carer, nurse or doctor, or of being addicted to a drug dependent /di pendnt/ adjective 1. needing the support of someone or something 2. addicted to a drug 3. referring to a part of the body which is hanging down dependent relative /di pendnt reltiv/ noun a person who is looked after by another member of the family depersonalisation /di p s()n()lai zei()n/, depersonalization noun a psychiatric state in which someone does not believe he or she is real depilation / depi lei()n/ noun the removal of hair depilatory /di pilt()ri/ noun a substance which removes hair adjective removing hair Depo-Provera a trademark for a progesterone derivative used in birth control and the treatment of endometriosis which is administered by threemonthly injection depressant /di pres()nt/ noun a drug which reduces the activity of part of the body, e.g. a tranquilliser depressed /di prest/ adjective 1. experiencing a mental condition that prevents someone from carrying out the normal activities of life in the usual way clinically depressed Same as depressed 2. feeling miserable and worried (informal ) He was depressed after his exam results. 3. referring to something such as a metabolic rate which is below the usual level depressed fracture /di prest fr kt/ noun a fracture of a flat bone such as those in the skull where part of the bone has been pushed down lower than the surrounding parts depression /di pre()n/ noun 1. a mental condition that prevents someone from carrying out the normal activities of life in the usual way 2. a hollow on the surface of a part of the body depressor /di pres/ noun a muscle which pulls part of the body downwards deprivation / depri vei()n/ noun 1. the fact of not being able to have something that you need | dependence | | dependent | dependent relative | depersonalisation | | depilation | depilatory | Depo-Provera depressant | depressed | depressed fracture | depression | depressor | deprivation | dependant After Franois Xavier Dercum (18561931), Professor of Neurology at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, USA.] derealisation /di rilai zei()n/, derealization noun a psychological state in which somederealisation | | one feels the world around him or her is not real derm- /d m/ prefix same as derma- (used derm- before vowels) -derm /d m/ suffix skin derma- /d m/ prefix skin dermal / d m()l/ adjective referring to the skin dermatitis / d m taitis/ noun inflammation of the skin dermato- /d mt/ prefix referring to the skin dermatochalasis / d mtk l sis/ noun a condition where a fold of skin moves down over the eyelid, common in older people dermatological / d mt ld ik()l/ adjective referring to dermatology dermatologist / d m tld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study and treatment of the skin and its diseases dermatology / d m tld i/ noun the study and treatment of the skin and its diseases dermatome / d mtm/ noun 1. a special knife used for cutting thin sections of skin for grafting 2. an area of skin supplied by one spinal nerve dermatomycosis / d mtmai ksis/ noun a skin infection caused by a fungus that is not a dermatophyte dermatomyositis / d mtmai saitis/ noun a collagen disease with a wasting inflammation of the skin and muscles dermatophyte / d mtfait/ noun a fungus belonging to one of three genera which affect the skin or hair, causing tinea dermatophytosis / d mtfai tsis/ noun a fungal infection of the skin caused by a dermatophyte dermatoplasty / d mtpl sti/ noun a skin graft, replacing damaged skin by skin taken from another part of the body or from a donor dermatosis / d m tsis/ noun a disease of the skin dermis / d mis/ noun a thick layer of living skin beneath the epidermis. Also called corium dermo- /d m/ prefix same as dermadermoid / d mid/ adjective 1. referring to the skin 2. like skin dermadermal dermatitis | dermatodermatochalasis | dermatological | dermatologist | dermatology | dermatome dermatomycosis | dermatomyositis | dermatophyte dermatophytosis | dermatoplasty dermatosis | dermis dermodermoid -derm Nursing.fm Page 79 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 79 Descemets membrane diabetes insipidus develop Descemets membrane /de mets membrein/ noun one of the deep layers of the cornea [Described 1785. After Jean Descemet | (17321810), French physician; Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in Paris.] descending aorta /di sendi ei t/ noun descending aorta | | the second section of the aorta, which turns downwards. Compare ascending aorta descending colon /di sendi kln/ noun the third section of the colon which goes down the left side of the body. Compare ascending colon. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Suppledescending colon | ment desensitisation desensitisation /di sensitai zei()n/, desensitization noun the act of making some| | one or something no longer sensitive to something such as an allergen designer drug /di zain dr / noun a drug that has been modified to enhance its properties designer drug | (informal ) desogestrel / des d estrl/ noun a hormone used an as oral contraceptive desquamation / deskw mei()n/ noun the continual process of losing the outer layer of dead skin detached retina /di t tt retin/ noun a condition in which the retina becomes partially separated from the eyeball, causing loss of vision. Also called retinal detachment | desquamation | detached retina | desogestrel COMMENT: A detached retina can be caused by a blow to the eye, or simply is a condition occurring in old age. If left untreated the eye will become blind. A detached retina can sometimes be attached to the choroid again using lasers. detergent /di t d nt/ noun a cleaning subdetergent | stance which removes grease and bacteria deterioration /di tiri rei()n/ noun the fact of becoming worse The nurses were worried by the deterioration in the patients reactions. detox / di tks/ noun same as detoxication deterioration | | detox develop /di velp/ verb 1. to become larger and stronger, or more complex The embryo is A swelling developed developing normally. under the armpit. The sore throat developed into an attack of meningitis. 2. to make something start to happen Were developing a new system for dealing with admission to A & E. 3. to make something start to grow or become larger, stronger or more complex He does exercises to develop his muscles. 4. to start to have an illness The baby may be developing a cold. development /di velpmnt/ noun 1. the process of growing, or of becoming larger and stronger, or more complex The development of the embryo takes place in the uterus. 2. something which happens and causes a change in a situation Report any developments to me at once. developmental delay /di velpment()l di lei/ noun the fact of being later than usual in developing, either physically or psychologically deviance / di vins/ noun sexual behaviour which is considered unusual deviated nasal septum / di vieitid neiz()l septm/, deviated septum / di vieitid septm/ noun an unusual position of the septum of the nose which may block the nose and cause nosebleeds deviation / di vi ei()n/ noun 1. the fact of being different from what is usual or expected or something which is different from what is usual or expected 2. an unusual position of a joint or of the eye, as in strabismus dexamethasone / deks mesn/ noun a synthetic steroid drug that is used to treat inflammation and hormonal imbalances Dexa scan / deks sk n/ noun a technique to assess changes in someones bone density, as in osteoporosis or in Pagets disease. Full form Dual | development | developmental delay | | deviance deviated nasal septum deviation | dexamethasone | Dexa scan Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry dextro- /dekstr/ prefix referring to the right, dextro- (informal ) detoxication /di tksi kei()n/, detoxification /di tksifi kei()n/ noun the removal of toxic substances to make a poisonous substance harmless detrition /di tri()n/ noun the fact of wearing away by rubbing or use detritus /di traits/ noun rubbish produced when something disintegrates detrusor muscle /di tru z m s()l/ noun the muscular coat of the urinary bladder detumescence / di tju mes()ns/ noun 1. | | | | detrition | detritus | detrusor muscle | detumescence | detoxication (of the penis or clitoris after an erection or orgasm) the process of becoming limp 2. (of a swelling) the process of disappearing deuteranopia / dju tr npi/ noun a form deuteranopia | of colour blindness in which someone cannot see green or the right side of the body dextromoramide / dekstr m rmaid/ noun an opioid drug used to reduce pain dextrose / dekstrz/ noun same as glucose DH abbreviation Department of Health DI abbreviation donor insemination di- /dai/ prefix two, double dia- /dai/ prefix 1. through or throughout 2. across 3. in different or opposite directions 4. apart diabetes / dai bi ti z/ noun 1. one of a group of diseases which cause the body to produce large gestational diabetes 2. amounts of urine. same as diabetes mellitus diabetes insipidus /dai bi ti z in sipids/ noun a rare disorder of the pituitary gland causing an inadequate amount of the hormone vasopressin, which controls urine production, to be dextromoramide | dextrose DH DI didiadiabetes | diabetes insipidus | | Nursing.fm Page 80 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM diabetes mellitus produced, leading to excessive passing of urine and extreme thirst diabetes mellitus /dai bi ti z melits/ noun a disease where the body cannot control sugar absorption because the pancreas does not secrete enough insulin diabetes mellitus | 80 COMMENT: Diabetes mellitus has two forms: Type I may have a viral trigger caused by an infection which affects the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin; Type II is caused by a lower sensitivity to insulin, is common in older people, and is associated with obesity. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are tiredness, unusual thirst, frequent passing of water and sweet-smelling urine. Blood and urine tests show high levels of sugar. Treatment for Type II diabetes involves keeping to a strict diet and reducing weight, and sometimes the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs such as glibenclamide. Type I diabetes is treated with regular injections of insulin. diabetic cataract / daibetik k tr kt/ noun a cataract which develops in people who have diabetes diabetic coma / daibetik km/ noun a state of unconsciousness caused by untreated diabetes diabetic retinopathy / daibetik reti npi/ noun a disease of the retina, caused by diabetes diabetogenic / daibet d enik/ adjective which causes diabetes diabetologist / daibe tld ist/ noun a doctor specialising in the treatment of diabetes mellitus diaclasia / dai kleizi/ noun a fracture made by a surgeon to repair an earlier fracture which has set badly, or to correct a deformity diadochokinesis /dai dkkai ni sis/ noun the natural ability to make muscles move limbs in opposite directions diagnosis / dai nsis/ noun the act of diagnosing a condition or illness The doctors diagnosis was a viral infection, but the childs parents asked for a second opinion. They found it difficult to make a diagnosis. Compare prognosis diabetic coma diabetic retinopathy | diabetogenic | diabetologist | diaclasia | diadochokinesis | | diagnosis | diabetic cataract dialysate /dai list/ noun material which is subjected to dialysis dialyser / dailaiz/ noun an apparatus which uses a membrane to separate solids from liquids, e.g. a kidney machine dialysis /dai lsis/ noun 1. a procedure in which a membrane is used as a filter to separate soluble waste substances from the blood 2. same as renal dialysis diapedesis / daipi di sis/ noun the movement of white blood cells through the walls of the capillaries into tissues in the development of inflammation diaphoresis / daif ri sis/ noun excessive perspiration diaphoretic / daif retik/ noun a drug which causes sweating adjective causing sweating diaphragm / daifr m/ noun 1. a thin layer of tissue stretched across an opening, especially the flexible sheet of muscle and fibre which separates the chest from the abdomen and moves to pull air into the lungs in respiration 2. same as vaginal | dialyser dialysis | diapedesis | diaphoresis | diaphoretic | diaphragm dialysate diaphragm diaphragmatic / daifr m tik/ adjective referring to a diaphragm, or like a diaphragm diaphyseal / dai fizil/ adjective referring to a diaphysis diaphysis /dai fsis/ noun the long central part of a long bone. Also called shaft. See illustration at BONE MARROW in Supplement diaphysitis / daif saitis/ noun inflammation of the diaphysis, often associated with rheumatic disease diarrhoea / dai ri / noun a condition in which someone frequently passes liquid faeces attack of diarrhoea mild/severe diarrhoea diarthrosis / dai rsis/ noun same as | diaphyseal | diaphysis | diaphysitis | diarrhoea | diarthrosis | diaphragmatic synovial joint diastase / daisteiz/ noun an enzyme which diastase (NOTE: The plural is diagnoses.) diagnostic / dai nstik/ adjective referring to diagnosis diagnostic and treatment centre / dai nstik n tri tmnt sent/ noun a facility mainly for day surgery or short-term stay, where a range of planned operations such as joint replacements, hernia repair and cataract removal can be undertaken. Abbreviation DTC diagnostic radiographer /dai nstik reidi rf/ noun radiographer | diagnostic and treatment centre diagnostic radiographer | | diagnostic breaks down starch and converts it into sugar diastasis / dai steisis/ noun a condition in which a bone separates into parts diastema / dai sti m/ noun 1. an unusually wide space between adjacent teeth 2. an unusual gap in any body part or organ diastolic / dai stlik/ adjective relating to the diastole diastolic pressure / daistlik pre/ noun blood pressure taken at the diastole (NOTE: diastasis | diastema | diastolic | diastolic pressure Diastolic pressure is always lower than systolic.) diathermy / dai mi/ noun the use of highfrequency electric current to produce heat in body tissue diathermy needle /dai mi ni d()l/ noun a needle used in surgical diathermy diathermy snare / dai mi sne/ noun a snare which is heated by electrodes and burns away tissue | diathermy needle | diathermy snare | diathermy Nursing.fm Page 81 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 81 digitoxin Dietls crisis diathesis /dai sis/ noun the general inherited constitution of a person in relation to their susceptibility to specific diseases or allergies diazepam /dai zp m/ noun a tranquilliser used in the short term to treat anxiety and as a muscle relaxant. In the long term it is potentially addictive. diazoxide / dai zksaid/ noun a drug used as a vasodilator, to reduce hypertension DIC abbreviation disseminated intravascular coagulation dicephalus /dai sefls/ noun a fetus with two heads dichlorphenamide / daikl fenmaid/ noun a drug used to treat glaucoma dichromatism / daikr m tiz()m/ noun colour blindness in which only two of the three primary colours can be seen. Compare mono| diazepam | diazoxide | DIC dicephalus | dichlorphenamide | dichromatism | diathesis Dietls crisis / di t()lz kraisis/ noun a painful blockage of the ureter, causing back pressure on the kidney which fills with urine and swells [After Joseph Dietl (180478), Polish physician.] chromatism, trichromatism diclofenac sodium diclofenac sodium / daiklfen k sdim/ noun an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatic disease dicrotism / daikrtiz()m/ noun a condition in which the pulse occurs twice with each heartbeat die /dai/ verb to stop living His father died last year. She died in a car crash. (NOTE: dying dicrotism die died) diet / dait/ noun the amount and type of food eaten a balanced diet verb to reduce the diet quantity of food you eat, or to change the type of food you eat, in order to become thinner or healthier He is dieting to try to lose weight. dietary / dait()ri/ noun a system of nutrition and energy The nutritionist supervised the dietaries for the patients. adjective referring to a diet dietary fibre / dait()ri faib/ noun fibrous matter in food, which cannot be digested. Also called roughage dietary dietary fibre diet sheet / dait i t/ noun a list of suggestions for quantities and types of food given to someone to follow differential / dif renl/ adjective referring to a difference differential diagnosis / dif ren()l dai nsis/ noun the identification of one disease from a number of other similar diseases by comparing the range of symptoms of each differentiation / difreni ei()n/ noun the development of specialised cells during the early embryo stage diffuse /di fju s/ verb /di fju z/ /di fju s/; /di fju z/ to spread through tissue, or cause something to spread Some substances easily diffuse through the walls of capillaries. adjective referring to a disease which is widespread in the body, or which affects many organs or cells diffusion /di fju ()n/ noun the process of mixing a liquid with another liquid, or a gas with another gas digest /dai d est/ verb to break down food in the alimentary canal and convert it into components which are absorbed into the body digestion /dai d estn/ noun the process by which food is broken down in the alimentary canal into components which can be absorbed by the body digestive /dai d estiv/ adjective relating to digestion digestive juice /dai d estiv ju s/ noun gasdifferential | differential diagnosis | | differentiation | diffuse | | | | diffusion | digest | digestion | digestive | digestive juice | diet sheet tric juice (usually plural ) COMMENT: Dietary fibre is found in cereals, nuts, fruit and some green vegetables. There are two types of fibre in food: insoluble fibre, e.g. in bread and cereals, which is not digested, and soluble fibre, e.g. in vegetables and pulses. Foods with the highest proportion of fibre include wholemeal bread, beans and dried apricots. Fibre is thought to be necessary to help digestion and avoid developing constipation, obesity and appendicitis. dietetic / dai tetik/ adjective referring to diets dietetics / dai tetiks/ noun the study of food, nutrition and health, especially when applied to peoples food intake dietitian / dai ti()n/ noun someone who specialises in the study of diet, especially someone in a hospital who supervises dietaries as part of the medical treatment of patients | dietetics | dietitian | dietetic digestive system /dai d estiv sistm/ noun the set of organs such as the stomach, liver and pancreas which are associated with the digestion of food. Also called alimentary system digestive tract /dai d estiv tr kt/ noun same as alimentary canal digit / did it/ noun 1. a finger or a toe 2. a number digitalin / did i teilin/, digitalis / did i teilis/ noun a drug derived from foxglove leaves, used in small doses to treat heart conditions digitalise / did itlaiz/, digitalize verb to treat someone who has heart failure with digoxin digital palpation / did it()l p l pei()n/ noun an examination of part of the body by feeling it with the fingers digitoxin / did i tksin/ noun an extract of foxglove leaves, used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of heart failure or irregular heartbeat | digestive tract | digit digitalin | | digitalise digital palpation | digitoxin | digestive system Nursing.fm Page 82 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM digoxin 82 | digoxin /dai d ksin/ noun an extract of foxglove leaves, which acts more rapidly than digitoxin when used as a heart stimulant dihydrocodeine tartrate /dai haidr kdi n t treit/ noun an analgesic used to treat severe pain dilatation / dailei tei()n/, dilation /dai lei()n/ noun the act of making a hollow space or a passage in the body bigger or wider dilatation of the cervix during labour dilatation and curettage /dailei tei()n n kj retid / noun a surgical operation to scrape the interior of the uterus to obtain a tissue sample or to remove products of miscarriage. Abbreviation D & C dilate /dai leit/ verb to become wider or larger, or make something become wider or larger to dilate the pupil of the eye dilator /dai leit/ noun an instrument used to widen the entrance to a cavity dilator pupillae muscle /dai leit pju pili m s()l/ noun a muscle in the iris which pulls the iris back and so makes the pupil expand diltiazem hydrochloride /dil taizm haidr kl raid/ noun a calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension diluent / diljunt/ noun a substance which is used to dilute a liquid, e.g. water dilute /dai lu t/ adjective with water added verb to add water to a liquid to make it less concentrated Dilute the disinfectant in four parts of water. dimenhydrinate / daimen haidrneit/ noun an antihistamine drug that relieves travel sickness dimetria /dai mi tri/ noun a condition in which a woman has a double uterus dioptre /dai pt/ noun a unit of measurement of the refraction of a lens DIP abbreviation distal interphalangeal joint diphenoxalate / daifen ksileit/ noun a drug related to pethidine that is used to treat diarrhoea, sometimes mixed with a little atropine in commercial preparations diphtheria /dif iri/ noun a serious infectious disease of children, caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae, characterised by fever and the formation of a fibrous growth like a membrane in the throat which restricts breathing diphtheroid / difrid/ adjective referring to a bacterium similar to the diphtheria bacterium -dipine /dipin/ suffix used in the names of calcium channel blockers nifedipine dipl- /dipl/ prefix same as diplo- (used before dihydrocodeine tartrate | | dilatation | | dilatation and curettage | | dilate | dilator | dilator pupillae muscle | | diltiazem hydrochloride | | diluent dilute | dimenhydrinate | dimetria | dioptre | DIP diphenoxalate | diphtheria | diphtheroid -dipine dipl- digoxin diplegia /dai pli d / noun paralysis of a similar part on both sides of the body, e.g. paralysis of both arms. Compare hemiplegia diplegic /dai pli d ik/ adjective referring to diplegia diplo- /dipl/ prefix double diploe / dipli / noun a layer of spongy bone tissue filled with red bone marrow, between the inner and outer layers of the skull diploid / diplid/ adjective referring to a cell where there are two copies of each chromosome, except the sex chromosome. In humans the diploid number of chromosomes is 46. diplopia /di plpi/ noun a condition in which someone sees single objects as double. Also called double vision direct contact /dai rekt knt kt/ noun a situation where someone or something physically touches an infected person or object director /dai rekt/ noun an instrument used to limit the incision made with a surgical knife dis- /dis/ prefix 1. undoing or reversal 2. removal from 3. lacking or deprived of disability / dis biliti/ noun a condition in which part of the body does not function in the usual way and makes some activities difficult or impossible. learning disability Disabled Living Foundation /dis eib()ld livi fan dei()n/ noun a charity which aims to help disabled people live independently disarticulation / dis tikj lei()n/ noun the amputation of a limb at a joint, which does not involve dividing a bone disc /disk/ noun a flat round structure. | diplegic | diplodiploe diploid diplopia | direct contact | director | disdisability | Disabled Living Foundation | | disarticulation | disc diplegia intervertebral disc vowels) diplacusis diplacusis / dipl kju sis/ noun a disorder of the cochlea in which a person hears one sound as two sounds of different pitch | discharge /dis t d / noun / dist d / 1. the secretion of liquid from an opening 2. the process of sending a patient away from a hospital because the treatment has ended verb 1. to secrete liquid out of an opening The wound discharged a thin stream of pus. 2. to send a patient away from hospital because the treatment has ended He was discharged from hospital last week. discharge planning / dist d pl ni/ noun the work of making a plan for when a patient leaves hospital to live at home disclosure check /dis kl tek/ noun same as CRB check discomfort /dis k mft/ noun a feeling of mild pain You may experience some discomfort after the operation. discrete /di skri t/ adjective separate, not joined together disease /di zi z/ noun a condition that stops the body from functioning in the usual way an infectious disease She is suffering from a very serious disease of the kidneys or from a serious | discharge planning disclosure check | discomfort | discrete | disease | discharge Nursing.fm Page 83 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 83 kidney disease. He is a specialist in occupational diseases. (NOTE: The term disease is applied to all physical and mental reactions which make a person ill. Diseases with distinct characteristics have individual names. For other terms referring to disease, see words beginning with path-, patho-.) dispensing practice | distraction dispensing practice /di spensi pr ktis/ noun a doctors practice which dispenses prescribed medicines to its patients displace /dis pleis/ verb to put something out of its usual place displacement /dis pleismnt/ noun the fact of being moved out of the usual position fracture of the radius together with displacement of the wrist disposition / disp zi()n/ noun a persons general character or tendency to act in a particular way dissect /dai sekt/ verb to cut and separate tissues in a body to examine them dissection /dai sekn/ noun the action of cutting and separating parts of a body or an organ as part of a surgical operation, an autopsy or a course of study disseminated /di semineitid/ adjective occurring in every part of an organ or in the whole body disseminated intravascular coagulation /di semineitid intr v skl k j lei()n/ noun a disorder that causes extensive clot formation in the blood vessels, followed by severe bleeding. Abbreviation DIC disseminated sclerosis /di semineitd skl rsis/ noun same as multiple sclerosis dissemination /di semi nei()n/ noun the fact of being widespread throughout the body dissociation /di si ei()n/ noun 1. the separation of parts or functions 2. (in psychiatry) a condition in which part of the consciousness becomes separated from the rest and becomes independent dissociative disorder /di ssitiv dis d/ noun a type of hysteria in which someone shows psychological changes such as a split personality or amnesia rather than physical ones distal / dist()l/ adjective further away from the centre of a body Distalgesic / dist()l d i zik/ a trade name for the analgesic co-proxamol distally / dist()li/ adverb placed further away from the centre or point of attachment. Opposite proximally. See illustration at ANATOMICAL displace | displacement | disposition | dissect | dissection | disseminated | disseminated intravascular coagulation | | | | disseminated sclerosis | | dissemination | | dissociation | | dissociative disorder | | distal Distalgesic | distally disfigure /dis fi / verb to change someones appearance so as to make it less pleasant to look at Her legs were disfigured by scars. disinfect / disin fekt/ verb to make the surface of something or somewhere free from microorganisms She disinfected the skin with surgical spirit. All the patients clothes have to be disinfected. disinfectant / disin fektnt/ noun a substance used to kill microorganisms on the surface of something disinfection / disin fekn/ noun the removal of microorganisms on the surface of something | disinfect | disinfectant | disinfection | disfigure COMMENT: The words disinfect, disinfectant, and disinfection are used for substances which destroy microorganisms on instruments, objects or the skin. Substances used to kill microorganisms inside infected people are antibiotics. disinfestation / disinfe stei()n/ noun the removal of insects or other pests from a place, person or animal dislocate / dislkeit/ verb to displace a bone from its usual position at a joint, or to become displaced He fell and dislocated his elbow. The shoulder joint dislocates easily. dislocation / disl kei()n/ noun a condition in which a bone is displaced from its usual position at a joint. Also called luxation dismember /dis memb/ verb to cut off or pull off someones arms or legs, often violently or in an accident dismemberment /dis membmnt/ noun the state of being dismembered disordered action of the heart /dis dd kn v h t/ noun a condition in which someone has palpitations, breathlessness and dizziness, caused by effort or worry. Also called da Costas syndrome, cardiac neurosis. Abbreviation DAH disorientation / dis rin tei()n/ noun a condition in which someone is confused and does not know where he or she is dispensary /di spensri/ noun a place where drugs are prepared or mixed and given out according to a doctors prescription, e.g. part of a chemists shop or a department in a hospital dispensing optician /di spensi p ti()n/ noun a person who fits and sells glasses but does not test eyes | dislocate dislocation | dismember | dismemberment | disordered action of the heart | disorientation | dispensary | dispensing optician | | disinfestation TERMS distension in Supplement distension /dis tenn/ noun a condition in which something is swollen Distension of the veins in the abdomen is a sign of blocking of the portal vein. distichiasis / disti kaisis/ noun the presence of extra eyelashes, sometimes growing on the meibomian glands distraction /di str kn/ noun 1. something that takes a persons attention away from something else 2. a state where someone is very emotionally and mentally troubled | distichiasis | distraction | Nursing.fm Page 84 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM district general hospital 84 district general hospital / distrikt d en()rl hspit()l/ noun a hospital which serves the needs of the population of a specific district district nurse / distrikt n s/ noun a nurse who visits and treats people in their homes disturbed /di st bd/ adjective affected by a psychiatric disorder severely disturbed children disulfiram /dai s lfir m/ noun a drug used to treat alcoholism by causing severe nausea if alcohol is consumed with it dithranol / dirnl/ noun an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat dermatitis and psoriasis diuresis / daij ri sis/ noun an increase in the production of urine diuretic / daij retik/ adjective causing the kidneys to produce more urine noun a substance which makes the kidneys produce more urine and, in the treatment of oedema and hypertension diurnal /dai n()l/ adjective 1. happening in the daytime 2. happening every day divarication /dai v ri kei()n/ noun 1. separation into widely spread branches 2. the point at which a structure forks or divides divergence /dai v d ns/ noun 1. a condition in which one eye points directly at the object of interest but the other does not 2. the process of moving apart to follow different courses 3. the amount of difference between two quantities, especially where the difference is unexpected 4. a deviation from a typical behaviour pattern or expressed wish divergent strabismus /dai v d nt str bizms/, divergent squint /dai v d nt skwint/ noun a condition in which a persons eyes both look away from the nose. Opposite district nurse disturbed | disulfiram | dithranol diuresis | diuretic | diurnal | divarication | | divergence | divergent strabismus | | | district general hospital dizygotic / daizai tik/ adjective developed from two separately fertilised eggs dizygotic twins / daizai tik twinz/ plural noun twins who are not identical and not always of the same sex because they come from two different ova fertilised at the same time. Also called | dizygotic twins dizygotic fraternal twins dizziness / dizins/ noun the feeling that evedizziness rything is going round because the sense of balance has been affected dl abbreviation decilitre DLE abbreviation disseminated lupus erythematosus dm abbreviation decimetre DNA noun one of the nucleic acids, the basic genetic material present in the nucleus of each cel. Full form deoxyribonucleic acid. RNA DNA fingerprint / di en ei fi print/ noun same as genetic fingerprint DNA fingerprinting / di en ei fi printi/ noun same as genetic fingerdl DLE dm DNA DNA fingerprint DNA fingerprinting printing DOA abbreviation dead on arrival dobutamine /d bju tmi n/ noun a drug DOA dobutamine | used to stimulate the heart doctor / dkt/ noun a person who has trained in medicine and is qualified to examine people when they are ill to find out what is wrong with them and to prescribe a course of treatment doctor convergent strabismus diverticula / daiv tikjl/ plural noun plural of diverticulum diverticular disease / daiv tikjl di zi z/ noun a disease of the large intestine, where the diverticula | diverticular disease | | colon thickens and diverticula form in the walls, causing pain in the lower abdomen diverticulitis / daivtikj laitis/ noun inflammation of diverticula formed in the wall of the colon diverticulosis / daivtikj lsis/ noun a condition in which diverticula form in the intestine but are not inflamed. In the small intestine, this can lead to blind loop syndrome. diverticulum / daiv tikjlm/ noun a little sac or pouch which develops in the wall of the intestine or another organ (NOTE: The plural is diverticulitis | diverticulosis | diverticulum | COMMENT: In the UK surgeons are traditionally not called Doctor, but are addressed as Mr, Mrs, etc. The title doctor is also applied to persons who have a higher degree from a university in a non-medical subject. So Dr Jones may have a degree in music, or in any other subject without a connection with medicine. Dderleins bacillus / d dlainz b sil s/ noun a bacterium usually found in the vagina [After Albert Siegmund Gustav Dderlein (18601941), German obstetrician and gynaecologist.] dolicho- /dlik/ prefix long dolichocephalic / dlikse f lik/ adjective Dderleins bacillus | dolichodolichocephalic | diverticula.) division /di vi ()n/ noun the action of cutting division | or splitting into parts divulsor /di v ls/ noun a surgical instrument used to expand a passage in the body divulsor | referring to a person with an unusually long skull dolichocephaly / dlik sefli/ noun a condition of a person who has a skull which is longer than usual, the measurement across the skull being less than 75% of the length of the head from front to back dolor / dl/ noun pain dolorimetry / dl rimtri/ noun the measurement of pain domiciliary / dmi siliri/ adjective at home or in the home dominance / dminns/ noun the characteristic of a gene form (allele) that leads to the trait dolichocephaly | dolor dolorimetry | domiciliary | dominance Nursing.fm Page 85 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 85 which it controls being shown in any individual carrying it dominant / dminnt/ adjective important or powerful noun (of an allele) having the characteristic that leads to the trait which it controls being shown in any individual carrying it. Compare recessive domino booking / dmin bki/ noun an arrangement for the delivery of a baby, where the baby is delivered in hospital by a midwife and the mother and child return home soon afterwards Donald-Fothergill operation / dnld f il p rei()n/ noun an operation to close the neck of the vagina donor / dn/ noun a person who gives blood, tissue, organs or reproductive material to be used to treat another person donor card / dn k d/ noun a card carried by people stating that they give permission for their organs to be transplanted into other people after they have died donor insemination / dn insemi nei()n/ noun artificial insemination using the sperm of an anonymous donor. Abbreviation DI dopa / dp/ noun a chemical related to adrenaline and dopamine. It occurs naturally in the body and in the form levodopa is used to treat Parkinsons disease. dopamine / dpmi n/ noun a substance found in the medulla of the adrenal glands, which also acts as a neurotransmitter. Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinsons disease. dopaminergic / dpmi n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor stimulated by dopamine Doppler transducer / dpl tr nz dju s/ noun a device to measure blood flow, commonly used to monitor fetal heart rate Doppler ultrasound / dpl ltrsand/ noun the use of the Doppler effect in ultrasound to detect red blood cells Doppler ultrasound flowmeter / dpl ltrsand flmi t/ noun a device which measures the flow of blood and detects steady or irregular flow, allowing abnormalities or blockages to be detected dorsa / d s/ plural of dorsum dorsal / d s()l/ adjective referring to the back. Opposite ventral dorsal vertebrae / d s()l v tibrei/ plural noun the twelve vertebrae in the back between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae dorsi- /d si/ prefix referring to the back dorsiflexion / d si flekn/ noun flexion towards the back of part of the body, e.g. raising the foot at the ankle. Compare plantar flexion dorso- /d s/ prefix same as dorsidominant domino booking Donald-Fothergill operation | donor donor card donor insemination | dopa dopamine dopaminergic | Doppler transducer | Doppler ultrasound Doppler ultrasound flowmeter dorsa dorsal dorsal vertebrae dorsidorsiflexion | dorsodorsoventral | doxepin dorsoventral / d s ventrl/ adjective referring to both the front and the back of the body dorsum / d sm/ noun the back of any part of the body (NOTE: The plural is dorsa.) dosage / dsid / noun a measured quantity of a drug calculated to be necessary for someone a low dosage The doctor decided to increase the dosage of antibiotics. The dosage for children is half that for adults. dose /ds/ noun 1. a measured quantity of a drug or radiation which is to be given to someone at one time It is dangerous to exceed the prescribed dose. 2. a short period of experiencing a minor illness (informal ) a dose of flu 3. an infection with a sexually transmitted disease (informal ) verb to provide someone with medication (informal ) She has been dosing herself with laxatives. dosimeter /d simit/ noun an instrument which measures the amount of X-rays or other radiation received dosimetry /d simtri/ noun the act of measuring the amount of X-rays or radiation received, using a dosimeter double-blind randomised controlled trial / d b()l blaind r ndmaizd kn trld trail/ noun a trial used to test new treatments in which patients are randomly placed in either the treatment or the control group without either the patient or doctor knowing which group any particular patient is in double pneumonia / d b()l nju mni/ noun same as bilateral pneumonia double uterus / d b()l ju t()rs/ noun a condition in which the uterus is divided into two sections by a membrane. Also called uterus didelphys. dimetria double vision / d b()l vi ()n/ noun same as diplopia (informal ) douche /du / noun a liquid forced into the body to wash out a cavity, or a device used for washing out a cavity down below / dan bi l/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) Downs syndrome / danz sindrm/ noun a condition due to the existence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, in which a baby is born with slanting eyes, a wide face, speech difficulties and usually some degree of learning difficulty dorsum dosage dose dosimeter | dosimetry | double-blind randomised controlled trial | double pneumonia | double uterus double vision douche down below | Downs syndrome [Described 1866. After John Langdon Haydon Down (182896), British physician at Normansfield Hospital, Teddington, UK] downstairs /dan stez/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) down there / dan e/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) doxepin / dksipin/ noun a drug used as a seddownstairs | down there doxepin ative and antidepressant Nursing.fm Page 86 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM doxycycline 86 | doxycycline / dksi saikli n/ noun a widely used antibiotic derived from tetracycline DPT abbreviation diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus DPT vaccine / di pi ti v ksi n/, DPT immunisation / di pi ti imjnai zei()n/ noun a combined vaccine or immunisation against the three diseases, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus Dr abbreviation doctor (NOTE: used when writing DPT DPT vaccine | Dr doxycycline someones name: Dr Smith) drachm /dr m/ noun a measure used in phardrachm macy, equal to 3.8g dry weight or 3.7ml liquid measure dracontiasis / dr kn taisis/, dracunculiasis /dr k kj laisis/ noun a tropical disease caused by the guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis which enters the body from infected drinking water and forms blisters on the skin, frequently leading to secondary arthritis, fibrosis and cellulitis Dracunculus /dr k kjls/ noun a parasitic worm which enters the body and rises to the skin to form a blister. The infection frequently leads to secondary arthritis, fibrosis and cellulitis. Also called guinea worm dragee /dr ei/ noun a sugar-coated tablet or pill drain /drein/ noun a tube to remove liquid from the body verb to remove liquid from the body an operation to drain the sinus They drained the pus from the abscess. drainage / dreinid / noun the removal of liquid from the site of an operation or pus from an abscess by means of a tube or wick left in the body for a time drape /dreip/ noun a thin material used to place over someone about to undergo surgery, leaving the operation site uncovered drawn /dr n/ adjective appearing tired and careworn, usually as a result of anxiety, grief or illness draw-sheet / dr i t/ noun a sheet under a person in bed, folded so that it can be pulled out as it becomes soiled drepanocyte / drepnsait/ noun same as dracontiasis | | | Dracunculus | dragee | drain drainage drape drawn draw-sheet drepanocyte sickle cell drepanocytosis / drepnsai tsis/ noun same as sickle-cell anaemia dressing / dresi/ noun a covering or bandage applied to a wound to protect it The patients dressings need to be changed regularly. drill /dril/ noun a tool which rotates very rapidly to make a hole, especially a surgical instrument used in dentistry to remove caries verb to make a hole with a drill A small hole is drilled in the skull. The dentist drilled one of her molars. Drinker respirator / drik respireit/ noun a machine which encloses the whole of the body | dressing drill Drinker respirator drepanocytosis except the head, and in which air pressure is increased and decreased, so forcing the person to breathe in and out. Also called iron lung drip /drip/ noun a system for introducing liquid slowly and continuously into the body, by which a bottle of liquid is held above a person and the fluid flows slowly down a tube into a needle in a vein or into the stomach After her operation, the patient was put on a drip. drip feed / drip fi d/ noun a drip containing nutrients drop /drp/ noun 1. a small quantity of liquid 2. a sudden reduction or fall in the quantity of something a drop in pressure plural noun drops liquid medicine for the eye, nose, or ear administered with a dropper verb 1. to fall or let something fall Pressure in the artery dropped suddenly. 2. to reduce suddenly drop attack / drp t k/ noun a condition in which a person suddenly falls down, though he or she is not unconscious, caused by sudden weakness of the spine droperidol /dr peridl/ noun a drug used to keep someone in a calm state before an operation drop foot / drp ft/ noun a condition, caused by a muscular disorder, in which the ankle is not strong and the foot hangs limp droplet / drplt/ noun a very small quantity of liquid droplet infection / drplt in fekn/ noun an infection developed by inhaling droplets containing a virus, e.g. from a sneeze dropper / drp/ noun a small glass or plastic tube with a rubber bulb at one end, used to suck up and expel liquid in drops dropsy / drpsi/ noun same as oedema (dated ) drop wrist / drp rist/ noun a condition caused by a muscular disorder, in which the wrist is not strong and the hand hangs limp drug /dr / noun 1. a natural or synthetic chemical substance which is used in medicine and affects the way in which organs or tissues function 2. a substance taken by choice which produces a strong effect on a persons feelings and state of mind recreational drug controlled drugs drug addict / dr dikt/ noun a person who is physically and mentally dependent on taking a particular drug regularly a heroin addict a morphine addict drug addiction / dr dikn/ noun the fact of being mentally and physically dependent on taking a particular drug regularly. Also called drip drip feed drop drop attack | droperidol | drop foot droplet droplet infection | dropper dropsy drop wrist drug drug addict drug addiction | drug dependence drug allergy / dr drug allergy drug tolerance ld i/ noun a reaction to a particular drug drug tolerance / dr tlrns/ noun a condition in which a drug has been given to someone Nursing.fm Page 87 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 87 for so long that his or her body no longer reacts to it, and the dosage has to be increased dry /drai/ adjective 1. not wet The surface of the wound should be kept dry. 2. containing only a small amount of moisture She uses a cream to soften her dry skin. (NOTE: drier driest) verb to remove moisture from something (NOTE: dries dry duoden- dysarthria drying dried) dry beriberi / drai beri beri/ noun beriberi dry beriberi | associated with loss of feeling and paralysis dry-eye syndrome / drai ai sindrm/ noun same as xerosis dry out / drai at/ verb 1. same as dry 2. to treat someone for alcoholism, or undergo treatment for alcoholism (informal ) dry socket / drai skit/ noun inflammation of the socket of a tooth which has just been removed DTC abbreviation diagnostic and treatment centre DTs abbreviation delirium tremens Duchenne muscular dystrophy /du en m skjl distrfi/, Duchennes muscular dystrophy /du enz m skjl distrfi/, Duchenne /du en/ noun an inherited form of muscular dystrophy that weakens the muscles of the upper respiratory and pelvic areas. It usually affects boys and causes early death. [Described dry-eye syndrome dry out dry socket DTC DTs Duchenne muscular dystrophy | | | duoden- /dju di n/ prefix referring to the duodenum duodenal / dju di n()l/ adjective referring to the duodenum duodenal papillae /dju di n()l p pili / plural noun small projecting parts in the duodenum where the bile duct and pancreatic duct open duodenal ulcer /dju di n()l ls/ noun an ulcer in the duodenum duodenoscope / dju di nskp/ noun an instrument used to examine the inside of the duodenum duodenostomy / dju di nstmi/ noun a permanent opening made between the duodenum and the abdominal wall duodenum / dju di nm/ noun the first part of the small intestine, going from the stomach to the jejunum. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement duplex imaging / dju pleks imid i/ noun a type of ultrasonic imaging where the speed of the flow of blood is measured Dupuytrens contracture /du pwi trnz kn tr kt/ noun a condition in which the palmar fascia becomes thicker, causing the fingers, usually the middle and fourth fingers, to bend forwards [Described 1831. After Baron Guillaume duodenal | duodenal papillae | | duodenal ulcer | duodenoscope | duodenostomy | duodenum | duplex imaging Dupuytrens contracture | | 1849. After Guillaume Benjamin Arnaud Duchenne (180675), French neurologist.] Ducreys bacillus /du kreiz b sils/ noun a Ducreys bacillus | | Dupuytren (17751835), French surgeon.] type of bacterium found in the lungs, causing chancroid [Described 1889. After Augusto Ducrey (18601940), Professor of Dermatology in Pisa, then Rome, Italy.] duct /d kt/ noun a tube which carries liquids, duct especially one which carries secretions ductless / d ktls/ adjective without a duct ductless gland / d ktls l nd/ noun same as endocrine gland ductule / d ktju l/ noun a very small duct ductus / d kts/ noun same as duct ductus deferens / d kts defrnz/ noun one of two tubes along which sperm pass from the epididymus to the seminal vesicles near the prostate gland. Also called vas deferens. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Suppleductless ductless gland ductule ductus ductus deferens ment dull /d l/ adjective referring to pain which is not dull strong but which is continuously present She complained of a dull throbbing pain in her head. He felt a dull pain in the chest. verb to make a sensation or awareness of a sensation less sharp The treatment dulled the pain for a while. The drug had dulled her senses. dumbness / d mns/ noun same as mutism dumping syndrome / d mpi sindrm/ noun same as postgastrectomy syndrome duo- /dju / prefix two dumbness dumping syndrome duo- dura / djr/ noun same as dura mater dural / djr()l/ adjective referring to the dura mater dura mater / djr meit/ noun the thicker outer membrane of the three covering the brain. Also called dura, pachymeninx. arachnoid duty / dju ti/ noun the activities which a person has to do as part of their job What are the duties of a night sister? (NOTE: The plural is duties.) to be on duty to be working Shes on duty from 2 p.m. till 10 p.m. a duty of care the requirement to treat a patient in an appropriate way, as part of the work of being a health professional d.v.t., DVT abbreviation deep-vein thrombosis dwarfism / dw fiz()m/ noun a condition in which the growth of a person has stopped, leaving him or her much smaller than average dynamic splint /dai n mik splint/ noun a splint which uses springs to help the person move dynamometer / dain mmit/ noun an instrument for measuring the force of muscular contraction -dynia /dini/ suffix pain dys- /dis/ prefix difficult or impaired dysaesthesia / disi s i zi/ noun the impairment of a sense, in particular the sense of touch dysarthria /dis ri/, dysarthrosis / dis rsis/ noun difficulty in speaking words clearly, caused by damage to the central nervous system dural dura mater duty d.v.t. dwarfism dynamic splint | dynamometer | -dynia dysdysaesthesia | dysarthria | | dura Nursing.fm Page 88 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM dysbasia 88 | dysbasia /dis beizi/ noun difficulty in walking, especially when caused by a lesion to a nerve dyschezia /dis ki zi/ noun difficulty in passing faeces dyschondroplasia / diskndr pleizi/ noun a condition in which the long bones are shorter than usual dyschromatopsia / diskrm tpsi/ noun a condition where someone cannot distinguish colours dyscoria /dis k ri/ noun an unusually shaped pupil of the eye dyscrasia /dis kreizi/ noun any unusual body condition (dated ) dysdiadochokinesia / disdai dkkai ni si/, dysdiadochokinesis / disdai dkkai ni sis/ noun the inability to carry out rapid movements, caused by a disorder or lesion of the cerebellum dysentery / dis()ntri/ noun an infection and inflammation of the colon, causing bleeding and diarrhoea dysfunction /dis f kn/ noun an unusual functioning of an organ dysfunctional /dis f kn()l/ adjective 1. not working properly 2. unable to relate to other people emotionally or socially dysfunctional uterine bleeding /dis f kn()l ju train bli di/ noun bleeding in the uterus not caused by a menstrual period dysgenesis /dis d ensis/ noun unusual development dysgerminoma /dis d mi nm/ noun a malignant tumour of the ovary or testicle dysgraphia /dis r fi/ noun difficulty in writing caused by a brain lesion dyskariosis /dis k ri sis/ noun the fact of becoming mature in an unusual way dyskinesia / diskai ni zi/ noun the inability to control voluntary movements dyslalia /dis leili/ noun a disorder of speech, caused by an unusual development of the tongue dyslexia /dis leksi/ noun a disorder of development, where a person is unable to read or write properly and confuses letters dyslogia /dis ld / noun difficulty in putting ideas into words dysmaturity / dism triti/ noun a condition affecting newborn babies, shown by wrinkled dyschezia | dyschondroplasia | dyschromatopsia | dyscoria | dyscrasia | dysdiadochokinesia | | | | dysentery dysfunction | dysfunctional | dysfunctional uterine bleeding | dysgenesis | dysgerminoma | | dysgraphia | dyskariosis | | dyskinesia | dyslalia | dyslexia | dyslogia | dysmaturity | dysbasia skin, long fingernails and toenails and relatively little body fat dysmenorrhoea / dismen ri / noun pain experienced at menstruation dysostosis / diss tsis/ noun unusual formation of bones dyspareunia / disp ru ni/ noun difficult or painful sexual intercourse in a woman dyspepsia /dis pepsi/ noun a condition in which a person feels pains or discomfort in the stomach, caused by indigestion dysphagia /dis feid i/ noun difficulty in swallowing dysphasia /dis feizi/ noun difficulty in speaking and putting words into the correct order dysphemia /dis fi mi/ noun same as stamdysmenorrhoea | dysostosis | dyspareunia | dyspepsia | dysphagia | dysphasia | dysphemia | mering dysphonia /dis fni/ noun difficulty in speaking caused by impairment of the vocal cords, or by laryngitis dysplasia /dis pleizi/ noun an unusual development of tissue dyspnoea /disp ni / noun difficulty or pain in breathing dyspnoeic /disp ni ik/ adjective difficult or painful when breathing dyspraxia /dis pr ksi/ noun difficulty in carrying out coordinated movements dysrhythmia /dis rimi/ noun an unusual rhythm, either in speaking or in electrical impulses in the brain dyssocial /dis s()l/ adjective same as | dysplasia | dyspnoea | dyspnoeic | dyspraxia | dysrhythmia | dyssocial | dysphonia antisocial dyssynergia dyssynergia / disi n d i/ noun same as | asynergia dystaxia dystaxia /dis t ksi/ noun an inability to coordinate the muscles dystocia /dis tsi/ noun difficult childbirth dystonia /dis tni/ noun disordered muscle tone, causing involuntary contractions which make the limbs deformed dystrophia /dis trfi/ noun the wasting of an organ, muscle or tissue due to lack of nutrients in that part of the body. Also called dystrophy dystrophia adiposogenitalis /dis trfi di psd eni teilis/ noun same as Frh| dystocia | dystonia | dystrophia | dystrophia adiposogenitalis | | | lichs syndrome dystrophy dystrophy / distrfi/ noun same as dystrophia dysuria /dis jri/ noun difficulty in passing urine dysuria | Nursing.fm Page 89 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM E ear /i/ noun an organ on the side of the head which is used for hearing (NOTE: For other terms referring to ears, see auricular and words beginning with ot-, oto-.) Ear, Nose & Throat ear ECG Ear, Nose & Throat / i nz n rt/ noun the study of the ear, nose and throat. Abbreviation ENT. Also called otorhinolarngology earache earache / ireik/ noun pain in the ear. Also called otalgia ear canal / i k n l/ noun one of several passages in or connected to the ear, especially the external auditory meatus, the passage from the outer ear to the eardrum eardrum / idr m/ noun the membrane at the end of the external auditory meatus leading from the outer ear, which vibrates with sound and passes the vibrations on to the ossicles in the middle ear. Also called myringa, tympanum (NOTE: ear canal | eardrum ECG abbreviation electrocardiogram echo- /ek/ prefix referring to sound echocardiogram / ek k di r m/ noun a record of heart movements made using ultrasound echocardiography / ekk di rfi/ noun the use of ultrasound to examine the heart echoencephalography / eken kef l rfi/ noun the use of ultrasound to examine the brain echography /e k rfi/ noun same as ultraechoechocardiogram | echocardiography | echoencephalography | | echography | sonography echovirus / ek vairs/ noun one of a group echovirus | For other terms referring to the eardrum, see words beginning with tympan-, tympano-.) of viruses which can be isolated from the intestine and which can cause serious illnesses such as aseptic meningitis, gastroenteritis and respiratory infection in small children. Compare reovirus eclampsia /i kl mpsi/ noun a serious condition of pregnant women at the end of pregnancy, caused by toxaemia, in which the woman has high blood pressure and may go into a coma. preeclampsia | early onset pre-eclampsia / li nset pri i kl mpsi/ noun pre-eclampsia which appears earlier than the 37th week of the pregnancy earwax / iw ks/ noun same as cerumen Ebola virus /i bl vairs/ noun a highly contagious virus found in West Africa. Patients who are affected with it vomit, have bloody diarrhoea and blood seeps through their skin. eburnation / i b nei()n/ noun the conversion of cartilage into a hard mass with a shiny surface like bone ecbolic /ek blik/ noun a substance which produces contraction of the uterus and so induces childbirth or abortion adjective causing contraction of the uterus ecchymosis / eki msis/ noun a dark area on the skin made by blood which has escaped into the tissues after a blow. Also called bruise, con| earwax Ebola virus | eburnation | ecbolic | ecchymosis | early onset pre-eclampsia eclampsia ecmnesia /ek ni zi/ noun a condition in which someone is not able to remember recent events, while remembering clearly events which happened some time ago E. coli / i klai/ noun same as Escherichia | E. coli ecmnesia coli economy class syndrome economy class syndrome /i knmi kl s sindrm/ noun same as deep-vein thrombo| sis (informal ) craseur craseur / eikr z / noun a surgical instrument, usually with a wire loop, used to cut a part or a growth off at its base ECT abbreviation electroconvulsive therapy ect- /ekt/ prefix same as ecto- (used before vow| ECT ect- els) ecto- tusion eccrine / ekrin/ adjective referring to a gland, especially a sweat gland, which does not disintegrate and remains intact during secretion. Also called merocrine eccyesis / eksai i sis/ noun same as ectopic eccyesis | eccrine ecto- /ekt/ prefix outside -ectomy /ektmi/ suffix referring to the removal of a part by surgical operation ectoparasite / ekt p rsait/ noun a parasite which lives on the skin. Compare endopara-ectomy ectoparasite | site ectopia pregnancy ectopia /ek tpi/ noun a condition in which an organ or part of the body is not in its usual position | Nursing.fm Page 90 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ectopic 90 | ectopic /ek tpik/ adjective not in the usual position. Opposite entopic ectopic heartbeat /ek tpik h tbi t/ noun an unusual extra beat of the heart which originates from a point other than the sinoatrial node. Also called extrasystole, premature beat ectopic pacemaker /ek tpik peismeik/ noun an unusual focus of the heart muscle which takes the place of the sinoatrial node ectopic pregnancy /ek tpik pre nnsi/ noun a pregnancy where the fetus develops outside the uterus, often in one of the Fallopian tubes. Also called extrauterine pregnancy, eccyesis ectro- /ektr/ prefix referring to a usually congenital absence or lack of something ectrodactyly / ektr d ktili/ noun a congenital absence of all or part of a finger ectromelia / ektr mi li/ noun a congenital absence of one or more limbs ectropion /ek trpin/ noun a turning of the edge of an eyelid outwards. eversion eczema / eksim/ noun a non-contagious inflammation of the skin, with an itchy rash and blisters eczematous /ek semts/ adjective referring to eczema eczematous dermatitis /ek semts d m taitis/ noun an itchy inflammation or irritation of the skin due to an allergic reaction to a substance which a person has touched or absorbed EDD abbreviation expected date of delivery edentulous /i dentjls/ adjective having lost all teeth EDTA / i di ti ei/ noun a colourless chemical that can bind to heavy metals to remove them from the bloodstream. Full form ethylene ectopic heartbeat | ectopic pacemaker | ectopic pregnancy | ectroectrodactyly | ectromelia | ectropion | eczema eczematous | eczematous dermatitis | | EDD edentulous | EDTA ectopic effleurage / efl r / noun a form of massage where the skin is stroked in one direction to increase blood flow effort syndrome / eft sindrm/ noun same as disordered action of the heart effusion /i fju ()n/ noun a discharge of blood, fluid or pus into or out of an internal cavity egg /e / noun a reproductive cell produced in the female body by an ovary, and which, if fertilised by the male sperm, becomes an embryo ego / i / noun (in psychology) the part of the mind which is consciously in contact with the outside world and is influenced by experiences of the world EHO abbreviation Environmental Health Officer EIA abbreviation exercise-induced asthma Eisenmenger syndrome / aiznme sindrm/ noun heart disease caused by a septal defect between the ventricles, with pulmonary hypertension [Described 1897. After Victor | effort syndrome effusion | egg ego EHO EIA Eisenmenger syndrome effleurage Eisenmenger (18641932), German physician.] diamine tetra-acetate Edwards syndrome / edwdz sindrm/ noun a severe genetic disorder that results in malformations of the brain, kidney, heart, hands and feet. It is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 18 and those people who have it usually die within six months. EEG abbreviation electroencephalogram EFA abbreviation essential fatty acid effacement /i feismnt/ noun the thinning of the cervix before it dilates in childbirth effective dose /i fektiv ds/ noun a size of dose which will produce the effect required effector /i fekt/ noun a nerve ending in muscles or glands which is activated to produce contraction or secretion efferent / efrnt/ adjective carrying something away from part of the body or from the centre. Opposite afferent efferent nerve / efrnt n v/ noun same as EEG EFA effacement | effective dose | effector | efferent efferent nerve Edwards syndrome motor nerve ejaculate /i d kjleit/ verb to send out semen from the penis ejaculation /i d kj lei()n/ noun the sending out of semen from the penis ejaculatio praecox /id kj leii pri kks/ noun a situation where a man ejaculates too early during sexual intercourse ejaculatory duct /i d kjltri d kt/ noun one of two ducts leading from the seminal vesicles through the prostate gland to the urethra. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement elastic cartilage /i l stik k tlid / noun flexible cartilage, e.g. in the ear and epiglottis elastic fibre /i l stik faib/ noun fibre which can expand easily and is found in elastic cartilage, the skin and the walls of arteries and the lungs. Also called yellow fibre elastic tissue /i l stik tiu / noun connective tissue which contains elastic fibres, e.g. in the walls of arteries or of the alveoli in the lungs elastin /i l stin/ noun a protein which occurs in elastic fibres elation /i lei()n/ noun the state of being happy, stimulated and excited elbow / elb/ noun a hinged joint where the upper arm bone (humerus) joins the forearm bones (radius and ulna) elbow crutch / elb kr t/ noun a crutch which surrounds the arms at the elbows and has a handle to hold lower down the shaft elective care /i lektiv ke/ noun hospital care which is planned in advance, rather than a response to an emergency elective surgery /i lektiv s d ri/, elective treatment /i lektiv tri tmnt/ noun surgery or | ejaculation | | ejaculatio praecox | ejaculatory duct | elastic cartilage | elastic fibre | elastic tissue | elastin | elation | elbow elbow crutch elective care | elective surgery | | ejaculate Nursing.fm Page 91 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 91 treatment which a patient can choose to have but is not urgently necessary to save his or her life electro- /i lektr/ prefix referring to electricity electrocardiogram /i lektr k di r m/ noun a chart which records the electrical impulses in the heart muscle. Abbreviation ECG, EKG electrocardiograph /i lektr k di r f/ noun an apparatus for measuring and recording the electrical impulses of the muscles of the heart as it beats electrocardiography /i lektrk di rfi/ noun the process of recording the electrical impulses of the heart electrocardiophonography /i lektrk dif n rfi/ noun the process of electrically recording the sounds of the heartbeats electrocautery /i lektr k tri/ noun same as galvanocautery electroconvulsive therapy /i lektrkn v lsiv erpi/ noun the treatment of severe depression and some mental disorders by giving someone who has been anaesthetised small electric shocks in the brain to make him or her have convulsions. Abbreviation ECT. Also called elecelectro| electrocardiogram | | electrocardiograph | | electrocardiography | | electrocardiophonography | | electrocautery | | electroconvulsive therapy | | embolus paralysis by using low-frequency electric current to try to revive the muscles element / elimnt/ noun a basic simple chemical substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances. trace element elephantiasis / elifn taisis/ noun a condition in which parts of the body swell and the skin becomes hardened, frequently caused by infestation with various species of the parasitic worm Filaria elevate / eliveit/ verb to raise something or to lift something up To control bleeding, apply pressure and elevate the part. elevation sling / eli vei()n sli/ noun a sling tied round the neck, used to hold an injured hand or arm in a high position to control bleeding elevator / eliveit/ noun 1. a muscle which raises part of the body 2. a surgical instrument used to lift part of a broken bone elimination /i limi nei()n/ noun the removal of waste matter from the body elimination diet /i limi nei()n dait/ noun a structured diet where different foods are eliminated one at a time in order to see the effect on symptoms, used in conditions such as allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ELISA /i laiz/ noun a process in which an enzyme binds to an antibody or antigen and causes a colour change that shows the presence or amount of protein in a sample of biological material. Full form enzyme-linked immunosorbent element elephantiasis | elevate elevation sling | elevator elimination | | elimination diet | | ELISA | troplexy electrode /i lektrd/ noun the conductor of an electrical apparatus which touches the body and carries an electric shock electroencephalogram /i lektrin sefl r m/ noun a chart on which the electrical impulses in the brainare recorded. Abbreviation EEG electroencephalograph /i lektrin sefl r f/ noun an apparatus which records the electrical impulses in the brain electroencephalography /i lektrinsef l rfi/ noun the process of recording the electrical impulses in the brain electrolysis /i lek trlsis/ noun the destruction of tissue such as unwanted hair by applying an electric current electrophoresis /i lektrf ri sis/ noun the analysis of a substance by the movement of charged particles towards an electrode in a solution electroplexy /i lektrpleksi/ noun same as | electroencephalogram | | electroencephalograph | | electroencephalography | | electrolysis | | electrophoresis | | electroplexy | electrode assay elixir electroconvulsive therapy electroretinogram /i kektr retin r m/ noun the printed result of electroretinography. Abbreviation ERG electroretinography /i lektrreti n rfi/ noun the process of recording electrical changes electroretinogram | | electroretinography | | in the retina when stimulated by light electrosurgery /i lektr s d ri/ noun an operation in which the surgeon uses an electrical current to cut or cauterise tissue electrotherapy /i lektr erpi/ noun the treatment of a disorder such as some forms of electrosurgery | | electrotherapy | | elixir /i liks/ noun a sweet liquid which hides the unpleasant taste of a drug elliptocytosis /i liptsai tsis/ noun a condition in which unusual oval-shaped red cells appear in the blood emaciation /i meisi ei()n/ noun 1. the fact of being extremely thin and underweight 2. the loss of body tissue emasculation /i m skj lei()n/ noun the removal of the penis embalm /im b m/ verb to preserve a dead body by using special antiseptic chemicals to prevent decay embolectomy / emb lektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a blood clot emboli / embli/ plural of embolus embolisation / emblai zei()n/, embolization noun the use of emboli inserted down a catheter into a blood vessel to treat internal bleeding embolism / embliz()m/ noun the blocking of an artery by a mass of material, usually a blood clot, preventing the flow of blood embolus / embls/ noun 1. a mass of material which blocks a blood vessel, e.g. a blood clot, air bubble or fat globule 2. material inserted into a | elliptocytosis | | emaciation | | emasculation | | embalm | embolectomy | emboli embolisation | embolism embolus Nursing.fm Page 92 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM embryo blood vessel down a catheter to treat internal bleeding (NOTE: The plural is emboli.) embryo / embri/ noun an unborn baby during the first eight weeks after conception (NOTE: After embryo 92 eight weeks, the unborn baby is called a fetus.) embryological / embri ld ik()l/ adjective embryological | referring to embryology embryology / embri ld i/ noun the study of the early stages of the development of an embryo embryonic / embri nik/ adjective referring to an embryo embryonic membrane / embrinik membrein/ noun one of the two layers around an embryo providing protection and food supply, i.e. the amnion and the chorion emergency /i m d nsi/ noun a situation where urgent immediate action has to be taken emesis / emsis/ noun same as vomiting emetic /i metik/ noun a substance which causes vomiting adjective causing vomiting eminence / eminns/ noun something which protrudes from a surface, e.g. a lump on a bone or swelling on the skin emissary vein / emisri vein/ noun a vein through the skull which connects the venous sinuses with the scalp veins emission /i mi()n/ noun a discharge or release of fluid emmetropia /emi trpi/ noun the correct focusing of light rays by the eye onto the retina giving normal vision. Compare ametropia emollient /i mlint/ noun a substance which soothes or smooths the skin, e.g. to prevent the development of eczema adjective smoothening emotion /i m()n/ noun a strong feeling empathy / empi/ noun the ability to understand the problems and feelings of another person emphysema / emfi si m/ noun a condition in which the walls of the alveoli of the lungs break down, reducing the surface available for gas exchange and resulting in a lower oxygen level in the blood and shortness of breath. It can be caused by smoking, living in a polluted environment, old age, asthma or whooping cough. empirical treatment /im pirik()l tri tmnt/ noun treatment which is based on symptoms and clinical experience rather than on a thorough knowledge of the cause of the disorder empowerment /im pamnt/ noun the act of giving someone authority and power to make decisions that will affect them empyema / empai i m/ noun the collection of pus in a cavity, especially in the pleural cavity. Also called pyothorax emulsion /i m ln/ noun a combination of liquids such as oil and water which do not usually mix EN abbreviation enrolled nurse embryology | embryonic | embryonic membrane emergency | emesis emetic | eminence emissary vein emission | emmetropia | emollient | emotion | empathy emphysema | empirical treatment | empowerment | empyema | emulsion | EN en- /en, in/ prefix 1. in, into 2. to provide with 3. to cause to be 4. to put into or cover with 5. to go into enalapril /e n lpril/ noun a drug used for the short-term management of high blood pressure enamel /i n m()l/ noun the hard white shiny outer covering of the crown of a tooth enarthrosis / en rsis/ noun a ball and socket joint, e.g. the hip joint encapsulated /in k psjleitid/ adjective enclosed in a capsule or in a sheath of tissue encefalin /en keflin/ noun another spelling of enalapril | enamel | enarthrosis | encapsulated | encefalin | en- encephalin encephal- encephal- /enkif l/ prefix same as encephalo- (used before vowels) encephala /en kefl/ plural of encephalon encephalin /en keflin/ noun a peptide produced in the brain which acts as a natural painkiller. endorphin encephalitis /en kef laitis, en sef laitis/ noun inflammation of the brain encephalo- /enkefl/ prefix referring to the brain encephalocele /en keflsi l/ noun a condition in which the brain protrudes through a congenital or traumatic gap in the skull bones encephalogram /en kefl r m/, encephalograph /en kefl r f/ noun an X-ray photograph of the ventricles and spaces of the brain taken after air has been injected into the cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture encephaloma /en kef lm/ noun a tumour of the brain encephalomyelitis /en keflmai laitis/ noun a group of diseases which cause inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord encephalomyelopathy /en keflmai lpi/ noun any condition where the brain and spinal cord are diseased encephalon /en kefln/ noun same as brain | encephalin | encephalitis | | | | encephaloencephalocele | encephalogram | | encephaloma | | encephalomyelitis | | encephalomyelopathy | | encephalon | encephala (NOTE: The plural is encephala.) encephalopathy /en kef lpi/ noun any encephalopathy | | disease of the brain enchondroma / enkn drm/ noun a tumour formed of cartilage growing inside a bone encopresis / enk pri sis/ noun faecal incontinence not associated with a physical condition or disease encysted /en sistid/ adjective enclosed in a capsule like a cyst end- /end/ prefix same as endo- (used before enchondroma | encopresis | encysted | end- vowels) endarterectomy endarterectomy / end t rektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the lining of a blocked artery. Also called rebore endarteritis / end t raitis/ noun inflammation of the inner lining of an artery | endarteritis | Nursing.fm Page 93 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 93 endothelial endogenous eczema endarteritis obliterans / end t raitis blitrnz/ noun a condition where inflammation in an artery is so severe that it blocks the artery endaural /end rl/ adjective inside the ear endemic /en demik/ adjective referring to any disease which is very common in specific places This disease is endemic to Mediterranean countries. endo- /end/ prefix inside endobronchial / end brkil/ adjective inside the bronchi endocardial / end k dil/ adjective referring to the endocardium endocardial pacemaker / endk dil peismeik/ noun a pacemaker attached to the lining of the heart endocarditis / endk daitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane lining of the heart endocardium / end k dim/ noun a membrane which lines the heart. See illustration at HEART in Supplement endocervicitis / ends vi saitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane in the neck of the uterus endocervix / end s viks/ noun a membrane which lines the neck of the uterus endochondral / end kndrl/ adjective inside a cartilage endocrine / endkrain/ adjective relating to the endocrine glands or the hormones they secrete endocrine gland / endkrain l nd/ noun a gland without a duct which produces hormones which are introduced directly into the bloodstream, e.g. the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the gonads. Also called ductless gland. Compare exocrine gland endocrine system / endkrain sistm/ noun a system of related ductless glands endocrinologist / endkri nld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of endocrinology endocrinology / endkri nld i/ noun the study of the endocrine system, its function and effects endoderm / endd m/ noun the inner of three layers surrounding an embryo. Also called | | endaural | endemic | endoendobronchial | endocardial | endocardial pacemaker endocarditis | endocardium | endocervicitis | endocervix | endochondral | endocrine endocrine gland endocrine system endocrinologist | endocrinology | endoderm endarteritis obliterans endogenous eczema /en dd ns eksim/ noun eczema which is caused by no obvious external factor endolymph / endlimf/ noun a fluid inside the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear endometrial / end mi tril/ adjective referring to the endometrium endometrial laser ablation / endmi tril leiz b lei()n/ noun a gynaecological surgical procedure using a laser to treat fibroids or other causes of thickening of the lining of the uterus endometriosis / endmi tri sis/ noun a condition affecting women, in which tissue similar to the tissue of the uterus is found in other parts of the body endometritis / endmi traitis/ noun inflammation of the lining of the uterus endometrium / end mi trim/ noun the mucous membrane lining the uterus, part of which is shed at each menstruation (NOTE: The | endolymph endometrial | endometrial laser ablation | endometriosis | endometritis | endometrium | plural is endometria.) entoderm endodermal endodermal / end d m()l/ adjective referring to the endoderm. Also called entoder| mal endogenous endogenous /en dd ns/ adjective developing or being caused by something inside an organism. Compare exogenous endogenous depression /en dd ns di pre()n/ noun depression caused by no obvious external factor | endogenous depression | | endomyocarditis / endmaik daitis/ noun inflammation of the muscle and inner membrane of the heart endomysium / end misim/ noun connective tissue around and between muscle fibres endoneurium / end njrim/ noun fibrous tissue between the individual fibres in a nerve endoparasite / end p rsait/ noun a parasite which lives inside its host, e.g. in the intestines. Compare ectoparasite endophthalmitis / endf l maitis/ noun inflammation of the interior of the eyeball endorphin /en d fin/ noun a peptide produced by the brain which acts as a natural painkiller. encephalin endoscope / endskp/ noun an instrument used to examine the inside of the body, made of a thin tube which is passed into the body down a passage. The tube has a fibre optic light, and may have small surgical instruments attached. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography / endskpik retr reid k l nd ip kri t rfi/ noun a method used to examine the pancreatic duct and bile duct for possible obstructions. Abbreviation ERCP endoscopy /en dskpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the body using an endoscope endoskeleton / end skelit()n/ noun the inner structure of bones and cartilage in an animal endosteum /en dstim/ noun a membrane lining the bone marrow cavity inside a long bone endothelial / end i lil/ adjective referring to the endothelium | endomysium | endoneurium | endoparasite | endophthalmitis | endorphin | endoscope endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography | | endoscopy | endoskeleton | endosteum | endothelial | endomyocarditis Nursing.fm Page 94 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM endothelioma 94 | endothelioma / endi li m/ noun a malignant tumour originating inside the endothelium endothelium / end i lim/ noun a membrane of special cells which lines the heart, the lymph vessels, the blood vessels and various body cavities. Compare epithelium, mesothelium endotoxin / end tksin/ noun a toxic substance released after the death of some bacterial cells endotracheal / end treikil/ adjective same as intratracheal endotracheal tube / end treikil tju b/ noun a tube passed down the trachea, through either the nose or mouth, in anaesthesia or to help a person breathe end plate / end pleit/ noun the end of a motor nerve, where it joins muscle fibre end stage renal disease / end steid ri n()l di zi z/ noun the stage of kidney disease at which uraemia occurs and dialysis needs to start. Abbreviation ESRD enema / enim/ noun a liquid substance put into the rectum to introduce a drug into the body, to wash out the colon before an operation or for diagnosis energy / end i/ noun the force or strength to carry out activities You need to eat certain types of food to give you energy. enervation / en vei()n/ noun 1. general nervous weakness 2. a surgical operation to remove a nerve engagement /in eid mnt/ noun (in obstetrics) the moment where part of the fetus, usually the head, enters the pelvis at the beginning of labour engorged /in d d/ adjective excessively filled with liquid, usually blood engorgement /in d mnt/ noun the excessive filling of a vessel, usually with blood enkephalin /en keflin/ noun US another spelling of encephalin enophthalmos / enf lms/ noun a condition in which the eyes are very deep in their sockets Enrolled Nurse /in rld n s/ noun secendothelium | endotoxin | endotracheal | endotracheal tube | end plate end stage renal disease | enema energy enervation | engagement | engorged | engorgement | enkephalin | enophthalmos | Enrolled Nurse | endothelioma infusion of liquid food directly into the intestine. Also called enteral nutrition enteralgia / entr ld / noun same as colic enterally / entrli/ adverb referring to a method of feeding a person by nasogastric tube or directly into the intestine enteral nutrition / entrl nju tri()n/ noun same as enteral feeding enteric /en terik/ adjective referring to the intestine enteric-coated /en terik ktid/ adjective referring to a capsule with a coating which prevents it from being digested and releasing the drug until it reaches the intestine enteritis / ent raitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the intestine entero- /entr/ prefix referring to the intestine Enterobacteria / entrb k tiri/ noun a family of Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia and Klebsiella enterobiasis / entr baisis/ noun a common childrens disease, caused by threadworms in the large intestine which cause itching round the anus. Also called oxyuriasis Enterobius / ent rbis/ noun a small thin nematode worm, one species of which, Enterobius vermicularis, infests the large intestine and causes itching round the anus. Also called enteralgia | enterally enteral nutrition | enteric | enteric-coated | enteritis | enteroEnterobacteria | enterobiasis | Enterobius | threadworm, pinworm enterocele / entrsi l/, enterocoele / entersi l/ noun a hernia of the intestine enterocolitis / entrk laitis/ noun inflamenterocele enterocolitis | ond-level nurse ensiform cartilage / ensif m k tlid / noun same as xiphoid process ENT abbreviation Ear, Nose & Throat ENT department / i en ti di p tmnt/ noun a department of otorhinolaryngology enter- /ent/ prefix same as entero- (used ENT ENT department | enter- ensiform cartilage before vowels) enteral / entrl/ adjective referring to the intestine. Compare parenteral enteral feeding / entrl fi di/ noun the enteral enteral feeding mation of the colon and small intestine enterolith / entrli/ noun a stone in the intestine enteron / entrn/ noun the whole intestinal tract enteropathy / ent rpi/ noun any disorder of the intestine. gluten-induced enteropathy enteroscope / entrskp/ noun an instrument for inspecting the inside of the intestine enterostomy / ent rstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the small intestine and the abdominal wall enterotomy / ent rtmi/ noun a surgical incision in the intestine enterotoxin / entr tksin/ noun a bacterial exotoxin which particularly affects the intestine enterovirus / entr vairs/ noun a virus which prefers to live in the intestine. Enteroviruses include poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie viruses and the echoviruses. entoderm / entd m/ noun same as endoenterolith enteron enteropathy | enteroscope enterostomy | enterotomy | enterotoxin | enterovirus | entoderm derm entodermal feeding of a person by a nasogastric tube or by the entodermal / ent d m()l/ adjective same as endodermal | Nursing.fm Page 95 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 95 epididymal epiblepharon Entonox / entnks/ noun a gas consisting of 50% oxygen and 50% nitrous oxide that is used as a painkiller during childbirth entopic /in tpik/ adjective located or taking place in the usual position. Opposite ectopic entropion /in trpin/ noun a turning of the edge of the eyelid towards the inside enucleation /i nju kli ei()n/ noun the surgical removal of all of a tumour enuresis / enj ri sis/ noun the involuntary passing of urine enuretic / enj retik/ adjective referring to enuresis, or causing enuresis environment /in vairnmnt/ noun the conditions and influences under which an organism lives environmental /in vairn ment()l/ adjective referring to the environment Environmental Health Officer /in vairnment()l hel fis/ noun an official of a local authority who examines the environment and tests for air pollution, bad sanitation, noise pollution and similar threats to public health. Abbreviation EHO enzyme / enzaim/ noun a protein substance produced by living cells which aids a biochemical reaction in the body (NOTE: The names of entopic | entropion | enucleation | | enuresis | enuretic | environment | environmental | | Environmental Health Officer | enzyme Entonox epiblepharon / epi blefrn/ noun an unusual fold of skin over the eyelid, which may press the eyelashes against the eyeball epicanthus / epi k ns/, epicanthic fold / epik nik fld/ noun a large fold of skin in the inner corner of the eye, common in babies and also found in adults of some groups such as the Chinese epicardial / epi k dil/ adjective referring to the epicardium epicardial pacemaker / epik dil peismeik/ noun a pacemaker attached to the surface of the ventricle epicardium / epi k dim/ noun the inner layer of the pericardium which lines the walls of the heart, outside the myocardium. See illustration at HEART in Supplement epicondyle / epi kndail/ noun a projecting part of the round end of a bone above the condyle epicondylitis / epikndi laitis/ noun same as | epicanthus | epicardial | epicardial pacemaker epicardium | epicondyle | epicondylitis | tennis elbow enzymes mostly end with the suffix -ase.) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay / enzaim likt imjn s bnt sei/ noun full form of ELISA eonism / i niz()m/ noun cross-dressing, when a male wears female dress eosin / i sin/ noun a red crystalline solid used as a biological staining dye eosinopenia / i sin pi ni/ noun a reduction in the number of eosinophils in the blood eosinophil / i sinfil/ noun a type of cell that can be stained with eosin eosinophilia / i sin fili/ noun an excess of eosinophils in the blood ependyma /i pendim/ noun a thin membrane which lines the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord ependymal /i pendim()l/ adjective referring to the ependyma ependymal cell /i pendim()l sel/ noun one of the cells which form the ependyma ependymoma /i pendi mm/ noun a tumour in the brain originating in the ependyma ephedrine / efidri n/ noun a drug that relieves asthma and blocked noses by causing the air passages to widen ephidrosis / efi drsis/ noun an unusual amount of sweat epi- /epi/ prefix on or over | eonism eosin eosinopenia | eosinophil | eosinophilia | ependyma | ependymal | ependymal cell | ependymoma | | ephedrine ephidrosis | epi- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay epicranium / epi kreinim/ noun the five layers of the scalp, the skin and hair on the head covering the skull epicritic / epi kritik/ adjective referring to the nerves which govern the fine senses of touch and temperature epidemic / epi demik/ adjective spreading quickly through a large part of the population The disease rapidly reached epidemic proportions. noun an outbreak of an infectious disease which spreads very quickly and affects a large number of people epidemiologist / epi di mi ld ist/ noun a person who specialises in the study of diseases in groups of people epidemiology / epi di mi ld i/ noun the study of diseases in the community, in particular how they spread and how they can be controlled epidermal / epi d m()l/ adjective referring to the epidermis epidermis / epi d mis/ noun the outer layer of the skin, including the dead skin on the surface. Also called cuticle epidermoid cyst / epid mid sist/ noun same as sebaceous cyst epidermolysis / epid mlsis/ noun separation of the epidermis from the tissue underneath, usually forming a blister epidermolysis bullosa / epid mlsis b ls/ noun a group of disorders where blisters form on the skin Epidermophyton / epid mfitn/ noun a fungus which grows on the skin and causes athletes foot, among other disorders epididymal / epi didim()l/ adjective referring to the epididymis | epicritic | epidemic | epidemiologist | | epidemiology | | epidermal | epidermis | epidermoid cyst epidermolysis | epidermolysis bullosa | | Epidermophyton | epididymal | epicranium Nursing.fm Page 96 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM epididymectomy 96 | epididymectomy / epididi mektmi/ noun the removal of the epididymis epididymis / epi didimis/ noun a long twisting thin tube at the back of the testis, which forms part of the efferent duct of the testis, and in which spermatozoa are stored before ejaculation. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement epididymitis / epididi maitis/ noun inflammation of the epididymis epididymo-orchitis /epi didim kaitis/ noun inflammation of the epididymis and the testes epidural / epi djrl/ adjective on the outside of the dura mater. Also called extradural noun same as epidural anaesthesia epidural anaesthesia /epi djrl ns i zi/ noun a local anaesthesia in which anaesthetic is injected into the space between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epidural block / epidjrl blk/ noun analgesia produced by injecting an analgesic solution into the space between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epidural space / epidjrl speis/ noun a space in the spinal cord between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epigastric / epi strik/ adjective referring to the upper abdomen The patient complained of pains in the epigastric area. epigastrium / epi strim/ noun the part of the upper abdomen between the ribcage and the navel. Also called the pit of the stomach epiglottis / epi ltis/ noun a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue which moves to block the windpipe when food is swallowed, so that the food does not go down the trachea epiglottitis / epi l taitis/ noun inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis epilation / epi lei()n/ noun the process of removing hair by destroying the hair follicles epilepsy / epilepsi/ noun a disorder of the nervous system in which there are convulsions and loss of consciousness due to a disordered discharge of cerebral neurones epileptic / epi leptik/ adjective having epilepsy, or relating to epilepsy noun a person with epilepsy (NOTE: The word epileptic to epididymis | epididymitis | epididymo-orchitis | | epidural | epidural anaesthesia | | epidural block epidural space epigastric | epigastrium | epiglottis | epiglottitis | epilation | epilepsy epileptic | epididymectomy epimenorrhagia / epimen reid / noun very heavy bleeding during menstruation occurring at very short intervals epimenorrhoea / epimen ri / noun menstruation at shorter intervals than twenty-eight days epiphora /e pifr/ noun a condition in which the eye fills with tears either because the lacrimal duct is blocked or because excessive tears are being secreted epiphyseal / epi fizil/ adjective referring to an epiphysis epiphysis /e pifsis/ noun the area of growth in a bone which is separated from the main part of the bone by cartilage until bone growth stops. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement. Compare diaphysis, metaphysis epiplo- /epipl/ prefix referring to the omentum epiploon /e pipln/ noun same as omentum episclera / episklir/ noun the outer surface of the sclera of the eyeball episcleritis / episkl raitis/ noun inflammation of the outer surface of the sclera in the eyeball episi- /pizi/, episio- /pizi/ prefix referring to the vulva episiorrhaphy / pizi rfi/ noun a procedure for stitching torn labia majora episiotomy / pizi tmi/ noun a surgical cut of the perineum near the vagina to prevent tearing during childbirth episodic / epi sdik/ adjective happening in separate but related incidents, e.g. asthma which occurs in separate attacks epispadias / epi speidis/ noun a congenital condition where the urethra opens on the top of the penis and not at the end. Compare hypospa| epimenorrhoea | epiphora | epiphyseal | epiphysis | epiploepiploon | episclera episcleritis | episiepisiorrhaphy | | episiotomy | | episodic | epispadias | epimenorrhagia dias epistaxis epistaxis / epi st ksis/ noun same as nose| bleed describe a person is now avoided.) epileptic fit / epileptik fit/ noun an attack of epileptic fit convulsions, and sometimes unconsciousness, due to epilepsy epileptiform / epi leptif m/ adjective being similar to epilepsy epiloia / epi li/ noun a hereditary disease of the brain associated with learning disabilities, epilepsy and tumours on the kidney and heart. Also called tuberose sclerosis epileptiform | epiloia | epithelial / epi i lil/ adjective referring to the epithelium epithelialisation / epi i lilai zei()n/, epithelialization noun the growth of skin over a wound epithelioma /epii li m/ noun a tumour arising from epithelial cells epithelium / epi i lim/ noun the layer or layers of cells covering an organ, including the skin and the lining of all hollow cavities except blood vessels, lymphatics and serous cavities. Compare | epithelialisation | | | epithelioma | epithelium | epithelial endothelium, mesothelium EpsteinBarr virus / epstain b vairs/ noun a virus which probably causes glandular fever. Also called EB virus [Isolated and described 1964. After Michael Anthony Epstein (b. 1921), Bristol pathologist; Murray Llewellyn EpsteinBarr virus Nursing.fm Page 97 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 97 Barr (190895), Canadian anatomist and cytologist, head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.] erythema | erythrogenesis epulis /i pju lis/ noun a small fibrous swelling on a gum equi- /i kwi, ekwi/ prefix equal equilibrium / i kwi librim/ noun a state of balance ER abbreviation 1. US emergency room 2. endoplasmic reticulum Erbs palsy / bz p lzi/, Erbs paralysis / bz p r lsis/ noun a condition in which an arm is paralysed because of birth injuries to the brachial plexus. Bells palsy ERCP abbreviation endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography erectile /i rektail/ adjective able to become erect erectile dysfunction /i rektail dis f kn/ noun a condition in which a man finds it difficult or impossible to have or maintain an erection during intercourse erection /i rekn/ noun a state where a body part such as the penis becomes swollen because of engorgement with blood erector /i rekt/ noun a small muscle which raises a body part erector spinae /i rekt spaini / noun a large muscle starting at the base of the spine, and dividing as it runs up the spine ERG abbreviation electroretinogram ergonomics / nmiks/ noun the study of humans at work ergot / t/ noun a disease of rye caused by the fungus Clariceps purpurea ergotamine / tmi n/ noun a drug that causes narrowing of blood vessels and alleviates migraine, derived from the ergot fungus ergotism / tiz()m/ noun poisoning caused by eating rye which has been contaminated with the ergot fungus erogenous /i rd ns/ adjective producing sexual excitement erogenous zone /i rd ns zn/ noun a part of the body which, if stimulated, produces sexual arousal, e.g. the penis, clitoris or nipples erotic /i rtik/ adjective relating to or arousing the feeling of sexual desire ERPC abbreviation evacuation of retained products of conception eructation / i r k tei()n/ noun same as | equiequilibrium | ER Erbs palsy | ERCP erectile | erectile dysfunction | | erection | erector | erector spinae | ERG ergonomics | ergot ergotamine | ergotism erogenous | erogenous zone | erotic | ERPC eructation | epulis erythema / eri i m/ noun redness on the skin, caused by hyperaemia of the blood vessels near the surface erythema ab igne / erii m b i nei/ noun a pattern of red lines on the skin caused by exposure to heat erythema induratum / erii m indj reitm/ noun a tubercular disease where ulcerating nodules appear on the legs of young women. Also called Bazins disease erythema multiforme / erii m m ltif mi/ noun the sudden appearance of inflammatory red patches and sometimes blisters on the skin erythema nodosum / erii m n dsm/ noun an inflammatory disease where red swellings appear on the front of the legs erythema pernio / erii m p ni/ noun same as chilblain erythematous / eri i mts/ adjective referring to erythema erythr- /erir/ prefix same as erythro- (used erythema ab igne erythema induratum | erythema multiforme erythema nodosum | erythema pernio erythematous | erythr- before vowels) belching eruption erythrasma / eri r zm/ noun a persistent bacterial skin infection occurring in a fold in the skin or where two skin surfaces touch, such as between the toes. It is caused by Corynebacterium. erythro- /irir/ prefix red erythroblast /i rirbl st/ noun a cell which forms an erythrocyte or red blood cell erythroblastosis /i rirbl stsis/ noun the presence of erythroblasts in the blood, usually found in haemolytic anaemia erythroblastosis fetalis /i rirbl stsis fi t lis/ noun a blood disease affecting newborn babies, caused by a reaction between the rhesus factor of the mother and the fetus erythrocyte /i rirsait/ noun a mature red blood cell erythrocyte sedimentation rate /i rirsait sedimen tei()n reit/ noun a test that measures how fast erythrocytes settle in a sample of blood plasma, used to confirm whether various blood conditions are present. Abbreviation ESR erythrocytosis /i rirsai tsis/ noun an increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood erythroderma /i rir d m/ noun a condition in which the skin becomes red and flakes off erythroedema /i riri di m/ noun same as | erythroerythroblast | erythroblastosis | | erythroblastosis fetalis | | | | erythrocyte | erythrocyte sedimentation rate | | erythrocytosis | | erythroderma | | erythroedema | | erythrasma acrodynia erythrogenesis | eruption /i r pn/ noun something which breaks through the skin, e.g. a rash or pimple ery- /eri/ prefix same as erythroery- erythrogenesis /i rir d ensis/, erythropoiesis /i rirpi i sis/ noun the formation of red blood cells in red bone marrow | | | | Nursing.fm Page 98 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM erythropenia 98 | | erythropenia /i rir pi ni/ noun a condition in which a person has a low number of erythrocytes in their blood erythroplasia /i rir pleizi/ noun the formation of lesions on the mucous membrane erythropoiesis /i rirpi i sis/ noun same as erythroplasia | | erythropoiesis | | erythropenia erythrogenesis erythropoietin /i rir pitin/ noun a hormone which regulates the production of red blood cells erythropsia / eri rpsi/ noun a condition in which someone sees things as if coloured red eschar / esk / noun a dry scab, e.g. one forming on a burn Escherichia / e riki/ noun a bacterium commonly found in faeces Escherichia coli /e riki klai/ noun a Gram-negative bacterium associated with acute gastroenteritis. Also called E. coli Esmarchs bandage / esm ks b ndid / noun a rubber band wrapped round a limb as a tourniquet before a surgical operation and left in place during the operation so as to keep the site free of blood [Described 1869. After Johann | | erythropsia | eschar Escherichia | Escherichia coli | Esmarchs bandage erythropoietin Friedrich August von Esmarch (18231908), Professor of Surgery at Kiel, Germany.] esotropia /es trpi/ noun a type of squint, esotropia | where the eyes both look towards the nose. Also called convergent strabismus ESR abbreviation erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESRD abbreviation end-stage renal disease essence / es()ns/ noun a concentrated oil from a plant, used in cosmetics, and sometimes as analgesics or antiseptics essential amino acid /i senl mi n sid/ noun an amino acid which is necessary for growth but which cannot be synthesised in the body and has to be obtained from the food supply ESR ESRD essence essential amino acid | | COMMENT: The essential amino acids are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. essential element /i senl elimnt/ noun a essential element | essential uterine haemorrhage /i senl ju train hem()rid / noun heavy uterine bleeding for which there is no obvious cause ethambutol /i mbjtl/ noun a drug that is part of the treatment for bacterial infections such as tuberculosis ethanol / enl/ noun a colourless liquid, present in alcoholic drinks such as whisky, gin and vodka, and also used in medicines and as a disinfectant. Also called ethyl alcohol ethene / i i n/ noun same as ethylene ether / i / noun an anaesthetic substance, now rarely used ethical / eik()l/ adjective concerning ethics ethical committee / eik()l k miti/ noun a group of specialists who monitor experiments involving human beings or who regulate the way in which members of the medical profession conduct themselves ethics / eiks/ noun medical ethics ethinyloestradiol / ein()l i str dail/ noun an artificial hormone related to oestrogen that is effective in small doses. It forms part of hormone replacement therapy. ethmoid /e mid/, ethmoidal /e mid()l/ adjective referring to the ethmoid bone or near to the ethmoid bone ethmoidal sinuses /e mid()l sainsiz/ plural noun air cells inside the ethmoid bone ethmoid bone / emid bn/ noun a bone which forms the top of the nasal cavity and part of the orbits ethmoidectomy / emi dektmi/ noun an operation to remove the lining between the sinuses ethmoiditis / emi daitis/ noun inflammation of the ethmoid bone or of the ethmoidal sinuses ethnic / enik/ adjective relating to a culturally or racially distinctive group of people ethyl alcohol / iail lkhl/ noun same as | ethambutol | ethanol ethene ether ethical ethical committee | ethics ethinyloestradiol | | ethmoid | | ethmoidal sinuses | ethmoid bone ethmoidectomy | ethmoiditis | ethnic ethyl alcohol essential uterine haemorrhage chemical element which is necessary to the bodys growth or function, e.g. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen essential fatty acid /i senl f ti sid/ noun an unsaturated fatty acid which is necessary for growth and health. Abbreviation EFA essential fatty acid | ethanol ethylene ethylene / eli n/ noun a gas used as an anaesthetic ethylestrenol / e()l estrnl/ noun an anabolic steroid etiology / i ti ld i/ noun US same as aetiolethylestrenol | etiology | COMMENT: The essential fatty acids are lino- ogy eucalyptus | leic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. essential hypertension essential hypertension /i senl haip tenn/ noun high blood pressure without any obvious cause essential oil /i senl il/ noun a medicinal or fragrant oil distilled from some part of a plant essential tremor /i senl trem/ noun an involuntary slow trembling movement of the hands often seen in elderly people | essential oil | essential tremor | eucalyptus / ju k lipts/ noun a genus of tree growing mainly in Australia, from which a strongly smelling oil is distilled eucalyptus oil / ju k lipts il/ noun an aromatic medicinal oil distilled from the leaves of various species of tree in the genus Eucalyptus eugenics /ju d eniks/ noun the study of how to improve the human race by genetic selection eunuch / ju nk/ noun a castrated male | eucalyptus oil | eugenics | eunuch Nursing.fm Page 99 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 99 exenteration euphoria /ju f ri/ noun a feeling of extreme happiness Eustachian canal /ju stei()n k n l/ noun a passage through the porous bone forming the outside part of the Eustachian tube Eustachian tube /ju stei()n tju b/ noun the tube which connects the pharynx to the middle ear. See illustration at EAR in Supplement | Eustachian canal | | Eustachian tube | euphoria evulsion /i v ln/ noun the act of extracting something by force Ewings tumour / ju iz tju m/, Ewings sarcoma / ju iz s km/ noun a malignant tumour in the marrow of a long bone [Described | Ewings tumour | evulsion [Described 1562, but actually named after Eustachio by Valsalva a century later. Bartolomeo Eustachio (152074), physician to the Pope and Professor of Anatomy in Rome.] euthanasia 1922. After James Ewing (18661943), Professor of Pathology at Cornell University, New York, USA.] EWS / i d b()lju es/ noun an early warning EWS euthanasia / ju neizi/ noun the painless killing of an incurably ill person or someone in a permanent coma in order to end their distress. Also called mercy killing (NOTE: This practice is | system designed to alert healthcare professionals to new developments in technologies, pharmaceuticals and treatments ex- /eks/ prefix same as exo- (used before vowex- els) illegal in most countries.) euthyroid /ju airid/ noun a condition where the thyroid is functioning normally evacuant /i v kjunt/ noun a medicine which makes a person have a bowel movement evacuation /i v kju ei()n/ noun the act of removing the contents of something, especially discharging faeces from the bowel evacuation of retained products of conception /iv kju ei()n v ri teind prd kts v kn sepn/ noun a D & C operation performed after an abortion or miscarriage to ensure the uterus is left empty. Abbreviation | evacuant | evacuation | | evacuation of retained products of conception | | | euthyroid ERPC evaluation /i v lju ei()n/ noun the act of examining and calculating the quantity or level of something In further evaluation of these patients no side-effects of the treatment were noted. eventration / i ven trei()n/ noun the pushing of the intestine through the wall of the abdomen eversion /i v ()n/ noun the act of turning towards the outside or turning inside out. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement evertor /i v t/ noun a muscle which makes a limb turn outwards evidence-based / evid()ns beist/ adjective based on the results of well-designed trials of specific types of treatment for specific conditions evidence-based practice evidence-based medicine / evid()ns beist med()sin/ noun medical practice where findings from research are used as the basis for decisions evisceration /i vis rei()n/ noun the surgical removal of the abdominal viscera. Also called | | eventration | eversion | evertor | evidence-based evidence-based medicine evisceration | | evaluation exacerbation /i z s bei()n/ noun 1. the fact of making a condition worse 2. a period when a condition becomes worse exanthem /i z nm/ noun a skin rash found with infectious diseases like measles or chickenpox exanthematous / eks n emts/ adjective referring to an exanthem or like an exanthem exception /ik sepn/ noun 1. something that does not fit into or is excluded from a general rule or pattern 2. the act or condition of being excluded exchange transfusion /iks teind tr ns fju ()n/ noun a method of treating leukaemia or erythroblastosis in newborn babies, where almost all the blood is removed from the body and replaced with healthy blood excise /ik saiz/ verb to cut something out excision /ik si ()n/ noun an operation by a surgeon to cut and remove part of the body such as a growth. Compare incision excitation / eksi tei()n/ noun the state of being mentally or physically aroused excite /ik sait/ verb 1. to stimulate someone or something 2. to give an impulse to a nerve or muscle excoriation /iks k ri ei()n/ noun a raw skin surface or mucous membrane after rubbing or burning excrement / ekskrimnt/ noun same as fae| | exanthem | exanthematous | exception | exchange transfusion | | excise | excision | excitation | excite | excoriation | | excrement exacerbation ces excrescence exenteration evolution evolution / i v lu ()n/ noun a process of change in organisms which takes place over a very long period involving many generations | excrescence /ik skres()ns/ noun a growth on the skin excreta /ik skri t/ plural noun waste material from the body, especially faeces excretion /ik skri ()n/ noun the act of passing waste matter, e.g. faeces, urine or sweat, out of the body excruciating /ik skru ieiti/ adjective extremely painful He had excruciating pains in his head. exenteration /ek sent rei()n/ noun same as evisceration | excreta | excretion | excruciating | exenteration | | Nursing.fm Page 100 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM exercise exercise 100 exercise / ekssaiz/ noun 1. physical or mental activity, especially the active use of the muscles as a way of keeping fit, correcting a deformity or strengthening a part Regular exercise is good for your heart. He doesnt do or take enough exercise. 2. a particular movement or action designed to use and strengthen the muscles verb to take exercise, or exert part of the body in exercise He exercises twice a day to keep fit. exercise-induced asthma / ekssaiz in dju st sm/ noun asthma which is caused by exercise such as running or cycling. Abbreviation exercise-induced asthma | EIA exfoliation /eks fli ei()n/ noun the loss of layers of tissue such as sunburnt skin exfoliative /eks flieitiv/ adjective referring to exfoliation exfoliative dermatitis /eks flitiv d m taitis/ noun a typical form of dermatitis where the skin becomes red and comes off in flakes exhalation / eksh lei()n/ noun the act of breathing out. Opposite inhalation exhale /eks heil/ verb to breathe out. Opposite | | exfoliative | exfoliative dermatitis | exhalation | exhale | exfoliation | inhale exhibitionism / eksi bi()niz()m/ noun a desire to show the genitals to a person of the opposite sex exo- /eks/ prefix out of, outside exocrine gland / ekskrain l nd/ noun a gland with ducts which channel secretions to particular parts of the body such as the liver, the sweat glands, the pancreas and the salivary glands. Compare endocrine gland exogenous /ek sd ns/ adjective developing or caused by something outside the organism. Compare endogenous exomphalos /ek smfls/ noun same as | exoexocrine gland exogenous | exomphalos | exhibitionism umbilical hernia exophthalmic goitre / eksf lmik it/ noun a form of hyperthyroidism, in which the neck swells and the eyes protrude. Also called Graves disease exophthalmos exophthalmic goitre exophthalmos / eksf lms/ noun protruding eyeballs exostosis / eks stsis/ noun a benign growth on the surface of a bone exotic /i ztik/ adjective referring to a disease which occurs in a foreign country exotoxin / eks tksin/ noun a poison, produced by bacteria, which affects parts of the body away from the place of infection, e.g. the toxins which cause botulism or tetanus exotropia / eks trpi/ noun same as | exostosis | exotic | exotoxin | exotropia | expectoration /ik spekt rei()n/ noun the act of coughing up fluid or phlegm from the respiratory tract experiential learning /ik spirienl l ni/ noun the process of learning from experience expert patient / eksp t pei()nt/ noun a patient with a long-term illness who has been taught how to manage his or her own medical care expiration / eksp rei()n/ noun 1. the act of breathing out, or pushing air out of the lungs Expiration takes place when the chest muscles relax and the lungs become smaller. Opposite inspiration 2. death expire /ik spai/ verb 1. to breathe out 2. to die exploration / ekspl rei()n/ noun a procedure or surgical operation where the aim is to discover the cause of symptoms or the nature and extent of an illness exploratory surgery /ik splrt()ri s d ri/ noun a surgical operation in which the aim is to discover the cause of a persons symptoms or the nature and extent of an illness expression /ik spre()n/ noun 1. the look on a persons face which shows what he or she thinks and feels His expression showed that he was annoyed. 2. the act of pushing something out of the body the expression of the fetus and placenta during childbirth exsanguinate /ik s wineit/ verb to drain blood from the body exsanguination /ik s wi nei()n/ noun the removal of blood from the body extension /ik stenn/ noun 1. the stretching or straightening out of a joint 2. the stretching of a joint by traction extensor /ik stens/, extensor muscle /ik stens m s()l/ noun a muscle which makes a joint become straight. Compare flexor exterior /ik stiri/ noun the outside of something externa /ik st n/ otitis external cardiac massage /ik st n()l k di k m s / noun a method of making someones heart start beating again by rhythmic pressing on the breastbone external ear /ik st n()l i/ noun same as | | experiential learning | expert patient expiration | expire | exploration | exploratory surgery | expression | exsanguinate | exsanguination | | extension | extensor | | exterior | externa | external cardiac massage | external ear | expectoration outer ear divergent strabismus expectant mother /ik spektnt m / noun expectant mother | a pregnant woman expectorant /ik spekt()rnt/ noun a drug which helps someone to cough up phlegm expectorant | external haemorrhoids /ik st n()l hemridz/ plural noun haemorrhoids in the skin just outside the anus external iliac artery /ik st n()l ili k tri/ noun an artery which branches from the aorta in the abdomen and leads to the leg external jugular /ik st n()l d jl/ noun the main jugular vein in the neck, leading from the temporal vein external nares /ik st n()l neri z/ plural noun same as anterior nares | external iliac artery | external jugular | external nares | external haemorrhoids Nursing.fm Page 101 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 101 eyelid extrasensory external otitis /ik st n()l taitis/ noun same as otitis externa external respiration /ik st n()l respi rei()n/ noun the part of respiration concerned with oxygen in the air being exchanged in the lungs for carbon dioxide from the blood exteroceptor / ekstrsept/ noun a sensory nerve which is affected by stimuli from outside the body, e.g. in the eye or ear extinction /ik stikn/ noun 1. the destruction or stopping of something 2. the lessening or stopping of a conditioned behavioural response through lack of reinforcement extirpation / ekst pei()n/ noun the total removal of a structure, an organ or growth by surgery extra- /ekstr/ prefix outside extracapsular / ekstr k psjl/ adjective outside a capsule extracapsular fracture / ekstr k psjl fr kt/ noun a fracture of the upper part of the femur, which does not involve the capsule round the hip joint extracellular / ekstr seljl/ adjective outside cells extracellular fluid / ekstrseljl flu id/ noun a fluid which surrounds cells extract noun / ekstr kt/ a preparation made by removing water or alcohol from a substance, leaving only the essence verb /ik str kt/ to take Adrenaline extracted from the out something animals adrenal glands is used in the treatment of asthma. extraction /ik str kn/ noun the removal of part of the body, especially a tooth extradural / ekstr djrl/ adjective same as | | external respiration | | exteroceptor extinction | extirpation | extraextracapsular | extracapsular fracture | extracellular | extracellular fluid extract | extraction | extradural | external otitis extrasensory / ekstr sensri/ adjective involving perception by means other than the usual five senses extrasystole / ekstr sistli/ noun same as | extrasystole | ectopic heartbeat extrauterine / ekstr ju train/ extrauterine | extrauterine pregnancy adjective occurring or developing outside the uterus extrauterine pregnancy / ekstrju train pre nnsi/ noun same as ectopic pregnancy extravasation /ek str v sei()n/ noun a situation where a bodily fluid, such as blood or secretions, escapes into tissue extraversion / ekstr v ()n/ noun same as extravasation | | extraversion | extroversion extravert / ekstrv t/ noun same as extrovert extremities /ik stremtiz/ plural noun the extravert extremities | epidural extradural haematoma / ekstr djrl hi m tm/ noun a blood clot which forms in the head outside the dura mater, caused by a blow extradural haemorrhage / ekstr djrl hem()rid / noun a serious condition where bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the skull extraembryonic membranes / ekstr embri nik membreinz/ plural noun membranes which are not part of the embryo extrapleural / ekstr plrl/ adjective outside the pleural cavity extrapyramidal / ekstrpi r mid()l/ adjective outside the pyramidal tracts extrapyramidal system / ekstrpi r mid()l sistm/ noun a motor system which carries motor nerves outside the pyramidal system extrapyramidal tracts / ekstrpi r mid()l tr kts/ plural noun same as extrapyramidal | | extradural haemorrhage | extraembryonic membranes | | extrapleural | extrapyramidal | extrapyramidal system | extrapyramidal tracts | extradural haematoma parts of the body at the ends of limbs, e.g. the fingers, toes, nose and ears extremity /ik stremiti/ noun 1. a limb 2. the part of a limb farthest away from the body, especially the hand or foot 3. a situation or state of great distress or danger 4. the greatest intensity of something extrinsic /eks trinsik/ adjective external, originating outside a structure extrinsic factor /eks trinsik f kt/ noun a former term for vitamin B12, which is necessary for the production of red blood cells extrinsic muscle /eks trinsik m s()l/ noun a muscle which is some way away from the part of the body which it operates extroversion /ekstr v ()n/ noun 1. (in psychology) a condition in which a person is interested in people and things other than themselves 2. a congenital turning of an organ inside out extrovert / ekstrv t/ noun a person who is interested in people and things in the external world extubation / ekstju bei()n/ noun the removal of a tube after intubation eye /ai/ noun the part of the body with which a person sees (NOTE: For other terms referring to extremity | extrinsic | extrinsic factor | extrinsic muscle | extroversion | extrovert extubation | eye the eye, see ocular, optic and words beginning with oculo-, ophth-, ophthalm-, ophthalmo-.) eyeball / aib lz/ noun the round ball of tissue eyeball system through which light passes, located in the eye socket and controlled by various muscles eyebrow / aibra/ noun an arch of skin with a line of hair above the eye eye drops / ai drps/ plural noun medicine in liquid form which is put into the eye in small amounts eyelash / ail / noun a small hair which grows out from the edge of the eyelid eyelid / ailid/ noun a piece of skin which covers the eye. Also called blepharon, palpebra eyebrow eye drops eyelash eyelid Nursing.fm Page 102 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM eye socket (NOTE: For other terms referring to the eyelids, see words beginning with blephar-, blepharo-.) eye socket / ai skit/ noun same as orbit eyestrain / aistrein/ noun tiredness in the museye socket eyestrain 102 or working on a computer screen. Also called asthenopia eyetooth / aitu / noun a canine tooth, one of eyetooth two pairs of pointed teeth next to the incisors (NOTE: The plural is eyeteeth.) cles of the eye with a headache, which may be caused by an activity such as reading in bad light Nursing.fm Page 103 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM F F abbreviation Fahrenheit face /feis/ noun the front part of the head, where the eyes, nose and mouth are placed verb to have your face towards or to look towards something Please face the screen. face delivery / feis di liv()ri/ noun a birth where the babys face appears first face lift / feis lift/, face-lifting operation / feis lifti p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to remove wrinkles on the face and neck face presentation / feis prez()n tei()n/ noun a position of a baby in the uterus where the face will appear first at birth facet / f sit/ noun a flat surface on a bone facet syndrome / f sit sindrm/ noun a condition in which a joint in the vertebrae becomes dislocated facial / fei()l/ adjective relating to, or appearing on, the face The psychiatrist examined the patients facial expression. facial bone / fei()l bn/ noun one of the fourteen bones which form the face face face delivery | face lift | face presentation | facet facet syndrome facial facial bone F COMMENT: The bones which make up the face are: two maxillae forming the upper jaw; two nasal bones forming the top part of the nose; two lacrimal bones on the inside of the orbit near the nose; two zygomatic or malar bones forming the sides of the cheeks; two palatine bones forming the back part of the top of the mouth; two nasal conchae or turbinate bones which form the sides of the nasal cavity; the mandible or lower jaw; and the vomer in the centre of the nasal septum. facial paralysis / fei()l p r lsis/ noun same as Bells palsy facies / feiii z/ noun someones facial appearfacial paralysis | facies is lacking in people with haemophilia B. Also called Christmas factor Factor VIII / f ktr eit/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in people with haemophilia A Factor XI / f ktr i lev()n/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in people with haemophilia C Factor XII / f kt twelv/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in some people with haemophilia. Also called Hageman factor fade away / feid wei/ verb to be in the process of dying (informal ) faecal / fi k()l/ adjective referring to faeces faecal impaction / fi kl()l im p kn/ noun a condition in which a hardened mass of faeces stays in the rectum faecal incontinence / fi k()l in kntinns/ noun an inability to control the bowel movements faecalith / fi kli/ noun same as coprolith faecal matter / fi k()l m t/ noun solid waste matter from the bowels faeces / fi si z/ plural noun solid waste matter passed from the bowels through the anus. Also called stools, bowel movement (NOTE: For Factor VIII Factor XI | Factor XII fade away | faecal faecal impaction | faecal incontinence | faecalith faecal matter faeces other terms referring to faeces, see words beginning with sterco-.) Fahrenheit Fahrenheit / f rnhait/, Fahrenheit scale / f rnhait skeil/ noun a scale of temperatures where the freezing and boiling points of water are 32 and 212 under standard atmospheric pressure (NOTE: Used in the US, but less common in the UK. Usually written as an F after the degree sign: 32F (say: thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit).) fail ance, used as a guide to diagnosis factor / f kt/ noun 1. something which has an influence or which makes something else take place 2. a substance, variously numbered, e.g. Factor I, Factor II, in the plasma, which makes the blood coagulate when a blood vessel is injured Factor II / f kt tu / noun same as profactor Factor II thrombin Factor IX Factor IX / f kt nain/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and fail /feil/ verb 1. not to be successful in doing something The doctor failed to see the symptoms. She has failed her pharmacy exams. He failed his medical and was rejected by the police force. 2. to become weaker and less likely to recover failure to thrive / feilj t raiv/ noun same as marasmus failure to thrive Nursing.fm Page 104 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM faint 104 faint /feint/ verb to stop being conscious for a short time and, usually, fall down noun a loss of consciousness for a short period, caused by a temporary reduction in the blood flow to the brain fainting fit / feinti fit/, fainting spell / feinti spel/ noun same as syncope She often had fainting fits when she was dieting. Fairbanks splint / feb ks splint/ noun a special splint used for correcting Erbs palsy faith healing / fei hi li/ noun the treatment of pain or illness by a person who prays and may also lay his or her hands on the patient falciform / f lsif m/ adjective in the shape of a sickle falciform ligament / f lsif m li mnt/ noun a piece of tissue which separates the two lobes of the liver and attaches it to the diaphragm fallen arches / f ln tiz/ plural noun a condition in which the arches in the sole of the foot are not high Fallopian tube /f lpin tju b/ noun one of two tubes which connect the ovaries to the uterus. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement. Also called oviduct, salpinx fainting fit Fairbanks splint faith healing falciform falciform ligament fallen arches Fallopian tube | faint famotidine /f mtidi n/ noun a histamine which reduces the secretion of gastric acid and is used to treat ulcers Fanconi syndrome /f n kni sindrm/ noun a kidney disorder where amino acids are present in the urine [Described 1927. After Guido | Fanconi syndrome | famotidine Fanconi (18921979), Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.] fantasy / f ntsi/ noun a series of imaginary fantasy (NOTE: For other terms referring to Fallopian tubes, see words beginning with salping-, salpingo-.) [Described 1561. After Gabriele Fallopio (152363), Italian man of medicine. He was Professor of Surgery and Anatomy at Padua, where he was also Professor of Botany.] Fallots tetralogy / f lz te tr ld i/ noun same as tetralogy of Fallot false rib / f ls rib/ noun one of the bottom five Fallots tetralogy | false rib ribs on each side which are not directly attached to the breastbone familial /f milil/ adjective referring to a family familial adenomatous polyposis /f milil d nmts pli psis/ noun a hereditary disorder where polyps develop in the small intestine. Abbreviation FAP familial disorder /f milil dis d/ noun a hereditary disorder which affects several members of the same family family / f m()li/ noun a group of people who are related to each other, especially mother, father and children family doctor / f m()li dkt/ noun a general practitioner family planning / f m()li pl ni/ noun the use of contraception to control the number of children in a family family planning clinic / f m()li pl ni klinik/ noun a clinic which gives advice on contraception family therapy / f m()li erpi/ noun a type of psychotherapy where members of the family of a person with a disorder meet a therapist to discuss the condition and try to come to terms with it familial | familial adenomatous polyposis | | | familial disorder | | family family doctor family planning family planning clinic family therapy events which someone believes really took place FAP abbreviation familial adenomatous polyposis farcy / f si/ noun a form of glanders which affects the lymph nodes farmers lung / f mz l / noun a type of asthma caused by an allergy to rotting hay fascia / fei/ noun fibrous tissue covering a muscle or an organ (NOTE: The plural is fasciae.) fasciculation /f sikj lei()n/ noun small muscle movements which appear as trembling skin fasciculus /f sikjls/ noun a bundle of nerve fibres (NOTE: The plural is fasciculi.) fasciitis / f i aitis/ noun an inflammation of the connective tissue between muscles or around organs fastigium /f stid im/ noun the highest temperature during a bout of fever fat /f t/ adjective big and round in the body You ought to eat less youre getting too fat. (NOTE: fatter fattest) noun 1. a white oily substance in the body, which stores energy and protects the body against cold 2. a type of food which supplies protein and Vitamins A and D, especially that part of meat which is white, and solid substances like lard or butter produced from animals and used for cooking, or liquid substances like oil If you dont like the fat on the meat, cut it off. Fry the eggs in some fat. (NOTE: FAP farcy farmers lung fascia fasciculation | | fasciculus | fasciitis | fastigium | fat Fat has no plural when it means the substance; the plural fats is used to mean different types of fat. For other terms referring to fats, see also lipid and words beginning with steato-.) fatigue /f ti / noun very great tiredness fatigue fracture /f ti fr kt/ noun stress fracture fatty / f ti/ adjective containing fat fatty acid / f ti sid/ noun an organic acid fatigue | fatigue fracture | fatty fatty acid belonging to a group that occurs naturally as fats, oils and waxes. essential fatty acid fatty degeneration / f ti di d en rei()n/ noun same as adipose degeneration fauces / f si z/ noun an opening between the tonsils at the back of the throat, leading to the pharynx FDA abbreviation US Food and Drug Administration fatty degeneration | | fauces FDA Nursing.fm Page 105 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 105 fertile femoral hernia fear /fi/ noun a state where a person is afraid of something fear of flying febricula /fe brikjl/ noun a low fever febrifuge / febrifju d / noun a drug which prevents or lowers a fever, e.g. aspirin adjective preventing or lowering fever febrile / fi brail/ adjective referring to a fever, or caused by a fever febrile convulsion / fi brail kn v l()n/ noun a convulsion in a child, lasting a short time, associated with a fever febrile disease / fi brail di zi z/ noun a disease which is accompanied by fever fecundation / fekn dei()n/ noun the act of bringing male and female reproductive matter together. Also called fertilisation feedback / fi db k/ noun 1. information or comments about something which has been done The initial feedback from patients on the new service was encouraging. 2. the linking of the result of an action back to the action itself Fehlings solution / feiliz s lu ()n/ noun a solution used in Fehlings test to detect sugar in urine [Described 1848. After Hermann Christian febricula | febrifuge febrile febrile convulsion | febrile disease | fecundation | feedback Fehlings solution | fear femoral hernia / femrl h ni/ noun a hernia of the bowel at the top of the thigh femoral neck / femrl nek/ noun the narrow part between the head and the diaphysis of the femur. Also called neck of the femur femoral nerve / femrl n v/ noun a nerve which governs the muscle at the front of the thigh femoral pulse / femrl p ls/ noun a pulse taken in the groin femoral triangle / femrl trai l/ noun a slight hollow in the groin which contains the femoral vessels and nerve. Also called Scarpas trifemoral neck femoral nerve femoral pulse femoral triangle angle femoral vein femoral vein / femrl vein/ noun a vein running up the upper leg, a continuation of the popliteal vein femur / fi m/ noun the bone in the top part of the leg which joins the acetabulum at the hip and the tibia at the knee. Also called thighbone. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The femur plural is femora.) von Fehling (181285), Professor of Chemistry at Stuttgart, Germany.] Fehlings test / feiliz test/ noun a test for the Fehlings test presence of aldehydes and sugars in a biological sample by means of Fehlings solution felon / feln/ noun same as whitlow Feltys syndrome / felti z sindrm/ noun a condition, associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in which the spleen is enlarged and the number of white blood cells increases [Described 1924. felon Feltys syndrome After Augustus Roi Felty (18951963), physician at Hartford Hospital, Connecticut, USA.] female condom / fi meil kndm/ noun a female condom rubber sheath inserted into the vagina before intercourse, covering the walls of the vagina and the cervix female sex hormone / fi meil seks h mn/ noun same as oestrogen feminisation / feminai zei()n/, feminization noun the development of female characteristics in a male femoral / femrl/ adjective referring to the femur or to the thigh femoral artery / femrl tri/ noun a continuation of the external iliac artery, which runs down the front of the thigh and then crosses to the back of the thigh femoral canal / femrl k n l/ noun the inner tube of the sheath surrounding the femoral artery and vein femoral head / femrl hed/ noun the head of the femur, the rounded projecting end part of the thigh bone which joins the acetabulum at the hip female sex hormone feminisation | femoral femoral artery femoral canal | femoral head -fen /fen/ suffix used in names of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen fenestra /f nestr/ noun a small opening in the ear fenestra ovalis /f nestr v lis/ noun same as oval window fenestra rotunda /f nestr r t nd/ noun same as round window fenestration / fen strei()n/ noun a surgical operation to relieve deafness by making a small opening in the inner ear fenoprofen / fen prfen/ noun a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that is used to manage the pain of arthritis fentanyl / fentnil/ noun a narcotic drug that is a powerful painkiller fermentation / f men tei()n/ noun a process where carbohydrates are broken down by enzymes from yeast and produce alcohol. Also called zymosis ferric / ferik/ adjective containing iron with a valency of three ferritin / feritin/ noun a protein found in the liver that binds reversibly to iron and stores it for later use in making haemoglobin in red blood cells ferrous / fers/ adjective containing iron with a valency of two ferrous sulphate / fers s lfeit/ noun a white or pale green iron salt that is used in the treatment of iron-deficient anaemia ferrule / feru l/ noun a metal or rubber cap or ring that strengthens and protects the lower end of a crutch or walking stick verb to fit a ferrule onto a crutch or walking stick fertile / f tail/ adjective able to produce children. Opposite sterile fenestra | fenestra ovalis | | fenestra rotunda | | fenestration | fenoprofen | fentanyl fermentation | ferric ferritin ferrous ferrous sulphate ferrule fertile -fen Nursing.fm Page 106 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM fertilisation 106 fever sore | fertilisation / f tilai zei()n/, fertilization noun the joining of an ovum and a sperm to form a zygote and so start the development of an embryo fertility /f tiliti/ noun the fact of being fertile. Opposite sterility fertility rate /f tiliti reit/ noun the number of births per year calculated per 1000 females aged between 15 and 44 FESS abbreviation functional endoscopic sinus surgery fester / fest/ verb (of an infected wound ) to His legs become inflamed and produce pus were covered with festering sores. festination / festi nei()n/ noun a way of walking in which a person takes short steps, seen in people who have Parkinsons disease fetal / fi t()l/ adjective referring to a fetus fetal alcohol syndrome / fi t()l lk hl sindrm/ noun damage caused to the fetus by alcohol in the blood of the mother, which affects the growth of the embryo, including its facial and brain development. Abbreviation FAS fetal dystocia / fi t()l dis tsi/ noun a difficult childbirth caused by a malformation or malpresentation of the fetus fetal heart / fi t()l h t/ noun the heart of the fetus fetal monitor / fi t()l mnit/ noun an electronic device which monitors the fetus in the uterus fetal position / fi t()l p zi()n/ noun a position where a person lies curled up on his or her side, like a fetus in the uterus fetishism / fetiiz()m/, fetichism noun a psychological disorder in which someone gets sexual satisfaction from touching objects feto- /fi t/ prefix fetus fetoprotein / fi t prti n/ noun alphafertility | fertility rate | FESS fester festination | fetal fetal alcohol syndrome | fetal dystocia | fetal heart fetal monitor fetal position | fetishism fetofetoprotein | fertilisation fever sore / fi v s / noun a cold sore or burning sore, usually on the lips fiber / faib/ noun US same as fibre fibr- /faibr/ prefix referring to fibres, fibrous fiber fibr- (used before vowels) -fibrate /faibreit/ suffix used in names of lipid-fibrate lowering drugs fibre / faib/ noun 1. a structure in the body shaped like a thread 2. same as dietary fibre fibre optics / faibr ptiks/, fibreoptics / faibr ptiks/ noun the use of thin fibres which conduct light and images to examine internal organs fibrescope / faibskp/ noun a device made of bundles of optical fibres which is passed into the body, used for examining internal organs fibrillation / faibri lei()n/ noun the fluttering of a muscle fibrin / fibrin/ noun a protein produced by fibrinogen, which helps make blood coagulate fibrin foam / fibrin fm/ noun a white material made artificially from fibrinogen, used to prevent bleeding fibrinogen /fi brind n/ noun a substance in blood plasma which produces fibrin when activated by thrombin fibrinolysin / fibri nlsin/ noun an enzyme which digests fibrin. Also called plasmin fibrinolysis / fibri nlsis/ noun the removal of blood clots from the system by the action of fibrinolysin on fibrin. Also called thrombolysis fibrinolytic / fibrin litik/ adjective referring fibrinolytic drugs Also called to fibrinolysis fibre fibre optics | fibrescope fibrillation | fibrin fibrin foam fibrinogen | fibrinolysin | fibrinolysis | fibrinolytic | thrombolytic fibro- /faibr/ prefix referring to fibres fibroadenoma / faibr di nm/ noun a fibrofibroadenoma | | fetoprotein fetor / fi t/ noun a bad smell fetoscope / fi tskp/ noun a stethoscope fetor fetoscope used in fetoscopy fetoscopy /fi tskpi/ noun an examination of a fetus inside the uterus, taking blood samples to diagnose blood disorders fetus / fi ts/ noun an unborn baby from two months after conception until birth, before which it is called an embryo FEV abbreviation forced expiratory volume fever / fi v/ noun 1. a rise in body temperature She is running a slight fever. You must stay in bed until the fever has gone down. 2. a condition when the temperature of the body is higher than usual also called pyrexia fever blister / fi v blist/ noun same as fetoscopy | fetus FEV fever fever blister benign tumour formed of fibrous and glandular tissue fibroblast / faibrbl st/ noun a long flat cell found in connective tissue, which develops into collagen fibrocartilage / faibr k tlid / noun cartilage and fibrous tissue combined fibrochondritis / faibrkn draitis/ noun inflammation of the fibrocartilage fibrocyst / faibrsist/ noun a benign tumour of fibrous tissue fibrocystic / faibr sistik/ adjective referring to a fibrocyst fibrocystic disease / faibr sistik di zi z/, fibrocystic disease of the pancreas / faibr sistik di zi z v p kris/ noun same as fibroblast fibrocartilage | fibrochondritis | fibrocyst fibrocystic | fibrocystic disease | | | | cystic fibrosis fibrocyte / faibrsait/ noun a cell which fibrocyte fever sore derives from a fibroblast and is found in connective tissue fibroid / faibrid/ adjective like fibre fibroid Nursing.fm Page 107 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 107 first-degree relative fibroid tumour / faibrid tju m/ noun a benign tumour in the muscle fibres of the uterus. Also called uterine fibroid, fibromyoma fibroma /fai brm/ noun a small benign tumour formed in connective tissue fibromyoma / faibrmai m/ noun same as fibroid tumour fibroplasia / faibr pleizi/ noun retrolenfibroma | fibromyoma | fibroplasia | fibroid tumour filiform papillae / filif m p pili / plural noun papillae on the tongue which are shaped like | filiform papillae tal fibroplasia fibrosarcoma / faibrs km/ noun a malignant tumour of the connective tissue, most common in the legs fibrosis /fai brsis/ noun the process of replacing damaged tissue by scar tissue fibrositis / faibr saitis/ noun a painful inflammation of the fibrous tissue which surrounds muscles and joints, especially the muscles of the back fibrous / faibrs/ adjective made of fibres, or like fibre fibrous capsule / faibrs k psju l/ noun fibrous tissue surrounding a kidney. Also called | fibrosis | fibrositis | fibrous fibrous capsule fibrosarcoma threads, and have no taste buds filipuncture / filip kt/ noun the procedure of putting a wire into an aneurysm to cause blood clotting filling / fili/ noun a surgical operation carried out by a dentist to fill a hole in a tooth with amalgam filter / filt/ noun a piece of paper or cloth through which a liquid is passed to remove any solid substances in it verb to pass a liquid through a membrane, piece of paper or cloth to remove solid substances Impurities are filtered from the blood by the kidneys. FIM abbreviation functional independence measure fimbria / fimbri/ noun a fringe, especially the fringe of hair-like processes at the end of a Fallopian tube near the ovaries (NOTE: The plural is filipuncture filling filter FIM fimbria fimbriae.) finger / fi / noun one of the five parts at the finger renal capsule fibrous joint / faibrs d int/ noun a joint where fibrous tissue holds two bones together so that they cannot move, as in the bones of the skull fibrous pericardium / faibrs peri k dim/ noun the outer part of the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and is attached to the main blood vessels fibrous tissue / faibrs tiu / noun strong white tissue which makes tendons and ligaments and also scar tissue fibula / fibjl/ noun the thinner of the two bones in the lower leg between the knee and the ankle. Compare tibia (NOTE: The plural is fibufibrous pericardium | fibrous tissue fibula fibrous joint end of the hand, but usually not including the thumb (NOTE: The names of the fingers are: little finger, third finger or ring finger, middle finger, forefinger or index finger.) finger-nose test / fi nz test/ noun a finger-nose test test of coordination, where the person is asked to close their eyes, stretch out their arm and then touch their nose with their index finger fingerprint / fi print/ noun a mark left by a finger when something is touched. genetic finfingerprint gerprint firm firm /f m/ noun a group of doctors and consultants in a hospital, especially one to which a trainee doctor is attached during clinical studies (informal ) lae.) fibular / fibjl/ adjective referring to the fibula field of vision / fi ld v vi ()n/ noun same as visual field fight or flight reaction / fait flait ri kn/ noun the theory that an organism which is faced with a threat reacts either by preparing to fight or to escape fil- /fil/ prefix referring to a thread filament / filmnt/ noun a long thin structure like a thread filamentous / fil ments/ adjective like a thread Filaria /fi leri/ noun a thin parasitic worm which is found especially in the lymph system, and is passed to humans by mosquitoes (NOTE: field of vision fight or flight reaction | filfilament filamentous | Filaria | fibular The plural is Filariae.) filariasis / fil raisis/ noun a tropical disease filariasis | caused by parasitic threadworms in the lymph system, transmitted by mosquito bites filiform / filif m/ adjective shaped like a thread filiform first aid / f st eid/ noun help given by a nonmedical person to someone who is suddenly ill or injured before full-scale medical treatment can be given She gave him first aid in the street until the ambulance arrived. first-aid kit / f st eid kit/ noun a box with bandages and dressings kept ready to be used in an emergency first-aid post / f st eid pst/, first-aid station / f st eid stei()n/ noun a place where injured people can be taken for immediate care first-degree burn / f st di ri b n/ noun a former classification of the severity of a burn, where the skin turns red first-degree haemorrhoids / f st di ri hemridz/ plural noun haemorrhoids which remain in the rectum first-degree relative / f st di ri reltiv/ noun a relative with whom an individual shares 50% of their genes, e.g. a father, mother, sibling or child first-aid kit first-aid post first-degree burn | first-degree haemorrhoids | first-degree relative | first aid Nursing.fm Page 108 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM first intention 108 | first intention / f st in tenn/ noun the healing of a clean wound where the tissue forms again rapidly and no prominent scar is left first-level nurse / f st lev()l n s/, firstlevel Registered Nurse / f st lev()l red istd n s/ noun a nurse who has passed qualifying examinations, is registered as such with the Nursing and Midwifery Council and can act in an independent decision-making role. Compare second-level nurse fission / fi()n/ noun the act of dividing into two or more parts fissure / fi/ noun a crack or groove in the skin, tissue or an organ fistula / fistjl/ noun a passage or opening which has been made unusually between two organs, often near the rectum or anus fit /fit/ adjective strong and physically healthy She exercises every day to keep fit. The doctors decided the patient was not fit for surgery. (NOTE: fitter fittest) noun a sudden attack of a disorder, especially convulsions and epilepsy She had a fit of coughing. He had an epileptic fit. The baby had a series of fits. verb 1. to provide a piece of equipment for someone to wear She was fitted with temporary support. 2. to have convulsions The patient has fitted twice. (NOTE: fitfirst-level nurse fission fissure fistula fit first intention flare /fle/ noun red colouring of the skin at an infected spot or in urticaria flashback / fl b k/ noun a repeated and very vivid memory of a traumatic event flat foot / fl t ft/, flat feet / fl t fi t/ noun a condition in which the soles of the feet lie flat on the ground instead of being arched as usual. Also called pes planus flatulence / fl tjlns/ noun gas or air which collects in the stomach or intestines causing discomfort flashback flat foot flatulence flare COMMENT: Flatulence is generally caused by indigestion, but can be made worse if the person swallows air (aerophagy). flatulent / fl tjlnt/ adjective having flatuflatulent ting fitted. Note also: you fit someone with an appliance.) fitness / fitns/ noun the fact of being strong fitness and healthy Being in the football team demands a high level of physical fitness. He had to pass a fitness test to join the police force. 5-hydroxy-tryptamine / faiv hai drksi triptmi n/ noun a compound which exists in blood platelets and is released after tissue is injured, and is a neurotransmitter important in sleep, mood and vasoconstriction. Also called 5-hydroxy-tryptamine | serotonin fixated /fik seitid/ adjective referring to a perfixated | lence, or caused by flatulence flatus / fleits/ noun air and gas which collects in the intestines and is painful flea /fli / noun a tiny insect which sucks blood and is a parasite on animals and humans flecainide /fle keinaid/ noun a drug that helps to correct an irregular heartbeat flex /fleks/ verb to bend something flexibilitas cerea /fleksi bilits siri/ noun a condition in which, if someones arms or legs are moved, they remain in that set position for some time flexion / flekn/ noun the act of bending a joint Flexners bacillus / fleksnz b sils/ noun a bacterium which causes bacillary dysentery flexor / fleks/, flexor muscle / fleks m s()l/ noun a muscle which makes a joint bend. Compare extensor flexure / flek/ noun 1. a bend in an organ 2. a fold in the skin floaters / fltz/ plural noun same as muscae flatus flea flecainide | flex flexibilitas cerea | flexion Flexners bacillus | flexor flexure floaters volitantes floating kidney son who has too close an attachment to another person, often to a parent fixator /fik seit/ noun a metal rod placed through a bone to keep a part of the body rigid flaccid / fl ksid, fl sid/ adjective soft or flabby flaccidity /fl k siditi, fl siditi/ noun the state of being flaccid Flagyl / fl d ail/ a trade name for metronidazole flail /fleil/ verb to thrash around with uncontrollable or violent movements, particularly of the arms flail chest / fleil test/ noun a condition in which the chest is not stable, because several ribs have been broken flap /fl p/ noun a flat piece attached to something, especially a piece of skin or tissue still attached to the body at one side and used in grafts fixator | flaccid flaccidity | | Flagyl flail flail chest flap floating kidney / flti kidni/ noun same as nephroptosis floating rib / flti rib/ noun one of the two floating rib lowest ribs on each side, which are not attached to the breastbone flooding / fl di/ noun same as menorrhagia floppy baby syndrome / flpi beibi sindrm/ noun same as amyotonia congenita flora / fl r/ noun bacteria which exist in a particular part of the body florid / flrid/ adjective with an unhealthily glowing pink or red complexion flowmeter / flmi t/ noun a meter attached to a pipe, e.g. as in anaesthetic equipment, to measure the speed at which a liquid or gas moves in the pipe flu /flu / noun 1. same as influenza 2. a very bad cold (informal ) (NOTE: Sometimes written flu to flooding floppy baby syndrome flora florid flowmeter flu show it is a short form of influenza.) Nursing.fm Page 109 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 109 food intolerance infection (NOTE: The plural is foci.) verb 1. to adjust a lens until an image is clear and sharp 2. to see clearly He has difficulty in focusing on the object. focus group / fks ru p/ noun a discussion group of lay people brought together under professional guidance to discuss issues such as care foetal / fi t()l/ adjective another spelling of focus group foetal flucloxacillin /flu klkssilin/ noun a drug related to penicillin and effective against streptococcal infections and pneumonia fluconazole /flu knzl/ noun a drug used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis fluctuation / fl ktu ei()n/ noun the feeling of movement of liquid inside part of the body or inside a cyst when pressed by the fingers fluid / flu id/ noun 1. a liquid 2. any gas, liquid or powder which flows fluid balance / flu id b lns/ noun the maintenance of the balance of fluids in the body during dialysis or other treatment fluke /flu k/ noun a parasitic flatworm which settles inside the liver, in the bloodstream and in other parts of the body flunitrazepam / flu nai tr zip m/ noun a tranquilliser that, because of its association with date rape cases, is a controlled drug in the UK fluorescence /fl res()ns/ noun the sending out of light from a substance which is receiving radiation fluorescent /fl res()nt/ adjective referring to a substance which sends out light fluoride / flraid/ noun a chemical compound of fluorine and sodium, potassium or tin fluoride toothpaste fluorine / flri n/ noun a chemical element found in bones and teeth (NOTE: The chemical | fluconazole | fluctuation | fluid fluid balance fluke flunitrazepam | fluorescence | fluorescent | fluoride fluorine flucloxacillin fetal (NOTE: The spelling foetal is common in general use in British English, but the spelling fetal is the accepted international spelling for technical use.) foetoscope / fi tskp/ noun another spelling of fetoscope foetoscopy /fi tskpi/ noun another spelling of fetoscopy foetus / fi ts/ noun another spelling of fetus (NOTE: The spelling foetus is common in general use in British English, but the spelling fetus is the accepted international spelling for technical use.) folacin / flsin/ noun same as folic acid folic acid / flik sid/ noun a vitamin in the foetoscope foetoscopy | foetus folacin folic acid symbol is F.) fluoroscope / flrskp/ noun an apparatus which projects an X-ray image of a part of the body onto a screen, so that the part of the body can be examined as it moves fluoroscopy /fl rskpi/ noun an examination of the body using X-rays projected onto a screen fluoxetine /flu ksti n/ noun a drug that increases serotonin in the brain and is used to treat anxiety and depression flush /fl / noun a red colour in the skin verb 1. to wash a wound with liquid 2. (of person) to turn red flutter / fl t/, fluttering / fl tri/ noun a rapid movement, especially of the atria of the heart, which is not controlled by impulses from the sinoatrial node flux /fl ks/ noun an excessive production of liquid from the body focal / fk()l/ adjective referring to a focus focal distance / fk()l distns/, focal length / fk()l le/ noun the distance between the lens of the eye and the point behind the lens where light is focused focal epilepsy / fk()l epilepsi/ noun epilepsy arising from a localised area of the brain focus / fks/ noun 1. the point where light rays converge through a lens 2. the centre of an fluoroscopy | fluoxetine | flush flutter flux focal focal distance focal epilepsy focus fluoroscope Vitamin B complex found in milk, liver, yeast and green vegetables such as spinach, which is essential for creating new blood cells follicle / flik()l/ noun a tiny hole or sac in the body follicle-stimulating hormone / flik()l stimjleiti h mn/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates ova in the ovaries and sperm in the testes. Abbreviation FSH follicular /f likjl/, folliculate /f likjlt/ adjective referring to follicles folliculitis /f likj laitis/ noun inflammation of the hair follicles, especially where hair has been shaved fomentation / fmen tei()n/ noun same as follicle follicle-stimulating hormone follicular | | folliculitis | | fomentation | poultice fomites fomites / fmiti z/ plural noun objects touched by someone with a communicable disease which can then be the means of passing on the disease to others fontanelle / fnt nel/ noun the soft cartilage between the bony sections of a babys skull food allergen / fu d ld en/ noun a substance in food which produces an allergy food allergy / fu d ld i/ noun an allergy to a specific food such as nuts, which causes a severe reaction that may lead to life-threatening anaphylactic shock food canal / fu d k n l/ noun the passage from the mouth to the rectum through which food passes and is digested food intolerance / fu d in tlrns/ noun an adverse reaction to some foods such as oranges, eggs, tomatoes and strawberries fontanelle | food allergen food allergy food canal | food intolerance | Nursing.fm Page 110 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM food poisoning 110 ing autopsies on murdered people or taking blood samples from clothes foreskin / f skin/ noun the skin covering the top of the penis, which can be removed by circumcision. Also called prepuce forewaters / f w tz/ plural noun fluid which comes out of the vagina at the beginning of childbirth when the amnion bursts formaldehyde /f m ldihaid/ noun a gas with an unpleasant smell that is a strong disinfectant. When dissolved in water to make formalin, it is also used to preserve medical specimens. formalin / f mlin/ noun a solution of formaldehyde in water, used to preserve medical specimens formication / f mi kei()n/ noun an itching feeling where the skin feels as if it were covered with insects formula / f mjl/ noun 1. a way of indicating a chemical compound using letters and numbers, e.g. H2SO4 2. instructions on how to prepare a drug formulary / f mjlri/ noun a book that lists medicines together with their formulae fornix / f niks/ noun an arch (NOTE: The plural foreskin forewaters formaldehyde | formalin formication | formula formulary fornix food poisoning / fu d piz()ni/ noun an illness caused by eating food which is contaminated with bacteria foot /ft/ noun the end part of the leg on which a person stands foramen /f reimn/ noun a natural opening inside the body, e.g. the opening in a bone through which veins or nerves pass (NOTE: The plural is foot foramen | food poisoning foramina.) foramen magnum /f reimn m nm/ noun the hole at the bottom of the skull where the brain is joined to the spinal cord foramen ovale /f reimn v lei/ noun an opening between the two parts of the heart in a fetus | foramen ovale | | foramen magnum COMMENT: The foramen ovale usually closes at birth, but if it stays open the blood from the veins can mix with the blood going to the arteries, causing cyanosis. forced expiratory volume / f st ek spirt()ri vlju m/ noun the maximum forced expiratory volume | amount of air that can be expelled in a given time. Abbreviation FEV forceps / f seps/ noun a surgical instrument with handles like a pair of scissors, made in different sizes and with differently shaped ends, used for holding and pulling forceps delivery / f seps di liv()ri/ noun childbirth where the doctor uses forceps to help the baby out of the mothers uterus fore- /f / prefix in front forearm / f r m/ noun the lower part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist forebrain / f brein/ noun the front part of the brain in an embryo forefinger / f fi / noun the first finger on the hand, next to the thumb foregut / f t/ noun the front part of the gut in an embryo foreign / frin/ adjective 1. not belonging to your own country foreign visitors a foreign language 2. referring to something that is found where it does not naturally belong, especially something found in the human body that comes from a source outside the body a foreign object foreign matter foreign body / frin bdi/ noun a piece of material which is not part of the surrounding tissue and should not be there, e.g. sand in a cut, dust in the eye or a pin which has been swallowed The X-ray showed the presence of a foreign body. forensic /f rensik/ adjective relating to the use of science in solving criminal investigations or settling legal cases forensic medicine /f rensik med()s()n/ noun the branch of medical science concerned with finding solutions to crimes against people and which involves procedures such as conductforceps forceps delivery | foreforearm forebrain forefinger foregut foreign foreign body forensic | forensic medicine | is fornices.) fornix cerebri / f niks seribrai/ noun a section of white matter in the brain between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement foscarnet /fs k nt/ noun an antiviral drug administered by intravenous injection that is effective against herpesviruses that are resistant to acyclovir. It is especially used for people with AIDS. fossa / fs/ noun a shallow hollow in a bone or the skin foster children / fst tildrn/ plural noun children brought up by people who are not their own parents foster parent / fst pernt/ noun a woman or man who brings up a child born to other parents Fothergills operation / f ilz p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to correct prolapse of the uterus [After W. E. Fothergill foscarnet | fossa foster children foster parent Fothergills operation | fornix cerebri (18651926), British gynaecologist.] foundation hospital /fan dei()n hspit()l/ noun in the UK, a type of hospital foundation hospital | that is independent of its Local Health Authority in financial matters fourchette /f et/ noun a fold of skin at the back of the vulva fovea / fvi/, fovea centralis / fvi sen tr lis/ noun a depression in the retina which is the point where the eye sees most clearly. See illustration at EYE in Supplement FP10 / ef pi ten/ noun in the UK, an NHS prescription from a GP fourchette | fovea FP10 | Nursing.fm Page 111 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 111 frontal lobotomy balsam, which can be inhaled as a vapour to relieve bronchitis or congestion friction / frik()n/ noun the rubbing together of two surfaces friction fremitus / frikn fremits/ noun a scratching sensation felt when the hand is placed on the chest of someone who has pericarditis friction murmur / frikn m m/ noun the sound of two serous membranes rubbing together, heard with a stethoscope in someone who has pericarditis or pleurisy Friedlnders bacillus / fri dlendz b sils/ noun the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae which can cause pneumonia [Described friction friction fremitus friction murmur Friedlnders bacillus | fracture / fr kt/ verb 1. (of bone) to break The tibia fractured in two places. 2. to break a bone He fractured his wrist. noun a break in a bone rib fracture or fracture of a rib fragile-X syndrome / fr d ail eks sindrm/ noun a hereditary condition in which part of an X chromosome is constricted, causing mental impairment fragilitas ossium /fr d ilits sim/ noun a hereditary condition where the bones are brittle and break easily, similar to osteogenesis imperfecta frame /freim/ noun 1. the particular size and shape of someones body 2. the main part of a building, ship or bicycle, etc., which holds it together the bicycle has a very light frame Ive broken the frame of my glasses 3. a solid support for something. walking frame, Zimmer fragile-X syndrome fragilitas ossium | frame fracture 1882. After Carl Friedlnder (184787), pathologist at the Friedrichshain Hospital, Berlin, Germany.] frame framycetin /fr maistin/ noun an antibiotic fraternal twins /fr t n()l twinz/ plural noun same as dizygotic twins freckle / frek()l/ noun a harmless small brownish patch on the skin that becomes more noticeable after exposure to the sun. Freckles are often found in people with fair hair. Also called lentigo verb to mark something, or become marked with freckles freeze /fri z/ verb to anaesthetise part of the body (informal ) They froze my big toe to remove the nail. Freibergs disease / fraib z di zi z/ noun osteochondritis of the head of the second metatarsus [Described 1914. After Albert Henry Freiberg | fraternal twins | freckle freeze Freibergs disease | framycetin Friedmans test / fri dmnz test/ noun a test for pregnancy [After Maurice H. Friedman (190391), US physician.] Friedmans test Friedreichs ataxia / fri draiks t ksi/ noun an inherited nervous disease which affects the spinal cord and is associated with club foot, an unsteady walk and speech difficulties. Also called | Friedreichs ataxia dystrophia adiposogenitalis [Described 1863. After Nicholaus Friedreich (182582), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Wrzburg, later Professor of Pathology and Therapy at Heidelberg, Germany.] frigidity /fri d iditi/ noun the fact of being unafrigidity | (18691940), US surgeon.] fremitus / fremits/ noun vibrations or trembling in part of someones body, felt by the doctors hand or heard through a stethoscope frenectomy /fr nektmi/ noun an operation to remove a frenum frenotomy /fr ntmi/ noun an operation to split a frenum frenum / fri nm/, frenulum / frenjlm/ noun a fold of mucous membrane under the tongue or by the clitoris frequency / fri kwnsi/ noun 1. the number of times something takes place in a given time the frequency of micturition 2. the rate of vibration in oscillations Freudian / fridin/ adjective understandable in terms of Freuds theories, especially with regard to human sexuality noun someone who is influenced by or follows Freuds theories or methods of psychoanalysis friable / fraib()l/ adjective easily broken up into small pieces friars balsam / fraiz b lsm/ noun a mixture of various plant oils, including benzoin and frenectomy | frenotomy | frenum frequency Freudian friable friars balsam fremitus ble to experience orgasm, sexual pleasure or sexual desire fringe medicine / frin med()sin/ noun types of medical practice which are not usually taught in medical schools, e.g. homeopathy or acupuncture (informal ) frog plaster / fr pl st/ noun a plaster cast made to keep the legs in an open position after an operation to correct a dislocated hip Frhlichs syndrome / fr liks sindrm/ noun a condition in which someone becomes obese and the genital system does not develop, caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland fringe medicine frog plaster Frhlichs syndrome [Described 1901. After Alfred Frhlich (1871 1953), Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Vienna, Austria.] frontal frontal / fr nt()l/ adjective referring to the forehead or to the front of the head. Opposite occipital frontal bone / fr nt()l bn/ noun a bone forming the front of the upper part of the skull behind the forehead frontal lobe / fr nt()l lb/ noun the front lobe of each cerebral hemisphere frontal lobotomy / fr nt()l l btmi/ noun formerly, a surgical operation on the brain to treat mental illness by removing part of the frontal lobe frontal lobe frontal lobotomy | frontal bone Nursing.fm Page 112 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM frontal sinus 112 frontal sinus / fr nt()l sains/ noun one of two sinuses in the front of the face above the eyes and near the nose front passage / fr nt p sid / (informal ) 1. same as urethra 2. same as vagina frostbite / frstbait/ noun an injury caused by very severe cold which freezes tissue frozen shoulder / frz()n ld/ noun stiffness and pain in the shoulder, caused by inflammation of the membranes of the shoulder joint after injury or a period of immobility, when deposits may form in the tendons frozen watchfulness / frz()n wtflns/ noun an expression of petrified fear on a childs face, especially in children who have been abused fructose / fr kts/ noun fruit sugar found in honey and some fruit, which together with glucose forms sucrose frusemide / fru smaid/ noun same as furofront passage frostbite frozen shoulder frozen watchfulness fructose frusemide frontal sinus fundus / f nds/ noun the bottom of a hollow organ such as the uterus fungal / f l/ adjective relating to, or caused by, fungi a fungal skin infection fungate / f eit/ verb (of some skin cancers) to increase rapidly at a late stage of tumour formation fungicide / f isaid/ noun a substance used to kill fungi fungiform papillae / f if m p pili / noun rounded papillae on the tip and sides of the tongue, which have taste buds fungoid / f id/ adjective like a fungus fungus / f s/ noun an organism such as yeast or mould, some of which cause disease fungal fungate fungicide fungiform papillae | fungoid fungus fundus (NOTE: The plural is fungi. For other terms referring to fungi, see words beginning with myc-, myco-.) funiculitis /fju nikj laitis/ noun inflammafuniculitis | | semide FSH abbreviation follicle-stimulating hormone -fuge /fju d / suffix driving away fulguration / f l rei()n/ noun the removal of a growth such as a wart by burning with an electric needle. Also called electrodesiccation full thickness burn / fl ikns b n/ noun same as deep dermal burn fulminant / flminnt/, fulminating / flmineiti/ adjective referring to a dangerous disease which develops very rapidly fumigation / fju mi ei()n/ noun the process of killing insects in an area with gas or smoke function / f kn/ noun the particular work done by an organ What is the function of the pancreas? The function of an ovary is to form ova. verb to work in a particular way The heart and lungs were functioning normally. His kidneys suddenly stopped functioning. functional / f kn()l/ adjective referring to a disorder or illness which does not have a physical cause and may have a psychological cause, as opposed to an organic disorder functional endoscopic sinus surgery / f kn()l endskpik sains s d ri/ noun the removal of soft tissue in the sinuses using an endoscope. Abbreviation FESS functional enuresis / f kn()l enj ri sis/ noun bedwetting which has a psychological cause functional independence measure / f kn()l indi pendns me / noun a measure of disability. Abbreviation FIM fundoplication / f ndpli kei()n/ noun the process of wrapping the fundus of the stomach round the lower end of the oesophagus -fuge fulguration | full thickness burn fulminant fumigation | function functional functional endoscopic sinus surgery functional enuresis | functional independence measure | fundoplication | FSH tion of the spermatic cord funiculus /fju nikjls/ noun one of the three parts of the white matter in the spinal cord The three parts are called the lateral, anterior and posterior funiculus. funis / fju nis/ noun an umbilical cord funnel chest / f n()l test/ noun same as funiculus | funis funnel chest pectus excavatum funny bone / f ni bn/ noun same as olecranon (informal ) furfuraceous / f fj reis/ adjective referfunny bone furfuraceous | ring to skin which is scaly furor / fjr / noun an attack of wild violence, especially in someone who is mentally unwell furosemide /fj rsmaid/ noun a drug which causes an increase in urine production, used to relieve water retention in the body. Also called furor furosemide | frusemide furred tongue / f d t / noun a condition when the papillae of the tongue are covered with a whitish coating. Also called coated tongue furuncle / fjr kl/ noun same as boil furunculosis /fj r kj lsis/ noun a condition in which several boils appear at the same time fusidic acid /fju sidik sid/ noun an antibiotic used to prevent protein synthesis fusiform / fju zif m/ adjective referring to muscles which are shaped like a spindle, with a wider middle section which becomes narrower at each end fusion / fju ()n/ noun the act of joining, especially a surgical operation to relieve pain in the joint by joining the bones at the joint permanently so that they cannot move Fybogel / faibd el/ a trade name for ispaghula furuncle furunculosis | | fusidic acid | fusiform fusion Fybogel furred tongue Nursing.fm Page 113 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM G g abbreviation gram GABA / b/ abbreviation gamma aminobutyric acid gag / / noun an instrument placed between the teeth to stop the mouth from closing verb to experience a reaction similar to that of vomiting Every time the doctor tries to examine her throat, she gags. He started gagging on the endotracheal tube. gait / eit/ noun a way of walking galacto- / l kt/ prefix referring to milk galactocele / l ktsi l/ noun a breast tumour which contains milk galactorrhoea / l kt ri/ noun the excessive production of milk galactosaemia / l kt si mi/ noun a congenital condition where the liver is incapable of converting galactose into glucose, with the result that a babys development may be affected (NOTE: GABA gag gait galactogalactocele | galactorrhoea | | galactosaemia | | g gallop rhythm gallop rhythm / lp ri()m/ noun the rhythm of heart sounds, three to each cycle, when someone is experiencing tachycardia gallstone / lstn/ noun a small stone formed from insoluble deposits from bile in the gall bladder. calculus galvanism / lvniz()m/ noun a treatment using low voltage electricity galvanocautery / lvn k tri/ noun the removal of diseased tissue using an electrically heated needle or loop of wire. Also called gallstone galvanism galvanocautery | electrocautery gamete / mi t/ noun a sex cell, either a spergamete The treatment is to remove galactose from the diet.) galactose galactose / l kts/ noun a sugar which forms part of milk, and is converted into glucose by the liver galea / eili/ noun any part of the body shaped like a helmet, especially the loose band of tissue in the scalp (NOTE: The plural is galeae.) gall / l/ noun same as bile gall bladder / l bl d/ noun a sac situated underneath the liver, in which bile produced by the liver is stored. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement Gallies operation / liz p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation where tissues from the thigh are used to hold a hernia in place [Described | galea gall gall bladder Gallies operation | 1921. After William Edward Gallie (18821959), Professor of Surgery at the University of Toronto, Canada.] gallipot gallipot / lipt/ noun a little container for ointment gallium / lim/ noun a metallic element a radioisotope of which is used to detect tumours or other tissue disorders (NOTE: The chemical symgallium bol is Ga.) matozoon or an ovum gamete intrafallopian transfer / mi t intrf lpin tr nsf / noun a technique to combine eggs and sperm outside the body and then insert them into the Fallopian tubes. Abbreviation GIFT gametocyte / mi tsait/ noun a cell which is developing into a gamete gametogenesis / mi t d ensis/ noun the process by which a gamete is formed gamgee tissue / md i tiu / noun a surgical dressing, formed of a layer of cotton wool between two pieces of gauze gamma aminobutyric acid / m mi nbju tirik sid/ noun an amino acid neurotransmitter. Abbreviation GABA gamma camera / m k m()r/ noun a camera for taking photographs of parts of the body into which radioactive isotopes have been introduced gamma globulin / m lbjlin/ noun a protein found in plasma, forming antibodies as protection against infection gamma ray / m rei/ noun a ray which is shorter than an X-ray and is given off by radioactive substances gangli- / li/ prefix referring to ganglia ganglion / lin/ noun 1. a mass of nerve cell bodies and synapses usually covered in connective tissue, found along the peripheral nerves with the exception of the basal ganglia 2. a cyst of a tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually at the wrist, which results in a painless swelling congamete intrafallopian transfer | gametocyte | gametogenesis | | gamgee tissue gamma aminobutyric acid | | gamma camera gamma globulin gamma ray gangliganglion Nursing.fm Page 114 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ganglionectomy taining fluid (NOTE: [all senses] The plural is ganglia.) 114 gastric ganglionectomy / li nektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a ganglion gangrene / ri n/ noun a condition in which tissues die and decay, as a result of bacterial action, because the blood supply has been lost through injury or disease of the artery After she had frostbite, gangrene set in and her toes had to be amputated. gangrenous / rins/ adjective referring to, or affected by, gangrene gargle / ()l/ noun a mildly antiseptic solution used to clean the mouth verb to put some antiseptic liquid solution into the back of the mouth and then breathe out air through it gargoylism / iliz()m/ noun a congenital condition of the metabolism which causes polysaccharides and fat cells to accumulate in the body, resulting in mental impairment, swollen liver and coarse features. Also called Hurlers | gangrene gangrenous gargle gargoylism ganglionectomy gastric / strik/ adjective referring to the stomach gastric acid / strik sid/ noun hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach by acid-forming cells gastric flu / strik flu / noun any mild stomach disorder (informal ) gastric juice / strik d u s/ noun the mixture of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, intrinsic factor and mucus secreted by the cells of the lining membrane of the stomach to help the digestion of food (NOTE: Often used in the plural.) gastric lavage / strik l vid / noun a lavage of the stomach, usually to remove a poisonous substance which has been absorbed. Also called gastric acid gastric flu gastric juice gastric lavage stomach washout gastric pit / strik pit/ noun a deep hollow gastric pit syndrome gas / s/ noun 1. a substance such as nitrogen, gas carbon dioxide or air, which is neither solid nor fluid at ordinary temperatures and can expand infinitely (NOTE: The plural gases is used only when referring to different types of gas.) 2. gas which accumulates in the stomach or alimentary canal and causes pain gas and air analgesia / s nd er n()l d i zi/ noun a form of analgesia used when giving birth, in which a mixture of air and gas is given gas exchange / s iks teind / noun the process by which oxygen in the air is exchanged in the lungs for waste carbon dioxide carried by the blood gas gangrene / s ri n/ noun a complication of severe wounds in which the bacterium Clostridium welchii breeds in the wound and then spreads to healthy tissue which is rapidly decomposed with the formation of gas gash / / noun a long deep cut made accidentally by something sharp She had to have three stitches in the gash in her thigh. verb to make a long deep cut in something accidentally She gashed her hand on the broken glass. gasp / sp/ noun a short breath taken with difficulty His breath came in short gasps. verb to breathe with difficulty taking quick breaths She was gasping for breath. gas pain / s pein/ noun a pain caused by excessive formation of gas in the stomach or intestine. flatus gastr- / str/ prefix same as gastro- (used gas and air analgesia | gas exchange | gas gangrene gash gasp gas pain gastr- before vowels) gastrectomy gastrectomy / strektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the stomach | in the mucous membrane forming the walls of the stomach gastric ulcer / strik ls/ noun an ulcer in the stomach. Abbreviation GU gastrin / strin/ noun a hormone which is released into the bloodstream from cells in the lower end of the stomach, stimulated by the presence of protein, and which in turn stimulates the flow of acid from the upper part of the stomach gastrinoma / stri nm/ noun a tumour of the islet cells, leading to excessive gastric acid gastritis / straitis/ noun inflammation of the stomach gastro- / str/ prefix referring to the stomach gastrocele / strsi l/ noun a condition in which part of the stomach wall becomes weak and bulges out. Also called stomach hernia gastrocnemius / strk ni mis/ noun a large calf muscle gastrocolic / str klik/ adjective referring to the stomach and colon gastrocolic reflex / strklik ri fleks/ noun a sudden peristalsis of the colon produced when food is taken into an empty stomach gastroduodenal / str dju di n()l/ adjective referring to the stomach and duodenum gastroduodenoscopy / str dju di nskpi/ noun an examination of the stomach and duodenum gastroduodenostomy / str dju di nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the duodenum to the stomach so as to bypass a blockage in the pylorus gastroenteritis / strent raitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane lining the intestines and the stomach, caused by a viral infection and resulting in diarrhoea and vomiting gastroenterology / strent rld i/ noun the study of the digestive system and its disorders gastric ulcer gastrin gastrinoma | gastritis | gastrogastrocele gastrocnemius | gastrocolic | gastrocolic reflex gastroduodenal | | gastroduodenoscopy | | gastroduodenostomy | | gastroenteritis | | gastroenterology | | Nursing.fm Page 115 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 115 general hospital gastroenterostomy / strent rstmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the small intes| | gastroenterostomy tine directly to the stomach so as to bypass a peptic ulcer gastroepiploic / strepi pliik/ adjective referring to the stomach and greater omentum gastroepiploic artery / strepi pliik tri/ noun an artery linking the gastroduodenal artery to the splenic artery Gastrografin / str r fin/ a trade name for an enema used in bowel X-rays gastroileac reflex / str ili k ri fleks/ noun automatic relaxation of the ileocaecal valve when food is present in the stomach gastrointestinal / strin testin()l/ adjective referring to the stomach and intestine gastrointestinal bleeding. Abbreviation GI gastrojejunostomy / strd id u nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the jejunum to the stomach gastrolith / strli/ noun a calculus in the stomach gastro-oesophageal reflux / str i sfd il ri fl ks/, gastro-oesophageal str i sfd il ri fl ks reflux disease / di zi z/ noun the return of bitter-tasting, partly digested food from the stomach to the oesophagus gastropexy / strpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to attach the stomach to the wall of the abdomen gastroplasty / strpl sti/ noun surgery to correct a deformed stomach gastrorrhoea / str ri/ noun an excessive flow of gastric juices gastroschisis / str saisis/ noun a split in the wall of the abdomen, with viscera passing through it gastroscope / strskp/ noun an instrument formed of a tube or bundle of glass fibres with a lens attached, which a doctor can pass down into the stomach through the mouth to examine the inside of the stomach gastroscopy / strskpi/ noun an examination of the stomach using a gastroscope gastrostomy / strstmi/ noun a surgical operation to create an opening into the stomach from the wall of the abdomen, so that food can be introduced without passing through the mouth and throat gastrotomy / strtmi/ noun a surgical operation to open up the stomach Gauchers disease / eiz di zi z/ noun an enzyme disease where fatty substances accumulate in the lymph glands, spleen and liver, causing anaemia, a swollen spleen and darkening of the skin. The disease can be fatal in children. gastroepiploic | | gastroepiploic artery | | Gastrografin | gastroileac reflex | gastrointestinal | gastrojejunostomy | gastrolith gastro-oesophageal reflux | | | gastropexy gastroplasty gastrorrhoea | gastroschisis | gastroscope gastroscopy | gastrostomy | gastrotomy | Gauchers disease | gauze / z/ noun a thin light material used to make dressings gauze dressing / z dresi/ noun a dressing of thin light material gavage / v / noun the forced feeding of someone who cannot eat or who refuses to eat gay / ei/ adjective relating to sexual activity among people of the same sex GDC abbreviation General Dental Council Gehrigs disease / eiri z di zi z/ noun same as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Geiger counter / ai kant/ noun an instrument for the detection and measurement of radiation [Described 1908. After Hans Geiger gauze dressing gavage | gay GDC Gehrigs disease | Geiger counter gauze (18821945), German physicist who worked with Rutherford at Manchester University, UK] gel /d el/ noun a suspension that sets into a jellygel like solid gelatin / d eltin/ noun a protein found in collagen which is soluble in water, used to make capsules for medicines gelatinous /d l tins/ adjective referring to gelatin or something with a texture like jelly gemellus /d i mels/ noun either of the two muscles arising from the ischium. Also called gelatin gelatinous | gemellus | gemellus superior muscle, gemellus inferior muscle gender / d end/ noun the fact of being of the gender [Described 1882. After Philippe Charles Ernest Gaucher (18541918), French physician and dermatologist.] male or female sex gender reassignment surgery / d end ri sainmnt s d ri/ noun surgery to change someones sex gender reorientation / d end ri rin tei()n/ noun the alteration of a persons sex through surgical and drug treatment gene /d i n/ noun a unit of DNA on a chromosome which governs the synthesis of a protein sequence and determines a particular characteristic general amnesia / d en()rl m ni zi/ noun a sudden and complete loss of memory, to the extent that a person does not even remember who he or she is general anaesthesia / d en()rl ns i zi/ noun loss of feeling and loss of sensation throughout the body, after being given an anaesthetic general anaesthetic / d en()rl ns etik/ noun a substance given to make someone lose consciousness so that a major surgical operation can be carried out General Dental Council / d en()rl dent()l kansl/ noun in the UK, the official body that registers and supervises dentists. Abbreviation GDC general hospital / d en()rl hspit()l/ noun a hospital which does not specialise in particular types of illness or particular age groups gender reassignment surgery | gender reorientation | | gene general amnesia | general anaesthesia | general anaesthetic | General Dental Council general hospital Nursing.fm Page 116 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM General Household Survey 116 genetic disorder General Household Survey / d en()rl hashld s vei/ noun a survey of households carried out continuously by the Office for National Statistics generalised / d en()rlaizd/, generalized adjective 1. spreading throughout the body. Opposite localised 2. not having a specific cause generalised anxiety disorder / d en()rlaizd zaiti dis d/ noun a state of continual anxiety for which there is no specific cause General Medical Council / d en()rl medik()l kansl/ noun in the UK, the official body that licenses qualified doctors to practise medicine. Abbreviation GMC General Optical Council / d en()rl ptik()l kansl/ noun in the UK, the official body that registers and supervises opticians general practice / d en()rl pr ktis/ noun a medical practice where doctors offer first-line medical care for all types of illness to people who live locally, refer them to hospital if necessary and encourage health promotion general practitioner / d en()rl pr k ti()n/ noun a doctor who provides first-line medical care for all types of illness to people who live locally, refers them to hospital if necessary and encourages health promotion. Abbreviation generalised generalised anxiety disorder | | General Medical Council General Optical Council general practice general practitioner | General Household Survey genetic disorder /d netik dis d/ noun a disorder or disease caused by a damaging gene variation that may be inherited genetic engineering /d netik end i niri/ noun same as genetic modification | | genetic engineering | | (informal ) genetic fingerprint /d netik fi print/ noun the pattern of sequences of genetic material unique to an individual. Also called DNA finger| genetic fingerprint print genetic fingerprinting genetic fingerprinting /d netik fi printi/ noun a method of revealing an individuals genetic profile, used in paternity queries and criminal investigations. Also called DNA finger| | printing GP gene replacement therapy gene replacement therapy / d i n ri pleismnt erpi/ noun the replacement of missing genes or damaging gene variations in cells by the insertion of appropriate genes to treat a genetic disorder. Also called gene therapy COMMENT: Gene replacement therapy has been used successfully in animals, and is in the early stages of research in humans, but may be useful in the future treatment of cystic fibrosis, thalassaemia and other genetic disorders. | generic /d nerik/ adjective 1. referring to medicine which does not have a special trademark or brand name given to it by its manufacturer 2. referring to a genus The generic name of this type of bacterium is Staphylococcus. -genesis /d ensis/ suffix production or origin gene therapy / d i n erpi/ noun same as | -genesis gene therapy generic gene replacement therapy genetic /d netik/ adjective referring to genes genetic code /d netik kd/ noun the characteristics of the DNA of a cell which are passed on when the cell divides and so are inherited by a child from its parents genetic counselling /d netik kansli/ noun advice and support given to people if they or their children might be affected by inherited genetic disorders | genetic code | genetic counselling | genetic geneticist /d netisist/ noun a person who specialises in the study of the way in which characteristics and diseases are inherited through the genes genetic modification /d netik mdifi kei()n/, genetic manipulation /d netik m nipj lei()n/ noun the combination of genetic material from different sources to produce organisms with altered characteristics genetics /d netiks/ noun the study of genes, and of the way characteristics and diseases are inherited through the genes genetic screening /d netik skri ni/ noun the process of testing large numbers of people to see if anyone has a particular genetic disorder gene tracking / d i n tr ki/ noun the method used to trace throughout a family the inheritance of a gene such as those causing cystic fibrosis or Huntingtons Chorea, in order to diagnose and predict genetic disorders -genic /d enik/ suffix referring to a product or something which produces genicular /d e nikjl/ adjective referring to the knee genital / d enit()l/ adjective referring to the reproductive organs plural noun genitals same as genital organs genitalia / d eni teili/ noun the genital organs genital organs / d enit()l nz/ plural noun the external organs for reproduction, i.e. the penis and testicles in males and the vulva in females. Also called genitals, genitalia genital wart / d enit()l w t/ noun a wart in the genital or anal area, caused by a sexually transmitted virus genito- /d enit/ prefix referring to the reproductive system genitourinary / d enit jrinri/ adjective referring to both the reproductive and urinary systems. Abbreviation GU genitourinary system / d enit jrinri sistm/ noun the organs of reproduction and urination, including the kidneys | genetic modification | | | | | genetics | genetic screening | gene tracking -genic genicular | genital genitalia | genital organs genital wart genitogenitourinary | genitourinary system | geneticist Nursing.fm Page 117 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 117 genome gigantism gerontology genome / d i nm/ noun the set of all the genes of an individual genotype / d entaip/ noun the genetic makeup of an individual. Compare phenotype gentamicin / d ent maisin/ noun an antibiotic that is effective against a variety of different disease-causing organisms. Patients usually receive it by injection and it can cause serious side effects. gentian violet / d enn vailt/ noun an antiseptic blue dye, used to paint on skin infections and also to stain specimens. Also called genotype gentamicin | gentian violet gerontology / d ern tld i/ noun the study of the process of ageing and the diseases of old people Gesells developmental chart / zels di velp ment()l t t/ noun a chart showing the development of motor reactions and growth patterns in children gestation /d e stei()n/ noun 1. the process of development of a baby from conception to birth in the mothers womb 2. same as gestation | Gesells developmental chart | | | gestation | period crystal violet genu / d enju / noun the knee genu gestational age /d e stei()n()l eid / noun the age of a fetus, calculated from the | gestational age genual / d enjul/ adjective referring to the knee genucubital position / d enju kju bit()l p zi()n/ noun the position of someone resting on their knees and elbows genupectoral position / d enju pektr()l p zi()n/ noun the position of someone resting on their knees and upper chest genus / d i ns/ noun a category of related living organisms A genus is divided into different species. (NOTE: The plural is genera.) genu valgum / d enju v l m/ noun same as knock-knee genu varum / d enju verm/ noun same as genucubital position | | genupectoral position | | genus genu valgum genu varum genual bow legs geri- /d eri/ prefix referring to old age geri- geriatric / d eri trik/ adjective 1. referring to old people 2. specialising in the treatment of old people geriatric unit geriatrician / d eri tri()n/ noun a doctor who specialises in the treatment or study of diseases of old people geriatrics / d eri triks/ noun the study of the diseases and disorders of old people. Compare | geriatrician | geriatrics | geriatric mothers last period to the date of birth gestational diabetes /d e stei()n()l dai bi ti z/ noun a form of diabetes mellitus which develops in a pregnant woman gestation period /d e stei()n pirid/ noun the period, usually of 266 days, from conception to birth, during which the baby develops in the mothers womb. Also called pregnancy gestodene / d estdi n/ noun an oral contraceptive get better / et bet/ verb 1. to become healthy again after being ill He was seriously ill, but seems to be getting better. 2. (of an illness) to stop or become less severe Her cold has got better. getting on / eti n/ adjective becoming elderly Her parents are getting on. GFR abbreviation glomerular filtration rate GH abbreviation growth hormone Ghons focus / nz fks/ noun a spot on the lung produced by the tuberculosis bacillus gestational diabetes | | gestation period | gestodene get better getting on GFR GH Ghons focus [Described 1912. After Anton Ghon (1866 1936), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Prague, Czech Republic.] GI abbreviation gastrointestinal Giardia /d i di/ noun a microscopic protoGI Giardia | paediatrics germ /d m/ noun 1. a microorganism which germ causes a disease, e.g. a virus or bacterium (informal ) Germs are not visible to the naked eye. 2. a part of an organism capable of developing into a new organism German measles / d mn mi z()lz/ noun same as rubella germ cell / d m sel/ noun a cell which is capable of developing into a spermatozoon or ovum. Also called gonocyte germinal epithelium / d min()l epi i lim/ noun the outer layer of the ovary germ layer / d m lei/ noun one of two or three layers of cells in animal embryos which form the organs of the body gerontologist / d ern tld ist/ noun a specialist in gerontology German measles germ cell germinal epithelium | germ layer gerontologist | zoan parasite which causes giardiasis giardiasis / d i daisis/ noun a disorder of the intestine caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia, usually with no symptoms, but in heavy infections the absorption of fat may be affected, causing diarrhoea. Also called lambliasis giddiness / idins/ noun a condition in which someone has difficulty in standing up and keeping their balance because of a feeling that everything is turning around He began to experience attacks of giddiness. GIFT / ift/ noun a procedure in which a surgeon removes eggs from a womans ovary, mixes them with sperm and places them in one of her Fallopian tubes to help her conceive a child. Full form giardiasis | giddiness GIFT gamete intrafallopian transfer gigantism /d ai ntiz()m/ noun a condigigantism | tion in which someone grows very tall, caused by excessive production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland Nursing.fm Page 118 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Gilberts syndrome 118 sk ri sistm/ noun a seven-point scale for evaluating someones level of consciousness glass eye / l s ai/ noun an artificial eye made of glass glaucoma / l km/ noun a condition of the eyes, caused by unusually high pressure of fluid inside the eyeball, resulting in disturbances of vision and blindness gleet / li t/ noun a thin discharge from the vagina, penis, a wound or an ulcer glenohumeral / li n hu mrl/ adjective referring to both the glenoid cavity and the humerus glenohumeral joint / li n hu mrl d int/ noun the shoulder joint glenoid / li nid/ adjective shaped like a small shallow cup or socket glenoid cavity / li nid k viti/, glenoid fossa / li nid fs/ noun a socket in the shoulder joint into which the head of the humerus fits glia / li / noun connective tissue of the central nervous system, surrounding cell bodies, axons and dendrites. Also called neuroglia glial cell / li l sel/ noun a cell in the glia glial tissue / li l tiu / noun same as glia glibenclamide / li beklmaid/ noun a sulphonylurea drug used to treat Type II diabetes mellitus gliclazide / liklzaid/ noun an antibacterial drug used to treat Type II diabetes mellitus glio- / lai/ prefix referring to brain tissue glioma / lai m/ noun any tumour of the glial tissue in the brain or spinal cord gliomyoma / laimai m/ noun a tumour of both the nerve and muscle tissue glipizide / lipizaid/ noun a drug used to reduce the glucose level in the blood Glissons capsule / lis()nz k psju l/ noun a tissue sheath in the liver containing the blood vessels [After Francis Glisson (1597 glass eye glaucoma | gleet glenohumeral | glenohumeral joint | glenoid glenoid cavity glia glial cell glial tissue glibenclamide | gliclazide glioglioma | gliomyoma | glipizide Glissons capsule Gilberts syndrome / ilbts sindrm/ noun an inherited disorder where the liver does not deal with bilirubin correctly Gilliams operation / ilimz p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to correct retroversion of the uterus [After David Tod Gilliam (1844 Gilliams operation | Gilberts syndrome 1923), physician, Columbus, Ohio, USA.] gingiv- gingiv- /d ind iv/ prefix referring to the gums gingiva /d in d aiv/ noun same as gum gingiva | (NOTE: The plural is gingivae.) gingival gingival / d ind iv()l/ adjective relating to the gums gingivectomy / d ind i vektmi/ noun the surgical removal of excess gum tissue gingivitis / d ind i vaitis/ noun inflammation of the gums as a result of bacterial infection ginglymus / d i lims/ noun a joint which allows movement in two directions only, e.g. the knee or elbow. Also called hinge joint. Compare gingivectomy | gingivitis | ginglymus ball and socket joint ginseng / d insen / noun a plant root widely ginseng used as a tonic and a traditional Chinese herbal remedy girdle / d()l/ noun a set of bones making a ring or arch Girdlestones operation / dlstnz p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to relieve osteoarthritis of the hip [After Gathorne Robert girdle Girdlestones operation | Girdlestone (18811950), Nuffield Professor of Orthopaedics at Oxford, UK] glabella / l bel/ noun a flat area of bone in glabella | the forehead between the eyebrows gladiolus / l di ls/ noun the middle section of the sternum gland / l nd/ noun an organ in the body containing cells that secrete substances such as hormones, sweat or saliva which act elsewhere glanders / l ndz/ noun a bacterial disease of horses, which can be caught by humans, with symptoms of high fever and inflammation of the lymph nodes glandular / l ndjl/ adjective referring to glands glandular fever / l ndjl fi v/ noun same as infectious mononucleosis glans / l nz/ noun a rounded part at the end of the penis or clitoris. See illustration at UROGENIgladiolus | gland glanders glandular glandular fever glans 1677), philosopher, physician and anatomist at Cambridge and London, UK] globin / lbin/ noun a protein which comglobin TAL SYSTEM (MALE) glare in Supplement glare / le/ noun 1. a long stare that expresses a negative emotion such as anger 2. an uncomfortably or dazzlingly bright light 3. scattered bright light when examining something with a microscope verb 1. to stare angrily 2. to shine uncomfortably brightly 3. to be very obvious or conspicuous Glasgow coma scale / l s km skeil/, Glasgow scoring system / l s Glasgow coma scale bines with other substances to form compounds such as haemoglobin and myoglobin globule / lbju l/ noun a round drop, especially of fat globulin / lbjlin/ noun a protein, present in blood, belonging to a group that includes antibodies globus / lbs/ noun any ball-shaped part of the body globus hystericus / lbs hi steriks/ noun a feeling of not being able to swallow, caused by worry or embarrassment glomerular / l merl/ adjective referring to a glomerulus globule globulin globus globus hystericus | glomerular | Nursing.fm Page 119 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 119 glycaemia glucose glomerular capsule / l merl k psju l/ noun same as Bowmans capsule glomerular filtration rate / l merl fil trei()n reit/ noun the rate at which the kid| glomerular filtration rate | | glomerular capsule neys filter blood and remove waste matter glomerular tuft / l merl t ft/ noun a group of blood vessels in the kidney which filter the blood glomeruli plural of glomerulus glomerulitis / l mer laitis/ noun inflammation causing lesions of glomeruli in the kidney glomerulonephritis / l merlne fraitis/ noun same as Brights disease glomerulus / l merls/ noun a group of blood vessels which filter waste matter from the blood in a kidney (NOTE: The plural is glomerglomerular tuft | glomeruli glomerulitis | | glomerulonephritis | | glomerulus | glucose / lu kz/ noun a simple sugar found in some fruit, but also broken down from white sugar or carbohydrate and absorbed into the body or secreted by the kidneys. Also called dextrose glucose tolerance test / lu kz tlrns test/ noun a test for diabetes mellitus, in which someone eats glucose and his or her urine and blood are tested at regular intervals. Abbreviation glucose tolerance test GTT glue ear glue ear / lu i/ noun a condition in which fluid forms behind the eardrum and causes deafness. Also called secretory otitis media glue-sniffing / lu snifi/ noun solvent glue-sniffing abuse glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase uli.) gloss- gloss- / ls/ prefix same as glosso- (used before vowels) glossa / ls/ noun same as tongue glossal / ls()l/ adjective relating to the glossa glossal tongue glossectomy / l sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the tongue glossitis / l saitis/ noun inflammation of the surface of the tongue glosso- / ls/ prefix referring to the tongue glossodynia / ls dini/ noun pain in the tongue glossopharyngeal / lsf rin d i l/ adjective relating to the tongue and pharynx glossopharyngeal nerve / lsf rin d i l n v/ noun the ninth cranial nerve which controls the pharynx, the salivary glands and part of the tongue glossoplegia / ls pli d / noun paralysis of the tongue glossotomy / l stmi/ noun a surgical incision into the tongue glottis / ltis/ noun an opening in the larynx between the vocal cords, which forms the entrance to the main airway from the pharynx gluc- / lu k/ prefix referring to glucose glucagon / lu k n/ noun a hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which increases the level of blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen glucagonoma / lu k nm/ noun a tumour of the cells of the pancreas that produces glucagon glucocorticoid / lu k k tikid/ noun any corticosteroid which breaks down carbohydrates and fats for use by the body, produced by the adrenal cortex gluconeogenesis / lu k ni d ensis/ noun the production of glucose in the liver from protein or fat reserves glossectomy | glossitis | glossoglossodynia | glossopharyngeal | glossopharyngeal nerve | glossoplegia | glossotomy | glottis glucglucagon glucagonoma | glucocorticoid | gluconeogenesis | | glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase / lu t mik ksl si tik tr ns mineiz/ noun an enzyme used to test for viral hepatitis glutamic pyruvic transaminase / lu t mik pai ru vik tr ns mineiz/ noun an enzyme produced in the liver and released into the blood if the liver is damaged gluteal / lu til/ adjective referring to the buttocks gluteal artery / lu til tri/ noun one of the two arteries supplying the buttocks, the inferior gluteal artery or the superior gluteal artery gluteal muscle / lu til m s()l/ noun a muscle in the buttock. gluteus gluteal vein / lu til vein/ noun one of two veins draining the buttocks, the inferior gluteal vein and the superior gluteal vein gluten / lu t()n/ noun a protein found in some cereals, which makes the grains form a sticky paste when water is added gluten enteropathy / lu t()n ent rpi/ same as gluten-induced enteropathy gluten-induced enteropathy / lu t()n in dju st ent rpi/ noun 1. an allergic disease mainly affecting children, in which the lining of the intestine is sensitive to gluten, preventing the small intestine from digesting fat 2. a condition in adults where the villi in the intestine become smaller and so reduce the surface which can absorb nutrients (NOTE: Symptoms include a | | | glutamic pyruvic transaminase | | | gluteal gluteal artery gluteal muscle gluteal vein gluten gluten enteropathy | gluten-induced enteropathy | | swollen abdomen, pale diarrhoea, abdominal pains and anaemia.) also called coeliac disease gluteus / lu tis/ noun one of three muscles in gluteus the buttocks, responsible for movements of the hip. The largest is the gluteus maximus, while the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are smaller. glyc- / laik/ prefix same as glyco- (used before glyc- vowels) glycaemia glycaemia / lai si mi/ noun the level of glucose found in the blood. hypoglycaemia, | hyperglycaemia Nursing.fm Page 120 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM glycerin glycerin 120 Golgi cell glycerin / lisrin/, glycerine, glycerol / lisrl/ noun a colourless viscous sweet-tasting liquid present in all fats (NOTE: Synthetic glycerin is used in various medicinal preparations and also as a lubricant in items such as toothpaste and cough medicines.) glyco- / laik/ prefix referring to sugar glycogen / laikd n/ noun a type of starch, glycoglycogen converted from glucose by the action of insulin, and stored in the liver as a source of energy glycogenesis / laik d ensis/ noun the process by which glucose is converted into glycogen in the liver glycogenolysis / laikd nlsis/ noun the process by which glycogen is broken down to form glucose glycolysis / lai klsis/ noun the metabolic breakdown of glucose to release energy glycoside / laiksaid/ noun a chemical compound of a type which is formed from a simple sugar and another compound (NOTE: Many of glycogenesis | glycogenolysis | glycolysis | glycoside Golgi cell / ld i sel/ noun a type of nerve cell in the central nervous system, either with long axons (Golgi Type 1) or without axons (Golgi Type 2) gomphosis / m fsis/ noun a joint which cannot move, like that between a tooth and the jaw gonad / n d/ noun a sex gland which produces gametes and also sex hormones, e.g. a testicle in males or an ovary in females gonadotrophic hormone / nd trfik h mn/ noun one of two hormones, the follicle-stimulating hormone and the luteinising hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland which have an effect on the ovaries in females and on the testes in males gonadotrophin / nd trfin/ noun any of a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates the sex glands at puberty. human chorionic gonadotrophin goni- / ni/ prefix same as gonio- (used gomphosis | gonad gonadotrophic hormone | gonadotrophin | goni- the drugs produced from plants are glycosides.) glycosuria / laik sjri/ noun a high glycosuria | before a vowel ) level of sugar in the urine, a symptom of diabetes mellitus GMC abbreviation General Medical Council gnathic / n ik/ adjective referring to the jaw gnathoplasty / n pl sti/ noun surgery on the jaw gnawing / n i/ adjective referring to a physical or emotional feeling that is persistent and uncomfortable a gnawing pain gnawing anxiety goblet cell / blt sel/ noun a tube-shaped cell in the epithelium which secretes mucus GOC abbreviation General Optical Council goitre / it/ noun an excessive enlargement of the thyroid gland, seen as a swelling round the neck, caused by a lack of iodine (NOTE: The US GMC gnathic gnathoplasty | gnawing goblet cell GOC goitre spelling is goiter.) gold / ld/ noun a soft yellow-coloured pregold cious metal, used as a compound in various drugs, and sometimes as a filling for teeth (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Au.) golden hour / ld()n a/ noun the first hour after a serious injury when the most difference can be made to the patients health golfers elbow / lfz elb/ noun inflammation of the tendons of the elbow Golgi apparatus / ld i p reits/ noun a folded membranous structure inside the cell cytoplasm which stores and transports enzymes and hormones [Described 1898. After Camillo Golgi golfers elbow Golgi apparatus | golden hour (18431926), Professor of Histology and later Rector of the University of Pavia, Italy. In 1906 he shared the Nobel Prize with Santiago Ramn y Cajal for work on the nervous sytem.] gonio- / ni/ prefix referring to an angle gonion / nin/ noun the outer point at which the lower jawbone angles upwards goniopuncture / ni p kt/ noun a surgical operation for draining fluid from the eyes of someone who has glaucoma goniotomy / ni tmi/ noun a surgical operation to treat glaucoma by cutting Schlemms canal gonococcal / n kk()l/ adjective referring to gonococcus gonococcus / n kks/ noun a type of bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoea, which causes gonorrhoea (NOTE: The plural is gonococci.) gonocyte / nsait/ noun same as germ cell gonorrhoea / n ri / noun a sexually transmitted disease which produces painful irritation of the mucous membrane and a watery discharge from the vagina or penis goose bumps / u s b mps/, goose flesh / u s fle/, goose pimples / u s pimp()lz/ noun a reaction of the skin when someone is cold or frightened, the skin being raised into many little bumps by the action of the arrector pili muscles. Also called cutis anserina gorget / d it/ noun a surgical instrument used to remove stones from the bladder gouge / ad / noun a surgical instrument like a chisel, used to cut bone gout / at/ noun a disease in which unusual quantities of uric acid are produced and form crystals in the cartilage round joints. Also called gonion goniopuncture | goniotomy | gonococcal | gonococcus | gonocyte gonorrhoea | goose bumps gorget gouge gout gonio- podagra GP GP abbreviation general practitioner Nursing.fm Page 121 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 121 greater vestibular glands granule GP co-op / d i pi k p/ noun a group of GPs who work together to provide out-of-hours care without making any profit graft / r ft/ noun the act of transplanting an organ or tissue to replace one which is not functioning or which is diseased a skin graft verb to take a healthy organ or tissue and transplant it in place of diseased or malfunctioning organ or The surgeons grafted a new section of tissue bone at the side of the skull. autograft, homograft graft GP co-op graft versus host disease / r ft v ss hst di zi z/ noun a condition which develops when cells from the grafted tissue react against the persons own tissue, causing skin disorders. Abbreviation GVHD grain / rein/ noun 1. a very small piece of something hard such as salt 2. a measure of weight equal to 0.0648 grams. Symbol gr -gram / r m/ suffix a record in the form of a picture Gram-negative bacterium / r m ne tiv b k tirim/ noun a bacterium which takes up the red counterstain, after the alcohol has washed out the first violet dye Gram-positive bacterium / r m pzitiv b k tirim/ noun a bacterium which retains violet dye and appears blue-black when viewed under the microscope Grams stain / r mz stein/ noun a method of staining bacteria so that they can be identified | grain -gram Gram-negative bacterium | Gram-positive bacterium | Grams stain graft versus host disease granule / r nju l/ noun a very small piece of something hard granulocyte / r njlsait/ noun a type of leucocyte or white blood cell which contains granules, e.g. a basophil, eosinophil or neutrophil granulocytopenia / r njl sait pi ni/ noun a usually fatal disease caused by the lowering of the number of granulocytes in the blood due to bone marrow malfunction granuloma / r nj lm/ noun a mass of granulation tissue which forms at the site of bacterial infections (NOTE: The plural is granulogranulocyte granulocytopenia | | granuloma | mata or granulomas.) granulomatosis / r njlm tsis/ noun persistent inflammation leading to the for| granulomatosis [Described 1884. After Hans Christian Joachim Gram (18531938), Professor of Medicine in Copenhagen, Denmark. He discovered the stain by accident as a student in Berlin, Germany.] mation of nodules graph / r f/ noun a diagram which shows the relationship between quantities as a line graph- / r f/ prefix writing -graph / r f/ suffix a machine which records something as pictures -grapher / rf/ suffix a technician who operates a machine which records -graphy / rfi/ suffix the technique of study through pictures grattage / r t / noun a procedure that involves scraping the surface of an ulcer which is healing slowly to make it heal more rapidly gravel / r v()l/ noun small stones which pass from the kidney to the urinary system, causing pain in the ureter Graves disease / reivz di zi z/ noun same as exophthalmic goitre [Described 1835. After graph graph-graph -grapher -graphy grattage | gravel Graves disease | grand mal / rn m l/ noun a type of epilepsy, in which someone becomes unconscious and falls down, while the muscles become stiff and twitch violently grand multiparity / r n m lti p riti/ noun the fact of having given birth to more than four children granular / r njl/ adjective made up of granules granular cast / r njl k st/ noun a cast composed of cells filled with protein and fatty granules granular leucocyte / r njl lu ksait/ noun same as granulocyte granulation / r nj lei()n/ noun the formation of rough red tissue on the surface of a wound or site of infection, the first stage in the healing process granulation tissue / r nj lei()n tiu / noun soft tissue, consisting mainly of tiny blood vessels and fibres, which forms over a wound grand multiparity | granular granular cast granular leucocyte granulation | granulation tissue | grand mal Robert James Graves (17961853), Irish physician at the Meath Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, where he was responsible for introducing clinical ward work for medical students.] gravid / r vid/ adjective pregnant gravides multiparae / r vidi z m lti p ri / plural noun women who have given birth gravid gravides multiparae | to at least four live babies gravity / r viti/ noun the importance or potential danger of a disease or situation Grawitz tumour / r vits tju m/ noun a malignant tumour in kidney cells [Described gravity Grawitz tumour 1883. After Paul Albert Grawitz (18501932), Professor of Pathology at Greifswald, Germany.] gray / rei/ noun an SI unit of measurement of absorbed radiation equal to 100 rads. Symbol Gy. rad graze / reiz/ noun a scrape on the skin surface, making some blood flow verb to scrape the gray graze skin surface accidentally greater curvature / reit k vt/ noun a convex line of the stomach greater vestibular glands / reit ve stibjl l ndz/ noun same as Bartholins greater curvature greater vestibular glands | glands Nursing.fm Page 122 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM great toe 122 body which encourages particular cells to grow a nerve growth factor growth hormone / r h mn/ noun a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland during deep sleep, which stimulates growth of the long bones and protein synthesis. Also called somatgrowth hormone great toe / reit t/ noun same as big toe greenstick fracture / ri nstik fr kt/ noun a type of fracture occurring in children, where a long bone bends, but is not completely broken grey commissure / rei kmisj/ noun part of the grey matter nearest to the central canal of the spinal cord, where axons cross over each other grey matter / rei m t/ noun nerve tissue which is of a dark grey colour and forms part of the central nervous system greenstick fracture grey commissure grey matter great toe ropin grumbling appendix / r mbli pendiks/ noun a vermiform appendix that is always slightly inflamed (informal ) chronic appendi| grumbling appendix COMMENT: In the brain, grey matter encloses the white matter, but in the spinal cord, white matter encloses the grey matter. citis GU abbreviation 1. gastric ulcer 2. genitourinary guanine / w ni n/ noun one of the four basic GU guanine grief counsellor / ri f kans()l/ noun a person who helps someone to cope with the feelings they have when someone such as a close relative dies gripe water / raip w t/ noun a solution of glucose and alcohol, used to relieve abdominal pains in babies groin / rin/ noun a junction at each side of the body where the lower abdomen joins the top of the thighs He had a dull pain in his groin. gripe water groin grief counsellor (NOTE: For other terms referring to the groin, see inguinal.) grommet / rmit/ noun a tube which can be grommet chemicals in DNA guardian ad litem / din d li tm/ noun a person who acts on behalf of a minor who is a defendant in a court case guardian Caldicott / din k ldikt/ noun in the UK, a person appointed by a hospital or Health Trust to make sure that information about patients is kept confidential, following the Caldicott Report of 1997 Guillain-Barr syndrome / i j n b rei sindrm/ noun a nervous disorder in which, after a non-specific infection, demyelination of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves takes place, leading to generalised weakness and sometimes respiratory paralysis. Also called Landrys guardian ad litem guardian Caldicott Guillain-Barr syndrome passed from the external auditory meatus into the middle ear, usually to allow fluid to drain off, as in someone who has glue ear ground substance / rand s bstns/ noun same as matrix group / ru p/ noun several people, animals or things which are all close together A group of patients were waiting in the surgery. verb to bring things or people together in a group, or come together in a group The drugs are grouped under the heading antibiotics. group practice / ru p pr ktis/ noun a medical practice where several doctors or dentists share the same office building and support services group therapy / ru p erpi/ noun a type of psychotherapy where a group of people with the same disorder meet together with a therapist to discuss their condition and try to help each other growing pains / ri peinz/ plural noun pains associated with adolescence, which can be a form of rheumatic fever growth / r/ noun 1. the process of increasing in size the growth in the population since 1960 The disease stunts childrens growth. 2. a cyst or tumour The doctor found a cancerous growth on the left breast. He had an operation to remove a small growth from his chin. growth factor / r f kt/ noun a chemical, especially a polypeptide, produced in the ground substance group group practice group therapy growing pains growth growth factor paralysis [Described 1916. After Georges Guillain (18761961), Professor of Neurology in Paris, France, Jean Alexandre Barr (1880 1967), Professor of Neurology in Strasbourg, France.] guillotine / ilti n/ noun a surgical instrument guillotine for cutting out tonsils guinea worm / ini w m/ noun same as Draguinea worm cunculus Gulf War syndrome / lf w sindrm/ noun a collection of unexplained symptoms, including fatigue, skin disorders, and muscle pains, affecting some soldiers who fought in the Gulf War in 1991 gullet / lit/ noun same as oesophagus gum / m/ noun the soft tissue covering the part of the jaw which surrounds the teeth Her gums are red and inflamed. A build-up of tartar can lead to gum disease. Also called gingiva (NOTE: gullet gum Gulf War syndrome For other terms referring to the gums, see words beginning with gingiv-.) gumboil / mbil/ noun an abscess on the gumboil gum near a tooth gustation / stei()n/ noun the act of tasting gustatory / stt()ri/ adjective referring to the sense of taste gut / t/ noun 1. the tubular organ for the digestion and absorption of food. Also called intestine 2. a type of thread, made from the intestines of sheep. It is used to sew up internal incisions and gustation | gustatory gut Nursing.fm Page 123 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 123 dissolves slowly so does not need to be removed. catgut Guthrie test gynaecological | gyrus gynaecological / ainik ld ik()l/ adjective referring to the treatment of diseases of women gynaecologist / aini kld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the treatment of diseases of women gynaecology / aini kld i/ noun the study of female sex organs and the treatment of diseases of women in general gynaecomastia / ainik m sti/ noun the unusual development of breasts in a male gyne / aini/ same as gynaecology, gynaecological (informal ) a gyne appointment gypsum / d ipsm/ noun calcium sulphate, used as plaster of Paris gyrus / d airs/ noun a raised part of the cerebral cortex between the sulci gynaecologist | gynaecology | gynaecomastia | gyne gypsum gyrus Guthrie test / ri test/ noun a test used on babies to detect the presence of phenylketonuria [After R. Guthrie (191695), US paediatrician.] gutta / t/ noun a drop of liquid, as used in treatment of the eyes (NOTE: The plural is guttae.) gutta gutter splint / t splint/ noun a shaped container in which a broken limb can rest without being completely surrounded GVHD gutter splint GVHD abbreviation graft versus host disease gyn- / ain/ prefix same as gynae- (used before gyn- a vowel ) gynae- gynae- referring to women Nursing.fm Page 124 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM H H2-receptor antagonist / eit tu ri septr n t nist/ noun a drug that inhibits the production of stomach acid and so relieves indigestion and gastric ulcers habit / h bit/ noun 1. an action which is an automatic response to a stimulus 2. a regular way of doing something He got into the habit of swimming every day before breakfast. Shes got out of the habit of taking any exercise. habit-forming drug / h bit f mi dr / noun a drug which is addictive habitual abortion /h bitul b ()n/ noun a condition in which a woman has abortions with successive pregnancies habituation /h bitu ei()n/ noun the fact of being psychologically but not physically addicted to or dependent on a drug, alcohol or other substance habitus / h bits/ noun the general physical appearance of a person, including build and posture haem /hi m/ noun a molecule containing iron which binds proteins to form haemoproteins such as haemoglobin and myoglobin haem- /hi m/ prefix same as haemo- (used | | habit habit-forming drug habitual abortion | | habituation | | habitus haem haemH2-receptor antagonist haemato- haemato- /hi mt/ prefix referring to blood haematocolpos / hi mt klps/ noun a condition in which the vagina is filled with blood at menstruation because the hymen has no opening haematocrit / hi mtkrit/ noun same as haematocolpos | haematocrit packed cell volume haematocyst / hi mtsist/ noun a cyst haematocyst before vowels) haemagglutination / hi m lu ti nei()n/ noun the clumping of red blood cells, often used | haemagglutination to test for the presence of antibodies haemangioma / hi m nd i m/ noun a harmless tumour which forms in blood vessels and appears on the skin as a birthmark haemarthrosis / hi m rsis/ noun pain and swelling caused by blood leaking into a joint haematemesis / hi m temsis/ noun a condition in which someone vomits blood, usually because of internal bleeding haematic /hi m tik/ adjective referring to blood haematin / hi mtin/ noun a substance which forms from haemoglobin when bleeding takes place haematinic / hi m tinik/ noun a drug which increases haemoglobin in blood, used to treat anaemia, e.g. an iron compound haemangioma | haemarthrosis | haematemesis | haematic | haematin haematinic | which contains blood haematological / hi mt ld ik()l/ adjective referring to haematology haematologist / hi m tld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in haematology haematology / hi m tld i/ noun the scientific study of blood, its formation and its diseases haematoma / hi m tm/ noun a mass of blood under the skin caused by a blow or by the effects of an operation haematometra / hi m tmitr/ noun excessive bleeding in the uterus haematomyelia / hi mtmai i li/ noun a condition in which blood leaks into the spinal cord haematopoiesis / hi mtpi i sis/ noun same as haemopoiesis haematosalpinx / hi mt s lpiks/ noun same as haemosalpinx haematozoon / hi mt zn/ noun a parasite living in the blood (NOTE: The plural is haehaematological | haematologist | haematology | haematoma | haematometra | haematomyelia | haematopoiesis | haematosalpinx | haematozoon | matozoa.) haematuria / hi m tjri/ noun the unusual presence of blood in the urine, as a result of injury or disease of the kidney or bladder haemin / hi min/ noun a salt derived from haemoglobin, used in the treatment of porphyria haemo- /hi m/ prefix referring to blood haemochromatosis / hi mkrm tsis/ noun an inherited disease in which the body absorbs and stores too much iron, causing cirrhosis of the liver and giving the skin a dark colour. Also called bronze diabetes haemoconcentration / hi m knsn trei()n/ noun an increase in the percentage of red blood cells because the volume of plasma is reduced. Compare haemodilution | haemin haemohaemochromatosis haemoconcentration | haematuria | | Nursing.fm Page 125 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 125 haemorrhagic disorder haemocytometer / hi msai tmit/ noun a glass jar in which a sample of blood is diluted and the blood cells counted haemodialysed patient / hi mdailaizd pei()nt/ noun someone who has undergone haemodialysis haemodialysis / hi mdai lsis/ noun same as kidney dialysis haemodilution / hi mdai lu ()n/ noun a decrease in the percentage of red blood cells because the volume of plasma has increased. Compare haemoconcentration haemoglobin / hi m lbin/ noun a red respiratory pigment formed of haem and globin in red blood cells which gives blood its red colour. It absorbs oxygen in the lungs and carries it in the blood to the tissues. Abbreviation Hb. oxyhae| haemodialysed patient haemodialysis | haemodilution | haemoglobin | haemocytometer haemoperitoneum / hi mperit ni m/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the | haemoperitoneum moglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin haemoglobinaemia / hi m lbi ni mi/ noun a comdition in which haemoglobin is found in blood plasma haemoglobinopathy / hi m lbi npi/ noun an inherited disease of a group which result from damaging variations in the production of haemoglobin, e.g. sickle-cell anaemia haemoglobinuria / hi m lbi njri/ noun a condition in which haemoglobin is found in the urine haemogram / hi m r m/ noun the printed result of a blood test haemolysin / hi m laisin/ noun a protein which destroys red blood cells haemolysis /hi mlsis/ noun the destruction of red blood cells haemolytic / hi m litik/ adjective destroying red blood cells noun a substance which destroys red blood cells, e.g. snake venom haemolytic anaemia / hi mlitik ni mi/ noun a condition in which the destruction of red blood cells is about six times the usual rate, and the supply of new cells from the bone marrow cannot meet the demand haemolytic disease of the newborn / hi mlitik di zi z v nju b n/ noun a condition in which the red blood cells of the fetus are destroyed because antibodies in the mothers blood react against them haemolytic jaundice / hi mlitik d ndis/ noun jaundice caused by haemolysis of the red blood cells. Also called prehepatic | haemoglobinopathy | haemoglobinuria | haemogram haemolysin | haemolysis | haemolytic | haemolytic anaemia | haemolytic disease of the newborn | haemolytic jaundice haemoglobinaemia peritoneal cavity haemophilia A / hi mfili ei/ noun the most common type of haemophilia, in which the inability to synthesise Factor VIII, a protein that promotes blood clotting, means that the blood clots very slowly haemophilia B / hi mfili bi / noun a less common type of haemophilia, in which the inability to synthesise Factor IX, a protein that promotes blood clotting, means that the blood clots very slowly. Also called Christmas disease haemophiliac / hi m fili k/ noun a person who has haemophilia haemophilic / hi m filik/ adjective referring to haemophilia Haemophilus /hi mfils/ noun a genus of bacteria which needs specific factors in the blood to grow Haemophilus influenzae /hi mfils influ enz/ noun a bacterium which lives in healthy throats, but which can cause pneumonia if a persons resistance is lowered by a bout of flu Haemophilus influenzae type b /hi mfils influ enz taip bi / noun a bacterium which causes meningitis. Abbreviation Hib haemophthalmia / hi mf lmi/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the vitreous humour of the eye haemopneumothorax / hi m nju m r ks/ noun same as pneumohaemothorax haemopoiesis / hi mpi i sis/ noun the continual production of blood cells and blood platelets in the bone marrow. Also called blood haemophilia A haemophilia B haemophiliac | haemophilic | Haemophilus | Haemophilus influenzae | | Haemophilus influenzae type b | | haemophthalmia | haemopneumothorax | | haemopoiesis | formation haemopoietic jaundice haemolytic uraemic syndrome / hi mlitik j ri mik sindrm/ noun a condition in which haemolytic anaemia damages the kidneys haemopericardium / hi mperi k dim/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the pericardium | haemopericardium | haemolytic uraemic syndrome haemopoietic / hi mpi etik/ adjective referring to the formation of blood in the bone marrow haemoptysis /hi mptsis/ noun a condition in which someone coughs blood from the lungs, caused by a serious illness such as anaemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis or cancer haemorrhage / hem()rid / noun the loss of a large quantity of blood, especially from a burst blood vessel He died of a brain haemorrhage. verb to bleed heavily The injured man was haemorrhaging from the mouth. haemorrhagic / hem r d ik/ adjective referring to heavy bleeding haemorrhagic disease of the newborn / hemr d ik di zi z v nju b n/ noun a disease of newly born babies, which makes them haemorrhage easily, caused by temporary lack of prothrombin haemorrhagic disorder /hem r d ik dis d/ noun a disorder in which haemorrhages occur, e.g. haemophilia | haemoptysis | haemorrhage haemorrhagic | haemorrhagic disease of the newborn | haemorrhagic disorder | | Nursing.fm Page 126 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM haemorrhagic stroke 126 haemorrhagic stroke / hemr d ik strk/ noun a stroke caused by a burst blood vessel haemorrhoidectomy / hemri dektmi/ noun the surgical removal of haemorrhoids haemorrhoids / hemridz/ plural noun swollen veins in the anorectal passage. Also called piles haemosalpinx /hi m s lpiks/ noun the accumulation of blood in the Fallopian tubes haemosiderosis / hi msid rsis/ noun a disorder in which iron forms large deposits in the tissue, causing haemorrhaging and destruction of red blood cells haemostasis / hi m steisis/ noun the process of stopping bleeding or slowing the movement of blood haemostat / hi mst t/ noun a device which stops bleeding, e.g. a clamp haemostatic / hi m st tik/ adjective stopping bleeding noun a drug which stops bleeding haemothorax / hi m r ks/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the pleural cavity Hageman factor / h mn f kt/ noun same as Factor XII HAI abbreviation Hospital Acquired Infection hair cell / he sel/ noun a receptor cell which converts fluid pressure changes into nerve impulses carried in the auditory nerve (NOTE: For haemorrhoidectomy | haemorrhoids haemosalpinx | haemosiderosis | haemostasis | haemostat haemostatic | haemothorax | Hageman factor HAI hair cell haemorrhagic stroke hallucinogen / h lu sind n/ noun a drug which causes hallucinations, e.g. cannabis or LSD hallucinogenic /h lu sin d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which produces hallucinations a hallucinogenic fungus hallux / h lks/ noun the big toe (NOTE: The | hallucinogenic | | hallux hallucinogen plural is halluces.) other terms referring to hair, see words beginning with pilo-, trich-, tricho-.) hair follicle / he flik()l/ noun the cells and tissue that surround the root of a hair hairline fracture / helain fr kt/ noun a very slight crack in a bone caused by injury hair papilla / he p pil/ noun a part of the skin containing capillaries which feed blood to the hair half-life / h f laif/ noun 1. a measurement of the period of time taken before the concentration of a drug has reached half of what it was when it was administered 2. the time taken for half the atoms in a radioactive isotope to decay halitosis / h li tsis/ noun a condition in which a person has breath which smells unpleasant. Also called bad breath hallucinate /h lu sineit/ verb to have hallucinations The patient was hallucinating. hallucination /h lu si nei()n/ noun an experience of seeing an imaginary scene or hearing an imaginary sound as clearly as if it were really there hallucinatory /h lu sint()ri/ adjective referring to a drug which causes hallucinations hairline fracture hair papilla | half-life halitosis | hallucinate | hallucination | | hallucinatory | hair follicle hallux valgus / h lks v l s/ noun a condition of the foot, where the big toe turns towards the other toes and a bunion is formed haloperidol / h l peridl/ noun a tranquilliser used in the treatment of schizophrenia, mania and psychoses halo splint / heil splint/ noun a device used to keep the head and neck still so that they can recover from injury or an operation halothane / h lein/ noun a general anaesthetic that is given by inhalation hamartoma / h m tm/ noun a benign tumour containing tissue from any organ hamate / heimeit/, hamate bone / heimeit bn/ noun one of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist, shaped like a hook. Also called unciform bone. See illustration at HAND in Supplement hammer / h m/ noun same as malleus hammer toe / h m t/ noun a toe which has the middle joint permanently bent downwards hamstring / h mstri/ noun one of a group of tendons behind the knee, which link the thigh muscles to the bones in the lower leg hamstring muscles / h mstri m s()lz/ plural noun a group of muscles at the back of the thigh, which flex the knee and extend the gluteus maximus hand /h nd/ noun the part at the end of the arm, beyond the wrist, which is used for holding things He injured his hand with a saw. hand, foot and mouth disease / h nd ft n ma di zi z/ noun a mild viral infection in children, causing small blisters handicap / h ndik p/ noun a physical or mental condition which prevents someone from doing some everyday activities verb to prevent someone from doing an everyday activity (NOTE: haloperidol | halo splint halothane hamartoma | hamate hammer hammer toe hamstring hamstring muscles hand hand, foot and mouth disease | handicap hallux valgus The word handicap is now usually avoided.) handicapped handicapped / h ndik pt/ adjective referring to a person who has a disability (NOTE: The word handicapped is now usually avoided.) hangnail hangnail / h neil/ noun a piece of torn skin at the side of a nail hangover / h v/ noun a condition occurring after a person has drunk too much alcohol, with dehydration caused by inhibition of the antidiuretic hormone in the kidneys. The symptoms include headache, inability to stand noise and trembling of the hands. hangover Nursing.fm Page 127 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 127 Health and Safety Executive Hb Hansens disease / h nsnz di zi z/ noun same as leprosy haploid / h plid/ adjective referring to a cell such as a gamete where each chromosome occurs only once. In humans the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. hapt- /h pt/ prefix relating to the sense of touch hardening of the arteries / h d()ni v triz/ noun same as atherosclerosis harelip / helip/ noun same as cleft lip Harrisons sulcus / h risnz s lk()s/, Harrisons groove / h ris()nz ru v/ noun a hollow on either side of the chest which develops in children who have difficulty in breathing, seen especially in cases of rickets Harriss operation / h risiz p rei()n/ noun the surgical removal of the prostate gland | haploid hapthardening of the arteries harelip Harrisons sulcus Harriss operation | Hansens disease Hb abbreviation haemoglobin HBV abbreviation hepatitis B virus hCG abbreviation human chorionic gonadotrophin HCHS abbreviation Health and Community Health Services HDL abbreviation high density lipoprotein head /hed/ noun 1. the round top part of the body, which contains the eyes, nose, mouth, brain, etc (NOTE: For other terms referring to the HBV hCG HCHS HDL head head, see words beginning with cephal-, cephalo-.) 2. a rounded top part of a bone which [After S.H. Harris (18801936), Australian surgeon.] Hartmanns solution / h tmnz s lu ()n/ noun a chemical solution used in drips Hartmanns solution | to replace body fluids lost in dehydration, particularly as a result of infantile gastroenteritis [Described 1932. After Alexis Frank Hartmann (18981964), paediatrician, St Louis, Missouri, USA.] Hartnup disease / h tnp di zi z/ noun an Hartnup disease | fits into a socket head of humerus head of femur headache / hedeik/ noun a pain in the head, caused by changes in pressure in the blood vessels feeding the brain which act on the nerves. Also called cephalalgia head cold / hed kld/ noun a minor illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, excess mucus in the nose and sneezing head louse / hed las/ noun a small insect of the Pediculus genus, which lives on the scalp and sucks blood. Also called Pediculus capitis headache head cold head louse (NOTE: The plural is head lice.) Heaf test / hi f test/ noun a test in which tuberHeaf test inherited condition affecting amino acid metabolism and producing thick skin and impaired mental development [After the name of the family in which this hereditary disease was first recorded.] harvest / h vist/ verb to take something for harvest culin is injected into the skin to find out whether a person is immune to tuberculosis. Mantoux test use elsewhere, e.g. a piece of skin for a graft or eggs for IVF Hashimotos disease /h i mtz di zi z/ noun a type of goitre in middle-aged women, where the woman is sensitive to secretions from her own thyroid gland, and, in extreme cases, the face swells and the skin turns yellow [Described Hashimotos disease | | 1912. After Hakuru Hashimoto (18811934), Japanese surgeon.] hashish / h i/ noun cannabis haustrum / h strm/ noun a sac on the outside of the colon (NOTE: The plural is haustra.) HAV abbreviation hepatitis A virus Haversian canal /h v ()n k n l/ noun a hashish haustrum HAV Haversian canal | | fine canal which runs vertically through the Haversian systems in compact bone, containing blood vessels and lymph ducts [Described 1689. After Clopton Havers (16571702), English surgeon.] Haversian system /h v ()n sistm/ noun a unit of compact bone built around a Haversian system | Haversian canal, made of a series of bony layers which form a cylinder. Also called osteon hayfever / heifi v/ noun inflammation in the nasal passage and eyes caused by an allergic reaction to plant pollen hayfever heal /hi l/ verb 1. (of wound ) to return to a healthy state After six weeks, her wound had still not healed. A minor cut will heal faster if it is left without a bandage. 2. to make someone or something get better healing / hi li/ noun the process of getting better a substance which will accelerate the healing process healing by first intention / hi li bai f st in tenn/ noun the healing of a clean wound where the tissue reforms quickly healing by second intention / hi li bai seknd in tenn/ noun the healing of an infected wound or ulcer, which takes place slowly and may leave a permanent scar health /hel/ noun the general condition of the mind or body Hes in good health. She had suffered from bad health for some years. The council said that fumes from the factory were a danger to public health. All cigarette packets carry a government health warning. Health and Safety at Work Act / hel n seifti t w k kt/ noun in the UK, an Act of Parliament which rules how the health of workers should be protected by the companies they work for Health and Safety Executive / hel n seifti i zekjtiv/ noun in the UK, a government organisation responsible for overseeing the health and safety of workers healing healing by first intention | healing by second intention | health Health and Safety at Work Act Health and Safety Executive | heal Nursing.fm Page 128 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM health authority 128 | health authority / hel rti/ noun Strahealth authority tegic Health Authority healthcare / helke/, health care noun the healthcare general treatment of people with medical disorders, especially the use of measures to stop a disease from occurring healthcare assistant / helker sistnt/ noun someone who assists health professionals in looking after a sick or dependent person Healthcare Commission / helke k mi()n/ noun the independent inspection body for the NHS healthcare delivery / helke di liv()ri/ noun the provision of care and treatment by the health service healthcare professional / helke pr fe()n()l/ noun a qualified person who works in an occupation related to health care, e.g. a nurse healthcare system / helke sistm/ noun any organised set of health services health centre / hel sent/ noun a public building in which a group of doctors practise health education / hel edjkei()n/ noun the process of teaching people, both school children and adults, to do things to improve their health, e.g. to take more exercise Health Education Authority / hel edj kei()n riti/ noun a government health promotion agency in England designed to help people make aware of how they can improve their health. Abbreviation HEA health food / hel fu d/ noun food that is regarded as good for health, especially containing ingredients such as cereals, dried fruit and nuts and without additives health inequality / hel ini kwlti/ noun the differences that exist in health across the social classes, with poorer people tending to experience poorer health health information service / hel inf mei()n s vis/ noun a nation-wide information service delivered via a free telephone helpline. Abbreviation HIS health insurance / hel in rns/ noun insurance which pays the cost of treatment for illness Health Ombudsman / hel mbdzmn/ noun same as Health Service Commissioner health promotion / hel pr m()n/ noun the act of improving the health of a particular community or of the public generally, e.g. using health education, immunisation and screening Health Protection Agency / hel pr tek()n eid nsi/ noun a national organisation for England and Wales, established in 2003, dedicated to the protection of peoples health, especially by reducing the impact of infectious diseases, chemicals, poisons and radiation. It healthcare assistant | Healthcare Commission | healthcare delivery | healthcare professional | healthcare system health centre health education Health Education Authority | | health food health inequality | health information service | health insurance | Health Ombudsman health promotion | Health Protection Agency | brings together existing sources of expertise in public health, communicable diseases, emergency planning, infection control, poisons and radiation hazards. Abbreviation HPA health service / hel s vis/ noun an organisation which is in charge of providing health care to a particular community Health Service Commissioner / hel s vis k mi()n/, Health Service Ombudsman / hel s vis mbdzmn/ noun in the UK, an official who investigates complaints from the public about the National Health Service health service manager / hel s vis m nid / noun someone who is responsible for the provision of local health care, through the management of hospital, GP, and community health services health service planning / hel s vis pl ni/ noun the process of deciding what the health care needs of a community are, with the help of statistics, and what resources can be provided for that community health service reforms / hel s vis ri f mz/ plural noun any of several reforms to the NHS, the most recent package of reforms being that introduced in 2002 health visitor / hel vizit/ noun a registered nurse with qualifications in midwifery or obstetrics and preventive medicine, who visits mothers and babies and sick people in their homes and advises on treatment hear /hi/ verb to sense sounds with the ears I cant hear what youre saying. (NOTE: hearing health service Health Service Commissioner | health service manager health service planning health service reforms | health visitor hear heard) hearing hearing / hiri/ noun the ability to hear, or the function performed by the ear of sensing sounds and sending sound impulses to the brain His hearing is failing. (NOTE: For other terms referring to hearing, see words beginning with audi-, audio-.) hearing aid hearing aid / hiri eid/ noun a small electronic device fitted into or near the ear, to improve someones hearing by making the sounds louder hearing-impaired / hiri im ped/ adjective having a degree of hearing loss hearing loss / hiri ls/ noun partial or complete loss of the ability to hear heart /h t/ noun the main organ in the body, which maintains the circulation of the blood around the body by its pumping action The doctor listened to his heart. She has heart trouble. hearing-impaired | hearing loss heart (NOTE: For other terms referring to the heart, see also words beginning with cardi-,cardio-.) heart attack heart attack / h t t k/ noun a condition in which the heart has a reduced blood supply because one of the arteries becomes blocked by a blood clot, causing myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction (informal ) | Nursing.fm Page 129 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 129 helium body temperature rises abnormally, leading to headaches, stomach cramps and sometimes loss of consciousness heat therapy / hi t erpi/, heat treatment / hi t tri tmnt/ noun same as thermotherapy heavy period / hevi pirid/ noun a monthly period during which a woman loses an unusually large amount of blood. It is often painful and sometimes indicates possible health problems, such as fibroids or hypothyroidism. Heberdens node / hi bdnz nd/ noun a small bony lump which develops on the end joints of fingers in osteoarthritis [Described 1802. After heat therapy heavy period Heberdens node heartbeat / h tbi t/ noun the regular noise made by the heart as it pumps blood heart block / h t blk/ noun the slowing of the action of the heart because the impulses from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles are delayed or interrupted. There are either longer impulses (first degree block) or missing impulses (second degree block) or no impulses at all (complete heart block), in which case the ventricles continue to beat slowly and independently of the sinoatrial node. heartburn / h tb n/ noun indigestion which causes a burning feeling in the stomach and oesophagus, and a flow of acid saliva into the mouth (informal ) heart bypass / h t baip s p rei()n/, heart bypass operation noun same as coroheart block heartburn heart bypass | heartbeat William Heberden (17671845), British physician, specialist in rheumatic diseases.] hebetude nary artery bypass graft heart disease / h t di zi z/ noun any disease heart disease | of the heart in general heart failure / h t feilj/ noun the failure of the heart to maintain the output of blood to meet the demands of the body. It may affect the left or right sides of the heart, or both sides. heart-lung machine / h t l m i n/ noun a machine used to pump blood round the body and maintain the supply of oxygen to the blood during heart surgery heart-lung transplant / h t l tr nspl nt/ noun an operation to transplant a new heart and lungs into someone heart massage / h t m s / noun a treatment which involves pressing on the chest to make a heart which has stopped beating start working again heart murmur / h t m m/ noun an unusual sound made by turbulent blood flow, sometimes as a result of valve disease heart rate / h t reit/ noun the number of times the heart beats per minute heart sounds / h t sandz/ plural noun two different sounds made by the heart as it beats. heart failure heart-lung machine | heart-lung transplant heart massage heart murmur heart rate heart sounds hebetude / hebitju d/ noun dullness of the senses during acute fever, which makes the person uninterested in his or her surroundings and unable to respond to stimuli hectic / hektik/ adjective recurring regularly hectic fever / hektik fi v/ noun an attack of fever which occurs each day in someone who has tuberculosis heel /hi l/ noun the back part of the foot heel bone / hi l bn/ noun the bone forming the heel, beneath the talus. Also called calhectic hectic fever heel heel bone caneus Hegars sign Hegars sign / hei z sain/ noun a way of detecting pregnancy, by inserting the fingers into the uterus and pressing with the other hand on the pelvic cavity to feel if the neck of the uterus has become soft [After Alfred Hegar (18301914), Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Freiburg, Germany.] Heimlich manoeuvre / haimlik m nu v/ noun an emergency treatment for choking, in | Heimlich manoeuvre lubb-dupp heart surgeon / h t s d n/ noun a surgeon who specialises in operations on the heart heart surgery / h t s d ri/ noun a surgical operation to remedy a condition of the heart heart tamponade / h t t mp neid/ noun same as cardiac tamponade heart transplant / h t tr nspl nt/ noun a surgical operation to transplant a heart into someone heat rash / hi t r / noun same as miliaria heat spots / hi t spts/ plural noun little red spots which develop on the face in very hot weather heatstroke / hi tstrk/ noun a condition in which someone becomes too hot and his or her heart surgery heart tamponade | heart transplant heat rash heat spots heatstroke heart surgeon which a strong upward push beneath the breastbone of a patient clasped from behind forces the blockage out of the windpipe helco- /helk/ prefix relating to an ulcer helcoplasty / helkpl sti/ noun a skin graft to cover an ulcer to aid healing Helicobacter pylori / helikb kt pai l ri / noun a bacterium found in gastric secretions, strongly associated with duodenal ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Abbreviation H pylori helicopter-based emergency medical services / helikpt beist i m d nsi medik()l s visiz/ plural noun full form of helcohelcoplasty Helicobacter pylori | helicopter-based emergency medical services | HEMS helio- helio- /hi li/ prefix relating to the sun heliotherapy / hi li erpi/ noun treatment by sunlight or sunbathing helium / hi lim/ noun a very light gas used in combination with oxygen, especially to relieve asthma or sickness caused by decompression heliotherapy | helium (NOTE: The chemical symbol is He.) Nursing.fm Page 130 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM helix helix 130 medical emergency by helicopter and then transporting patients to the nearest major hospital or specialist unit. Full form helicopter-based emergency medical services helix / hi liks/ noun the curved outer edge of the ear Hellers operation / helz p rei()n/ noun same as cardiomyotomy [After E. Heller (1877 Hellers operation | 1964), German surgeon.] Hellers test / helz test/ noun a test for protein in the urine [After Johann Florenz Heller (181371), Austrian physician.] Hellins law / helinz l / noun a finding which Hellers test Hellins law states that twins should occur naturally once in 90 live births, triplets once in 8,100 live births, quadruplets once in 729, 000 live births, and quintuplets once in 65, 610, 000 live births (NOTE: Since the 1960s the numbers have changed due to fertility treatment. For example, twins now occur once in only 38 births.) HELLP syndrome / help sindrm/ noun a HELLP syndrome Hendersons model / hends()nz md()l/ noun a model of nursepatient relationships based on 14 basic principles of nursing. The main idea is that "the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength, the will, and the knowledgebut that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible". Henles loop / henli z lu p/ noun same as Henles loop Hendersons model loop of Henle [Described 1862. After Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (180985), Professor of Anatomy at Gttingen, Germany.] Henoch-Schnlein purpura serious pre-eclamptic disorder which makes it necessary to terminate a pregnancy. Full form haemolysis-elevated liver enzymeslow platelet count syndrome helminth / helmin/ noun a parasitic worm, helminth e.g. a tapeworm or fluke helminthiasis / helmin aisis/ noun infestation with parasitic worms heloma /hi lm/ noun same as corn helper T-cell / help ti sel/ noun a type of white blood cell that stimulates the production of cells that destroy antigens hemeralopia / hemr lpi/ noun a usually congenital condition in which someone is able to see better in bad light than in ordinary daylight. Also called day blindness hemi- /hemi/ prefix half hemianopia / hemi npi/ noun a state of partial blindness in which someone has only half the usual field of vision in each eye hemiarthroplasty / hemi rpl sti/ noun an operation to repair a joint which replaces one of its surfaces with an artificial substance, often metal hemiballismus / hemib lizms/ noun a sudden movement of the limbs on one side of the body, caused by a disease of the basal ganglia hemicolectomy / hemik lektmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the colon hemimelia / hemi mi li/ noun a congenital condition in which someone has absent or extremely short arms or legs hemiparesis / hemip ri sis/ noun slight paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body hemiplegia / hemi pli d / noun severe paralysis affecting one side of the body due to damage of the central nervous system. Compare diplegia hemisphere / hemisfi/ noun half of a sphere HEMS /hemz/ plural noun a system of delivering a paramedic crew to the scene of an accident or helminthiasis | heloma | helper T-cell hemeralopia | hemihemianopia | hemiarthroplasty | hemiballismus | hemicolectomy | hemimelia | hemiparesis | hemiplegia | hemisphere HEMS Henoch-Schnlein purpura / henk nlain p pjr/, Henochs purpura / henks p pjr/ noun a condition in which blood vessels become inflamed and bleed into the skin, causing a rash called purpura and also pain in the stomach and the joints, vomiting and diarrhoea. It often occurs after an upper respiratory infection, mostly in children aged two to 11. [Described 1832 by Schnlein and 1865 by Henoch. Eduard Heinrich Henoch (18201910), Professor of Paedriatrics at Berlin, Germany; Johannes Lukas Schnlein (17931864), physician and pathologist at Wrzburg, Zrich and Berlin.] heparin heparin / heprin/ noun an anticoagulant substance found in the liver and lungs, and also produced artificially for use in the treatment of thrombosis hepat- /hip t/ prefix same as hepato- (used hepat- before vowels) hepatectomy / hep tektmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the liver hepatic /hi p tik/ adjective referring to the liver hepatic artery /hi p tik tri/ noun an artery which takes the blood to the liver hepatic cell /hi p tik sel/ noun an epithelial cell of the liver acini hepatic duct /hi p tik d kt/ noun a duct which links the liver to the bile duct leading to the duodenum hepatic flexure /hi p tik flek/ noun a bend in the colon, where the ascending and transverse colons join hepaticostomy /hi p ti kstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the hepatic duct taking bile from the liver hepatic portal system /hi p tik p t()l sistm/ noun a group of veins linking to form the portal vein, which brings blood from the pancreas, spleen, gall bladder and the abdominal part of the alimentary canal to the liver | hepatic | hepatic artery | hepatic cell | hepatic duct | hepatic flexure | hepaticostomy | | hepatic portal system | hepatectomy Nursing.fm Page 131 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 131 herpes simplex hepatic vein /hi p tik vein/ noun a vein which takes blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava hepatitis / hep taitis/ noun inflammation of the liver through disease or drugs hepatitis A / heptaitis ei/ noun a relatively mild form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted through contaminated food and water hepatitis A virus / heptaitis ei vairs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis A. Abbreviation HAV hepatitis B / heptaitis bi / noun a severe form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted by contact with infected blood or other body fluids hepatitis B virus / heptaitis bi vairs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis B. Abbreviation HBV hepatitis C / heptaitis si / noun a form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted by contact with infected blood or other body fluids but is often without symptoms (NOTE: It was formerly called | hepatitis | hepatitis A hepatitis A virus hepatitis B hepatitis B virus hepatitis C hepatic vein herbal medicine / h b()l med()sin/ noun a system of medical treatment involving the use of substances extracted from plants herbal remedy / h b()l remdi/ noun a medicine made from plants, e.g. an infusion made from dried leaves or flowers in hot water herd immunity / h d i mju niti/ noun the fact of a group of people being resistant to a specific disease, because many individuals in the group are immune to or immunised against the microorganism which causes it hereditary /h redit()ri/ adjective passed as from parents to children through the genes hereditary spherocytosis /hi redit()ri sfirsai tsis/ noun same as acholuric herbal remedy herd immunity | hereditary | hereditary spherocytosis | | herbal medicine jaundice non-A, non-B hepatitis.) hepatitis C virus / heptaitis si vairs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis C. Abbreviation HCV hepato- /hept/ prefix referring to the liver hepatocellular / hept seljl/ adjective referring to liver cells hepatocellular jaundice / hept seljl d ndis/ noun jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells hepatocirrhosis / heptsi rsis/ noun same as cirrhosis hepatocyte / heptsait, hi p tsait/ noun a liver cell which synthesises and stores substances, and produces bile hepatogenous / hep td ns/ noun referring to or originating in the liver hepatogenous jaundice hepatolenticular degeneration / heptlen tikjl di d en rei()n/ noun same as Wilsons disease hepatoma / hep tm/ noun a malignant tumour of the liver formed of mature cells, especially found in people with cirrhosis hepatomegaly / hept me li/ noun a condition in which the liver becomes very large hepatosplenomegaly / hept spli n me li/ noun enlargement of both the liver and the spleen, as occurs in leukaemia or lymphoma hepatotoxic / hept tksik/ adjective destroying the liver cells herbalism / h bliz()m/ noun herbal hepatohepatocellular | hepatocellular jaundice | hepatocirrhosis | hepatocyte | hepatogenous | hepatolenticular degeneration | | | hepatoma | hepatomegaly | hepatosplenomegaly | | hepatotoxic | herbalism hepatitis C virus medicine herbalist herbalist / h blist/ noun a person who treats illnesses or disorders with substances extracted from plants heredity /h rediti/ noun the process by which genetically controlled characteristics pass from parents to children Hering-Breuer reflexes / heri bri ri fleksiz/ plural noun the reflexes which maintain the usual rhythmic inflation and deflation of the lungs hermaphrodite /h m frdait/ noun a person with both male and female characteristics hermaphroditism /h m frdaitiz()m/ noun a condition in which a person has both male and female characteristics hernia / h ni/ noun a condition in which an organ bulges through a hole or weakness in the wall which surrounds it. Also called rupture hernial / h nil/ adjective referring to a hernia hernial sac / h nil s k/ noun a sac formed where a membrane has pushed through a cavity in the body herniated / h nieitid/ adjective referring to an organ which has developed a hernia herniation / h ni ei()n/ noun the development of a hernia hernio- /h ni/ prefix relating to a hernia hernioplasty / h ni pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to reduce a hernia herniorrhaphy / h ni rfi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hernia and repair the organ through which it protruded herniotomy / h ni tmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hernial sac heroin / herin/ noun a narcotic drug in the form of a white powder derived from morphine herpes / h pi z/ noun inflammation of the skin or mucous membrane, caused by a virus, where small blisters are formed herpes simplex / h pi z simpleks/ noun 1. (Type I) a virus that produces a painful blister, called a cold sore, usually on the lips 2. (Type II) a sexually transmitted disease which forms blisters in the genital region. Also called genital her| Hering-Breuer reflexes hermaphrodite | hermaphroditism | hernia hernial hernial sac herniated herniation | herniohernioplasty | herniorrhaphy | herniotomy | heroin herpes herpes simplex heredity pes Nursing.fm Page 132 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM herpesvirus 132 | herpesvirus / h pi z vairs/ noun one of a group of viruses which cause herpes and chickenpox (herpesvirus Type I), and genital herpes (herpesvirus Type II) herpes zoster / h pi z zst/ noun inflammation of a sensory nerve, characterised by pain along the nerve and causing a line of blisters to form on the skin, usually found mainly on the abdomen or back, or on the face. Also called herpes zoster herpesvirus shingles, zona herpetic /h petik/ adjective referring to herherpetic | pes hetero- /hetr/ prefix different heterochromia / hetr krmi/ noun a condition in which the irises of the eyes are different colours heterogeneous / hetr d i nis/ adjective having different characteristics or qualities heteroheterochromia | heterogeneous | (NOTE: Do not confuse with heterogenous.) heterogenous / het rd ins/ adjective coming from a different source (NOTE: Do not confuse with heterogeneous.) heterograft / hetr r ft/ noun tissue taken heterogenous | heterograft from one species and grafted onto an individual of another species. Compare homograft heterologous / het rl s/ adjective of a different type heterophoria / hetr f ri/ noun a condition in which if an eye is covered it tends to squint heteroplasty / hetrpl sti/ noun same as heterologous | heterophoria | heteroplasty heterograft heteropsia heteropsia / het rpsi/ noun a condition in which the two eyes see differently heterosexual / hetr sekul/ adjective attracted to people of the opposite sex or relating to relations between males and females noun a person who is sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex. Compare bisexual, homosexual heterosexuality / hetrseku liti/ noun sexual attraction towards persons of the opposite sex heterotopia / hetr tpi/ noun 1. a state where an organ is placed in a different position from usual or is malformed or deformed 2. the development of tissue which is not natural to the part in which it is produced heterotropia / hetr trpi/ noun same as | heterosexual | heterosexuality | heterotopia | heterotropia | strabismus heterozygous heterozygous / hetr zai s/ adjective having two or more different versions of a specific gene. Compare homozygous hex- /heks/ prefix same as hexa- (NOTE: used | hex- before vowels) hexa- /heks/ prefix six HFEA abbreviation Human Fertilization and hexaHFEA Embryology Authority hGH abbreviation human growth hormone hGH HGPRT abbreviation hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. HPRT hiatus /hai eits/ noun an opening or space hiatus hernia /hai eits h ni/, hiatal hernia /hai eit()l h ni/ noun a hernia where the stomach bulges through the opening in the diaphragm muscle through which the oesophagus passes Hib /hib/ abbreviation Haemophilus influenzae type B Hib vaccine / hib v ksi n/ noun a vaccine used to inoculate against the bacterium Haemophilius influenzae that causes meningitis hiccup / hik p/, hiccough noun a spasm in the diaphragm which causes a sudden inhalation of breath followed by sudden closure of the glottis which makes a characteristic sound She had an attack of hiccups or had a hiccuping attack or got the hiccups. Also called singultus Hickman catheter / hikmn k it/, Hickman line / hikmn lain/ noun a plastic tube which is put into the large vein above the heart so that drugs can be given and blood samples can be taken easily hidr- /haidr/ prefix referring to sweat hidradenitis / haidrd naitis/ noun inflammation of the sweat glands hidrosis /hai drsis/ noun sweating, especially when it is excessive hidrotic /hai drtik/ adjective referring to sweating noun a substance which makes someone sweat high-altitude sickness / hai ltitju d sikns/ noun same as altitude sickness high blood pressure / hai bl d pre/ noun same as hypertension high-calorie diet /hai k lri dait/ noun a diet containing over 4000 calories per day high-density lipoprotein / hai densiti lip prti n/ noun a lipoprotein with a low percentage of cholesterol. Abbreviation HDL high-fibre diet / hai faib dait/ noun a diet which contains a high percentage of cereals, nuts, fruit and vegetables high-protein diet / hai prti n dait/ noun a diet containing mostly foods high in protein and low in carbohydrates and saturated fat, adopted by people who are trying to lose weight hilar / hail/ adjective referring to a hilum hilum / hailm/ noun a hollow where blood vessels or nerve fibres enter an organ such as a kidney or lung (NOTE: The plural is hila.) hindbrain / haindbrein/ noun the part of brain of an embryo from which the medulla oblongata, the pons and the cerebellum eventually develop hindgut / haind t/ noun part of an embryo which develops into the colon and rectum hiatus | hiatus hernia | | Hib Hib vaccine hiccup Hickman catheter hidrhidradenitis | hidrosis | hidrotic | high-altitude sickness high blood pressure high-calorie diet high-density lipoprotein | high-fibre diet high-protein diet hilar hilum hindbrain hindgut HGPRT Nursing.fm Page 133 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 133 hinge joint Hodgkins disease hinge joint / hind ginglymus hip d int/ noun same as hip /hip/ noun a ball and socket joint where the thigh bone or femur joins the acetabulum of the hip bone hip bone / hip bn/ noun a bone made of the ilium, the ischium and the pubis which are fused together, forming part of the pelvic girdle. Also called innominate bone hip fracture / hip fr kt/ noun a fracture of the ball at the top of the femur hip girdle / hip d()l/ noun same as pelvic hip bone hip fracture hip girdle girdle hip joint hip joint / hip d int/ noun the place where the hip is joined to the upper leg. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement Hippel-Lindau / hipl linda/ von HippelHippel-Lindau Lindau syndrome hippocampus / hip k mps/ noun a long rounded elevation projecting into the lateral ventricle in the brain Hippocratic oath / hipkr tik / noun an ethical code observed by doctors, by which they will treat patients equally, put patients welfare first and not discuss openly the details of a patients case hip replacement / hip ri pleismnt/ noun a surgical operation to replace the whole ball and socket joint at the hip with an artificial one Hirschsprungs disease / hispr z di zi z/ noun a congenital condition where parts of the lower colon lack nerve cells, making peristalsis impossible, so that food accumulates in the upper colon which becomes swollen [Described | Hippocratic oath hip replacement | Hirschsprungs disease | hippocampus 1888. After Harald Hirschsprung (18301916), Professor of Paediatrics in Copenhagen, Denmark.] hirsute / h sju t/ adjective with a lot of hair hirsutism / h sju tiz()m/ noun the condition hirsute hirsutism histaminic / hist minik/ adjective referring to histamines histiocyte / histisait/ noun a macrophage of the connective tissue, involved in tissue defence histiocytosis / histisai tsis/ noun a condition in which histiocytes are present in the blood histiocytosis X / histisai tsis eks/ noun any form of histiocytosis where the cause is not known, e.g. Hand-Schller-Christian disease histo- /hist/ prefix relating to the bodys tissue histology histocompatible / histkm p tib()l/ adjective referring to tissues from two individuals which have compatible antigens histogram / hist r m/ noun a way of displaying frequency values as columns whose height is proportional to the corresponding frequency a histogram showing numbers of patients with the condition in each age group histological / hist ld ik()l/ adjective referring to histology histological grade / histld ik()l reid/ noun a system of classifying tumours according to how malignant they are histology /hi stld i/ noun the study of the anatomy of tissue cells and minute cellular structure histolysis /hi stlsis/ noun the disintegration of tissue histotoxic / hist tksik/ adjective referring to a substance which is poisonous to tissue HIV abbreviation human immunodeficiency virus hives /haivz/ noun same as urticaria (NOTE: | histiocyte histiocytosis | histiocytosis X | histohistocompatible | histogram histological | histological grade histology | histolysis | histotoxic | HIV hives histaminic Takes a singular verb.) HIV-negative / eit ai vi ne tiv/ adjective HIV-negative of having excessive hair, especially a condition in which a woman grows hair on the body in the same way as a man hirudin /hi ru din/ noun an anticoagulant substance produced by leeches, which is injected into the bloodstream while the leech is feeding on a body HIS abbreviation Health Information Service hist- /hist/ same as histo- (NOTE: used before hirudin | HIS hist- vowels) histamine histamine / histmi n/ noun a substance released in response to allergens from mast cells throughout the body. Histamines dilate blood vessels, constrict the cells of smooth muscles and cause an increase in acid secretions in the stomach. histamine test / histmi n test/ noun a test to determine the acidity of gastric juice histamine test referring to someone who has been tested and shown not to have HIV HIV-positive / eit ai vi pzitiv/ adjective referring to someone who has been tested and shown to have HIV HLA abbreviation human leucocyte antigen HLA system / eit el ei sistm/ noun a system of HLA antigens on the surface of cells which need to be histocompatible to allow transplants to take place HMO abbreviation US Health Maintenance Organization hobnail liver / hbneil liv/ noun same as HIV-positive HLA HLA system HMO hobnail liver atrophic cirrhosis Hodgkins disease Hodgkins disease / hd kinz di zi z/ noun a malignant disease in which the lymph glands are enlarged and there is an increase in the lymphoid tissues in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is frequently fatal if not treated early. [Described | 1832. After Thomas Hodgkin (17981866), British physician.] Nursing.fm Page 134 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hoist 134 hoist /hist/ noun a device with pulleys and wires for raising a bed or a patient hole in the heart / hl in h t/ noun same as septal defect (informal ) holism / hliz()m/ noun the theory that all of a persons physical, mental and social conditions should be considered in the treatment of his or her illness holistic /h listik/ adjective referring to a method of treatment involving all of someones mental and family circumstances rather than just dealing with the condition from which he or she is suffering holistic care /h listik ke/ noun the care and treatment of a whole person rather than just of his or her medical symptoms holo- /hl/ prefix entire, complete holocrine / hlkrin/ adjective referring to a gland where the secretions are made up of disintegrated cells of the gland itself Homans sign / hmnz sain/ noun pain in the calf when the foot is bent back, a sign of deepvein thrombosis [Described 1941. After John hole in the heart holism holistic | holistic care | holoholocrine Homans sign hoist homograft / hm r ft/ noun the graft of an organ or tissue from a donor to a recipient of the same species, e.g. from one person to another. Also called allograft. Compare heterograft homolateral / hm l t()rl/ adjective same as ipsilateral homologous /h ml s/ adjective 1. of the same type 2. referring to chromosomes which form a pair homonymous hemianopia /h mnims hemi npi/ noun a condition in which the same half of the field of vision is lost in each eye homosexual / hm sekul/ adjective referring to homosexuality noun a person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex. Compare bisexual, heterosexual (NOTE: homolateral | homologous | homonymous hemianopia | | homosexual | homograft Although homosexual can apply to both males and females, it is commonly used for males only, and lesbian is used for females.) homosexuality / hmseku liti/ noun homosexuality | Homans (18771954), Professor of Clinical Surgery at Harvard, USA.] home help / hm help/ noun 1. a person who home help is paid to carry out ordinary domestic tasks such as cleaning and cooking for people who are unable to carry out these tasks for themselves 2. same as home help service home help service / hm help s vis/ noun a publicly funded support service provided mainly for elderly and disabled people which offers help with ordinary household tasks of a non-nursing nature, such as cooking and washing to help people in their own homes homeo- /hmi/ prefix like or similar homeopathic / hmi p ik/, homoeopathic adjective 1. referring to homeopathy a homeopathic clinic She is having a course of homeopathic treatment. 2. referring to a drug which is given in very small quantities homeopathist / hmi pist/, homoeopathist noun a person who practises homeopathy homeopathy / hmi pi/, homoeopathy noun the treatment of a condition by giving the person very small quantities of a substance which, when given to a healthy person, would cause symptoms like those of the condition being treated. Compare allopathy homeostasis / hmi steisis/ noun the process by which the functions and chemistry of a cell or internal organ are kept stable, even when external conditions vary greatly homo- /hm/ prefix the same homoeo- /hmi/ prefix another spelling of home help service homeohomeopathic | homeopathist | homeopathy | homeostasis | homohomoeo- sexual attraction to people of the same sex or sexual relations with people of the same sex homozygous / hm zai s/ adjective having two identical versions of a specific gene. Compare heterozygous hookworm / hkw m/ noun a parasitic worm hookworm disease / hkw m di zi z/ noun homozygous | hookworm hookworm disease | ancylostomiasis hordeolum /h di lm/ noun an infection of hordeolum | the gland at the base of an eyelash. Also called stye horizontal fissure / hriznt()l fi/ noun ANAT a horizontal groove between the superior and middle lobes of a lung. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement hormone / h mn/ noun a substance which is produced by one part of the body, especially the endocrine glands and is carried to another part of the body by the bloodstream where it has particular effects or functions hormone replacement therapy / h mn ri pleismnt erpi/, hormone therapy noun 1. treatment for someone whose endocrine glands have been removed 2. treatment to relieve the symptoms of the menopause by supplying oestrogen and reducing the risk of osteoporosis abbreviation HRT Horners syndrome / h nz sindrm/ noun a condition caused by paralysis of the sympathetic nerve in one side of the neck, making the eyelids hang down and the pupils contract hormone hormone replacement therapy | Horners syndrome horizontal fissure homeo- (used before vowels) homogenise /h md naiz/, homogenize verb to give something a uniform nature homogenise | [Described 1869. After Johann Friedrich Horner (183186), Professor of Ophthalmology in Zrich, Switzerland.] horny / h ni/ adjective referring to skin which is very hard (NOTE: For terms referring to horny tissue, see words beginning with kerat-, kerato-.) horny Nursing.fm Page 135 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 135 humectant horseshoe kidney / h su kidni/ noun a congenital condition of the kidney, where sometimes the upper but usually the lower parts of both kidneys are joined together Hortons syndrome / h t()nz sindrm/ noun a severe headache, often with constant pain around one eye, which starts usually within a few hours of going to sleep. It is caused by the release of histamine in the body. [After Bayard Taylor Hortons syndrome horseshoe kidney hourglass stomach / a l s st mk/ noun a condition in which the wall of the stomach is pulled in so that it is divided into two cavities, cardiac and pyloric houseman / hasmn/ noun same as house houseman hourglass stomach officer house officer Horton (18951980), US physician.] hospice / hspis/ noun a hospital which offers palliative care for terminally ill people hospital / hspit()l/ noun a place where sick or injured people are looked after hospital-acquired infection / hspit()l kwaid in fekn/ noun a disease caught during a stay in hospital Hospital Activity Analysis / hspit()l k tiviti n lsis/ noun a regular detailed report on patients in hospitals, including information about treatment, length of stay and outcome hospital care / hspit()l ke/ noun treatment in a hospital hospital doctor / hspit()l dkt/ noun a doctor who works only in a hospital and does not receive people in his or her own surgery hospital gangrene / hspit()l ri n/ noun gangrene caused by insanitary hospital conditions hospital infection / hspit()l in fekn/ noun an infection which someone gets during a hospital visit, or one which develops among hospital staff hospital hospital-acquired infection | | Hospital Activity Analysis | | hospital care hospital doctor hospital gangrene hospital infection | hospice house officer / has fis/ noun a doctor who works in a hospital as a house surgeon or house physician during the final year of training before registration by the General Medical Council HPA abbreviation Health Protection Agency HPRT / eit pi ti / noun an enzyme that is lacking in children, usually boys, who have Lesch-Nyhan disease. Full form hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. Also called HPA HPRT HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) COMMENT: Hospital infection is an increasingly common problem due to growing antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use. Strains of bacteria such as MRSA have evolved which seem to be more easily transmitted between patients and are difficult to treat. hospitalise / hspit()laiz/, hospitalize verb hospitalise to send someone to hospital He is so ill that he has had to be hospitalised. hospital trust / hspit()l tr st/ noun same as hospital trust self-governing hospital host /hst/ noun a person or animal on which host a parasite lives hot /ht/ adjective very warm or having a high temperature hot flush / ht fl / noun a condition in menopausal women, in which the woman becomes hot and sweats, and which is often accompanied by redness of the skin hotpack / htp k/ noun a cloth bag or a pad filled with gel or grains which can be heated and applied to the skin to relieve pain or stiffness hourglass contraction / a l s kn tr kn/ noun a condition in which an organ such as the stomach is constricted in the centre hot hot flush hotpack hourglass contraction | HPV abbreviation human papillomavirus H pylori abbreviation Helicobacter pylori HRT abbreviation hormone replacement therapy human / hju mn/ adjective referring to any man, woman or child noun a person Most animals are afraid of humans. human anatomy / hju mn n tmi/ noun the structure, shape and functions of the human body human being / hju mn bi i/ noun a person human chorionic gonadotrophin / hju mn k ri nik nd trfin/ noun a hormone produced by the placenta, which suppresses the mothers usual menstrual cycle during pregnancy. It is found in the urine during pregnancy, and can be given by injection to encourage ovulation and help a woman to become pregnant. Abbreviation hCG human crutch / hju mn kr t/ noun a method of helping an injured person to walk, where they rest one arm over the shoulders of the person helping human immunodeficiency virus / hju mn imjndi fi()nsi vairs/ noun a virus which causes AIDS. Abbreviation HIV human leucocyte antigen / hju mn lu ksait ntid ()n/ noun any of the system of antigens on the surface of cells which need to be histocompatible to allow transplants to take place. Abbreviation HLA. HLA system human nature / hju mn neit/ noun the general behavioural characteristics of human beings human papillomavirus / hju mn p pi lm vairs/ noun a virus that causes genital warts in humans. Abbreviation HPV humectant /hju mektnt/ adjective able to absorb or retain moisture noun a substance that can absorb or retain moisture, e.g. a skin lotion H pylori HRT human human anatomy | human being human chorionic gonadotrophin | | human crutch human immunodeficiency virus | human leucocyte antigen human nature human papillomavirus | humectant | HPV Nursing.fm Page 136 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM humeroulnar joint 136 | humeroulnar joint / hju mr ln d int/ noun part of the elbow joint, where the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna move next to each other humerus / hju mrs/ noun the top bone in the arm, running from the shoulder to the elbow humerus humeroulnar joint (NOTE: The plural is humeri.) humoral / hju mrl/ adjective relating to humoral human body fluids, in particular blood serum humour / hju m/ noun a fluid in the body hunchback / h ntb k/ noun kyphosis hunger / h / noun a need to eat hunger pains / h peins/ plural noun pains in the abdomen when a person feels hungry, sometimes a sign of a duodenal ulcer Hunters syndrome / h ntz sindrm/ noun an inherited disorder caused by an enzyme deficiency, which leads to learning difficulties Huntingtons chorea / h ntitnz k ri / noun a progressive hereditary disease which affects adults, where the outer layer of the brain degenerates and the person makes involuntary jerky movements and develops progressive dementia [Described 1872. After George Sumhumour hunchback hunger hunger pains Hunters syndrome Huntingtons chorea | ner Huntington (18501916), US physician.] Hurlers syndrome / h lz sindrm/ noun same as gargoylism [Described 1919. After Gertrud Hurler (18891965), German paediatrician.] hurt /h t/ noun 1. emotional pain 2. a painful area (used by children) She has a hurt on her knee. verb to have pain Hes hurt his hand. adjective 1. feeling physical pain He was Hurlers syndrome hurt hyalitis / hai laitis/ noun inflammation of the vitreous humour or the hyaloid membrane in the eye. Also called vitritis hyaloid membrane / hailid membrein/ noun a transparent membrane round the vitreous humour in the eye hybrid / haibrid/ noun an organism that is a result of a cross between individuals that are not genetically the same as each other HYCOSY abbreviation hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography hydatid / haidtid/ noun any cyst-like structure hydatid cyst / haidtid sist/ noun the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus hydatid disease / haidtid di zi z/, hydatidosis / haidti dsis/ noun an infection, usually in the lungs or liver, caused by expanding hydatid cysts that destroy the tissues of the infected organ hydatid mole / haidtid ml/ noun an abnormal pregnancy from a pathologic ovum, resulting in a mass of cysts shaped like a bunch of grapes hydr- /haidr/ prefix same as hydro- (used | hyaloid membrane hybrid HYCOSY hydatid hydatid cyst hydatid disease | | hydatid mole hydr- hyalitis before vowels) hydraemia /hai dri mi/ noun an excess of hydraemia | slightly hurt in the car crash. Two players got hurt in the football game. 2. feeling emotional pain Her parents divorce hurt her deeply. Hutchinsons teeth / h tinsnz ti /, Hutchinsons tooth / h tinsnz tu / plural noun incisor teeth which are narrower than usual and have a crescent-shaped notch at the biting edge. They are seen especially in children with congenital syphilis, but can also occur naturally. Hutchinsons teeth (NOTE: takes either a singular or a plural verb) hyal- /hail/ prefix like glass (used before vowels) hyalin / hailin/ noun a transparent substance hyalhyalin produced from collagen and deposited around blood vessels and scars when some tissues degenerate hyaline / hailin/ adjective nearly transparent like glass hyaline cartilage / hailin k tilid / noun a type of cartilage found in the nose, larynx and joints. It forms most of the skeleton of the fetus. See illustration at CARTILAGINOUS JOINT in Suphyaline hyaline cartilage plement hyaline hyaline membrane disease membrane disease / hailin membrein di zi z/ noun same as respiratory | distress syndrome water in the blood hydralazine /hai dr lzi n/ noun a drug that lowers blood pressure. People usually receive it in combination with other drugs that increase the output of urine. hydramnios /hai dr mnis/ noun an unusually large amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus hydrarthrosis / haidr rsis/ noun swelling caused by excess synovial liquid at a joint hydrate / haidreit/ verb to give water to someone so as to re-establish or maintain fluid balance noun a chemical compound containing water molecules that can usually be driven off by heat without altering the compounds structure hydro- /haidr/ prefix referring to water hydroa /hai dr/ noun an eruption of small itchy blisters, e.g. those caused by sunlight hydrocalycosis / haidr k li ksis/ noun same as caliectasis hydrocele / haidrsi l/ noun the collection of watery liquid found in a cavity such as the scrotum hydrocephalus / haidr kefls/ noun an excessive quantity of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain hydrochloric acid / haidrklrik sid/ noun an acid found in the gastric juices which helps to break apart the food hydrocortisone / haidr k tizn/ noun a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex or produced synthetically, used in the treatment of hydralazine | hydramnios | hydrarthrosis | hydrate hydrohydroa | hydrocalycosis | | hydrocele hydrocephalus | hydrochloric acid hydrocortisone | Nursing.fm Page 137 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 137 rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory and allergic conditions hydrogen / haidrd n/ noun a chemical element, a gas which combines with oxygen to form water, and with other elements to form acids, and is present in all animal tissue (NOTE: The chemihydrogen hydroureter | hyperadrenalism cal symbol is H.) hydrogen peroxide / haidrd n p rksaid/ noun a solution used as a disinfectant hydrolysis /hai drlsis/ noun the breaking down of a chemical compound when it reacts with water to produce two or more different compounds, as in the conversion of starch to glucose hydroma /hai drm/ noun same as hygroma hydrometer /hai drmit/ noun an instrument which measures the density of a liquid hydromyelia / haidrmai i li/ noun a condition in which fluid swells the central canal of the spinal cord hydronephrosis / haidrne frsis/ noun swelling of the pelvis of a kidney caused by accumulation of water due to infection or a kidney stone blocking the ureter hydropericarditis / haidr perik daitis/, hydropericardium / haidr peri k dim/ noun an accumulation of liquid round the heart hydroperitoneum / haidr perit ni m/ noun a build-up of fluid in the peritoneal cavity | hydrolysis | hydroma | hydrometer | hydromyelia | hydronephrosis | hydropericarditis | | | | hydroperitoneum | | hydrogen peroxide hydroureter / haidrju ri t/ noun a condition in which water or urine collect in the ureter because it is blocked hygiene / haid i n/ noun the procedures and principles designed to keep things clean and to keep conditions healthy Nurses have to maintain a strict personal hygiene. hygienist / haid i nist/ noun a person who specialises in hygiene and its application hygr- /hai r/ prefix same as hygro- (used hygiene hygienist hygr- before vowels) hygro- /hai r/ prefix relating to moisture hygroma /hai rm/ noun a kind of cyst hygrohygroma | (NOTE: The plural is hydroperitoneums or hydroperitonea.) hydrophobia hydrophobia / haidr fbi/ noun same as | rabies hydropneumoperitoneum hydropneumoperitoneum / haidr nju m perit ni m/ noun a condition in which watery fluid and gas collect in the peritoneal cavity hydropneumothorax / haidr nju m r ks/ noun a condition in which watery fluid and gas collect in the pleural cavity (NOTE: The | | | hydropneumothorax | | which contains a thin fluid hymen / haimen/ noun a membrane which partially covers the vaginal passage in a female who has never had sexual intercourse hymenectomy / haim nektmi/ noun 1. the surgical removal of the hymen, or an operation to increase the size of the opening of the hymen 2. the surgical removal of any membrane hymenotomy / haim ntmi/ noun an incision of the hymen during surgery hyo- /hai/ prefix relating to the hyoid bone hyoglossus / hai lss/ noun a muscle which is attached to the hyoid bone and depresses the tongue hyoid / haiid/ adjective relating to the hyoid bone hyoid bone / haiid bn/ noun a small Ushaped bone at the base of the tongue hyoscine / haisi n/ noun a drug used as a sedative, in particular for treatment of motion sickness hyp- /haip/ prefix same as hypo- (used before hymen hymenectomy | hymenotomy | hyohyoglossus | hyoid hyoid bone hyoscine hyp- vowels) plural is hydropneumothoraxes or hydropneumothoraces.) hydrops hydrops / haidrps/ noun same as oedema (NOTE: The plural is hydropses.) hydrosalpinx hydrosalpinx / haidr s lpiks/ noun an occasion when watery fluid collects in one or both of the Fallopian tubes, causing swelling (NOTE: | The plural is hydrosalpinges.) hydrotherapy hydrotherapy / haidr erpi/ noun a type of physiotherapy involving treatment in water, where people are put in hot baths or are encouraged to swim hydrothorax / haidr r ks/ noun the collection of liquid in the pleural cavity hydrotubation / haidrtju bei()n/ noun an act of putting a fluid through the neck of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes under pressure to check whether the tubes are blocked | hydrothorax | hydrotubation | hypalgesia / haipl d i zi/ noun low sensitivity to pain hyper- /haip/ prefix higher or too much. Opposite hypohyperacidity / haipr siditi/ noun the production of more acid in the stomach than is usual. Also called acidity, acid stomach hyperacousia / haipr kju zi/ noun same as hyperacusis hyperactive / haipr ktiv/ adjective very or unusually active hyperactivity / haipr k tivti/ noun a condition in which something or someone, e.g. a gland or a child, is too active hyperacusis / haipr kju sis/ noun a condition in which someone is very sensitive to sounds hyperadrenalism / haipr dri n()liz()m/ noun a disorder in which too many adrenal hormones are produced, e.g. because of pituitary gland malfunction, a tumour of the adrenal gland or high doses of steroids | hyperhyperacidity | hyperacousia | hyperactive | hyperactivity | hyperacusis | hyperadrenalism | hypalgesia Nursing.fm Page 138 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hyperaemia 138 | hyperaemia / haipr i mi/ noun excess blood in any part of the body hyperaesthesia / haipri s i zi/ noun an extremely high sensitivity in the skin hyperalgesia / haipr l d i zi/ noun an increased sensitivity to pain hyperalimentation / haipr limen tei()n/ noun the feeding of large amounts of nutrients by mouth or intravenously to someone with serious nutritional deficiency hyperandrogenism / haipr n drd niz()m/ noun a condition in which a woman produces too many androgens, associated with many problems such as hirsutism, acne, infertility and polycystic ovarian disease hyperbaric / haip b rik/ adjective referring to a treatment in which someone is given oxygen at high pressure, used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning hypercalcaemia / haipk l si mi/ noun an excess of calcium in the blood hypercalcinuria / haipk lsi njri/ noun a condition in which an unusually high amount of calcium occurs in the urine hypercapnia / haip k pni/ noun an unusually high concentration of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream hypercatabolism / haipk t bliz()m/ noun a condition in which the body breaks down its own tissues or a particular substance too much. It causes weight loss and wasting. hyperchloraemia / haipkl ri mi/ noun a condition in which there is too much chloride in the blood hyperchlorhydria / haipkl haidri/ noun an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach hyperdactylism / haip d ktiliz()m/ noun the condition of having more than the usual number of fingers or toes. Also called polydachyperaesthesia | hyperalgesia | hyperalimentation | | hyperandrogenism | hyperbaric | hypercalcaemia | hypercalcinuria | hypercapnia | hypercatabolism | hyperchloraemia | hyperchlorhydria | hyperdactylism | hyperaemia hyperinsulinism / haipr insjliniz()m/ noun the reaction of a diabetic to an excessive dose of insulin or to hypoglycaemia hyperkalaemia / haipk li mi/ noun a condition in which too much potassium occurs in the blood, which can result in cardiac arrest. Various possible causes include kidney failure and chemotherapy. hyperkeratosis / haipker tsis/ noun a condition in which the outer layer of the skin becomes unusually thickened hyperkinesia / haipki ni zi/ noun a condition in which there is unusually great strength or movement hyperlipidaemia / haiplipi di mi/ noun the pathological increase of the amount of lipids, or fat, in the blood hypermetropia / haipmi trpi/, hyperopia / haip rpi/ noun a condition in which someone sees more clearly objects which are a long way away, but cannot see objects which are close. Also called longsightedness, hyperopia hypernatraemia / haipn tri mi/ noun a serious condition occurring most often in babies or elderly people, in which too much sodium is present in the blood as a result of loss of water and electrolytes through diarrhoea, excessive sweating, not drinking enough or excessive salt intake hypernephroma / haipn frm/ noun same as Grawitz tumour hyperopia / haip rpi/ noun same as | hyperkalaemia | hyperkeratosis | hyperkinesia | hyperlipidaemia | hypermetropia | | hypernatraemia | hypernephroma | hyperopia | hyperinsulinism hypermetropia tylism hyperemesis / haipr emisis/ noun excessive vomiting (NOTE: The plural is hyperemeses.) hyperemesis gravidarum / haipremisis r vi derm/ noun uncontrollable vomiting in pregnancy hyperextension / haiprik stenn/ noun the act of stretching an arm or leg beyond its usual limits of movement hyperflexion / haip flekn/ noun the act of flexing a joint beyond the usual limit a hyperflexion injury hypergalactia / haip l kti/, hypergalk tsis/ noun a condition lactosis / haip in which too much milk is secreted hyperglycaemia / haip lai si mi/ noun an excess of glucose in the blood hyperhidrosis / haiphai drsis/ noun a condition in which too much sweat is produced | hyperemesis gravidarum | hyperextension | hyperflexion | hypergalactia | | | hyperglycaemia | hyperhidrosis | hyperemesis hyperostosis /haipr stsis/ noun excessive overgrowth on the outside surface of a bone, especially the frontal bone hyperparathyroidism / haip p r airidiz()m/ noun an unusually high concentration of parathyroid hormone in the body. It causes various medical problems including damage to the kidneys. hyperphagia / haip feid i/ noun long-term compulsive overeating hyperpiesia / haippai i zi/ noun same as | hyperparathyroidism | | hyperphagia | hyperpiesia | hyperostosis hypertension hyperpituitarism / haip pitju itriz()m/ noun a condition in which the pituitary gland is overactive hyperplasia / haip pleizi/ noun a condition in which there is an increase in the number of cells in an organ hyperpyrexia / haippai reksi/ noun a body temperature of above 41.1C hypersecretion / haipsi kri ()n/ noun a condition in which too much of a substance is secreted hypersensitive / haip sensitiv/ adjective referring to a person who reacts more strongly than usual to an antigen | hyperplasia | hyperpyrexia | hypersecretion | hypersensitive | hyperpituitarism Nursing.fm Page 139 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 139 hypodermic needle ber forgotten events in the past and will do whatever the hypnotist tells him or her to do hypnotherapy / hipn erpi/ noun treatment by hypnosis, used in treating some addictions hypnotic /hip ntik/ adjective 1. relating to hypnosis and hypnotism 2. referring to a state which is like sleep but which is caused artificially 3. referring to a drug which causes sleep hypnotism / hipntiz()m/ noun the techniques used to induce hypnosis hypo / haip/ noun (informal ) 1. same as hypodermic syringe 2. an attack of hypoglycaemia, experienced, e.g., by people who are diabetic hypo- /haip/ prefix less, too little or beneath hypoaesthesia / haipi s i zi/ noun a condition in which someone has a diminished sense of touch hypocalcaemia / haipk l si mi/ noun an unusually low amount of calcium in the blood, which can cause tetany hypocapnia / haip k pni/ noun a condition in which there is not enough carbon dioxide in the blood hypochloraemia / haipkl ri mi/ noun a condition in which there are not enough chlorine ions in the blood hypochlorhydria / haipkl haidri/ noun a condition in which there is not enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach hypochondria / haip kndri/ noun a condition in which a person is too worried about his or her own health and believes he or she is ill hypochondriac / haip kndri k/ noun a person who worries about his or her health too much hypochondriac region / haip kndri k ri d n/ noun one of two parts of the upper abdomen, on either side of the epigastrium below the floating ribs hypochondrium / haip kndrim/ noun one of the two hypochondriac regions in the upper part of the abdomen hypochromic / haip krmik/ adjective referring to blood cells or body tissue which do not have the usual amount of pigmentation hypochromic scars hypodermic / haip d mik/ adjective beneath the skin noun a hypodermic syringe, needle or injection (informal ) hypodermic injection / haipd mik in d ekn/ noun an injection of a liquid, e.g. a painkilling drug, beneath the skin. Also called hypnotherapy | hypnotic | hypnotism hypo hypohypoaesthesia | hypocalcaemia | hypocapnia | hypochloraemia | hypochlorhydria | hypochondria | hypochondriac | hypochondriac region | hypochondrium | hypochromic | hypodermic | hypodermic injection | hypersensitivity / haipsensi tiviti/ noun a condition in which someone reacts very strongly to something such as an allergic substance her Anaphylactic shock hypersensitivity to dust shows hypersensitivity to an injection. hypersplenism / haip spleniz()m/ noun a condition in which too many red blood cells are destroyed by the spleen, which is often enlarged hypertelorism / haip telriz()m/ noun a condition in which there is too much space between two organs or parts of the body hypertension / haip tenn/ noun arterial blood pressure that is higher than the usual range for gender and age. Also called high blood pressure, hyperpiesia. Compare hypotension hypertensive / haip tensiv/ adjective referring to high blood pressure hypertensive headache / haiptensiv hedeik/ noun a headache caused by high blood pressure hyperthermia / haip mi/ noun a very high body temperature hyperthyroidism / haip airidiz()m/ noun a condition in which the thyroid gland is too active and releases unusual amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood, giving rise to a rapid heartbeat, sweating and trembling. It can be treated with carbimazole. Also called thyrotoxi| hypersplenism | hypertelorism | hypertension | hypertensive | hypertensive headache hyperthermia | hyperthyroidism | hypersensitivity cosis hypertonia / haip tni/ noun an increased rigidity and spasticity of the muscles hypertonic / haip tnik/ adjective 1. referring to a solution which has a higher osmotic pressure than another specified solution 2. referring to a muscle which is under unusually high tension hypertrichosis / haiptri ksis/ noun a condition in which someone has excessive growth of hair on the body or on part of the body hypertrophic / haip trfik/ adjective associated with hypertrophy hypertrophy /hai p trfi/ noun an increase in the number or size of cells in a tissue hyperventilation / haipventi lei()n/ noun very fast breathing which can be accompanied by dizziness or tetany hypervitaminosis / haip vitmi nsis/ noun a condition caused by taking too many synthetic vitamins, especially Vitamins A and D hypervolaemia / haipv li mi/ noun a condition in which there is too much plasma in the blood hyphaema /hai fi mi/ noun bleeding into the front chamber of the eye hypn- /hipn/ prefix referring to sleep hypnosis /hip nsis/ noun a state like sleep, but caused artificially, where a person can remem| hypertonic | hypertrichosis | hypertrophic | hypertrophy | hyperventilation | hypervitaminosis | | hypervolaemia | hyphaema | hypnhypnosis | hypertonia subcutaneous injection hypodermic needle / haipd mik ni d()l/ noun a needle for injecting liquid under the skin hypodermic needle Nursing.fm Page 140 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hypodermic syringe 140 | hypodermic syringe / haipd mik si rind / noun a syringe fitted with a hypodermic needle for injecting liquid under the skin hypofibrinogenaemia / haip fibrind ni mi/ noun a condition in which there is not enough fibrinogen in the blood, e.g. because of several blood transfusions or as an inherited condition hypogammaglobulinaemia / haip m lbjlin i mi/ noun an unusually low concentration of gamma globulin in the blood that causes an immune deficiency. It may be present from birth or acquired later in life. hypogastrium / haip strim/ noun the part of the abdomen beneath the stomach hypoglossal / haip lsl/ adjective 1. underneath or on the lower side of the tongue 2. relating to the hypoglossal nerve hypoglossal nerve /haip ls()l n v/ noun the twelfth cranial nerve which governs the muscles of the tongue hypoglycaemia / haip lai si mi/ noun a low concentration of glucose in the blood hypoglycaemic / haip lai si mik/ adjective having hypoglycaemia hypoglycaemic coma / haip lai si mik km/ noun a state of unconsciousness affecting diabetics after taking an overdose of insulin hypohidrosis / haiphai drsis/, hypoidrosis / haipi drsis/ noun a condition in which someone produces too little sweat hypoinsulinism / haip insjliniz()m/ noun a condition in which the body does not have enough insulin, often because of a problem with the pancreas hypokalaemia / haipk li mi/ noun a deficiency of potassium in the blood hypomania / haip meini/ noun a state of mild mania or overexcitement, especially when part of a manic-depressive cycle hypometropia / haipmi trpi/ noun same as myopia hyponatraemia / haipn tri mi/ noun a lack of sodium in the body hypoparathyroidism / haip p r airidiz()m/ noun a condition in which the parathyroid glands do not secrete enough parathyroid hormone, leading to low blood calcium and muscle spasms hypopharynx / haip f riks/ noun the part of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the bottom of the cricoid cartilage (NOTE: The plural hypofibrinogenaemia | | hypogammaglobulinaemia | | hypogastrium | hypoglossal | hypoglossal nerve | hypoglycaemia | hypoglycaemic | hypoglycaemic coma | hypohidrosis | | hypoinsulinism | hypokalaemia | hypomania | hypometropia | hyponatraemia | hypoparathyroidism | | hypopharynx | hypodermic syringe hypophysis cerebri /hai pfsis serbri/ noun same as pituitary gland hypopiesis / haippai i sis/ noun a condition in which the blood pressure is too low hypopituitarism / haippi tju itriz()m/ noun a condition in which the pituitary gland is underactive hypoplasia / haip pleizi/ noun a lack of development or incorrect formation of a body tissue or an organ hypoplastic left heart /haip pl stik left h t/ noun a serious heart disorder in which the left side of the heart does not develop properly, leading to death within six weeks of birth unless surgery is performed hypoproteinaemia / haipprti ni mi/ noun a condition in which there is not enough protein in the blood hypoprothrombinaemia / haippr rmbi ni mi/ noun a condition in which there is not enough prothrombin in the blood, so that the person bleeds and bruises easily hypopyon / haip pain/ noun an accumulation of pus in the aqueous humour in the front chamber of the eye hyposensitive / haip sensitiv/ adjective being less sensitive than usual hypospadias / haip speidis/ noun a congenital condition of the wall of the male urethra or the vagina, so that the opening occurs on the under side of the penis or in the vagina. Compare | hypopiesis | hypopituitarism | hypoplasia | hypoplastic left heart | hypoproteinaemia | hypoprothrombinaemia | | hypopyon | hyposensitive | hypospadias | hypophysis cerebri epispadias hypostasis is hypopharynxes or hypopharynges.) hypophyseal / haip fizil/ adjective referhypophyseal | ring to the pituitary gland hypophysectomy /hai pfi sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the pituitary gland hypophysectomy | | hypostasis /hai pstsis/ noun a condition in which fluid accumulates in part of the body because of poor circulation hypostatic / haip st tik/ adjective referring to hypostasis hypostatic eczema / haipst tik eksim/ noun same as varicose eczema hypostatic pneumonia / haipst tik nju mni/ noun pneumonia caused by fluid accumulating in the lungs of a bedridden person with a weak heart hyposthenia / haips i ni/ noun a condition of unusual bodily weakness hypotension / haip tenn/ noun a condition in which the pressure of the blood is unusually low. Also called low blood pressure. Compare hypertension hypotensive / haip tensiv/ adjective having low blood pressure hypothalamic / haip l mik/ adjective referring to the hypothalamus hypothalamic hormone / haip l mik h mn/ noun same as releasing hormone hypothalamus / haip lms/ noun the part of the brain above the pituitary gland, which controls the production of hormones by the pitui| hypostatic | hypostatic eczema hypostatic pneumonia | hyposthenia | hypotension | hypotensive | hypothalamic | hypothalamic hormone | hypothalamus | Nursing.fm Page 141 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 141 tary gland and regulates important bodily functions such as hunger, thirst and sleep. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement hypothalmus / haip lms/ noun same as hypothalmus | hysteralgia hysterotrachelorrhaphy hypothalamus (NOTE: The plural is hypothalmuses or hypothalmi.) hypothenar /hai pin/ adjective referring to hypothenar | the soft fat part of the palm beneath the little finger hypothenar eminence /hai pin eminns/ noun a lump on the palm beneath the little finger. Compare thenar hypothermia / haip mi/ noun a reduction in body temperature below normal, for medical purposes taken to be below 35C hypothesis /hai psis/ noun a suggested explanation for an observation or experimental result, which is then refined or disproved by further investigation hypothyroidism / haip airidiz()m/ noun underactivity of the thyroid gland hypotonia / haip tni/ noun reduced tone of the skeletal muscles hypotonic / haip tnik/ adjective 1. showing hypotonia 2. referring to a solution with a lower osmotic pressure than plasma hypotrichosis / haiptri ksis/ noun a condition in which less hair develops than usual. Compare alopecia (NOTE: The plural is hypotrihypothenar eminence | hypothermia | hypothesis | hypothyroidism | hypotonia | hypotonic | hypotrichosis | hysteralgia / histr ld / noun pain in the uterus hysterectomy / hist rektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the uterus, often either to treat cancer or because of the presence of fibroids hysteria /hi stiri/ noun a term formerly used in psychiatry, but now informally used for a condition in which the person appears unstable, and may scream and wave their arms about, but also is repressed, and may be slow to react to outside stimuli (dated ) hysterical /hi sterik()l/ adjective referring to a reaction showing hysteria (informal ) hysterics /hi steriks/ noun an attack of hysteria (dated ) hystero- /histr/ prefix referring to the uterus hystero-ophorectomy / histr f rektmi/ noun the surgical removal of the uterus, the uterine tubes and the ovaries hysteroptosis / histrp tsis/ noun prolapse of the uterus hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography / hister s lpi kntr st sn rfi/ noun examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes by ultrasound. Abbreviation HYCOSY hysterosalpingography / histr s lpi rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes following injection of radio-opaque material. Also called uterosalp| hysterectomy | hysteria | hysterical | hysterics | hysterohystero-ophorectomy | hysteroptosis | hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography | | hysterosalpingography | | choses.) ingography hysterosalpingosonography hypotropia / haip trpi/ noun a form of squint where one eye looks downwards hypoventilation / haipventi lei()n/ noun very slow breathing hypovitaminosis / haip vitmi nsis/ noun a lack of vitamins hypoxaemia / haipk si mi/ noun an inadequate supply of oxygen in the arterial blood hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl trans/ haipz ni n fsf ribsil ferase tr nsfreis/ noun full form of HPRT hypoxia /hai pksi/ noun 1. an inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue as a result of a lack of oxygen in the arterial blood 2. same as hypoxae| hypoventilation | hypovitaminosis | | hypoxaemia | hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase | hypoxia | hypotropia mia hyster- hyster- /hist/ prefix same as hystero- (used before vowels) hysterosalpingosonography / histr s lpi s n rfi/ noun examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes by ultrasound hysterosalpingostomy / histr s lpi stmi/ noun an operation to remake an opening between the uterine tube and the uterus, to help with infertility problems hysteroscope / histrskp/ noun a tube for inspecting the inside of the uterus hysteroscopy / hist rskpi/ noun an examination of the uterine cavity using a hysteroscope or fibrescope hysterotomy / hist rtmi/ noun a surgical incision into the uterus, as in caesarean section or for some types of abortion hysterotrachelorrhaphy / histr tr ki lrfi/ noun an operation to repair a tear in the cervix | | hysterosalpingostomy | | hysteroscope hysteroscopy | hysterotomy | hysterotrachelorrhaphy | | Nursing.fm Page 142 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM I -iasis /aisis/ suffix disease caused by something amoebiasis iatro- /ai tr/ prefix relating to medicine or doctors iatrogenesis /ai tr d ensis/ noun any condition caused by the actions of doctors or other healthcare professionals iatrogenic /ai tr d enik/ adjective referring to a condition which is caused by a doctors treatment for another disease or condition an iatrogenic infection IBS abbreviation irritable bowel syndrome ibuprofen / aibju prfn/ noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that relieves pain and swelling, especially in arthritis and rheumatism. It is also widely used as a household painkiller. ice pack / ais p k/ noun a cold compress made of lumps of ice wrapped in a cloth, and pressed on a swelling or bruise to reduce the pain ichthamol /ik ml/ noun a thick dark red liquid which is a mild antiseptic and analgesic, used in the treatment of skin diseases ichthyosis / iki sis/ noun a hereditary condition in which the skin does not form properly, resulting in a dry, non-inflammatory and scaly appearance ICM abbreviation International Confederation of Midwives ICN abbreviation 1. International Council of Nurses 2. infection control nurse ICP abbreviation intracranial pressure ICRC abbreviation International Committee of the Red Cross ICSH abbreviation interstitial cell stimulating hormone icteric /ik terik/ adjective referring to someone with jaundice icterus / iktrs/ noun same as jaundice icterus gravis neonatorum / iktrs r vis ni n t rm/ noun jaundice associated with erythroblastosis fetalis ictus / ikts/ noun a stroke or fit ICU abbreviation intensive care unit iatroiatrogenesis | | iatrogenic | | IBS ibuprofen | ice pack ichthamol | ichthyosis | ICM ICN ICP ICRC ICSH icteric | icterus icterus gravis neonatorum | ictus ICU -iasis id /id/ noun (in Freudian psychology) the basic unconscious drives which exist in hidden forms in a person ideation / aidi ei()n/ noun the act or process of imagining or forming thoughts and ideas identical twins /ai dentik()l twinz/ plural noun twins who are exactly the same in appearance because they developed from the same ovum. Also called monozygotic twins, uniovuideation | identical twins | id lar twins identification /ai dentifi kei()n/ noun the act of discovering or stating who someone is or what something is ideo- /aidi/ prefix involving ideas idio- /idi/ prefix referring to one particular person idiopathic / idi p ik/ adjective referring to idiopathy idiopathic epilepsy / idip ik epi lepsi/ noun epilepsy not caused by a brain disorder, beginning during childhood or adolescence idiopathy / idi pi/ noun a condition which develops without any known cause idiosyncrasy / idi sikrsi/ noun a way of behaving which is particular to one person idiot savant / idi s v/ noun a person with learning difficulties who also possesses a single particular mental ability, such as the ability to play music by ear, to draw remembered objects or to do mental calculations, which is very highly developed idioventricular / idiven trikjl/ adjective relating to the ventricles of the heart idioventricular rhythm / idiven trikjl ri()m/ noun a slow natural rhythm in the ventricles of the heart, but not in the atria IDK abbreviation internal derangement of the knee Ig abbreviation immunoglobulin Ig A antiendomysial antibody / ai d i ei ntiend maisil ntibdi/ noun a serological screening test for coeliac disease IHD abbreviation ischaemic heart disease IL-1 abbreviation interleukin-1 IL-2 abbreviation interleukin-2 | | ideoidioidiopathic | idiopathic epilepsy | idiopathy | idiosyncrasy | idiot savant idioventricular | idioventricular rhythm | IDK Ig Ig A antiendomysial antibody | IHD IL-1 IL-2 identification Nursing.fm Page 143 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 143 imagine ile- /ili/ prefix same as ileo- (used before vowels) ileal / ilil/ adjective referring to the ileum ileal bladder / ilil bl d/, ileal conduit / ilil kndjuit/ noun an artificial tube formed when the ureters are linked to part of the ileum, and that part is linked to an opening in the abdominal wall ileal pouch / ilil pat/ noun a part of the small intestine which is made into a new rectum in a surgical operation, freeing someone from the need for an ileostomy after their colon is removed ileectomy / ili ektmi/ noun the surgical removal of all or part of the ileum ileitis / ili aitis/ noun inflammation of the ileum ileo- /ili/ prefix relating to the ileum ileocaecal / ili si k()l/ adjective referring to the ileum and the caecum ileocaecal orifice / ilisi k()l rifis/ noun an opening where the small intestine joins the large intestine ileocaecal valve / ili si k()l v lv/ noun a valve at the end of the ileum, which allows food to pass from the ileum into the caecum ileocaecocystoplasty / ili si k saitpl sti/ noun an operation to reconstruct the bladder using a piece of the combined ileum and caecum ileocolic / ili klik/ adjective referring to both the ileum and the colon ileocolic artery / ili klik tri/ noun a branch of the superior mesenteric artery ileocolitis / ilik laitis/ noun inflammation of both the ileum and the colon ileocolostomy / ilik lstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a link directly between the ileum and the colon ileoproctostomy / iliprk tstmi/ noun a surgical operation to create a link between the ileum and the rectum ileorectal / ili rekt()l/ adjective referring to both the ileum and the rectum ileosigmoidostomy / ilisi mi dstmi/ noun a surgical operation to create a link between the ileum and the sigmoid colon ileostomy / ili stmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall to act as an artificial opening for excretion of faeces ileostomy bag / ili stmi b / noun a bag attached to the opening made by an ileostomy, to collect faeces as they are passed out of the body ileum / ilim/ noun the lower part of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the caecum. Compare ilium. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ilea.) ileus / ilis/ noun obstruction of the intestine, usually distension caused by loss of muscular action in the bowel. paralytic ileus ileal ileal bladder ileal pouch ileectomy | ileitis | ileoileocaecal | ileocaecal orifice ileocaecal valve ileocaecocystoplasty | | ileocolic | ileocolic artery ileocolitis | ileocolostomy | ileoproctostomy | ileorectal | ileosigmoidostomy | ileostomy | ileostomy bag | ileum ileus ile- ili- /ili/ prefix same as ilio- (used before vowels) iliac / ili k/ adjective referring to the ilium iliac crest / ili k krest/ noun a curved top edge of the ilium. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement iliac fossa / ili k fs/ noun a depression on the inner side of the hip bone iliac region / ili k ri d n/ noun one of two regions of the lower abdomen, on either side of the hypogastrium iliac spine / ili k spain/ noun a projection at the posterior end of the iliac crest ilio- /ili/ prefix relating to the ilium iliococcygeal / ilikk sid il/ adjective referring to both the ilium and the coccyx iliolumbar / ili l mb/ adjective referring to the iliac and lumbar regions iliopectineal / ilipek tinil/ adjective referring to both the ilium and the pubis iliopectineal eminence / ilipektinil eminns/ noun a raised area on the inner surface of the innominate bone iliopubic / ili pju bik/ adjective same as iliiliac iliac crest iliac fossa iliac region iliac spine ilioiliococcygeal | iliolumbar | iliopectineal | iliopectineal eminence | iliopubic | ili- opectineal iliopubic eminence iliopubic eminence / ili pju bik eminns/ noun same as iliopectineal emi| nence ilium / ilim/ noun the top part of each of the hip bones, which form the pelvis. Compare ileum. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ilia.) ill /il/ adjective not well If you feel very ill you ilium ill ought to see a doctor. illness / ilns/ noun 1. a state of not being well Most of the children stayed away from school because of illness. 2. a type of disease Scarlet fever is no longer considered to be a very serious illness. He is in hospital with an infectious tropical illness. illusion /i lu ()n/ noun a condition in which a person has a wrong perception of external objects i.m., IM abbreviation intramuscular image / imid / noun a sensation, e.g. a smell, sight or taste, which is remembered clearly imagery / imid ri/ noun visual sensations clearly produced in the mind imaginary /i m d in()ri/ adjective referring to something which does not exist but is imagined imagination /i m d i nei()n/ noun the ability to see or invent things in your mind In her imagination she saw herself sitting on a beach in the sun. imagine /i m d in/ verb to see, hear or feel something in your mind Imagine yourself sitting on the beach in the sun. I thought I heard someone shout, but I must have imagined it because there is no one there. illness illusion | i.m. image imagery imaginary | imagination | | imagine | Nursing.fm Page 144 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM imaging 144 immunocompromised imaging / imid i/ noun a technique for creating pictures of sections of the body, using scanners attached to computers imbalance /im b lns/ noun a situation in which things are unequal or in the wrong proportions to one another, e.g. in the diet imipramine /i miprmi n/ noun a drug that is used as a treatment for depression immature / im t/ adjective not mature, lacking insight and emotional stability immature cell / imt sel/ noun a cell which is still developing immaturity / im triti/ noun behaviour which is lacking in maturity immobilisation /i mbilai zei()n/, immobilization noun the act of preventing somebody or something from being able to move immobilise /i mbilaiz/, immobilize verb 1. to keep someone from moving 2. to attach a splint to a joint or fractured limb to prevent the bones from moving immune /i mju n/ adjective protected against an infection or allergic disease She seems to be The injection should make immune to colds. you immune to yellow fever. immune deficiency /i mju n di fi()nsi/ noun a lack of immunity to a disease. AIDS immune reaction /i mju n ri kn/, immune response /i mju n ri spns/ noun a reaction of a body to an antigen immune system /i mju n sistm/ noun a complex network of cells and cell products, which protects the body from disease. It includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, white blood cells and antibodies. immunisation / imjnai zei()n/, immunization noun the process of making a person immune to an infection, either by injecting an antiserum, passive immunisation or by inoculation immunise / imjnaiz/, immunize verb to give someone immunity from an infection. vacciimbalance | imipramine | immature | immature cell immaturity | immobilisation | | immobilise | immune | immune deficiency | | immune reaction | | | | immune system | immunisation | immunise imaging immunocompromised / imjn kmprmaizd/ adjective not able to offer resistance to infection immunodeficiency / imjndi fi()nsi/ noun a lack of immunity to a disease immunodeficiency virus / imjndi fi()nsi vairs/ noun a retrovirus which attacks the immune system immunodeficient / imjndi fi()nt/ This adjective lacking immunity to a disease form of meningitis occurs in persons who are immunodeficient. immunogenic / imjn d enik/ adjective producing an immune response immunogenicity / imjnd nisiti/ noun the property which makes a substance able to produce an immune response in an organism immunoglobulin / imjn lbjlin/ noun an antibody, a protein produced in blood plasma as protection against infection, the commonest being gamma globulin. Abbreviation Ig (NOTE: immunodeficiency | immunodeficiency virus immunodeficient | immunogenic | immunogenicity | immunoglobulin | | | The five main classes are called: immunoglobulin G, A, D, E and M or IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE and IgM.) immunological / imjn ld ik()l/ adjective referring to immunology immunologist / imj nld ist/ noun a speimmunological | immunologist | cialist in immunology immunology / imj nld i/ noun the study of immunity and immunisation immunosuppressant / imjns pres()nt/ noun a drug used to act against the response of the immune system to reject a transplanted organ immunosuppression / imjns pre()n/ noun the suppression of the bodys natural immune system so that it will not reject a transplanted organ immunosuppressive / imjns presiv/ noun a drug used to counteract the response of the immune system to reject a transplanted organ adjective counteracting the immune system immunotherapy / imjn erpi/ noun immunology | immunosuppressant | | immunosuppression | | immunosuppressive | | immunotherapy | nate (NOTE: You immunise someone against a disease.) adoptive immunotherapy immunity /i mju niti/ noun the ability to resist attacks of a disease because antibodies are produced The vaccine gives immunity to tuberculosis. immuno- /imjn, imju n/ prefix immune, immunity immunoassay / imjn sei/ noun a test for the presence and strength of antibodies immunocompetence / imjn kmpitns/ noun the ability to develop an immune response following exposure to an antigen | immunoimmunoassay | immunocompetence | immunity immunotransfusion / imjntr ns fju ()n/ noun a transfusion of blood, serum or plasma containing immune bodies Imodium /i mdim/ a trade name for Ioperamide hydrochloride impacted /im p ktid/ adjective tightly pressed or firmly lodged against something impacted faeces /im p ktid fi si z/ plural noun extremely hard dry faeces which cannot pass through the anus and have to be surgically removed impacted fracture /im p ktid fr kt/ noun a fracture where the broken parts of the bones are pushed into each other | | Imodium | impacted | impacted faeces | impacted fracture | immunotransfusion Nursing.fm Page 145 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 145 incidence rate impacted tooth /im p ktid tu / noun a tooth which is held against another tooth and so cannot grow normally impacted ureteric calculus /im p ktid jriterik k lkjls/ noun a small hard mass of mineral salts which is lodged in a ureter impaction /im p kn/ noun a condition in which things are closely pressed together and cannot develop or move normally impair /im pe/ verb to harm a sense or function so that it does not work properly impaired hearing /im ped hiri/ noun hearing which is not clear and sharp impaired vision /im ped vi ()n/ noun eyesight which is not fully clear impairment /im pemnt/ noun a condition in which a sense or function is harmed so that it does not work properly His hearing impairment does not affect his work. The impairment was progressive, but she did not notice that her eyesight was getting worse. impalpable /im p lpb()l/ adjective not able to be felt when touched impediment /im pedimnt/ noun an obstruction imperforate /im p f()rt/ adjective without an opening imperforate anus /im p f()rt eins/ noun same as proctatresia imperforate hymen /im p f()rt haimen/ noun a membrane in the vagina which is missing the opening for the menstrual flow impermeable /im p mib()l/ adjective not allowing liquids or gases to pass through impetigo / impi tai / noun an irritating and very contagious skin disease caused by staphylococci, which spreads rapidly and is easily passed from one child to another, but can be treated with antibiotics implant noun / impl nt/ something grafted or inserted into a person, e.g. tissue, a drug, inert material or a device such as a pacemaker verb /im pl nt/ 1. to fix into something The ovum implants in the wall of the uterus. 2. to graft or insert tissue, a drug, inert material or a device The site was implanted with the biomaterial. implantation / impl n tei()n/ noun 1. the act of grafting or inserting tissue, a drug, inert material or a device into a person, or the introduction of one tissue into another surgically 2. a place in or on the body where an implant is positioned 3. same as nidation implant site / impl nt sait/ noun a place in or on the body where the implant is positioned implosion /im pl ()n/ noun the violent inward collapse of a hollow structure. It happens when the pressure outside the structure is greater than the pressure inside it. | impacted ureteric calculus | impaction | impair | impaired hearing | impaired vision | impairment | impalpable | impediment | imperforate | imperforate anus | imperforate hymen | impermeable | impetigo | implant | implantation | implant site implosion | impacted tooth impotence / impt()ns/ noun the inability in a male to have an erection or to ejaculate, and so have sexual intercourse impotent / impt()nt/ adjective (of a man) unable to have sexual intercourse impregnate / impre neit/ verb 1. to make a female pregnant 2. to soak a cloth with a liquid a cloth impregnated with antiseptic impregnation / impre nei()n/ noun the action of impregnating impression /im pre()n/ noun 1. a mould of a persons jaw made by a dentist before making a denture 2. a depression on an organ or structure into which another organ or structure fits impulse / imp ls/ noun 1. a message transmitted by a nerve 2. a sudden feeling of wanting to act in a specific way in- /in/ prefix 1. in, into, towards 2. not inaccessible / ink sesib()l/ adjective 1. physically difficult or impossible to reach 2. very technical and difficult to understand inanition / in ni()n/ noun a state of exhaustion caused by starvation inarticulate / in tikjlt/ adjective 1. without joints or segments, as in the bones of the skull 2. unable to speak fluently or intelligibly 3. not understandable as speech or language in articulo mortis /in tikjl m tis/ adverb a Latin phrase meaning at the onset of death inborn /in b n/ adjective congenital, which is in the body from birth A body has an inborn tendency to reject transplanted organs. inbreeding / inbri di/ noun a situation where closely related males and females, or those with very similar genetic make-up, have children together, so allowing congenital conditions to be passed on incapacitated / ink p siteitid/ adjective not able to act or work He was incapacitated for three weeks by his accident. incarcerated /in k sreitid/ adjective referring to a hernia which cannot be corrected by physical manipulation inception rate /in sepn reit/ noun the number of new cases of a disease during a period of time, per thousand of population incest / insest/ noun an act of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity with so close a relative, that it is illegal or culturally not allowed incidence / insid()ns/ noun the number of times something happens in a specific population the incidence of drugover a period of time related deaths Men have a higher incidence of strokes than women. incidence rate / insid()ns reit/ noun the number of new cases of a disease during a given period, per thousand of population impotent impregnate impregnation | impression | impulse ininaccessible | inanition | inarticulate | in articulo mortis | inborn | inbreeding incapacitated | incarcerated | inception rate | incest incidence incidence rate impotence Nursing.fm Page 146 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM incipient 146 | incipient /in sipint/ adjective just beginning or in its early stages He has an incipient appendicitis. The tests detected incipient diabetes mellitus. incision /in si ()n/ noun a cut in a persons body made by a surgeon using a scalpel, or any cut made with a sharp knife or razor The first incision is made two millimetres below the second rib. Compare excision incisional /in si ()n()l/ adjective referring to an incision incisional hernia /in si ()n()l h ni/ noun a hernia which breaks through the abdominal wall at a place where a surgical incision was made during an operation incisor /in saiz/, incisor tooth /in saiz tu / noun one of the front teeth, of which there are four each in the upper and lower jaws, which are used to cut off pieces of food. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement inclusion /in klu ()n/ noun something enclosed inside something else inclusion bodies /in klu ()n bdiz/ plural noun very small particles found in cells infected by a virus inclusive /in klu siv/ adjective (of health services) provided whether or not someone has a disability or special needs incompatibility / inkmp ti biliti/ noun the fact of being incompatible the incompatibility of the donors blood with that of the patient incompatible / inkm p tib()l/ adjective 1. referring to something which does not go together with something else 2. referring to drugs which must not be used together because they undergo chemical change and the therapeutic effect is lost or changed to something undesirable 3. referring to tissue which is genetically different from other tissue, making it impossible to transplant into that tissue incompatible blood / inkmp tb()l bl d/ noun blood from a donor that does not match the blood of the person receiving the transfusion incompetence / inkmpit()ns/ noun the inability to do a particular act, especially a lack of knowledge or skill which makes a person unable to do particular job incompetent cervix /in kmpit()nt s viks/ noun a dysfunctional cervix of the uterus which is often the cause of spontaneous abortions and premature births and can be remedied by purse-string stitching incomplete abortion / inkmpli t b ()n/ noun an abortion where part of the contents of the uterus is not expelled incontinence /in kntinns/ noun the inability to control the discharge of urine or faeces incision | incisional | incisional hernia | incisor | | inclusion | inclusion bodies | inclusive | incompatibility | incompatible | incompatible blood incompetence incompetent cervix | incomplete abortion | incontinence | incipient trol the bladder. Double incontinence is the inability to control both the bladder and the bowels.) incontinence pad /in kntinns p d/ noun a incontinence pad | (NOTE: Single incontinence is the inability to con- pad of material to absorb urine incontinent /in kntinnt/ adjective unable to control the discharge of urine or faeces incoordination / ink di nei()n/ noun a situation in which the muscles in various parts of the body do not act together, making it impossible to carry out some actions incubation / ikj bei()n/ noun 1. the development of an infection inside the body before the symptoms of the disease appear 2. the keeping of an ill or premature baby in a controlled environment in an incubator 3. the process of culturing cells or microorganisms under controlled conditions incubation period / ikj bei()n pirid/ noun the time during which a virus or bacterium develops in the body after contamination or infection, before the appearance of the symptoms of the disease. Also called stadium invasioni incubator / ikjbeit/ noun 1. an apparatus for growing bacterial cultures 2. an enclosed container in which a premature baby can be kept, within which conditions such as temperature and oxygen levels can be controlled incurable /in kjrb()l/ adjective who or which cannot be cured He is suffering from an incurable disease of the blood. noun a patient who will never be cured She has been admitted to a hospital for incurables. incus / iks/ noun one of the three ossicles in the middle ear, shaped like an anvil. See illustration at EAR in Supplement independent / indi pendnt/ adjective not controlled by someone or something else independent nursing function / indipendnt n si f kn/ noun any part of the nurses job for which the nurse takes full responsibility Inderal / indr l/ a trade name for propranolol index finger / indeks fi / noun the first finger next to the thumb indication / indi kei()n/ noun a situation or sign which suggests that a specific treatment should be given or that a condition has a particular cause Sulpha drugs have been replaced by antibiotics in many indications. contraindication indicator / indikeit/ noun 1. a substance which shows something, e.g. a substance secreted in body fluids which shows which blood group a person belongs to 2. something that serves as a warning or guide indigenous /in did ins/ adjective 1. natural or inborn 2. native to or representative of a country or region indigestion / indi d estn/ noun a disturbance of the normal process of digestion, where incontinent | incoordination | incubation | incubation period | incubator incurable | incus independent | independent nursing function Inderal index finger indication | indicator indigenous | indigestion | Nursing.fm Page 147 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 147 the person experiences pain or discomfort in the stomach He is taking tablets to relieve his indigestion or He is taking indigestion tablets. dyspepsia infant inferior aspect indigo carmine / indi k main/ noun a blue dye which is injected into a person to test how well their kidneys are working indirect contact / indairekt knt kt/ noun the fact of catching a disease by inhaling germs or by being in contact with a vector individualise / indi vid u laiz/, individualize verb to provide something that matches the needs of a specific person or situation individualised care individualised nursing care / individjulaizd n si ke/ noun care which is designed to provide exactly what one particular patient needs The homes staff are specially trained to provide individualised nursing care. Indocid / indsid/ a trade name for indomethacin indolent / indlnt/ adjective 1. causing little pain 2. referring to an ulcer which develops slowly and does not heal indomethacin / ind mesin/ noun a drug that reduces pain, fever and inflammation, especially that caused by arthritis indrawn /in dr n/ adjective pulled inside induce /in dju s/ verb to make something happen induced abortion /in dju st b ()n/ noun an abortion which is deliberately caused by drugs or by surgery induction /in d kn/ noun 1. the process of starting or speeding up the birth of a baby 2. the stimulation of an enzymes production when the substance on which it acts increases in concentration 3. a process by which one part of an embryo influences another parts development 4. information and support given to new employees in an organisation induction of labour /in d kn v leib/ noun the action of starting childbirth artificially induration / indj rei()n/ noun the hardening of tissue or of an artery because of pathological change industrial disease /in d stril di zi z/ noun a disease which is caused by the type of work done by a worker or by the conditions in which he or she works, e.g. by dust produced or chemicals used in the factory inebriation /i ni bri ei()n/ noun a state where a person is drunk, especially habitually drunk inertia /i n / noun a lack of activity in the body or mind in extremis /in iks tri mis/ adverb at the moment of death indirect contact individualise | | individualised nursing care Indocid indolent indomethacin | indrawn | induce | induced abortion | | induction | induction of labour | induration | industrial disease | | inebriation | | inertia | in extremis | indigo carmine infant / infnt/ noun a child under two years of age infanticide /in f ntisaid/ noun 1. the act of killing an infant 2. a person who kills an infant infantile / infntail/ adjective referring to small children infantile convulsions / infntail kn v lnz/, infantile spasms plural noun convulsions or minor epileptic fits in small children infantile paralysis / infntail p r lsis/ noun a former name for poliomyelitis infantilism /in f ntiliz()m/ noun a condition in which a person keeps some characteristics of an infant when he or she becomes an adult infant mortality rate / infnt m t liti reit/ noun the number of infants who die per thousand births infarct / inf kt/ noun an area of tissue which is killed when the blood supply is cut off by the blockage of an artery infarction /in f k()n/ noun a condition in which tissue is killed by the cutting off of the blood supply infect /in fekt/ verb to contaminate someone or something with microorganisms that cause disease or toxins The disease infected her liver. The whole arm soon became infected. infected wound /in fektid wu nd/ noun a wound into which bacteria have entered infection /in fekn/ noun 1. the entry or introduction into the body of microorganisms, which then multiply As a carrier he was spreading infection to other people in the office. 2. an illness which is caused by the entry of microbes into the body She is susceptible to minor infections. infectious /in feks/ adjective referring to a disease which is caused by microorganisms and can be transmitted to other persons by direct means This strain of flu is highly infectious. Her measles is at the infectious stage. infectious disease /in feks di zi z/ noun a disease caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. communicable disease, infanticide | infantile infantile convulsions | infantile paralysis | infantilism | infant mortality rate | infarct infarction | infect | infected wound | infection | infectious | infectious disease | | contagious disease infectious mononucleosis /in feks mn nju kli sis/ noun an infectious disease where the body has an excessive number of white blood cells. Also called glandular fever infectious parotitis /in feks p r taitis/ noun same as mumps infective /in fektiv/ adjective referring to a disease caused by a microorganism, which can be caught from another person but which may not always be directly transmitted inferior /in firi/ adjective referring to a lower part of the body. Opposite superior inferior aspect /in firir spekt/ noun a view of the body from below | | | infectious parotitis | | infective | inferior | inferior aspect | infectious mononucleosis Nursing.fm Page 148 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM inferiority 148 | | inferiority /in firi riti/ noun the fact of being lower in value or quality, substandard inferiority complex /in firi riti kmpleks/ noun a mental disorder arising from a combination of wanting to be noticed and fear of humiliation. The resulting behaviour may either be aggression or withdrawal from the external world. inferior mesenteric artery /in firi mesen terik tri/ noun one of the arteries which supply the transverse colon and rectum inferior vena cava /in firi vi n k v/ noun the main vein carrying blood from the lower part of the body to the heart. See illustration at inferiority complex | | inferior mesenteric artery | | inferior vena cava | inferiority in Supplement, KIDNEY in Supplement infertility / inf tiliti/ noun the fact of not being HEART infertility | fertile, not able to reproduce infestation / infe stei()n/ noun the fact of having large numbers of parasites, or an invasion of the body by parasites The condition is caused by infestation of the hair with lice. infiltrate / infiltreit/ verb (of liquid or waste) to pass from one part of the body to another through a wall or membrane and be deposited in the other part noun a substance which has infiltrated a part of the body infiltration / infil trei()n/ noun 1. the process where a liquid passes through the walls of one part of the body into another part 2. a condition in which waste is brought to and deposited around cells infirm /in f m/ adjective old and weak infirmary /in f mri/ noun 1. a room in a school or workplace where people can go if they are ill 2. a former name for a hospital (NOTE: infestation | infiltrate infiltration | infirm | infirmary | Infirmary is still used in the names of some hospitals: the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.) infirmity /in f miti/ noun a lack of strength and energy because of illness or age (formal ) inflamed /in fleimd/ adjective sore, red and infirmity | inflamed | swollen The skin has become inflamed around the sore. inflammation / infl mei()n/ noun the fact of having become sore, red and swollen as a reaction to an infection, an irritation or a blow She has an inflammation of the bladder or a bladder inflammation. The bodys reaction to infection took the form of an inflammation of the eyelid. inflammatory /in fl mt()ri/ adjective causing an organ or a tissue to become sore, red and swollen inflammatory bowel disease /in fl mt()ri bal di zi z/ noun any condition, e.g. Crohns disease, colitis or ileitis, in which the bowel becomes inflamed inflammatory response /in fl mt()ri ri spns/, inflammatory reaction /in fl mt()ri ri kn/ noun any condition where an organ or a tissue reacts to an external inflammation | inflammatory | inflammatory bowel disease | | inflammatory response | | | | stimulus by becoming inflamed She showed an inflammatory response to the ointment. influenza / influ enz/ noun an infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract with fever and muscular aches, which is transmitted by a virus and can occur in epidemics. Also called flu informed /in f md/ adjective having the latest information informed consent /in f md kn sent/ noun an agreement to allow a procedure to be carried out, given by a patient, or the guardian of a patient, who has been provided with all the necessary information infra- / infr/ prefix below infrared / infr red/ adjective relating to infrared radiation noun invisible electromagnetic radiation between light and radio waves infrared rays / infrred reiz/ plural noun long invisible rays, below the visible red end of the colour spectrum, used to produce heat in body tissues in the treatment of traumatic and inflammatory conditions. light therapy infundibulum / inf n dibjlm/ noun any part of the body shaped like a funnel, especially the stem which attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus infusion /in fju ()n/ noun 1. a drink made by pouring boiling water on a dry substance such as herb tea or a powdered drug 2. the process of putting of liquid into someones body, using a drip ingesta /in d est/ plural noun food or liquid that enters the body via the mouth ingestion /in d estn/ noun the act of taking in food, drink or medicine by the mouth ingrowing toenail / in ri tneil/, ingrowing nail / in ri neil/, ingrown toenail / in rn tneil/ noun a toenail which is growing into the skin at the side of the nail, causing pain and swelling. The toenail cuts into the tissue on either side of it, creating inflammation and sometimes sepsis and ulceration. inguinal / i win()l/ adjective referring to the groin inguinal canal / i win()l k n l/ noun a passage in the lower abdominal wall, carrying the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female inguinal hernia / i win()l h ni/ noun a hernia where the intestine bulges through the muscles in the groin inguinal ligament / i win()l li mnt/ noun a ligament in the groin, running from the spine to the pubis. Also called Pouparts ligainfluenza | informed | informed consent | | infrainfrared | infrared rays infundibulum | infusion | ingesta | ingestion | ingrowing toenail inguinal inguinal canal | inguinal hernia inguinal ligament ment inguinal region inguinal region / i win()l ri d n/ noun the part of the body where the lower abdomen joins the top of the thigh. groin Nursing.fm Page 149 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 149 inpatient hospital treatment. He received severe facial injuries in the accident. injury scoring system / ind ri sk ri sistm/ noun any system used for deciding how severe an injury is a standard lung injury scoring system Abbreviation ISS inlay / inlei/ noun (in dentistry) a type of filling for teeth inlet / inlet/ noun a passage or opening through which a cavity can be entered innate /i neit/ adjective inherited, which is present in a body from birth inner pleura / in plr/ noun same as visinjury scoring system inlay inlet innate | inner pleura inhalation / inh lei()n/ noun 1. the act of breathing in. Opposite exhalation 2. the action of breathing in a medicinal substance as part of a treatment 3. a medicinal substance which is breathed in inhale /in heil/ verb 1. to breathe in, or breathe something in She inhaled some toxic gas fumes and was rushed to hospital. 2. to breathe in a medicinal substance as part of a treatment. Opposite exhale inhaler /in heil/ noun a small device for administering medicinal substances into the mouth or nose so that they can be breathed in inherent /in hirnt/ adjective referring to a thing which is part of the essential character of a person or a permanent characteristic of an organism inherit /in herit/ verb to receive genetically controlled characteristics from a parent She inherited her fathers red hair. Haemophilia is a condition which is inherited through the mothers genes. inheritance /in herit()ns/ noun 1. the process by which genetically controlled characteristics pass from parents to offspring the inheritance of chronic inflammatory bowel disease 2. all of the qualities and characteristics which are passed down from parents an unfortunate part of our genetic inheritance inherited /in heritid/ adjective passed on from a parent through the genes an inherited disorder of the lungs inhibit /in hibit/ verb to prevent an action hapAspirin pening, or stop a functional process inhibits the clotting of blood. inhibition / inhi bi()n/ noun 1. the action of blocking or preventing something happening, especially of preventing a muscle or organ from functioning properly 2. (in psychology) the suppression of a thought which is associated with a sense of guilt 3. (in psychology) the blocking of a spontaneous action by some mental influence inhibitor /in hibit/ noun a substance which inhibits inject /in d ekt/ verb to put a liquid into someones body under pressure, by using a hollow needle inserted into the tissues He was injected with morphine. She injected herself with a drug. injected /in d ektid/ adjective 1. referring to a liquid or substance introduced into the body 2. referring to surface blood vessels which are swollen injection /in d ekn/ noun 1. the act of injecting a liquid into the body He had a penicillin injection. 2. a liquid introduced into the body injury / ind ri/ noun damage or a wound caused to a persons body His injuries required | inhale | inhaler | inherent | inherit | inheritance | inherited | inhibit | inhibition | inhibitor | inject | injected | injection | injury inhalation ceral pleura innervation innervation / in vei()n/ noun the nerve supply to an organ, including both motor nerves and sensory nerves innocent / ins()nt/ adjective referring to a growth which is benign, not malignant innominate /i nmint/ adjective with no name innominate artery /i nmint tri/ noun the largest branch of the arch of the aorta, which continues as the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries innominate bone /i nmint bn/ noun same as hip bone innominate vein /i nmint vein/ noun same as brachiocephalic vein inoculate /i nkjleit/ verb to introduce vaccine into a persons body in order to make the body create its own antibodies, so making the person immune to the disease The baby was inoculated against diphtheria. (NOTE: You inoculate | innocent innominate | innominate artery | innominate bone | innominate vein | inoculate | someone with or against a disease.) inoculation inoculation /i nkj lei()n/ noun the action of inoculating someone Has the baby had a diphtheria inoculation? inoculum /i nkjlm/ noun a substance used for inoculation, e.g. a vaccine (NOTE: The plural | | inoculum | is inocula.) inoperable /in pr()b()l/ adjective referring to a condition which cannot be operated on The surgeon decided that the cancer was inoperable. inorganic / in nik/ adjective referring to a substance which is not made from animal or vegetable sources inorganic acid / in nik sid/ noun an acid which comes from minerals, used in dilute form to help indigestion inotropic / in trpik/ adjective affecting the way muscles contract, especially those of the heart inpatient / in pei()nt/ noun someone who stays overnight or for some time in a hospital for treatment or observation. Compare outpatient | inorganic | inorganic acid inotropic | inpatient | inoperable Nursing.fm Page 150 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM inquest inquest 150 inquest / ikwest/ noun an inquiry by a coroner into the cause of a death insanitary /in s nit()ri/ adjective not hygienic Cholera spread rapidly because of the insanitary conditions in the town. insanity /in s niti/ noun a psychotic mental disorder or illness insect / insekt/ noun a small animal with six legs and a body in three parts insect bite / insekt bait/ noun a sting caused by an insect which punctures the skin to suck blood, and in so doing introduces irritants insanitary | insanity | insect insect bite COMMENT: Most insect bites are simply irritating. Others can be more serious, as insects can carry the organisms which produce typhus, sleeping sickness, malaria, filariasis and many other diseases. insecticide /in sektisaid/ noun a substance insecticide | which kills insects insemination /in semi nei()n/ noun the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm insensible /in sensib()l/ adjective 1. lacking feeling or consciousness 2. not aware of or responding to a stimulus 3. too slight to be perceived by the senses insertion /in s ()n/ noun the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone insidious /in sidis/ adjective causing harm without showing any obvious signs insidious disease /in sidis di zi z/ noun a disease which causes damage before being detected insight / insait/ noun the ability of a person to realise that he or she is ill or has particular problems or characteristics in situ / in sitju / adverb in place insoluble /in sljb()l/ adjective not able to be dissolved in liquid insoluble fibre /in sljb()l faib/ noun the fibre in bread and cereals, which is not digested but which swells inside the intestine insomnia /in smni/ noun the inability to sleep She experiences insomnia. What does the doctor give you for your insomnia? Also called sleeplessness insomniac /in smni k/ noun a person who has insomnia inspiration / inspi rei()n/ noun the act of taking air into the lungs. Opposite expiration instep / instep/ noun an arched top part of the foot instillation / insti lei()n/ noun 1. the process of putting a liquid in drop by drop 2. a liquid put in drop by drop instinct / instikt/ noun a tendency or ability which the body has from birth and does not need to learn The body has a natural instinct to protect itself from danger. insemination | | insensible | insertion | insidious | insidious disease | | insight in situ insoluble | insoluble fibre | insomnia | insomniac | inspiration | instep instillation | instinct institution / insti tju ()n/ noun a place where people are cared for, e.g. a hospital or clinic, especially a psychiatric hospital or childrens home institutionalisation / insti tju ()nlai zei()n/, institutionalization, institutional neurosis / institju n()l nj rsis/ noun a condition in which someone has become so adapted to life in an institution that it is impossible for him or her to live outside it instrument / instrmnt/ noun a piece of equipment or a tool The doctor had a box of surgical instruments. instrumental delivery / instrment()l di liv()ri/ noun childbirth where the doctor uses forceps to help the baby out of the mothers uterus insufficiency / ins fi()nsi/ noun the fact of not being strong or large enough to perform usual functions The patient is suffering from a renal insufficiency. insufflation / ins flei()n/ noun the act of blowing gas, vapour or powder into the lungs or another body cavity as a treatment insulin / insjlin/ noun a hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas insulinase / insjlineiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down insulin insulin dependence / insjlin di pendns/ noun the fact of being dependent on insulin injections insulin-dependent diabetes / insjlin di pendnt dai bi tiz/ noun same as Type I dia| institutionalisation | | | instrument instrumental delivery | insufficiency | insufflation | insulin insulinase insulin dependence | insulin-dependent diabetes | | institution betes mellitus insulinoma / insjli nm/ noun a tumour in the islets of Langerhans insulin-resistant / insjlin ri zist()nt/ adjective referring to a condition in which the muscle and other tissue cells respond inadequately to insulin, as in Type II diabetes insuloma / insj lm/ noun same as insuli| insulin-resistant | insuloma | insulinoma noma insult / ins lt/ noun 1. a physical injury or trauma 2. something that causes a physical injury or trauma Intal / int l/ a trade name for a preparation of cromolyn sodium integrated service / inti reitid s vis/ noun a broad care service provided by health and social agencies acting together integrative medicine / inti reitiv med()s()n/ noun the combination of mainstream therapies and those complementary or alternative therapies for which there is scientific evidence of efficacy and safety integument /in te jmnt/ noun a covering layer, e.g. the skin intellect / intilekt/ noun a persons ability to think, reason and understand Intal integrated service integrative medicine integument | intellect insult Nursing.fm Page 151 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 151 internal carotid interferon intelligence /in telid ns/ noun the ability to learn and understand quickly intelligence quotient /in telid ns kw()nt/ noun the ratio of the mental age, as given by an intelligence test, to the chronological age of the person. Abbreviation IQ intensity /in tensiti/ noun the strength of e.g. pain intensive care /in tensiv ke/ noun 1. the continual supervision and treatment of an extremely ill person in a special section of a hospital The patient was put in intensive care. residential care 2. same as intensive care unit intensive care unit /in tensiv ke ju nit/ noun a section of a hospital equipped with lifesaving and life-support equipment in which seriously ill people who need constant medical attention are cared for. Abbreviation ICU intention /in tenn/ noun 1. the healing process 2. a plan to do something intention tremor /in tenn trem/ noun a trembling of the hands seen when people suffering from particular brain diseases make voluntary movements to try to touch something inter- /int/ prefix between interaction / intr kn/ noun an effect which two or more substances such as drugs have on each other interatrial septum / intr eitril septm/ noun a membrane between the right and left atria in the heart intercalated /in t kleitid/ adjective inserted between other tissues intercalated disc /in t kleitid disk/ noun closely applied cell membranes at the end of adjacent cells in cardiac muscle, seen as transverse lines intercellular / int seljl/ adjective between the cells in tissue intercostal / int kst()l/ adjective between the ribs noun same as intercostal muscle intercostal muscle /int kst()l m s()l/ noun one of the muscles between the ribs | intelligence quotient | intensity | intensive care | intensive care unit | intention | intention tremor | interinteraction | interatrial septum | intercalated | intercalated disc | intercellular | intercostal | intercostal muscle | intelligence interferon / int firn/ noun a protein produced by cells, usually in response to a virus, and which then reduces the spread of viruses interior /in tiri/ noun a part which is inside adjective inside interleukin / int lu kin/ noun a protein produced by the bodys immune system interleukin-1 / intlu kin w n/ noun a protein which causes high temperature. Abbreviation | interior | interleukin | interleukin-1 IL-1 interleukin-2 / intlu kin tu / noun a protein which stimulates T-cell production, used in the treatment of cancer. Abbreviation IL-2 interlobar / int lb/ adjective between lobes interlobar artery / intlbr tri/ noun an artery running towards the cortex on each side of a renal pyramid interlobular /int lbjl/ adjective between lobules interlobular artery /int lbjl tri/ noun one of the arteries running to the glomeruli of the kidneys intermediate care / intmi dit ke/ noun care following surgery or illness that can be delivered in special units attached to a hospital or in the persons home by a special multidisciplinary team intermittent / int mit()nt/ adjective occurring at intervals intermittent claudication / intmit()nt kl di kei()n/ noun a condition of the arteries causing severe pain in the legs which makes the person limp after having walked a short distance interlobar | interlobar artery interlobular | interlobular artery | intermediate care intermittent | intermittent claudication | interleukin-2 (NOTE: The symptoms increase with walking, stop after a short rest and recur when the person walks again.) intermittent fever / intmit()nt fi v/ noun intermittent fever fever which rises and falls regularly, as in malaria intermittent self-catheterisation / intmit()nt self k itrai zei()n/ noun a procedure in which someone puts a catheter through the urethra into their own bladder from time to time to empty out the urine. Abbreviation intermittent self-catheterisation | COMMENT: The intercostal muscles expand and contract the thorax, so changing the pressure in the thorax and making the person breathe in or out. There are three layers of intercostal muscle: external, internal and innermost or intercostalis intimis. intercurrent disease / intk rnt di zi z/, intercurrent infection / intk rnt in fekn/ noun a disease or infection which affects someintercurrent disease | | ISC internal one who has another disease interdigital / int did it()l/ adjective referring to the space between the fingers or toes interdisciplinary / int disi plinri/ adjective combining two or more different areas of medical or scientific study interdigital | interdisciplinary | | internal /in t n()l/ adjective inside the body or a body part internal auditory meatus /in t n()l dit()ri mi eits/ noun a channel which takes the auditory nerve through the temporal bone internal cardiac massage /in t n()l k di k m s / noun a method of making the heart start beating again by pressing on the heart itself internal carotid /in t n()l k rtid/ noun an artery in the neck, behind the external carotid, which gives off the ophthalmic artery and ends by dividing into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries | internal auditory meatus | | internal cardiac massage | internal carotid | | Nursing.fm Page 152 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM internal derangement of the knee 152 | internal derangement of the knee /in t n()l di rein mnt v ni / noun a condition in which the knee cannot function properly because of a torn meniscus. Abbreviation IDK internal ear /in t n()l i/ noun the part of the ear inside the head, behind the eardrum, containing the semicircular canals, the vestibule and the cochlea internal haemorrhage /in t n()l hem()rid / noun a haemorrhage which takes place inside the body internal haemorrhoids /in t n()l hemridz/ plural noun swollen veins inside the anus internal iliac artery /in t n()l ili k tri/ noun an artery which branches from the aorta in the abdomen and leads to the pelvis internal injury /in t n()l ind ri/ noun damage to one of the internal organs internal jugular /in t n()l d jl/ noun the largest jugular vein in the neck, leading to the brachiocephalic veins internal nares /in t n()l neri z/ plural noun the two openings shaped like funnels leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx. Also called posterior nares internal oblique /in t n()l bli k/ noun the middle layer of muscle covering the abdomen, beneath the external oblique internal respiration /in t n()l respi rei()n/ noun the part of respiration concerned with the passage of oxygen from the blood to the tissues, and the passage of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the blood International Committee of the Red Cross /int n ()n()l k miti v red krs/ noun an international organisation which provides mainly emergency medical help, but also relief to victims of earthquakes, floods and other disasters, or to prisoners of war. Abbreviation ICRC International Council of Nurses / intn ()n()l kansl v n siz/ noun an organisation founded in 1899 which now represents nurses in more than 120 countries. Its aims are to bring nurses together, to advance nursing worldwide and to influence health policies. Abbreviation ICN international unit / intn ()nl ju nit/ noun an internationally agreed standard used in pharmacy as a measure of a substance such as a drug or hormone. Abbreviation IU internodal / int nd()l/ adjective between two nodes interosseous / intr sis/ adjective between bones interparietal / intp rait()l/ adjective between parietal parts, especially between the | internal ear | internal haemorrhage | internal haemorrhoids | internal iliac artery | internal injury | internal jugular | internal nares | internal oblique | | internal respiration | | International Committee of the Red Cross | | International Council of Nurses international unit internodal | interosseous | interparietal | internal derangement of the knee parietal bones noun same as interparietal bone interparietal bone / intp rait()l bn/ noun a triangular bone in the back of the skull, rarely present in humans interphalangeal joint / intf l nd il d int/ noun a joint between the phalanges. Also called IP joint interphase / intfeiz/ noun a stage of a cell between divisions interpubic joint / intpju bik d int/ noun a piece of cartilage which joins the two sections of the pubic bone. Also called pubic symphysis intersex / intseks/ noun an organism that has both male and female characteristics intersexuality / intseku liti/ noun a condition in which a baby has both male and female characteristics, as in Klinefelters syndrome and Turners syndrome interstice /in t stis/ noun a small space between body parts or within a tissue interstitial / int sti()l/ adjective referring to tissue located in the spaces between parts of something, especially between the active tissues in an organ interstitial cell / int sti()l sel/ noun a testosterone-producing cell between the tubules in the testes. Also called Leydig cell interstitial cell stimulating hormone / int sti()l sel stimjleiti h mn/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates the formation of corpus luteum in females and testosterone in males. Abbreviation ICSH. Also called luteinising hormone interstitial cystitis / intsti()l si staitis/ noun a persistent nonbacterial condition in which someone has bladder pain and wants to pass urine frequently. It is often associated with Hunners ulcer. intertrigo / int trai / noun an irritation which occurs when two skin surfaces rub against each other, as in the armpit or between the buttocks intertubercular plane / inttj b kjl plein/ noun same as transtubercular plane intervention / int venn/ noun a treatment interventional radiology / intvenn()l reidi ld i/ noun the area of medicine which uses X-rays, ultrasound and CAT to guide small instruments into the body for procedures such as biopsies, draining fluids or widening narrow vessels interventricular / intven trikjl/ adjective between ventricles in the heart or brain interventricular foramen / intven trikjl f reimn/ noun an opening in the brain between the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle, through which the cerebrospinal fluid passes | interphalangeal joint | interphase interpubic joint intersex intersexuality | interstice | interstitial | interstitial cell | interstitial cell stimulating hormone | interstitial cystitis | intertrigo | intertubercular plane | intervention | interventional radiology | interventricular | interventricular foramen | | interparietal bone Nursing.fm Page 153 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 153 intrauterine contraceptive device interventricular septum / intven trikjl septm/ noun a membrane between the right and left ventricles in the heart intervertebral / int v tibr()l/ adjective between vertebrae intervertebral disc / int v tibrl disk/ noun a round plate of cartilage which separates two vertebrae in the spinal column. See illustration at CARTILAGINOUS JOINT in Supplement. Also called vertebral disc intervertebral foramen / int v tibrl f reimn/ noun a space between two vertebrae intestinal /in testin()l/ adjective referring to the intestine intestinal anastomosis /in testin()l n st msis/ noun a surgical operation to join one part of the intestine to another, after a section has been removed intestinal flora /in testin()l fl r/ plural noun beneficial bacteria which are always present in the intestine intestinal glands /in testin()l l ndz/ plural noun tubular glands found in the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine, especially those between the bases of the villi in the small intestine. Also called Lieberkhns | intervertebral | intervertebral disc | intervertebral foramen | | intestinal | intestinal anastomosis | | | intestinal flora | intestinal glands | interventricular septum glands, crypts of Lieberkhn intestinal obstruction intestinal obstruction /in testin()l b str kn/ noun a blocking of the intestine intestinal villi /in testin()l vilai/ plural noun projections on the walls of the intestine which help in the digestion of food intestinal wall /in testin()l w l/ noun the layers of tissue which form the intestine intestine /in testin/ noun the part of the digestive system between the stomach and the anus that large intestine, digests and absorbs food. | | intestinal villi | intestinal wall | intestine | small intestine (NOTE: For other terms referring to the intestines, see words beginning with entero-.) intracerebral haematoma / intr serbrl hi m tm/ noun a blood clot inside a cerebral hemisphere intracranial / intr kreinil/ adjective inside the skull intracranial pressure / intrkreinil pre/ noun the pressure of the subarachnoidal fluid, which fills the space between the skull and the brain. Abbreviation ICP intractable /in tr ktb()l/ adjective not able to be controlled an operation to relieve intractable pain intracutaneous / intrkju teinis/ adjective inside layers of skin tissue intracutaneous injection / intrkju teinis in d ekn/ noun an injection of a liquid between the layers of skin, as for a test for an allergy intradermal test / intr d m()l test/ noun a test requiring an injection into the thickness of the skin, e.g. a Mantoux test or an allergy test intradural / intr djrl/ adjective inside the dura mater intramedullary / intrme d lri/ adjective inside the bone marrow or spinal cord intramural / intr mjrl/ adjective inside the wall of an organ intramuscular / intr m skjl/ adjective inside a muscle intramuscular injection / intr m skjl in d ekn/ noun an injection of liquid into a muscle, e.g. for a slow release of a drug intranasal / intr neiz()l/ adjective inside or into the nose intraocular / intr kjl/ adjective inside the eye intraocular lens / intr kjl lenz/ noun an artificial lens implanted inside the eye. Abbreviation IOL intraocular pressure / intr kjl pre/ noun the pressure inside the eyeball (NOTE: If the | | intracranial | intracranial pressure intractable | intracutaneous | intracutaneous injection | | intradermal test | intradural | intramedullary | intramural | intramuscular | intramuscular injection | | intranasal | intraocular | intraocular lens | intraocular pressure | intracerebral haematoma intima / intim/ tunica intima intolerance /in tlrns/ noun the fact of being unable to endure something such as pain or to take a medicine without an adverse reaction He developed an intolerance to penicillin. intoxication /in tksi kei()n/ noun a condition which results from the absorption and diffusion in the body of a substance such as alcohol She was driving in a state of intoxication. intra- /intr/ prefix inside intra-abdominal / intr b dmin()l/ adjective inside the abdomen intra-articular / intr tikjl/ adjective inside a joint intracellular / intr seljl/ adjective inside a cell intima intolerance | intoxication | | intraintra-abdominal | intra-articular | intracellular | pressure is too high, it causes glaucoma.) intraoperative ultrasound / intrprtiv ltrsand/ noun high-resolution imaging used in surgery. Abbreviation IOUS intraorbital / intr bit()l/ adjective within intraoperative ultrasound intraorbital | the orbit of the eye intraosseous / intr sis/ adjective within a bone intrathecal / intr i k()l/ adjective inside a sheath, especially inside the intradural or subarachnoid space intratracheal / intrtr kil/ adjective within the trachea. Also called endotracheal intrauterine / intr ju train/ adjective inside the uterus intrauterine contraceptive device / intr ju train kntr septiv di vais/, intrauterine intraosseous | intrathecal | intratracheal | intrauterine | intrauterine contraceptive device | | | Nursing.fm Page 154 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM intravascular device / intrju train di vais/ noun a plastic | 154 himself or herself and his or her own mental state. Compare extroversion introvert / intrv t/ noun a person who thinks only about himself or herself and his or her own mental state. Compare extrovert intubate / intju beit/ verb to insert a tube into any organ or part of the body. Also called catheintrovert intubate coil placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. Abbreviation IUCD, IUD intravascular / intr v skjl/ adjective inside the blood vessels intravenous / intr vi ns/ adjective into a vein. Abbreviation IV intravenous drip / intrvi ns drip/ noun a thin tube that is inserted into a vein and is used to very gradually give a person fluids, either for rehydration, feeding or medication purposes intravenous feeding / intrvi ns fi di/ noun the procedure of giving someone liquid food by means of a tube inserted into a vein intravenous injection / intrvi ns in d ekn/ noun an injection of liquid into a vein, e.g. for the fast release of a drug intravenously / intr vi nsli/ adverb into a vein a fluid given intravenously intravenous pyelogram / intrvi ns pail r m/, intravenous urogram / intr vi ns jr r m/ noun a series of X-ray photographs of the kidneys using pyelography. Abbreviation IVP intravenous pyelography / intrvi ns pai l rfi/, intravenous urography / intr vi ns j r rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the urinary tract after opaque liquid has been injected intravenously into the body and taken by the blood into the kidneys intraventricular / intrven trikjl/ adjective inside or placed into a ventricle in the heart or the brain intrinsic /in trinsik/ adjective belonging to the essential nature of an organism, or entirely within an organ or part intrinsic factor /in trinsik f kt/ noun a protein produced in the gastric glands which reacts with the extrinsic factor, and which, if lacking, causes pernicious anaemia intrinsic ligament /in trinsik li mnt/ noun a ligament which forms part of the capsule surrounding a joint intrinsic muscle /in trinsik m s()l/ noun a muscle lying completely inside the part or segment, especially of a limb, which it moves intro- /intr/ prefix inward introitus /in trits/ noun an opening into any hollow organ or canal introjection / intr d ekn/ noun a persons unconscious adoption of the attitudes or values of another person whom he or she wants to impress introspection / intr spekn/ noun a detailed and sometimes obsessive mental selfexamination of feelings, thoughts and motives introversion / intr v ()n/ noun a condition in which a person is excessively interested in intravascular | intravenous | intravenous drip intravenous feeding intravenous injection | intravenously | intravenous pyelogram | intravenous pyelography | | | | intraventricular | intrinsic | intrinsic factor | intrinsic ligament | intrinsic muscle | introintroitus | introjection | introspection | introversion | terise intubation intubation / intju bei()n/ noun the therapeutic insertion of a tube into the larynx through the glottis to allow the passage of air. Also called | catheterisation intumescence / intju mes()ns/ noun the swelling of an organ intussusception / ints sepn/ noun a condition in which part of the gastrointestinal tract becomes folded down inside the part beneath it, causing an obstruction and strangulation of the folded part inunction /in kn/ noun 1. the act of rubbing an ointment into the skin so that the medicine in it is absorbed 2. an ointment which is rubbed into the skin invagination /in v d i nei()n/ noun same as intussusception invalid / invlid/ (dated ) noun someone who has had an illness and has not fully recovered from it or who has been permanently disabled adjective weak or disabled invasion /in vei ()n/ noun the entry of bacteria into a body, or the first attack of a disease invasive /in veisiv/ adjective 1. referring to cancer which tends to spread throughout the body 2. referring to an inspection or treatment which involves entering the body by making an incision. | intussusception | inunction | invagination | | invalid invasion | invasive | intumescence non-invasive inverse care law / inv s ke l / noun the idea that the people who most need care and services are least likely or able to access them inversion /in v ()n/ noun the fact of being turned towards the inside inversion of the foot See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement investigative surgery /in vesti tiv s d ri/ noun surgery to investigate the cause of a condition in vitro / in vi tr/ adjective, adverb a Latin phrase meaning in a glass, i.e. in a test tube or similar container used in a laboratory in vitro fertilisation / in vi tr f tlai zei()n/ noun the fertilisation of an ovum in the laboratory. test-tube baby. Abbreviation IVF in vivo adjective, adverb a Latin phrase meaning in living tissue, i.e. referring to an experiment which takes place on the living body in vivo experiment /in vi v ik sperimnt/ noun an experiment on a living body, e.g. that of an animal inversion | investigative surgery | in vitro in vitro fertilisation | in vivo in vivo experiment | inverse care law Nursing.fm Page 155 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 155 irritable hip used in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema ipsilateral / ipsi l trl/ adjective located on or affecting the same side of the body. Also called homolateral. Opposite contralateral IQ abbreviation intelligence quotient IRDS abbreviation infant respiratory distress syndrome irid- /irid/ prefix referring to the iris iridectomy / iri dektmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the iris iridocyclitis / iridsi klaitis/ noun inflammation of the iris and the tissues which surround it iridodialysis / iriddai lsis/ noun the separation of the iris from its insertion iridoplegia / irid pli d / noun paralysis of the iris iridoptosis / irid tsis/ noun the pushing forward of the iris through a wound in the cornea iridotomy / iri dtmi/ noun a surgical incision into the iris iris / airis/ noun a coloured ring in the eye, with the pupil at its centre. See illustration at EYE in ipsilateral | IQ IRDS iridiridectomy | iridocyclitis | iridodialysis | iridoplegia | iridoptosis | iridotomy | iris involucrum / inv lu krm/ noun a covering of new bone which forms over diseased bone involuntary /in vlnt()ri/ adjective done automatically, without any conscious thought or decision-making being involved Patients are advised not to eat or drink, to reduce the risk of involuntary vomiting while on the operating table. involuntary action /in vlnt()ri kn/ noun an action which someone does without thinking or making a conscious decision involuntary muscle /in vlnt()ri m s()l/ noun a muscle supplied by the autonomic nervous system, and therefore not under voluntary control, e.g. the muscle which activates a vital organ such as the heart involution / inv lu ()n/ noun 1. the return of an organ to its usual size, e.g. the shrinking of the uterus after childbirth 2. a period of decline of organs which sets in after middle age involutional / inv lu ()n()l/ adjective referring to involution involutional melancholia /inv lu ()n()l meln kli/ noun a depression which occurs in people, mainly women, after middle age, probably caused by a change of endocrine secretions iodine / aidi n/ noun a chemical element which is essential to the body, especially to the functioning of the thyroid gland (NOTE: Lack of | involuntary | involuntary action | involuntary muscle | involution | involutional | involutional melancholia | | iodine involucrum Supplement COMMENT: The iris acts like the aperture in a camera shutter, opening and closing to allow more or less light through the pupil into the eye. iritis /ai raitis/ noun inflammation of the iris iron / ain/ noun 1. a chemical element essential iritis | iron iodine in the diet can cause goitre. The chemical symbol is I.) IOL abbreviation intraocular lens ion / ain/ noun an atom that has an electric charge (NOTE: Ions with a positive charge are called cations and those with a negative charge are called anions.) ionise / ainaiz/, ionize verb to give an atom an IOL ion ionise to the body, present in foods such as liver and eggs 2. a common grey metal (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Fe.) iron-deficiency anaemia electric charge ioniser / ainaiz/, ionizer noun a machine that increases the amount of negative ions in the atmosphere of a room, so counteracting the effect of positive ions iontophoresis /ai ntf ri sis/ noun the movement of ions through a biological material when an electric current passes through it IOUS abbreviation intraoperative ultrasound IPAV abbreviation intermittent positive airway ventilation. positive pressure ventilation ipecacuanha / ipik kj n/ noun a drug made from the root of an American plant, used as a treatment for coughs, and also as an emetic IP joint / ai pi d int/ noun same as interioniser iontophoresis | | IOUS IPAV ipecacuanha | IP joint iron-deficiency anaemia / ain di fi()nsi ni mi/ noun anaemia caused by a lack of iron in red blood cells iron lung / ain l / noun same as Drinker | | iron lung respirator phalangeal joint IPPV IPPV abbreviation intermittent positive pressure ventilation. positive pressure ventilation ipratropium / aipr trpim/, ipratropium bromide / aipr trpim brmaid/ noun a drug which helps to relax muscles in the airways, ipratropium | | irradiation /i reidi ei()n/ noun 1. the process of spreading from a centre, as e.g., nerve impulses do 2. the use of radiation to treat people or to kill bacteria in food irreducible hernia /iri dju sb()l h ni/ noun a hernia where the organ cannot be returned to its usual position irrigation / iri ei()n/ noun the washing out of a cavity in the body irritability / irit biliti/ noun the state of being irritable irritable / iritb()l/ adjective 1. easily able to become inflamed and painful 2. feeling annoyed and impatient irritable bowel syndrome / iritb()l bal sindrm/ noun mucous colitis. Abbreviation IBS irritable hip / iritb()l hip/ noun a condition of pain in the hip which is caused by swelling of | | irreducible hernia | irrigation | irritability | irritable irritable bowel syndrome irritable hip irradiation Nursing.fm Page 156 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM irritant the synovium. Treatment involves bed rest, traction and anti-inflammatory drugs. irritant / irit()nt/ noun a substance which can irritate irritant dermatitis / irit()nt d m taitis/ noun same as contact dermatitis irritate / iriteit/ verb to cause a painful reaction in part of the body, especially to make it inflamed Some types of wool can irritate the skin. irritation / iri tei()n/ noun a feeling of being irritated an irritation caused by the ointment ISC abbreviation intermittent self-catheterisation isch- /isk/ prefix too little ischaemia /i ski mi/ noun a deficient blood supply to a part of the body ischaemic /i ski mik/ adjective lacking in blood ischi- /iski/ prefix same as ischio- (used before irritant irritant dermatitis | irritate irritation | ISC ischischaemia | ischaemic | ischi- 156 vowels) ischia / iski/ plural of ischium ischial / iskil/ adjective referring to the ischium or hip joint ischial tuberosity / iskil tju b rsiti/ noun a lump of bone forming the ring of the ischium ischio- /iski/ prefix referring to the ischium ischiorectal / iski rekt()l/ adjective referring to both the ischium and the rectum ischiorectal abscess / iski rekt()l bses/ noun an abscess which forms in fat cells between the anus and the ischium ischiorectal fossa / iski rekt()l fs/ noun a space on either side of the lower end of the rectum and anal canal ischium / iskim/ noun the lower part of the hip bone in the pelvis. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ischia.) Ishihara colour charts / iih r k l t ts/ plural noun charts used in a test for colour vision in which numbers or letters are shown in dots of primary colours with dots of other colours around them. People with normal colour vision can see them, but people who are colourblind cannot. islets of Langerhans / ailts v l h ns/, islands of Langerhans / ailndz v l h nz/, islet cells / ailt selz/ plural noun groups of cells in the pancreas which secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin and gastrin ischial ischial tuberosity | ischioischiorectal | ischiorectal abscess | ischiorectal fossa | ischium Ishihara colour charts islets of Langerhans ischia [Described 1869. After Paul Langerhans (1847 88), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Freiburg, Germany.] iso- /ais/ prefix equal isograft / ais r ft/ noun a graft of tissue from an identical twin. Also called syngraft isoimmunisation / ais imjunai zei()n/, isoimmunization noun immunisation of a perisoisograft isoimmunisation | | son with antigens derived from another person isolation / ais lei()n/ noun the separation of a person, especially one with an infectious disease, from others isolation ward / ais lei()n w d/ noun a special ward where people who have dangerous infectious diseases can be kept isolated from others isolator / aisleit/ noun 1. a large clear plastic bag in which a person can be nursed, or operated on, in a sterile environment 2. a room or piece of equipment which keeps people or substances separated from others which may contaminate them an isolator stretcher an isolator cabinet isoleucine / ais lu si n/ noun an essential amino acid isometric / ais metrik/ adjective 1. involving equal measurement an isometric view of the system 2. referring to muscle contraction in which tension occurs with very little shortening of muscle fibres 3. referring to exercises in which the muscles are put under tension but not contracted isometrics / ais metriks/ plural noun exercises to strengthen the muscles, in which the muscles contract but do not shorten isoprenaline / ais prenli n/, isoproterenol / aispr ternl/ noun a drug that relieves asthma by widening the bronchial tubes in the lungs isosorbide dinitrate / ais s baid dai naitreit/ noun a compound which causes widening or relaxation of the blood vessels, used in the treatment of angina pectoris isotonic / ais tnik/ adjective referring to a solution, e.g. a saline drip, which has the same osmotic pressure as blood serum and which can therefore be passed directly into the body. Compare hypertonic, hypotonic isotonic solution / aistnik s lu ()n/ noun a solution which has the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or as another liquid it is compared with isotope / aistp/ noun a form of a chemical element which has the same chemical properties as other forms but a different atomic mass isotretinoin / aistre tinin/ noun a drug used in the treatment of severe acne and several other skin diseases ispaghula / isp u l/, ispaghula husk / isp u l h sk/ noun a natural dietary fibre used to treat constipation, diverticulitis and irritable bowel syndrome ISS abbreviation injury scoring system isthmus / isms/ noun a short narrow canal or cavity itch /it/ noun an irritated place on the skin which makes a person want to scratch verb to produce an irritating sensation, making someone want to scratch | isolation ward | isolator isoleucine | isometric | isometrics | isoprenaline | | isosorbide dinitrate | | isotonic | isotonic solution | isotope isotretinoin | ispaghula | | ISS isthmus itch isolation Nursing.fm Page 157 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 157 itching IVU IUCD itching / iti/ noun same as pruritus itchy / iti/ adjective making a person want to scratch The main symptom of the disease is an itchy red rash. -itis /aitis/ suffix inflammation ITU abbreviation intensive therapy unit IU abbreviation international unit itchy -itis ITU IU IUCD abbreviation intrauterine contraceptive device IUD abbreviation 1. intrauterine death 2. intrauterine device IV abbreviation intravenous IVF abbreviation in vitro fertilisation IVP abbreviation intravenous pyelogram IVU abbreviation intravenous urography IUD IV IVF IVP IVU Nursing.fm Page 158 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM J J J /d ei/ abbreviation joule jab /d b/ noun an injection or inoculation (informal ) a tetanus jab Jacksonian epilepsy /d k snin epilepsi/ noun a form of epilepsy in which the jerking movements start in one part of the body before spreading to others [Described 1863. After jab Jacksonian epilepsy | jejunal ulcer jejunal ulcer /d i d u n()l ls/ noun an ulcer in the jejunum jejunectomy / d id u nektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of the jejunum | jejunectomy | (NOTE: The plural is jejunectomies.) jejuno- /d i d u n/ prefix referring to the jejuno- John Hughlings Jackson (18351911), British neurologist.] Jacquemiers sign / d kmiz sain/ noun Jacquemiers sign jejunum jejunoileostomy /d i d u n ili stmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an artificial link between the jejunum and the ileum (NOTE: jejunoileostomy | | | a sign of early pregnancy in which the vaginal mucosa becomes slightly blue due to an increased amount of blood in the arteries [After Jean Marie Jacquemier (180679), French obstetrician.] jactitation / d kti tei()n/ noun the action jactitation | The plural is jejunoileostomies.) jejunostomy jejunostomy / d id u nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an artificial passage to the jejunum through the wall of the abdomen (NOTE: | The plural is jejunostomies.) of constantly moving the body around in a restless way, especially because of mental illness jag /d / noun in Scotland, an injection or inoculation (informal ) jargon / d n/ noun 1. the words used by people who have a particular area of knowledge, which are usually only understood by those people medical jargon 2. a stream of words that makes no sense, produced by someone with aphasia or a severe mental disorder jaundice / d ndis/ noun a condition in which there is an excess of bile pigment in the blood, and in which the pigment is deposited in the skin and the whites of the eyes, which have a yellow colour. Also called icterus jaw /d / noun the bones in the face which hold the teeth and form the mouth He fell down and broke his jaw. The punch on his mouth broke his jaw. jag jargon jaundice jaw jejunotomy / d id u ntmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut into the jejunum (NOTE: The plu| jejunotomy ral is jejunotomies.) COMMENT: The jaw has two parts, the upper (the maxillae) being fixed parts of the skull, and the lower (the mandible) being attached to the skull with a hinge so that it can move up and down. jawbone / d bn/ noun one of the bones jawbone which form the jaw, especially the lower jaw or mandible jejun- /d id u n/ prefix same as jejuno- (used jejun- jejunum /d i d u nm/ noun the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum, about 2 metres long. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement jerk /d k/ noun a sudden movement of part of the body which indicates that the local reflex arc is intact verb to make sudden movements, or cause something to make sudden movements In some forms of epilepsy the limbs jerk. jet lag / d et l / noun a condition suffered by people who travel long distances in planes, caused by rapid changes in time zones which affect sleep patterns and meal times and thus interfere with the bodys metabolism We had jet lag when we flew from Australia. jet-lagged / d et l d/ adjective experiencing jet lag jet-lagged travellers We were jetlagged for a week. joint /d int/ noun a structure at a point where two or more bones join, especially one which allows movement of the bones The elbow is a joint in the arm. Arthritis is accompanied by stiffness in the joints. Charcots joint (NOTE: | jerk jet lag jet-lagged joint jejunum before vowels) jejunal /d i d u n()l/ adjective referring to the jejunal | For other terms referring to joints, see words beginning with arthr-, arthro-.) joint capsule / d int k psju l/ noun white joint capsule fibrous tissue which surrounds and holds a joint together. See illustration at SYNOVIAL JOINT in jejunum Supplement Nursing.fm Page 159 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 159 juxtaposition jumpers knee joint investment plan / d int in vestmnt pl n/ noun a plan that health and social services draw up together for specific areas of care joint mouse / d int mas/ plural noun a loose piece of bone or cartilage in the knee joint, making the joint lock joule /d u l/ noun the SI unit of measurement of work or energy. 4.184 joules equals one calorie. Symbol J jugular / d jl/ adjective referring to the throat or neck noun same as jugular vein jugular nerve / d jl n v/ noun one of the nerves in the neck jugular trunk / d jl tr k/ noun a terminal lymph vessel in the neck, draining into the subclavian vein jugular vein / d jl vein/ noun one of the veins which pass down either side of the neck. Also called jugular | joint mouse joule jugular jugular nerve jugular trunk jugular vein joint investment plan jumpers knee / d mpz ni / noun a painful condition suffered by athletes and dancers in which inflammation develops in the knee joint junction / d kn/ noun a joining point junior doctor / d u ni dkt/ noun a doctor who is completing his or her training in hospital junk food / d k fu d/ noun food of little nutritional value, e.g. high-fat processed snacks, eaten between or instead of meals juvenile / d u vnail/ adjective relating to or affecting children or adolescents juxta- /d kst/ prefix beside or near juxta-articular / d kst tikjl/ adjective occurring near a joint juxtaposition / d kstp zi()n/ noun the placing of two or more things side by side so as to make their similarities or differences more obvious junction junior doctor junk food juvenile juxtajuxta-articular | juxtaposition | Nursing.fm Page 160 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM K k symbol kilokala-azar / k l z / noun an often fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the infection of the intestines and internal organs by a parasite, Leishmania, spread by flies. Symptoms are fever, anaemia, general wasting of the body and swelling of the spleen and liver. kaolin / keilin/ noun a fine soft clay used in the making of medical preparations, especially for the treatment of diarrhoea Kaposis sarcoma /k pziz s km/ noun a cancer which takes the form of many haemorrhagic nodes affecting the skin, especially on the extremities [Described 1872. After Moritz kala-azar | kaolin Kaposis sarcoma | | k [Described 1904. After William Lordan Keller (18741959), US surgeon.] keloid / ki lid/ noun an excessive amount of keloid scar tissue at the site of a skin injury kerat- /kert/ prefix same as kerato- (used kerat- before vowels) Kohn Karposi (18371902), Professor of Dermatology at Vienna, Austria.] Kartageners syndrome / k t d i nz sindrm/ noun a hereditary condition in which Kartageners syndrome | all the organs in the chest and abdomen are positioned on the opposite side from the usual one, i.e. the heart and stomach are on the right karyo- /k ri/ prefix relating to a cell nucleus karyotype / k ritaip/ noun the chromosome complement of a cell, shown as a diagram or as a set of letters and numbers Kawasaki disease / k w s kiz di zi z/ noun a retrovirus infection that often occurs in small children and causes a high temperature, rash, reddened eyes, peeling skin and swollen lymph nodes Kayser-Fleischer ring / kaiz flai ri/ noun a brown ring on the outer edge of the cornea, which is a diagnostic sign of hepatolenticular degeneration [Described 1902 by Kayser, 1903 karyokaryotype Kawasaki disease | | Kayser-Fleischer ring keratectasia / kertek teizi/ noun a condition in which the cornea bulges keratectomy / ker tektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole or part of the cornea (NOTE: The plural is keratectomies.) keratic /k r tik/ adjective 1. relating to horny tissue or to keratin 2. relating to the cornea keratin / kertin/ noun a protein found in horny tissue such as fingernails, hair or the outer surface of the skin keratinisation / kertinai zei()n/, keratinization noun the appearance of horny characteristics in tissue. Also called cornification keratinise / kertinaiz, k r tinaiz/, keratinize verb to convert something into keratin or into horny tissue (NOTE: keratinising kerat| keratectomy | keratic | keratin keratinisation | keratinise | keratectasia inised) by Fleischer. Bernard Kayser (18691954), German ophthalmologist; Bruno Richard Fleischer (18481904), German physician.] kcal abbreviation kilocalorie Kegel exercises / kei ()l ekssaiziz/ plural noun exercises which strengthen the muscles of kcal Kegel exercises keratinocyte / ker tinsait/ noun a cell which produces keratin keratitis / ker taitis/ noun inflammation of the cornea kerato- /kert/ prefix referring to horn, horny tissue or the cornea keratoconjunctivitis / kertkn d kti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the cornea with conjunctivitis keratoma / ker tm/ noun a hard thickened growth due to hypertrophy of the horny zone of the skin (NOTE: The plural is keratomas or | keratitis | keratokeratoconjunctivitis | keratoma | keratinocyte | keratomata.) the pelvic floor in women and help to prevent any accidental leakage of urine when they cough, sneeze or lift things Kellers operation / kelz p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation on the big toe to remove a bunion or to correct an ankylosed joint Kellers operation | keratomalacia / kertm lei/ noun a softening of the cornea frequently caused by Vitamin A deficiency keratome / kertm/ noun a surgical knife used for operations on the cornea keratometer / ker tmit/ noun an instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea keratopathy / ker tpi/ noun any noninflammatory disorder of the cornea (NOTE: The | keratome keratometer | keratopathy | keratomalacia plural is keratopathies.) Nursing.fm Page 161 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 161 Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease keratoplasty / kertpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to graft corneal tissue from a donor in place of diseased tissue (NOTE: The plural is keratoplasties.) keratoplasty keratoprosthesis / kertprs i sis/ noun 1. a surgical operation to replace the central area | keratoprosthesis of a cornea with clear plastic, when it has become opaque 2. a piece of clear plastic put into the cornea (NOTE: The plural is keratoprostheses.) keratoscope / kertskp/ noun an instrument for examining the cornea to see if it has an unusual curvature. Also called Placidos disc keratosis / ker tsis/ noun a lesion of the skin (NOTE: The plural is keratoses.) keratotomy / ker ttmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the cornea, the first step in many intraocular operations (NOTE: The plural keratoscope keratosis | keratotomy | is keratotomies.) kerion / kirin/ noun a painful soft mass, usually on the scalp, caused by ringworm kernicterus /k niktrs/ noun yellow pigmentation of the basal ganglia and other nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, found in children with icterus Kernigs sign / k ni z sain/ noun a symptom of meningitis in which the knee cannot be straightened if the person is lying down with the thigh brought up against the abdomen [Described kernicterus | Kernigs sign kerion ketonuria / ki t njri/ noun a state in which ketone bodies are excreted in the urine ketoprofen / ki t prfn/ noun an antiinflammatory drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis ketosis /ki tsis/ noun a state in which ketone bodies such as acetone and acetic acid accumulate in the tissues, a late complication of Type I diabetes mellitus ketosteroid / ki t stirid/ noun a steroid such as cortisone which contains a ketone group keyhole surgery / ki hl s d ri/ noun surgery carried out by inserting tiny surgical instruments through an endoscope (informal ) Also called laparoscopic surgery kg abbreviation kilogram kidney / kidni/ noun either of two organs situated in the lower part of the back on either side of the spine behind the abdomen, whose function is to maintain the usual concentrations of the main constituents of blood, passing the waste matter into the urine. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement kidney dialysis / kidni dai lsis/ noun the process of removing waste matter from blood by passing it through a kidney machine. Also called | ketoprofen | ketosis | ketosteroid | keyhole surgery kg kidney kidney dialysis | ketonuria haemodialysis 1882. After Vladimir Mikhailovich Kernig (1840 1917), Russian neurologist.] ketamine / ketmi n/ noun a white crystalline ketamine powder that is a general anaesthetic, used in human and veterinary medicine ketoacidosis / ki t si dsis/ noun an accumulation of ketone bodies in tissue in diabetes, causing acidosis ketoconazole / ki t knzl/ noun a drug which is effective against a wide range of fungal infections such as cryptococcosis and thrush ketogenesis / ki t d ensis/ noun the production of ketone bodies ketogenic / ki t d enik/ adjective forming ketone bodies ketogenic diet / ki td enik dait/ noun a diet with a high fat content, producing ketosis ketonaemia / ki t ni mi/ noun a morbid state in which ketone bodies exist in the blood ketone / ki tn/ noun a chemical compound produced when glucose is unavailable for use as energy, as in untreated diabetes, and fats are used instead, leading to ketosis ketone bodies / ki tn bdiz/ plural noun ketone compounds formed from fatty acids ketone group / ki tn ru p/ noun a chemical group characteristic of ketones, with carbon atoms doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and to the carbon atoms of two other organic groups ketoacidosis | | ketoconazole | ketogenesis | ketogenic | ketogenic diet ketonaemia | ketone ketone bodies ketone group kidney donor / kidni dn/ noun a person who gives one of his or her kidneys as a transplant kidney failure / kidni feilj/ noun a situation in which the kidneys do not function properly kidney machine / kidni m i n/ noun an apparatus through which blood is passed to be cleaned by dialysis if the persons kidneys have failed kidney stone / kidni stn/ noun a hard mass of calcium like a little piece of stone which forms in the kidney kidney transplant / kidni tr nspl nt/ noun a surgical operation to give someone with a diseased or damaged kidney a kidney from another person killer cell / kil sel/, killer T cell / kil ti sel/ noun a type of immune cell that recognises and destroys cells that have specific antigens on their surface, e.g. virus-infected or cancerous cells kilo- /kil/ prefix one thousand (103). Symbol k kilogram / kil r m/ noun an SI unit of measurement of weight equal to 1000 grams She weighs 62 kilos (62 kg). Symbol kg kilojoule / kild u l/ noun an SI unit of measurement of energy or heat equal to 1000 joules. Symbol kJ kilopascal / kilp skl/ noun an SI unit of measurement of pressure equal to 1000 pascals. Symbol kPa Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease / kimlsti l wilsn di zi z/, Kimmelstiel-Wilson synkidney failure kidney machine | kidney stone kidney transplant killer cell kilokilogram kilojoule kilopascal Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease | kidney donor Nursing.fm Page 162 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM kin drome / kimlsti l wilsn sindrm/ noun a 162 form of nephrosclerosis found in people with diabetes [Described 1936. After Paul Kimmelstiel (190070), US pathologist; Clifford Wilson (190698), Professor of Medicine, London University, UK] kin /kin/ noun relatives or close members of the kin Kirschner wire / k ()n wai/, Kirschners wire noun a wire attached to a bone and tightened to provide traction to a fracture [Described 1909. After Martin Kirschner (1879 1942), Professor of Surgery at Heidelberg, Germany.] kiss of life / kis v laif/ noun same as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (informal ) kJ abbreviation kilojoule Klebsiella / klebsi el/ noun a Gram-negative kiss of life kJ Klebsiella | Kirschner wire family kin- /kin/ prefix same as kine- (used before vowkin- els) kinaesthesia kinaesthesia / kini s i zi/ noun the fact of being aware of the movement and position of parts of the body (NOTE: The US spelling is | kinesthesia.) kinanaesthesia kinanaesthesia / kin ni s i zi/ noun the fact of not being able to sense the movement and position of parts of the body (NOTE: The US | bacterium, one form of which, Klebsiella pneumoniae, can cause pneumonia Klebs-Loeffler bacillus / klebz lefl b sils/ noun the bacterium which causes diphtheria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae [After Theodor Klebs-Loeffler bacillus | spelling is kinanesthesia.) kinase / kaineiz/ noun an enzyme belonging to kinase a large family of related substances that bind to the energy-providing molecule ATP and regulate functions such as cell division and signalling between cells kine- /kini/ prefix movement kinematics / kini m tiks/ noun the science of movement, especially of body movements (NOTE: kinekinematics | Albrecht Klebs (18341913), bacteriologist in Zrich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA; Friedrich August Loeffler (18521915), bacteriologist in Berlin, Germany.] Kleihauer test / klaiha test/, KleihauerBetke test noun a test used to check whether Kleihauer test Also spelled cinematics.) kineplasty / kinipl sti/ noun an amputation in kineplasty which the muscles of the stump of the amputated limb are used to operate an artificial limb (NOTE: Also spelled cineplasty.The plural is kineplasties.) kinesi- /kaini si/ prefix movement (NOTE: used before vowels) kinesiology / kaini si ld i/ noun the study kinesikinesiology | of human movements, particularly with regard to their use in treatment kinesis /ki ni sis/ noun the movement of a cell in response to a stimulus. Compare taxis -kinesis /kini sis/ suffix 1. activity or motion 2. a change in the movement of a cell, though not in any particular direction. Examples are a change in its speed or in its turning behaviour. kinesitherapy / kaini si erpi/ noun therapy involving movement of parts of the body kinetic /ki netik, kai netik/ adjective relating to movement Kings Fund / kiz f nd/ noun a major independent health charity in London Kings model / kiz md()l/ noun a model of nursepatient relationships based on ten principles: interaction, perception, communication, transaction, role, stress, growth and development, time, self and space. Through an exchange of information nurses and patients work together to help individuals and groups attain, maintain and restore health. kinin / kainin/ noun a polypeptide that makes blood vessels widen and smooth muscles contract kinesis | -kinesis kinesitherapy | kinetic | | Kings Fund Kings model kinin there has been any blood loss from a fetus to the mother across the placenta. It is usually done immediately after delivery. klepto- /klept/ prefix stealing or theft kleptomania / klept meini/ noun a form of mental disorder in which someone has a compulsive desire to steal things, even things of little value kleptomaniac / klept meini k/ noun a person who has a compulsive desire to steal Klinefelters syndrome / klainfeltz sindrm/ noun a genetic disorder in which a male has an extra female chromosome, making an XXY set, giving sterility and partial female characteristics [Described 1942. After Harry Fitch kleptokleptomania | kleptomaniac | Klinefelters syndrome Klinefelter Jr. (b. 1912), Associate Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, USA.] Klumpkes paralysis / klu mpkz p r lsis/ noun a form of paralysis due to an Klumpkes paralysis | injury during birth, affecting the forearm and hand. Also called Djerine-Klumpkes syndrome [Described 1885. After Augusta Klumpke (Madame Djerine-Klumpke) (18591937), French neurologist, one of the first women to qualify in Paris in 1888.] knee /ni / noun a joint in the middle of the leg, joining the femur and the tibia (NOTE: For other terms referring to the knee, see genu.) kneecap / ni k p/ noun same as patella knee jerk / ni d k/ noun same as patellar reflex knee joint / ni d int/ noun a joint where the knee kneecap knee jerk knee joint femur and the tibia are joined, covered by the kneecap knock-knee / nk ni / noun a state in which the knees touch and the ankles are apart when a knock-knee Nursing.fm Page 163 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 163 person is standing straight. Also called genu valgum kraurosis vulvae | kyphotic knock-kneed / nk ni d/ adjective referring to a person whose knees touch when he or she stands straight with feet slightly apart knock out / nk at/ verb to hit someone so hard that he or she is no longer conscious He was knocked out by a blow on the head. knowledge and skills framework / nlid n skilz freimw k/ noun full form of KSF knuckle / n k()l/ noun the back of each joint on a persons hand Kocher manoeuvre / kk m nu v/ noun a method for realigning a dislocated shoulder in which the arm is raised and a sudden change is made between inward and outward rotation of the head of the joint Kochs bacillus / kks b sils/ noun the bacterium which causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Described 1882. After Robert knock out knowledge and skills framework knuckle Kocher manoeuvre | Kochs bacillus | knock-kneed kraurosis vulvae /kr rsis v lv/ noun a condition in which the vulva becomes thin and dry due to lack of oestrogen, found usually in elderly women Krause corpuscles / kraz k p s()lz/ plural noun encapsulated nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, eyes and genitals [Described 1860. After Wilhelm Johann Krause corpuscles Friedrich Krause (18331910), German anatomist.] Krebs cycle Krebs cycle / krebz saik()l/ noun same as citric acid cycle [Described 1937. After Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (190081), German biochemist who emigrated to England in 1934. Shared the Nobel prize for Medicine 1953 with F.A. Lipmann.] KSF Koch (18431910), Professor of Hygiene in Berlin, Germany, later Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases. (Nobel Prize 1905).] Khlers disease / k lz di si z/ noun a Khlers disease | degeneration of the navicular bone in children. Also called scaphoiditis [Described 1908 and 1926. After Alban Khler (18741947), German radiologist.] koilonychia / kil niki/ noun a condition koilonychia | KSF / kei es ef/ noun a document setting out the knowledge and skills required in a particular healthcare post, giving guidance on professional development, and setting out the pay progression. Full form knowledge and skills framework Kuntscher nail / k nt neil/, Kntscher nail noun a long steel nail used in operations to pin fractures of long bones, especially the femur, through the bone marrow [Described 1940. After Kuntscher nail Gerhard Kntscher (190072), German surgeon.] in which the fingernails are brittle and concave, caused by iron-deficiency anaemia Kopliks spots / kpliks spts/ plural noun small white spots with a blue tinge surrounded by a red areola, found in the mouth in the early stages of measles [Described 1896. After Henry Koplik Kopliks spots Kupffers cells / kpfz selz/, Kupffer cells / kpf selz/ plural noun large specialised liver cells which break down haemoglobin into bile [Described 1876. After Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer (18291902), German anatomist.] Kveim test Kupffers cells (18581927), US paediatrician.] Korotkoffs method / krtkfs med/ noun a method of finding a persons blood presKorotkoffs method Kveim test / kvaim test/ noun a skin test to confirm the presence of sarcoidosis [After Morten Ansgar Kveim (18921966), Swedish physician.] kwashiorkor sure by inflating a cuff around his or her upper arm to a pressure well above the systolic blood pressure and then gradually decreasing it Korsakoffs syndrome / k skfs sindrm/ noun a condition, caused usually by chronic alcoholism or disorders in which there is a deficiency of vitamin B, in which a persons memory fails and he or she invents things which have not happened and is confused [Described Korsakoffs syndrome 1887. After Sergei Sergeyevich Korsakoff (18541900), Russian psychiatrist.] kraurosis penis /kr rsis pi nis/ noun a kraurosis penis | kwashiorkor / kwi k / noun malnutrition of small children, mostly in tropical countries, causing anaemia, wasting of the body and swollen liver kypho- /kaif/ prefix a hump kyphoscoliosis / kaif skli sis/ noun a condition in which someone has both backward and lateral curvature of the spine kyphosis /kai fsis/ noun an excessive backward curvature of the top part of the spine (NOTE: | kyphokyphoscoliosis | | kyphosis | The plural is kyphoses.) kyphotic condition in which the foreskin becomes dry and shrivelled kyphotic /kai ftik/ adjective referring to kyphosis | Nursing.fm Page 164 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM L l l, L symbol litre lab- /leib/ prefix same as labio- (used before lab- labrum labrum / leibrm/ noun a ring of cartilage around the rim of a joint (NOTE: The plural is labra.) labyrinth vowels) labia / leibi/ plural of labium labia labial / leibil/ adjective referring to the lips or to labia labia majora / leibi m d r/ plural noun two large fleshy folds at the outside edge of the vulva. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement labia minora / leibi mi n r/ plural noun two small fleshy folds on the inside edge of the vulva. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement. Also called nymphae labile / leibail/ adjective referring to a drug which is unstable and likely to change if heated or cooled lability of mood /l biliti v mu d/ noun a tendency for a persons mood to change suddenly labio- /leibi/ prefix referring to the lips or to labia labioplasty / leibi pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair damaged or deformed lips labia majora | labia minora | labile lability of mood | labiolabioplasty | labial labyrinth / l brin/ noun a series of interconnecting tubes, especially those in the inside of the ear labyrinthectomy / l brin ektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the labyrinth of the inner ear (NOTE: The plural is labyrinthectolabyrinthectomy | mies.) labyrinthitis labyrinthitis / l brin aitis/ noun same as | otitis interna laceration laceration / l s rei()n/ noun 1. a wound which has been cut or torn with rough edges, and is not the result of stabbing or pricking 2. the act of tearing tissue lachrymal / l krim()l/ adjective same as lac| lachrymal rimal lacrimal lacrimal / l krim()l/ adjective referring to tears, the tear ducts or the tear glands. nasolacrimal lacrimal apparatus (NOTE: The plural is labioplasties.) labium / leibim/ noun any of the four fleshy labium lacrimal apparatus / l krim()l p reits/ noun the arrangement of glands and ducts which produce and drain tears. Also called lacrimal system lacrimal bone | folds which surround the female genital organs laboratory technician /l brt()ri tek ni()n/ noun a person who does practical work in a laboratory and has particular care of equipment laboratory techniques /l brt()ri tek ni kz/ plural noun the methods or skills needed to perform experiments in a laboratory laboratory test /l brt()ri test/ noun a test carried out in a laboratory labour / leib/ noun childbirth, especially the contractions in the uterus which take place during childbirth laboured breathing / leibd bri i/ noun difficult breathing, which can be due to various causes such as asthma labour pains / leib peinz/ plural noun the pains felt at regular intervals by a woman as the muscles of the uterus contract during childbirth laboratory technician | laboratory techniques | laboratory test | labour laboured breathing labour pains | | lacrimal bone / l krim()l bn/ noun one of two little bones which join with others to form the orbits lacrimal canaliculus / l krim()l k n likjls/ noun a small canal draining tears into the lacrimal sac lacrimal caruncle / l krim()l k r k()l/ noun a small red point at the inner corner of each eye lacrimal duct / l krim()l d kt/ noun a small duct leading from the lacrimal gland. Also called lacrimal canaliculus | lacrimal caruncle | lacrimal duct tear duct lacrimal gland / l krim()l l nd/ noun a gland beneath the upper eyelid which secretes tears. Also called tear gland lacrimal puncta / l krim()l p kt/ plural noun small openings of the lacrimal canaliculus at the corners of the eyes through which tears drain into the nose lacrimal puncta lacrimal gland Nursing.fm Page 165 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 165 lanugo Thophile Hyacinthe Laennec (17811826), Professor of medicine at the Collge de France, and inventor of the stethoscope.] -lalia /leili/ suffix speech or a speech disorder lambda / l md/ noun 1. the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet 2. the point at the back of the skull -lalia lambda lacrimal sac / l krim()l s k/ noun a sac at the upper end of the nasolacrimal duct, linking it with the lacrimal canaliculus lacrimal system / l krim()l sistm/ noun same as lacrimal apparatus lacrimation / l kri mei()n/ noun the production of tears lacrimator / l krimeit/ noun a substance which irritates the eyes and makes tears flow lacrymal / l krim()l/, lachrymal / l krim()l/ adjective same as lacrimal lact- /l kt/ prefix same as lacto- (used before lacrimal system lacrimation | lacrimator lacrymal lact- lacrimal sac vowels) lactase / l kteiz/ noun an enzyme, secreted in the small intestine, which converts milk sugar into glucose and galactose lactate /l k teit/ verb to produce milk in the body (NOTE: lactating lactated) lactation /l k tei()n/ noun the production of milk in the body lacteal / l ktil/ adjective referring to milk noun a lymph vessel in a villus which helps the digestive process in the small intestine by absorbing fat lactic / l ktik/ adjective relating to milk lactic acid / l ktik sid/ noun a sugar which forms in cells and tissue, and also in sour milk, cheese and yoghurt lactiferous /l k tifrs/ adjective producing, secreting or carrying milk lactiferous duct /l k tifrs d kt/ noun a duct in the breast which carries milk lactiferous sinus /l k tifrs sains/ noun a dilatation of the lactiferous duct at the base of the nipple lacto- /l kt/ prefix referring to milk Lactobacillus / l ktb sils/ noun a genus of Gram-positive bacteria which produces lactic acid from glucose and may be found in the digestive tract and the vagina lactogenic hormone / l kt d enik h mn/ noun same as prolactin lactose / l kts/ noun a type of sugar found in milk lactose intolerance / l kts in tlrns/ noun a condition in which a person cannot digest lactose because lactase is absent in the intestine or because of an allergy to milk, causing diarrhoea lactosuria / l kt sjri/ noun the excretion of lactose in the urine lactulose / l ktjls/ noun an artificially produced sugar used as a laxative lacuna /l kju n/ noun a small hollow or cavity (NOTE: The plural is lacunae.) Lannecs cirrhosis / leineks s rsis/ noun the commonest form of alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver [Described 1819. After Ren lactate | lactation | lacteal lactic lactic acid lactiferous | lactiferous duct | lactiferous sinus | lactoLactobacillus | lactogenic hormone | lactose lactose intolerance | lactosuria | lactulose lacuna | Lannecs cirrhosis | lactase where the sagittal suture and lambdoidal suture meet lambdoid / l mdid/ adjective shaped like the capital Greek letter lambda, like an upside down V or y lambdoid suture / l mdid su t/, lambdoidal suture / l mdid()l su t/ noun a horizontal joint across the back of the skull between the parietal and occipital bones lambliasis /l m blaisis/ noun same as giarlambdoid lambdoid suture lambliasis | diasis lame lame /leim/ adjective not able to walk easily because of pain, stiffness or damage in a leg or foot (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) lamella /l mel/ noun a thin sheet of tissue lamella | (NOTE: The plural is lamellae.) lamina / l min/ noun a thin membrane lamina propria / l min prpri/ noun the lamina lamina propria connective tissue of mucous membranes containing, e.g., blood vessels and lymphatic tissues laminectomy / l mi nektmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut through the lamina of a vertebra in the spine to get to the spinal cord. Also called laminectomy | rachiotomy (NOTE: The plural is laminectomies.) lamotrigine /l mtrid i n/ noun a drug that lamotrigine | helps to control petit mal epilepsy lance /l ns/ verb to make a cut in a boil or abscess to remove the pus lancet / l nsit/ noun 1. a sharp two-edged pointed knife formerly used in surgery 2. a small pointed implement used to take a small capillary blood sample, e.g. to measure blood glucose levels lancinate / l nsineit/ verb to lacerate or cut something (NOTE: lancinating lancinated) lancinating / l nsineiti/ adjective referring to pain which is sharp and cutting Landsteiners classification / l ndstainz kl sifi kei()n/ noun same as ABO system Langerhans cells / l h ns selz/ plural noun cells on the outer layers of the skin Langers lines / l z lainz/ plural noun the arrangement of collagen protein fibres which causes the usual skin creases. Cuts made along these lines sever fewer fibres and heal better than other cuts. Also called cleavage lines lanolin / l nlin/ noun grease from sheeps wool which absorbs water and is used to rub on dried skin, or in the preparation of cosmetics lanugo /l nju / noun 1. soft hair on the body of a fetus or newborn baby 2. soft hair on the lance lancet lancinate lancinating Landsteiners classification | Langerhans cells Langers lines lanolin lanugo | Nursing.fm Page 166 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM laparobody of an adult, except on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet and the parts where long hair grows laparo- /l pr/ prefix the lower abdomen laparoscope / l prskp/ noun a surgical instrument which is inserted through a hole in the abdominal wall to allow a surgeon to examine the inside of the abdominal cavity. Also called perilaparolaparoscope 166 laryngoscope laryngoscope /l ri skp/ noun an instrument for examining the inside of the larynx using a light and mirrors laryngoscopy / l ri skpi/ noun an examination of the larynx with a laryngoscope | laryngoscopy | (NOTE: The plural is laryngoscopies.) laryngospasm /l ri sp zm/ noun a muslaryngospasm | toneoscope laparoscopic surgery laparoscopic surgery / l pr skpik s d ri/ noun same as keyhole surgery laparoscopy / l p rskpi/ noun a procedure in which a laparoscope is used to examine the inside of the abdominal cavity. Also called | laparoscopy | cular spasm which suddenly closes the larynx laryngostenosis /l ri st nsis/ noun narrowing of the lumen of the larynx laryngostomy / l ri stmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a permanent opening from the neck into the larynx (NOTE: The plural is laryngostenosis | | laryngostomy | peritoneoscopy (NOTE: The plural is laparoscopies.) laparotomy / l p rtmi/ noun a surgical laparotomy | laryngostomies.) laryngotomy / l ri tmi/ noun a surgical laryngotomy | operation to cut open the abdominal cavity (NOTE: The plural is laparotomies.) large intestine / l d in testin/ noun the seclarge intestine | operation to make an opening in the larynx through the membrane, especially in an emergency, when the throat is blocked (NOTE: The plural is laryngotomies.) tion of the digestive system from the caecum to the rectum Lariam / l rim/ a trade name for mefloquine hydrochloride laryng- /lrind / prefix same as laryngo- (used Lariam laryng- before vowels) laryngeal /l rind il/ adjective referring to the laryngeal | larynx laryngeal inlet /l rind il inlt/ noun the entrance from the laryngopharynx leading through the vocal cords to the trachea laryngeal prominence /l rind il prminns/ noun same as Adams apple laryngeal reflex /l rind il ri fleks/ noun the reflex that makes a person cough laryngectomy / l rin d ektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the larynx, usually as treatment for throat cancer (NOTE: The plural is laryngeal inlet | laryngeal prominence | laryngeal reflex | laryngectomy | laryngotracheal /l ri treikil/ adjective relating to both the larynx and the trachea laryngotracheal stenosis laryngotracheobronchitis /l ri treikibr kaitis/ noun inflammation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi, as in croup larynx / l riks/ noun the organ in the throat which produces sounds. Also called voice box | | laryngotracheobronchitis | | larynx laser laryngotracheal | (NOTE: The plural is larynges or larynxes.) laser / leiz/ noun an instrument which pro- laryngectomies.) laryngismus / l rin d izms/, laryngismus stridulus /l rin d izms stridjls/ noun a spasm of the throat muscles with a sharp intake of breath which occurs when the larynx is irritated, as in children who have croup laryngitis / l rin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the larynx laryngo- /lri / prefix larynx laryngology / l rin ld i/ noun the study of diseases of the larynx, throat and vocal cords laryngomalacia /l ri m lei/ noun a condition in which breathing is made difficult by softness of the larynx, occurring mainly in children under the age of two laryngopharyngeal /l rin f rind i l/ adjective referring to both the larynx and the pharynx laryngopharynx /lri f riks/ noun the part of the pharynx below the hyoid bone | | laryngitis | laryngolaryngology | laryngomalacia | | laryngopharyngeal | | laryngopharynx | laryngismus duces a highly concentrated beam of light which can be used to cut or attach tissue, as in operations for a detached retina laser laparoscopy / leiz l p rskpi/ noun surgery performed through a laparoscope using a laser laser probe / leiz prb/ noun a metal probe which is inserted into the body and through which a laser beam can be passed to remove a blockage in an artery laser surgery / leiz s d ri/ noun surgery using lasers, e.g. for the removal of tumours, sealing blood vessels, or the correction of shortsightedness Lasix / leiziks/ a trade name for frusemide Lassa fever / l s fi v/ noun a highly infectious and often fatal virus disease found in Central and West Africa, causing high fever, pains, and ulcers in the mouth [After a village in northern laser laparoscopy | laser probe laser surgery Lasix Lassa fever Nigeria where the fever was first reported.] lassitude / l sitju d/ noun a state where a perlassitude son does not want to do anything, sometimes because he or she is depressed latent / leit()nt/ adjective referring to a disease which is present in the body but does not show any signs The children were tested for latent viral infection. lateral / l t()rl/ adjective further away from the midline of the body latent lateral Nursing.fm Page 167 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 167 lentigo as others of similar age children with learning disabilities LE cells / el i selz/ plural noun white blood cells which show that someone has lupus erythematosus lecithin / lesiin/ noun a chemical which is a constituent of all animal and plant cells and is involved in the transport and absorption of fats leech /li t/ noun a blood-sucking parasitic worm which lives in water, occasionally used in specialist procedures leg /le / noun a part of the body with which a person or animal walks and stands Legg-Calv disease / le k lvei di zi z/, k lvei Legg-Calv-Perthes disease / le p tiz di zi z/ noun degeneration of the upper end of the thighbone in young boys, which prevents the bone growing properly and can result in a permanent limp [Described 1910 separately by LE cells lecithin leech leg Legg-Calv disease | | lateral aspect / l t()rl spekt/ noun a view of the side of part of the body. Also called lateral view. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS lateral aspect lateral epicondyle of the humerus / l t()rl epi kndail v hju mrs/ noun a lateral | in Supplement lateral epicondyle / l t()rl epi kndail/, lateral epicondyle | projection on the rounded end of the humerus at the elbow jointc lateral epicondylitis / l t()rl epikndi laitis/ noun same as tennis elbow laterally / l trli/ adverb towards or on the side of the body. See illustration at ANATOMICAL lateral epicondylitis | laterally TERMS in Supplement lateral malleolus / l t()rl m li ls/ noun the part of the end of the fibula which protrudes on the outside of the ankle lateral view / l t()rl vju / noun same as lateral malleolus | lateral view lateral aspect lateroversion / l t()r v ()n/ noun a condition in which an organ is turned to one side latissimus dorsi /l tisims d si/ noun a large flat triangular muscle covering the lumbar region and the lower part of the chest laudanum / l d()nm/ noun a solution of opium in alcohol that was formerly in widespread use for pain relief laughing gas / l fi s/ noun same as | latissimus dorsi | laudanum laughing gas lateroversion all three workers. Arthur Thornton Legg (1874 1939), American orthopaedic surgeon; Jacques Calv (18751954), French orthopaedic surgeon; Georg Clemens Perthes (18691927), German surgeon.] Legionnaires disease / li d nez di zi z/ noun a bacterial disease similar to pneumonia leio- /lei/ prefix smooth or smoothness leiomyoma / laimai m/ noun a tumour Legionnaires disease | | leioleiomyoma | nitrous oxide (informal ) lavage / l vid , l v / noun the act of washlavage | of smooth muscle, especially the smooth muscle coating the uterus (NOTE: The plural is leiomyomas or leiomyomata.) leiomyosarcoma / lai mais km/ noun a sarcoma in which large bundles of smooth muscle are found (NOTE: The plural is leiomyosarcomas or leiomyosarcomata.) leishmaniasis / li m naisis/ noun a disleiomyosarcoma | | leishmaniasis | ing out or irrigating an organ such as the stomach laxative / l kstiv/ adjective causing a bowel movement noun a medicine which causes a bowel movement, e.g. bisacodyl, which stimulates intestinal motility, or lactulose which alters fluid retention in the bowel also called (all senses) purgative lazy eye / leizi ai/ noun an eye which does not focus properly without an obvious cause laxative lazy eye (informal ) amblyopia LD abbreviation lethal dose LDL abbreviation low-density lipoprotein L-dopa / el dp/ noun same as levodopa LE abbreviation lupus erythematosus lead /led/ noun a very heavy soft metallic element, which is poisonous in compounds (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Pb.) lead poisoning / led piz()ni/ noun poiLD LDL L-dopa LE lead lead poisoning ease caused by the parasite Leishmania, one form of which causes disfiguring ulcers, while another attacks the liver and bone marrow Lemberts suture / l mbez su t/ noun a suture used to close a wound in the intestine which includes all the coats of the intestine Lemberts suture [Described 1826. After Antoine Lembert (1802 51), French surgeon.] lens /lenz/ noun 1. the part of the eye behind the lens soning caused by taking in lead salts. Also called plumbism, saturnism learning / l ni/ noun the act of gaining learning knowledge of something or of how to do something learning disability / l ni dis biliti/, learning difficulty / l ni difik()lti/ noun a condition that results in someone finding it difficult to learn skills or information at the same rate learning disability | iris and pupil, which focuses light coming from the cornea onto the retina. See illustration at EYE in Supplement 2. a piece of shaped glass or plastic which forms part of a pair of spectacles or microscope 3. same as contact lens lens implant / lenz impl nt/ noun an artificial lens implanted in the eye when the natural lens is removed, as in the case of cataract lenticular /len tikjl/ adjective referring to or like a lens lentigo /len tai / noun a small brown spot on the skin often caused by exposure to sunlight. Also called freckle (NOTE: The plural is lentigilens implant lenticular | lentigo | nes.) Nursing.fm Page 168 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM leontiasis 168 | leontiasis / li n taisis/ noun a rare disorder in which the skull bones become enlarged and may give the appearance of a lions head. It occurs if Pagets disease is not treated. leprosy / leprsi/ noun an infectious bacterial disease of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which destroys the tissues and causes severe disfigurement if left untreated. Also called Hansens disease leptin / leptin/ noun a hormone produced by fat cells that signals the bodys level of hunger to the hypothalamus of the brain lepto- /lept/ prefix thin leptocyte / leptsait/ noun a thin red blood cell found in anaemia leptomeninges / leptme nind i z/ plural noun the two inner meninges, the pia mater and arachnoid leptomeningitis / leptmenin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the leptomeninges Leptospira / lept spair/ noun a genus of bacteria excreted continuously in the urine of rats and many domestic animals. It can infect humans, causing leptospirosis or Weils disease. leptospirosis / leptspai rsis/ noun an infectious disease caused by the spirochaete Leptospira, transmitted to humans from rat urine, causing jaundice and kidney damage. Also called leprosy leptin leptoleptocyte leptomeninges | leptomeningitis | Leptospira | leptospirosis | leontiasis Weils disease lesbianism lesbianism / lezbiniz()m/ noun sexual attraction in one woman for another. Compare homosexuality Lesch-Nyhan disease / le naihn di zi z/, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome / le naihn sindrm/ noun a rare genetic disorder in boys caused by a lack of the enzyme HPRT. Symptoms include uncontrolled muscle movements and learning disabilities, and life expectancy is 20 25. lesion / li ()n/ noun a wound, sore or damage to the body (NOTE: Lesion is used to refer to any | lesion Lesch-Nyhan disease damage to the body, from the fracture of a bone to a cut on the skin.) lesser / les/ adjective smaller lesser circulation / les s kj lei()n/ noun same as pulmonary circulation lesser trochanter / les tr k nt/ noun a lesser lesser circulation | lesser trochanter | lethal gene / li ()l d i n/, lethal mutation / li ()l mju tei()n/ noun a gene, usually recessive, that results in the premature death of an individual who inherits it, e.g. the gene controlling sickle-cell anaemia lethargic /li d ik/ adjective showing lethargy lethargy / led i/ noun a state in which someone is not mentally alert, has slow movements and is almost inactive Letterer-Siwe disease / letr si wei di zi z/ noun a usually fatal disease, most common in infants, caused by the overproduction of a specialised type of immune cell leucine / lu si n/ noun an essential amino acid leuco- /lu k/, leuko- prefix white leucocyte / lu ksait/, leukocyte noun a white blood cell which contains a nucleus but has no haemoglobin leucocytolysis / lu ksai tlsis/, leukocytolysis / lu ksai tlsis/ noun destruction of leucocytes leucocytosis / lu ksai tsis/, leukocytosis / lu ksai tsis/ noun an increase in the numbers of leucocytes in the blood above the usual upper limit, in order to fight an infection leucoderma / lu k d m/, leukoderma noun same as vitiligo leucolysin / lu k laisin/, leukolysin noun a protein which destroys white blood cells leuconychia / lu k niki/, leukonychia noun a condition in which white marks appear on the fingernails leucopenia / lu k pi ni/, leukopenia noun a reduction in the number of leucocytes in the blood, usually as the result of a disease leucoplakia / lu k pl ki/, leukoplakia noun a condition in which white patches form on mucous membranes, e.g. on the tongue or inside of the mouth leucopoiesis / lu kpi i sis/, leukopoiesis noun the production of leucocytes leucorrhoea / lu k ri /, leukorrhoea noun an excessive discharge of white mucus from the vagina. Also called whites (NOTE: The US spell| lethargic | lethargy Letterer-Siwe disease | leucine leucoleucocyte leucocytolysis | | leucocytosis | | leucoderma | leucolysin | leuconychia | leucopenia | leucoplakia | leucopoiesis | leucorrhoea | lethal gene ing is leukorrhea.) leukaemia projection on the femur which is the insertion of the psoas major muscle lesser vestibular gland / les ve stibjl l nd/ noun the more anterior of the vestibular glands lethal / li ()l/ adjective killing or able to kill These fumes are lethal if inhaled. lethal dose / li ()l ds/ noun the amount of a drug or other substance which will kill the person who takes it She took a lethal dose of aspirin. Abbreviation LD lesser vestibular gland | lethal lethal dose leukaemia /lu ki mi/ noun any of several malignant diseases where an unusual number of leucocytes form in the blood (NOTE: The US | spelling is leukemia.) leuko- /lu k/ prefix same as leucolevator /l veit/ noun 1. a surgical instrument for lifting pieces of fractured bone 2. a muscle leukolevator | which lifts a limb or a part of the body level of care / lev()l v ke/ noun any of the planned divisions within the system of health care which is offered by a particular organisation level of care Nursing.fm Page 169 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 169 Our care homes offer six different levels of care to allow the greatest independence possible. level one bed / lev()l w n bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs can be managed in a ward but who has an increased requirement for nursing support, e.g. a post-operative patient with fluctuating vital signs level three bed / lev()l ri bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs should not be managed in a ward, e.g. a patient intubated following a cardiac arrest level two bed / lev()l tu bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs would not normally be managed in a ward, e.g. a patient with a deteriorating condition awaiting transfer to a high-dependency unit levodopa / li v dp/ noun a natural chemical that stimulates the production of dopamine in the brain and is used to treat Parkinsons disease levonorgestrel / li vn d estrl/ noun an artificially female produced sex hormone, used mostly in birth control pills or capsules Leydig cells / laidi selz/ plural noun testosterone-producing cells between the tubules in the testes. Also called interstitial cells [Described level one bed level three bed level two bed levodopa | levonorgestrel | Leydig cells lienlienal light adaptation lien- /lain/ prefix spleen lienal / lain()l/ adjective relating to or affecting the spleen the lienal artery lienculus /l ekjls/ noun a small secondary spleen sometimes found in the body (NOTE: The lienculus | plural is lienculi.) 1850. After Franz von Leydig (18211908), Professor of Histology at Wrzburg, Tbingen and then Bonn, Germany.] Leydig tumour / laidi tju m/ noun a Leydig tumour tumour of the Leydig cells of the testis. It often releases testosterone, which makes young boys show early signs of maturing. l.g.v. abbreviation lymphogranuloma venereum LH abbreviation luteinising hormone libido /li bi d/ noun 1. the sexual urge 2. (in psychology) a force which drives the unconscious mind Librium / librim/ a trade name for chlordiazepoxide lice /lais/ plural of louse lichen / laiken/ noun a type of skin disease with thick skin and small lesions lichenification /lai kenifi kei()n/ noun a thickening of the skin at the site of a lesion lichen planus / laiken pleins/ noun a skin disease where itchy purple spots appear on the arms and thighs lid /lid/ noun the top which covers a container a medicine bottle with a child-proof lid lidocaine / laidkein/ noun US a drug used as a local anaesthetic. Also called lignocaine lie /lai/ noun same as lie of fetus verb to be in a flat position The accident victim was lying on the pavement. Make sure the patient lies still and does not move. (NOTE: lying lay lain) Lieberkhns glands / li bku nz l ndz/ plural noun same as crypts of Lieberkhn l.g.v. LH libido | Librium lice lichen lichenification | | lichen planus lid lidocaine lie Lieberkhns glands lienorenal / lain ri n()l/ adjective relating to or affecting both the spleen and the kidneys lie of fetus / lai v fi ts/ noun the position of the fetus in the uterus Cause of rupture: abnormal lie of fetus. life /laif/ noun the quality that makes a person or thing alive and not dead or inorganic The surgeons saved the patients life. Her life is in danger because the drugs are not available. The victim showed no sign of life. life event / laif i vent/ noun a significant event which alters a persons status as regards taxation, insurance or employment benefits, e.g. the birth of a child or the onset of a disability life expectancy / laif ik spektnsi/ noun the number of years a person of a particular age is likely to live life-support system / laif s p t sistm/ noun a machine that takes over one or more vital functions such as breathing when someone is unable to survive unaided because of a disease or injury lift /lift/ noun 1. a particular way of carrying an a four-handed injured or unconscious person lift a shoulder lift 2. a cosmetic operation to remove signs of age or to change a body feature a face lift ligament / li mnt/ noun a thick band of fibrous tissue which connects the bones at a joint and forms the joint capsule ligate / lai eit/ verb to tie something with a ligature, e.g. to tie a blood vessel to stop bleeding or to tie the Fallopian tubes as a sterilisation procedure (NOTE: ligating ligated) ligation /lai ei()n/ noun a surgical operation to tie up a blood vessel ligature / li t/ noun a thread used to tie vessels or a lumen, e.g. to tie a blood vessel to stop bleeding verb same as ligate (NOTE: ligatur| lie of fetus life life event | life expectancy | life-support system | lift ligament ligate ligation | ligature lienorenal ing ligatured) light /lait/ adjective 1. bright so that a person can see At six oclock in the morning it was just getting light. 2. referring to hair or skin which is very pale She has a very light complexion. He has light-coloured hair. 3. weighing a comparatively small amount noun the energy that makes things bright and helps a person to see Theres not enough light in here to take a photo. light adaptation / lait d p tei()n/ noun changes in the eye to adapt to an unusually bright or dim light or to adapt to light after being in darkness light adaptation | light Nursing.fm Page 170 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM lightening lightening 170 or bruise by acting as a vasodilator or counterirritant. Also called embrocation lining / laini/ noun a substance or tissue on the inside of an organ the thick lining of the aorta link /lik/ verb 1. to join things together The ankle bone links the bones of the lower leg to the calcaneus. 2. to be related to or associated with something Health is linked to diet. linkage / likid / noun (of genes) the fact of being close together on a chromosome, and therefore likely to be inherited together linoleic acid / linli ik sid/ noun one of the essential fatty acids, found in grains and seeds linolenic acid /lin lenik sid/ noun one of the essential fatty acids, found in linseed and other natural oils lint /lint/ noun thick flat cotton wadding, used as part of a surgical dressing lip /lip/ noun 1. each of two fleshy muscular parts round the edge of the mouth Her lips were dry and cracked. 2. same as labium lipaemia /li pi mi/ noun an excessive amount of fat in the blood (NOTE: The US spelling is lining link linkage linoleic acid linolenic acid | lint lip lipaemia | lightening / laitni/ noun a late stage in pregnancy where the fetus goes down into the pelvic cavity lightning pains / laitni peinz/ plural noun sharp pains in the legs in someone who has tabes dorsalis light reflex / lait ri fleks/ noun same as pupillightning pains light reflex lary reaction light therapy light therapy / lait erpi/, light treatment / lait tri tmnt/ noun the treatment of a disorder by exposing the person to light such as sunlight or infrared light lignocaine / li nkein/ noun same as lidolignocaine caine limb /lim/ noun one of the legs or arms limbic system / limbik sistm/ noun a syslimb limbic system tem of nerves in the brain, including the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, which are associated with emotions such as fear and anger limb lead / lim li d/ noun an electrode attached to an arm or leg when taking an electrocardiogram limb lengthening / lim leni/ noun a procedure in which an arm or a leg is made longer. Its bone is divided in two and new bone forms in the gap between the ends. limbus / limbs/ noun an edge, especially the edge of the cornea where it joins the sclera (NOTE: limb lead limb lengthening limbus lipemia.) lipase / lipeiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down fats in the intestine. Also called lipolytic enzyme lipid / lipid/ noun an organic compound which is lipase lipid The plural is limbi.) liminal / limin()l/ adjective referring to a stimliminal ulus at the lowest level which can be sensed limp /limp/ noun a way of walking awkwardly because of pain, stiffness or malformation of a leg or foot She walks with a limp. verb to walk awkwardly because of pain, stiffness or malformation of a leg or foot He was still limping three weeks after the accident. linctus / likts/ noun a sweet cough medicine linea nigra / lini nai r/ noun a dark line on the skin from the navel to the pubis which appears during the later months of pregnancy (NOTE: The limp linctus linea nigra plural is lineae nigrae.) linear linear / lini/ adjective 1. long and narrow in shape 2. able to be represented by a straight line lingual / li wl/ adjective referring to the tongue lingual tonsil / li wl tns()l/ noun a mass of lymphoid tissue on the top surface of the back of the tongue lingula / li jl/ noun a long thin piece of bone or other tissue the lingula of the left lung lingual lingual tonsil lingula (NOTE: The plural is lingulae.) lingular / li jl/ adjective relating to a linlingular gula liniment / linimnt/ noun an oily liquid rubbed on the skin to ease the pain or stiffness of a sprain liniment insoluble in water, e.g. a fat, oil or wax lipid metabolism / lipid m t bliz()m/ noun the series of chemical changes by which lipids are broken down into fatty acids lipidosis / lipi dsis/ noun a disorder of lipid metabolism in which subcutaneous fat is not present in some parts of the body lipochondrodystrophy / lip kndr distrfi/ noun a congenital disorder affecting lipid metabolism, the bones and the main organs, causing learning difficulties and physical deformity lipodystrophy / lip distrfi/ noun a disorder of lipid metabolism lipogenesis / lip d ensis/ noun the production or making of deposits of fat lipoid / lipid/ noun a compound lipid, or a fatty substance such as cholesterol which is like a lipid adjective like a lipid lipoidosis / lipi dsis/ noun a group of diseases with reticuloendothelial hyperplasia and unusual deposits of lipoids in the cells lipolysis /li plisis/ noun the process of breaking down fat by lipase lipolytic enzyme / liplitik enzaim/ noun same as lipase lipoma /li pm/ noun a benign tumour formed of fatty tissue (NOTE: The plural is lipolipid metabolism | lipidosis | lipochondrodystrophy | | lipodystrophy | lipogenesis | lipoid lipoidosis | lipolysis | lipolytic enzyme lipoma | mas or lipomata.) Nursing.fm Page 171 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 171 lipoprotein lobe small fragments that the body can eliminate them unaided lithotrite / litrait/ noun a surgical instrument which crushes a stone in the bladder lithotrity /li triti/ noun same as litholapaxy lithuresis / lij ri sis/ noun the passage of small stones from the bladder during urination litmus / litms/ noun a substance which turns red in acid and blue in alkali litmus paper / litms peip/ noun a small piece of paper impregnated with litmus, used to test for acidity or alkalinity litre / li t/ noun a unit of measurement of liquids equal to 1.76 pints. Abbreviation l, L (NOTE: lithotrite lithotrity | lithuresis | litmus litmus paper litre lipoprotein / lip prti n/ noun a protein which combines with lipids and carries them in the bloodstream and lymph system (NOTE: Lipo| proteins are classified according to the percentage of protein which they carry.) liposuction / lip s k()n/ noun the surgiliposuction | cal removal of fatty tissue for cosmetic reasons lipping / lipi/ noun a condition in which bone tissue grows over other bones lip salve / lip s lv/ noun an ointment, usually sold as a soft stick, used to rub on lips to prevent them cracking liquid diet / likwid dait/ noun a diet consisting only of liquids The clear liquid diet is a temporary diet used in preparation for surgery. liquid paraffin / likwid p rfin/ noun an oil used as a laxative liquor / lik/ noun (in pharmacy) a solution, usually aqueous, of a pure substance lisp /lisp/ noun a speech condition in which someone replaces s sounds with th verb to talk with a lisp Listeria /li stiri/ noun a genus of bacteria found in domestic animals and in unpasteurised milk products which can cause uterine infection or meningitis listeriosis /li stiri sis/ noun an infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans by the bacterium Listeria listlessness / listlsns/ noun the fact of being generally weak and tired liter / li t/ noun US spelling of litre lith- /li/ prefix same as litho- (used before vowlipping lip salve liquid diet liquid paraffin liquor lisp Listeria | listeriosis | | listlessness liter lith- With figures, usually written l or L: 2.5l, but it can be written in full to avoid confusion with the numeral 1. The US spelling is liter.) Littles area Littles area / lit()lz eri/ noun an area of blood vessels in the nasal septum Littles disease / lit()lz di zi z/ noun same as spastic diplegia [Described 1843. After WilLittles disease | liam John Little (181094), physician at the London Hospital, UK] liver liver / liv/ noun a large gland in the upper part of the abdomen. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement (NOTE: For other terms referring to the liver, see words beginning with hepat-, hepato-.) liver fluke els) liver fluke / liv flu k/ noun a parasitic flatworm which can infest the liver liver spot / liv spt/ noun a little brown patch on the skin of the backs of the hands, attributed to sun damage (NOTE: Liver spots are unconnected liver spot lithagogue / li / noun a drug which helps to remove stones from the urine lithiasis /li aisis/ noun the formation of stones in an organ lithium / liim/ noun a soft silver-white metallic element that forms compounds, used as a medical treatment for bipolar disorder litho- /li/ prefix referring to a calculus litholapaxy /li lp ksi/ noun the evacuation of pieces of a stone in the bladder after crushing it with a lithotrite. Also called lithotrity lithonephrotomy / lin frtmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone in the kidney lithiasis | lithium litholitholapaxy | lithonephrotomy | lithagogue with any liver disorder.) liver transplant (NOTE: The plural is lithonephrotomies.) lithotomy /li tmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone from the bladder (NOTE: The plural is lithotomies.) lithotomy position /li tmi p zi()n/ noun a position for some medical examinations in lithotomy | lithotomy position | | liver transplant / liv tr nspl nt/ noun a surgical operation to give a person the liver of another person who has died livid / livid/ adjective referring to skin with a blue colour because of being bruised or because of asphyxiation living will / livi wil/ noun a document signed by a person while in good health to specify the decisions he or she wishes to be taken about medical treatment if he or she becomes incapable of making or communicating them LMC abbreviation local medical committee lobar / lb/ adjective referring to a lobe lobar bronchi / lb brki / plural noun air passages supplying a lobe of a lung. Also called livid living will LMC lobar lobar bronchi secondary bronchi lobar pneumonia which the person lies on his or her back with the legs flexed and the thighs against the abdomen lithotripsy / litripsi/ noun the process of breaking up kidney or gall bladder stones into lithotripsy lobar pneumonia / lb nju mni/ noun pneumonia which affects one or more lobes of the lung lobe /lb/ noun a rounded section of an organ such as the brain, lung or liver. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement | lobe Nursing.fm Page 172 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM lobectomy 172 loculated | lobectomy /l bektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove one of the lobes of an organ such as the lung The plural is lobectomies. lobotomy /l btmi/ noun a surgical operation formerly used to treat mental illness by cutting into a lobe of the brain to cut the nerve fibres lobotomy | lobectomy (NOTE: The plural is lobotomies.) lobular / lbjl/ adjective relating to a lobule lobular lobular carcinoma lobule / lbju l/ noun a small section of a lobe in the lung, formed of acini local / lk()l/ adjective 1. referring to a separate place 2. confined to one part noun same as lobule local local anaesthetic loculated / lkjleitid/ adjective referring to an organ or a growth which is divided into many compartments a loculated renal abscess locule / lkju l/ noun same as loculus loculus / lkjls/ noun a small space in an organ (NOTE: The plural is loculi.) locum / lkm/ noun a healthcare professional such as a doctor or pharmacist who takes the place of another for a time. Also called locum tenens locum tenens / lkm tennz/ noun same as locum (NOTE: The plural is locum tenentes.) locus / lks/ noun 1. an area or point where an infection or disease is to be found 2. a position on a chromosome occupied by a gene (NOTE: The locule loculus locum locum tenens locus local anaesthesia / lk()l ns i zi/ noun loss of feeling in a single part of the body local anaesthetic / lk()l ns etik/ noun an anaesthetic such as lignocaine which | local anaesthetic | local anaesthesia plural is loci.) removes the feeling in a single part of the body only The surgeon removed the growth under local anaesthetic. localise / lklaiz/, localize verb 1. to restrict the spread of something to a specific area 2. to find where something is 3. to transfer power from a central authority to local organisations (NOTE: localise localising localised) localised / lklaizd/, localized adjective localised referring to an infection which occurs in one part of the body only. Opposite generalised local supervising authority / lk()l su pvaizi riti/ noun an organisation which controls midwife services within its area lochia / lki/ noun a discharge from the vagina after childbirth or abortion lochiometra / lkimi tr/ noun a condition in which lochia remains in the uterus after a baby is born, making it swollen lock /lk/ verb to fix something in a position locked-in syndrome / lkt in sindrm/ noun a condition in which only the eyes and eyelids can move although the person is fully alert and conscious. It results from severe damage to the brain stem. locked knee / lkt ni / noun a condition in which a piece of the cartilage in the knee slips out of position. The symptom is a sharp pain, and the knee remains permanently bent. locking joint / lki d int/ noun a joint which can be locked in an extended position, e.g. the knee or elbow lockjaw / lkj / noun same as tetanus (dated local supervising authority | lochia lochiometra lock locked-in syndrome locked knee locking joint lockjaw lofepramine /l feprmi n/ noun an antidepressant drug log roll / l rl/ noun a method of turning people in bed onto their side by putting them into a straight position and pulling on the sheet under them logrolling / l rli/ noun the process of moving a person who is lying down into another position using the log roll method -logy /ld i/ suffix 1. science or study psychology embryology 2. speech or expression loin /lin/ noun the lower back part of the body above the buttocks Lomotil /l mtil/ a trade name for a preparation containing diphenoxalate longitudinal / l i tju din()l/ adjective 1. positioned lengthwise 2. in the direction of the long axis of the body longitudinal arch / l itju din()l t/ noun same as plantar arch longitudinal lie / l itju din()l lai/ noun the usual position of a fetus, lying along the axis of the mothers body longitudinal study / l itju din()l st di/ noun a study of individuals or groups of people and of how some aspect such as their health or education changes over a long time longsighted / l saitid/ adjective able to see clearly things which are far away but not things which are close longsightedness / l saitidns/ noun the condition of being longsighted. Also called | log roll logrolling -logy loin Lomotil | longitudinal | longitudinal arch longitudinal lie longitudinal study longsighted | longsightedness | lofepramine hypermetropia loo /lu / noun a toilet, or a room containing a toilet (informal ) to go to the loo to urinate or defloo informal ) locomotion / lk m()n/ noun the fact of being able to move locomotor / lk mt/ adjective relating to locomotion locomotor ataxia / lk mtr t ksi/ noun same as tabes dorsalis | locomotor | locomotor ataxia | | locomotion ecate loop /lu p/ noun 1. a curve or bend in a line, especially one of the particular curves in a fingerprint 2. a curved piece of wire placed in the uterus to prevent contraception loop of Henle / lu p v henli/ noun a curved tube which forms the main part of a nephron in the kidney loop loop of Henle Nursing.fm Page 173 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 173 loperamide luteinising hormone lower part of the spinal canal. Also called spinal puncture loperamide /l permaid/, loperamide haidr hydrochloride /l permaid kl raid/ noun a drug that relieves severe diar| | | rhoea by slowing down the movements of the intestine loratidine /lr tidi n/ noun an antihistamine drug lorazepam /l r zip m/ noun a mild tranquilliser that people often receive before surgery to lessen anxiety lordosis /l dsis/ noun excessive forward curvature of the lower part of the spine. kypholoratidine | lorazepam | lordosis | sis lordotic /l dtik/ adjective referring to lordosis lotion / l()n/ noun a medicinal liquid used to rub on the skin a mild antiseptic lotion louse /las/ noun a small insect of the Pediculus genus, which sucks blood and lives on the skin as a parasite on animals and humans (NOTE: The | lotion louse lordotic plural is lice.) low-density lipoprotein / l densiti lipprti n/ noun a lipoprotein with a large percentage of cholesterol which deposits fats in muscles and arteries. Abbreviation LDL lower motor neurones / l mt njrnz/ plural noun linked neurones which carry motor impulses from the spinal cord to the muscles lozenge / lzind / noun a sweet medicinal tablet She was sucking a cough lozenge. LRCP abbreviation licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians LSA abbreviation local supervising authority LSD abbreviation lysergic acid diethylamide lubb-dupp / l b d b/ noun two sounds made by the heart, which represent each cardiac cycle when heard through a stethoscope lubricant / lu briknt/ noun a fluid which lubricates lubricate / lu brikeit/ verb to cover something with a fluid to reduce friction (NOTE: lubricating lower motor neurones lozenge LRCP LSA LSD lubb-dupp lubricant lubricate low-density lipoprotein lumbar region / l mb ri d n/ noun the two parts of the abdomen on each side of the umbilical region lumbar vertebra / l mb v tibr/ plural noun each of the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum lumbo- /l mb/ prefix the lumbar region lumbosacral / l mb seikrl/ adjective referring to both the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum lumbosacral joint / l mb seikrl d int/ noun a joint at the bottom of the back between the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum lumen / lu min/ noun 1. an SI unit of light emitted per second 2. the inside width of a passage in the body or of an instrument such as an endoscope lump /l mp/ noun a mass of hard tissue which rises on the surface or under the surface of the skin He has a lump where he hit his head on the low door. She noticed a lump in her right breast and went to see the doctor. lumpectomy /l m pektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hard mass of tissue such as a breast tumour, leaving the surrounding tissue intact (NOTE: The plural is lumpectomies.) lunate / lu neit bn/, lunate bone noun one of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement Lund and Browder chart / l nd n brad t t/ noun a chart for calculating the surface area of a burn lung /l / noun one of two organs of respiration in the body into which air is sucked when a person breathes (NOTE: For other terms referring to the lumbar vertebra lumbolumbosacral | lumbosacral joint | lumen lump lumpectomy | lunate Lund and Browder chart lung lumbar region lungs, see words beginning with bronch-, broncho-, pneum-, pneumo-, pneumon-, pneumono-, pulmo-.) lunula / lu njl/ noun a curved white mark at the base of a fingernail (NOTE: The plural is lunulae.) lupus / lu ps/ noun a persistent skin disease, of lunula lupus lubricated) lucid / lu sid/ adjective with a clearly working mind In spite of the pain, he was still lucid. lucid interval / lu sid intv()l/ noun a period of clear thinking which occurs between two periods of unconsciousness or of mental illness lumbago /l m bei / noun pain in the lower back (informal ) She has been suffering from lumbago for years. He has had an attack of lumbago. lumbar / l mb/ adjective referring to the lower part of the back lumbar puncture / l mb p kt/ noun a surgical operation to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a hollow needle into the lucid interval lumbago | lumbar lumbar puncture lucid which there are several unrelated types lupus erythematosus / lu ps erii m tss/ noun an inflammatory disease of connective tissue of which the more serious, systemic, form affects the heart, joints and blood vessels. Abbreviation LE lupus vulgaris / lu ps v l eris/ noun a form of tuberculosis of the skin in which red spots appear on the face and become infected lutein / lu tiin/ noun a yellow pigment in the corpus luteum luteinising hormone / lu tiinaizi h mn/, luteinizing hormone noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum in females and of testosterone in males. Abbrevialupus erythematosus | lupus vulgaris | lutein luteinising hormone Nursing.fm Page 174 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM luteotion LH. Also called interstitial cell stimulating hormone luteo- 174 lymphangioplasty luteo- /lu ti/ prefix 1. yellow 2. corpus luteum luxation /l k sei()n/ noun same as dislocaluxation | lymphangioplasty /limf nd ipl sti/ noun a surgical operation to make artificial lymph channels (NOTE: The plural is lymphangioplast| ies.) tion Lyme disease Lyme disease / laim di zi z/ noun a viral disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by bites from deer ticks. It causes rashes, nervous pains, paralysis and, in extreme cases, death. lymph /limf/ noun a colourless liquid containing white blood cells which circulates in the lymph system from all body tissues, carrying waste matter away from tissues to the veins. Also called | lymph lymph fluid COMMENT: Lymph drains from the tissues through capillaries into lymph vessels. It is formed of water, protein and white blood cells (lymphocytes). Waste matter such as infection in the lymph is filtered out and destroyed as it passes through the lymph nodes, which then add further lymphocytes to the lymph before it continues in the system. It eventually drains into the brachiocephalic (innominate) veins, and joins the venous bloodstream. Lymph is not pumped round the body like blood but moves by muscle pressure on the lymph vessels and by the negative pressure of the large veins into which the vessels empty. Lymph is an essential part of the bodys defence against infection. lymph- lymph- /limf/ prefix meaning same as lympho(used before vowels) lymphaden- /limf dn/ prefix relating to the lymph nodes lymphadenectomy / limf d nektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a lymph node lymphadenectomy | lymphaden- lymphangitis / limf n d aitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph vessels lymphatic /lim f tik/ adjective referring to lymph lymphatic capillary /lim f tik k pilri/ plural noun any of the capillaries which lead from tissue and join lymphatic vessels lymphatic duct /lim f tik d kt/ noun the main channel for carrying lymph lymphatic node /lim f tik nd/ noun same as lymph gland lymphatic nodule /lim f tik ndju l/ noun a small lymph node found in clusters in tissues lymphatics /lim f tiks/ plural noun lymph vessels lymphatic system /lim f tik sistm/ noun a series of vessels which transport lymph from the tissues through the lymph nodes and into the bloodstream lymphatic vessel /lim f tik ves()l/ noun a tube which carries lymph round the body from the tissues to the veins lymph duct / limf d kt/ noun any channel carrying lymph lymph gland / limf l nd/, lymph node / limf nd/ noun a mass of lymphoid tissue situated in various points of the lymphatic system, especially under the armpits and in the groin, through which lymph passes and in which lymphocytes are produced. Also called lymphatic | lymphatic | lymphatic capillary | | lymphatic duct | lymphatic node | lymphatic nodule | lymphatics | lymphatic system | lymphatic vessel | lymph duct lymph gland lymphangitis node (NOTE: The plural is lymphadenectomies.) lymphadenitis lymphadenitis / limf d naitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph nodes lymphadenoma / limf d nm/ noun same as lymphoma lymphadenopathy / limf d npi/ noun any unusual condition of the lymph nodes (NOTE: | lymphadenoma | lymphadenopathy | The plural is lymphadenopathies.) lymphangi- /limf nd i/ prefix lymphatic vessel lymphangiectasis / limf nd i ektsis/ noun swelling of the smaller lymph vessels as a result of obstructions in larger vessels lymphangiography / limf nd i rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the lymph vessels following introduction of radio-opaque material lymphangiectasis | lymphangiography | lymphangi- (NOTE: The plural is lymphangiographies.) lymphangioma lymphangioma / limf nd i m/ noun a benign tumour formed of lymph tissues (NOTE: | The plural is lymphangiomas or lymphangiomata.) lympho- /limf/ prefix meaning lymph lymphoblast / limfbl st/ noun an unusual cell which forms in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia as a result of the change which takes place in a lymphocyte on contact with an antigen lymphoblastic / limf bl stik/ adjective referring to lymphoblasts, or forming lymphocytes lymphocele / limfsi l/ noun a cyst containing lymph from injured or diseased lymph nodes or ducts lymphocyte / limfsait/ noun a type of mature leucocyte or white blood cell formed by the lymph nodes and concerned with the production of antibodies lymphocytopenia / limf sait pi ni/ noun same as lymphopenia lymphocytosis / limfsai tsis/ noun an increased number of lymphocytes in the blood lymphoedema / limfi di m/ noun a swelling caused by obstruction of the lymph vessels or unusual development of lymph vessels (NOTE: lymphoblast lymphoblastic | lymphocele lymphocyte lymphocytopenia | | lymphocytosis | lymphoedema | lympho- The US spelling is lymphedema.) Nursing.fm Page 175 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 175 lysozyme lymphogranuloma venereum / limf r nj lm v nirm/ noun a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that causes swelling of the genital lymph nodes and, especially in men, a genital ulcer. Abbreviation l.g.v. lymphoid tissue / limfid tiu / noun tissue in the lymph nodes, the tonsils and the spleen where masses of lymphocytes are supported by a network of reticular fibres and cells lymphokine / limfkain/ noun a protein produced by lymphocytes that has an effect on other cells in the immune system. cytokine lymphoma /lim fm/ noun a malignant tumour arising from lymphoid tissue. Also called | | | lymphoid tissue lymphokine lymphoma | lymphogranuloma venereum lymphadenoma (NOTE: The plural is lymphomas or lymphomata.) lymphopenia / limf pi ni/ noun a reduction in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. Also called lymphocytopenia lymphopoiesis / limfpi i sis/ noun the production of lymphocytes or lymphoid tissue lymph vessel / limf ves()l/ noun one of the tubes which carry lymph round the body from the tissues to the veins | lymphopoiesis | lymph vessel lymphopenia lyophilisation /lai filai zei()n/, lyophilization noun the act of preserving tissue, plasma or serum by freeze-drying it in a vacuum lysergic acid diethylamide /lai s d ik sid dai eilmaid/ noun a powerful hallucinogenic drug which can cause psychosis. Abbreviation LSD lysin / laisin/ noun 1. a protein in the blood which destroys the cell against which it is directed 2. a toxin which causes the lysis of cells lysine / laisi n/ noun an essential amino acid lysis / laisis/ noun 1. the destruction of a cell by a lysin, in which the membrane of the cell is destroyed 2. a reduction in a fever or disease slowly over a period of time -lysis /lisis/ suffix referring to processes which involve breaking up or decaying, or to objects which are doing this haemolysis lysosome / laissm/ noun a particle in a cell which contains enzymes which break down substances such as bacteria which enter the cell lysozyme / laiszaim/ noun an enzyme found in the whites of eggs and in tears, which destroys specific bacteria | | lysergic acid diethylamide | | lysin lysine lysis -lysis lysosome lysozyme lyophilisation Nursing.fm Page 176 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM M m symbol 1. metre 2. milliM symbol megaMAAG abbreviation medical audit advisory group maceration / m s rei()n/ noun the process of softening a solid by letting it lie in a liquid so that the soluble matter dissolves Mackenrodts ligaments / m knrdz li mnts/ plural noun same as cardinal ligaM MAAG maceration | Mackenrodts ligaments m macrognathia macrognathia / m kr neii/ noun a condition in which the jaw is larger than usual macromastia / m kr m sti/ noun overdevelopment of the breasts macronutrient / m kr nju trint/ noun a substance which an organism needs in large amounts for normal growth and development, e.g. nitrogen, carbon or potassium. Compare micro| macromastia | macronutrient | nutrient ments Macmillan nurse /mk miln n s/ noun a nurse who specialises in cancer care and is employed by the organisation Macmillan Cancer Relief macro- /m kr/ prefix large. Opposite micromacrobiotic / m krbai tik/ adjective referring to food which has been produced naturally without artificial additives or preservatives macrocephaly / m kr kefli/ noun the condition of having an unusually large head macrocheilia / m kr kaili/ noun the condition of having large lips macrocyte / m krsait/ noun an unusually large red blood cell found in people who have pernicious anaemia macrocythaemia /m krsai i mi/ noun same as macrocytosis macrocytic / m kr sitik/ adjective referring to macrocytes macrocytic anaemia / m krsitik ni mi/ noun anaemia in which someone has unusually large red blood cells macrocytosis / m krsai tsis/ noun the condition of having macrocytes in the blood. Also called macrocythaemia macrodactyly / m kr d ktili/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually large or long fingers or toes macroglobulin / m kr lbjlin/ noun a class of immunoglobulin, a globulin protein of high molecular weight, which serves as an antibody macroglossia / m kr lsi/ noun the condition of having an unusually large tongue | macromacrobiotic | macrocephaly | macrocheilia | macrocyte macrocythaemia | macrocytic | macrocytic anaemia | macrocytosis | macrodactyly | macroglobulin | macroglossia | Macmillan nurse macrophage / m krfeid / noun any of several large cells which destroy inflammatory tissue, found in connective tissue, wounds, lymph nodes and other parts macroscopic / m kr skpik/ adjective able to be seen with the naked eye macrosomia / m kr smi/ noun a condition in which the body grows too much macrostomia / m kr stmi/ noun a condition in which the mouth is too wide because the bones of the upper and lower jaw have not fused, either on one or on both sides macula / m kjl/ noun 1. same as macule 2. a small coloured area, e.g. a macula lutea macula lutea / m kjl lu ti/ noun a yellow spot on the retina, surrounding the fovea, the part of the eye which sees most clearly. Also called macroscopic | macrosomia | macrostomia | macula macula lutea macrophage yellow spot macular / m kjl/ adjective referring to a macular macula macular degeneration / m kjl di d en rei()n/ noun an eye disorder in elderly people in which fluid leaks into the retina and destroys cones and rods, reducing central vision macule / m kju l/ noun a small flat coloured spot on the skin. Compare papule maculopapular / m kjl p pjl/ adjective made up of both macules and papules maculopapular rash mad cow disease / m d ka di zi z/ noun same as bovine spongiform encephalopathy macular degeneration | macule maculopapular | mad cow disease | | (informal ) Magendies foramen Magendies foramen /m d endiz f reimen/ noun an opening in the fourth ventricle of the brain which allows cerebrospinal fluid to flow [Described 1828. After Franois Magendie | | Nursing.fm Page 177 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 177 (17831855), French physician and physiologist.] magnesium /m ni zim/ noun a chemical magnesium | malarial | malleus element found in green vegetables, which is essential especially for the correct functioning of muscles (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Mg.) magnesium sulphate /m ni zim s lfeit/ noun a magnesium salt used as a laxative. Also called Epsom salts magnesium trisilicate /m ni zim trai silikt/ noun a magnesium compound used to treat peptic ulcers magnetic /m netik/ adjective able to attract objects, like a magnet magnetic field /m netik fi ld/ noun an area round an object which is under the influence of the magnetic force exerted by the object magnetic resonance imaging /m netik reznns imid i/ noun a scanning technique which exposes the body to a strong magnetic field and uses the electromagnetic signals emitted by the body to form an image of soft tissue and cells. Abbreviation MRI magnum / m nm/ foramen magnum main bronchi / mein brki / plural noun the two main air passages which branch from the trachea outside the lung. Also called primary bronmagnesium sulphate | magnesium trisilicate | | magnetic | magnetic field | magnetic resonance imaging | magnum main bronchi malarial /m leril/ adjective referring to malaria malarial parasite /m leril p rsait/ noun a parasite transmitted into the human bloodstream by the bite of the female anopheles mosquito malarial therapy /m leri erpi/ noun a treatment in which a person is given a form of malaria in the belief that the high fevers they experience can stimulate the immune system to fight off serious diseases such as syphilis and HIV male menopause / meil menp z/ noun a period in middle age when a man may feel insecure and anxious about the fact that his physical powers are declining (informal ) malformation / m lf mei()n/ noun an unusual variation in the shape, structure or development of something malfunction /m l f kn/ noun a situation in which a particular organ does not work in the usual way Her loss of consciousness was due to a malfunction of the kidneys or to a kidney malfunction. malignancy /m li nnsi/ noun 1. the state of being malignant The tests confirmed the malignancy of the growth. 2. a cancerous growth malarial parasite | malarial therapy | male menopause malformation | malfunction | malignancy | chi major surgery (NOTE: The plural is malignancies.) malignant /m li nnt/ adjective likely to malignant | major surgery / meid s d ri/ noun surgical operations involving important organs in the body mal /m l/ noun an illness or disease mal- /m l/ prefix bad or unusual malabsorption / m lb s pn/ noun a situation where the intestines are unable to absorb the fluids and nutrients in food properly malabsorption syndrome / m lb s pn sindrm/ noun a group of symptoms and signs, including malnutrition, anaemia, oedema and dermatitis, which results from steatorrhoea and malabsorption of vitamins, protein, carbohydrates and water malacia /m lei/ noun the pathological softening of an organ or tissue malaise /m leiz/ noun a feeling of discomfort malaligned / m l laind/ adjective not in the correct position relative to other parts of the body malalignment / m l lainmnt/ noun a condition in which something is malaligned, especially in which a tooth is not in its correct position in the mouth malar / meil/ adjective referring to the cheek malar bone / meil bn/ noun same as mal malmalabsorption | malabsorption syndrome | malacia | malaise | malaligned | malalignment | malar malar bone cause death or serious disablement if not properly treated malignant hypertension /m li nnt haip tenn/ noun dangerously high blood pressure malignant melanoma /m li nnt mel nm/ noun a dark tumour which develops on the skin from a mole, caused by exposure to strong sunlight malignant pustule /m li nnt p stju l/ noun a pus-filled swelling that results from infection of the skin with anthrax malignant tumour /m li nnt tju m/ noun a tumour which is cancerous and can grow again or spread into other parts of the body, even if removed surgically. Opposite benign tumour malingerer /m li r/ noun a person who pretends to be ill malingering /m li ri/ adjective the act of pretending to be ill malleolar /m li l/ adjective referring to a malleolus malleolus /m li ls/ noun one of two bony prominences at each side of the ankle (NOTE: The malignant hypertension | | malignant melanoma | | malignant pustule | malignant tumour | malingerer | malingering | malleolar | malleolus | plural is malleoli.) mallet finger cheekbone malaria /m leri/ noun a mainly tropical dismalaria | ease caused by a parasite Plasmodium, which enters the body after a bite from the female anopheles mosquito mallet finger / m lit fi / noun a finger which cannot be straightened because the tendon attaching the top joint has been torn malleus / m lis/ noun the largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear, shaped like a hammer. See illustration at EAR in Supplement malleus Nursing.fm Page 178 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Mallory bodies Mallory bodies 178 mamm- Mallory bodies / m lri bdiz/ plural noun large irregular masses which occur in the cytoplasm of damaged liver cells, often a sign of an alcohol-related disease Mallory-Weiss syndrome / m lri vais sindrm/, Mallory-Weiss tear / m lri vais te/ noun a condition in which there is a tearing in the mucous membrane where the stomach and oesophagus join, e.g. because of strain on them due to vomiting [Described 1929. After G. KenMallory-Weiss syndrome mamm- /m m/ prefix same as mammo- (used before vowels) mamma mamma / m m/ noun same as breast (NOTE: The plural is mammae.) neth Mallory (190086), Professor of Pathology, Boston University, USA; Konrad Weiss (1898 1942) US physician.] malnourished /m l n rit/ adjective not having enough to eat or having only poor-quality food, leading to ill-health malnutrition / m lnj tri()n/ noun a lack of food or of good-quality food, leading to ill-health malocclusion / m l klu ()n/ noun a condition in which the teeth in the upper and lower jaws do not meet properly when the persons mouth is closed malodorous /m l drs/ adjective with a strong unpleasant smell Malpighian body /m l pi in bdi/, Malpighian corpuscle /m l pi in k p s()l/ noun same as renal corpuscle [Described 1666. | malnutrition | malocclusion | malodorous | Malpighian body | | malnourished After Marcello Malpighi (162894), anatomist and physiologist in Rome and Bologna, Italy.] Malpighian glomerulus /m l pi in l merls/ noun same as Bowmans capsule Malpighian layer /m l pi in lei/ noun the deepest layer of the epidermis malposition / m lp zi()n/ noun an unusual or unexpected position of something such as a fetus in the uterus or fractured bones malpractice /m l pr ktis/ noun illegal, unethical, negligent or immoral behaviour by a professional person, especially a healthcare professional The surgeon was found guilty of malpractice. malpresentation / m lprez()n tei()n/ noun an unusual position of a fetus in the uterus just before it is ready to be born Malta fever / m lt fi v/ noun same as bru| | Malpighian layer | malposition | malpractice | malpresentation | Malta fever Malpighian glomerulus mammary / m mri/ adjective referring to the breast mammary gland / m mri l nd/ noun a gland in female mammals which produces milk mammilla /m mil/, mamilla noun the protruding part in the centre of the breast, containing the milk ducts through which the milk flows. Also called nipple mammillary / m mil()ri/, mamillary adjective referring to the nipple mammo- /m m/ prefix referring to breasts mammogram / m m r m/ noun a picture of a breast made using a special X-ray technique mammography /m m rfi/ noun examination of the breast using a special X-ray technique mammoplasty / m mpl sti/ noun plastic surgery to alter the shape or size of the breasts Manchester operation / m ntistr p rei()n/ noun a surgical operation to correct downward movement of the uterus, involving removal of the cervix mandible / m ndib()l/ noun the lower bone in the jaw. Also called lower jaw mandibular /m n dibjl/ adjective referring to the lower jaw mane / meini/ adverb (used on prescriptions) during the daytime. Opposite nocte manganese / m ni z/ noun a metallic trace element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is mammary gland mammilla | mammillary mammomammogram mammography | mammoplasty Manchester operation | mandible mandibular | mane manganese mammary Mn.) mania mania / meini/ noun a state of bipolar disorder in which the person is excited, very sure of his or her own abilities and has increased energy -mania /meini/ suffix obsession with something maniac / meini k/ noun a person who behaves in an uncontrolled way or is considered to have an obsession (NOTE: This term is regarded as offen-mania maniac sive.) cellosis maltase maltase / m lteiz/ noun an enzyme in the small intestine which converts maltose into glucose maltose / m lts/ noun a sugar formed by digesting starch or glycogen malunion /m l ju njn/ noun a bad join of the pieces of a broken bone mamilla /m mil/ noun another spelling of maltose malunion | mamilla | manic / m nik/ adjective referring to mania manic depression / m nik di pre()n/ noun same as bipolar disorder manic-depressive / m nik di presiv/ adjective relating to bipolar disorder noun a person with bipolar disorder manic-depressive illness / m nik di presiv ilns/, manic-depressive psychosis / m nik di presiv sai ksis/ noun same as manic depression | manic-depressive | manic-depressive illness | | | manic bipolar disorder manifestation mammilla mamillary / m mil()ri/ adjective another spelling of mammillary mamillary manifestation / m nife stei()n/ noun a sign, indication or symptom of a disease manipulation /m nipj lei()n/ noun a form of treatment that involves moving or rubbing | manipulation | | Nursing.fm Page 179 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 179 parts of the body with the hands, e.g. to treat a disorder of a joint manometer /m nmit/ noun an instrument for comparing pressures manometry /m nmitri/ noun the measurement of pressures within organs of the body which contain gases or liquids, e.g. the oesophagus or parts of the brain Mantoux test / m ntu test/ noun a test for tuberculosis, in which a person is given an intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Heaf test manometer | manometry | Mantoux test mastoiditis cyst can be allowed to shrink gradually, because it cannot be cut out masculinisation / m skjlinai zei()n/, masculinization noun the development of male characteristics such as body hair and a deep voice in a woman, caused by hormone deficiency or by treatment with male hormones Maslows hierarchy of human needs / m zlz hair ki v hju mn ni dz/ noun a system which explains human behaviour by organising human needs in order of priority, from basic ones such as eating to complex ones such as finding self-fulfilment, a higher level of motivation not being activated until the lesser needs have been satisfied masochism / m skiz()m/ noun a sexual condition in which a person takes pleasure in being hurt or badly treated masochistic / m s kistik/ adjective referring to masochism mass /m s/ noun 1. a large quantity, e.g. a large number of people The patients back was covered with a mass of red spots. 2. a body of matter with no clear shape massage / m s / noun a treatment for muscular conditions which involves rubbing, stroking or pressing the body with the hands verb to rub, stroke or press the body with the hands masseter /m si t/, masseter muscle /m si t m s()l/ noun a muscle in the cheek which clenches the lower jaw making it move up, to allow chewing mast- /m st/ prefix same as masto- (used masculinisation | Maslows hierarchy of human needs masochism masochistic | mass massage masseter | | mast- [Described 1908. After Charles Mantoux (1877 1947), French physician.] manual / m njul/ adjective done by hand manubrium sterni /m nu brim st nai/ noun the upper part of the sternum MAO abbreviation monoamine oxidase MAOI abbreviation monoamine oxidase inhibimanual manubrium sterni | MAO MAOI tor MAO inhibitor / em ei in hibit/ noun same as monoamine oxidase inhibitor maple syrup urine disease / meip()l sirp jrin di zi z/ noun an inherited condition caused by not having enough of a particular enzyme which helps the body to deal with amino acid. The urine smells like maple syrup. It can be fatal if not treated. marasmus /m r zms/ noun a wasting disease which affects small children who have difficulty in absorbing nutrients or who are malnourished. Also called failure to thrive marble bone disease / m b()l bn di zi z/ noun same as osteopetrosis march fracture / m t fr kt/ noun a fracture of one of the metatarsal bones in the foot, caused by excessive exercise to which the body is not accustomed Marfans syndrome / m f nz sindrm/, Marfan syndrome / m f n sindrm/ noun a hereditary condition in which a person has extremely long fingers and toes, with disorders of the heart, aorta and eyes [Described 1896. After MAO inhibitor | maple syrup urine disease | marasmus | marble bone disease | march fracture Marfans syndrome before vowels) mast cell / m st sel/ noun a large cell in conmast cell Bernard Jean Antonin Marfan (18581942), French paediatrician.] marijuana / m ri w n/ noun same as cannabis marker / m k/ noun 1. something which acts an indicator of something else 2. a substance marijuana | marker introduced into the body to make internal structures clearer to X-rays marrow / m r/ noun soft tissue in cancellous bone. In young animals red marrow is concerned with blood formation while in adults it becomes progressively replaced with fat and is known as yellow marrow. Also called bone marrow. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement marsupialisation /m su pilai zei()n/, marsupialization noun a surgical procedure in which the inside of a cyst is opened up so that the marrow marsupialisation | | nective tissue, which carries histamine and reacts to allergens mastectomy /m stektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a breast mastication / m sti kei()n/ noun the act of chewing food mastitis /m staitis/ noun inflammation of the breast masto- /m st/ prefix referring to a breast mastoid / m stid/ adjective shaped like a nipple noun same as mastoid process mastoid air cell / m stid e sel/, mastoid cell / m stid sel/ noun an air cell in the mastoid process mastoid antrum / m stid ntrm/ noun a cavity linking the air cells of the mastoid process with the middle ear mastoidectomy / m sti dektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove part of the mastoid process, as a treatment for mastoiditis mastoiditis / m sti daitis/ noun inflammation of the mastoid process and air cells. The symptoms are fever and pain in the ears. mastectomy | mastication | mastitis | mastomastoid mastoid air cell mastoid antrum mastoidectomy | mastoiditis | Nursing.fm Page 180 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM mastoid process 180 mastoid process / m stid prses/ noun part of the temporal bone which protrudes at the side of the head behind the ear masturbation / m st bei()n/ noun stimulation of ones own genitals to produce an orgasm. Also called onanism mater / meit/ dura mater materia medica /m tiri medik/ noun the study of drugs or dosages as used in treatment masturbation | mater materia medica | mastoid process (NOTE: It comes from a Latin term meaning medical substance.) maternal /m t n()l/ adjective referring to a maternal | mother maternal death /m t n()l de/ noun the death of a mother during pregnancy, childbirth or up to twelve months after childbirth maternal deprivation /m t n()l depri vei()n/ noun a psychological condition caused when a child does not have a proper relationship with a mother maternal dystocia /m t n()l dis tsi/ noun difficult childbirth caused by a physical problem in the mother maternal instincts /m t n()l instikts/ plural noun instinctive feelings in a woman to look after and protect her child maternity /m t niti/ noun childbirth, the fact of becoming a mother maternity clinic /m t niti klinik/ noun same as antenatal clinic maternity hospital /m t niti hspit()l/, maternity ward /m t niti w d/, maternity unit /m t niti ju nit/ noun a hospital, ward or unit which deals only with women giving birth matrix / meitriks/ noun an amorphous mass of cells forming the basis of connective tissue. Also called ground substance matron / meitrn/ noun a title formerly given to a woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital. maternal death | maternal deprivation | | maternal dystocia | | maternal instincts | maternity | maternity clinic | maternity hospital | | | matrix matron maxillary antrum /m k silri ntrm/, maxillary air sinus /m k silri e sains/ noun one of two sinuses behind the cheekbones in the upper jaw. Also called antrum of Highmore maxillo-facial /m k sil fei()l/ adjective referring to the maxillary bone and the face maxillo-facial surgery MB abbreviation bachelor of medicine McBurneys point /mk b niz pint/ noun a point which indicates the usual position of the appendix on the right side of the abdomen, between the hip bone and the navel, which is extremely painful if pressed when the person has appendicitis [Described 1899. After Charles | | maxillo-facial | | MB McBurneys point | maxillary antrum McBurney (18451913), US surgeon.] McNaghtens Rules on Insanity at Law /mk n tnz ru lz n in s niti t l /, McNaghtens Rules /mk n tnz ru lz/ plural noun a set of principles which explain how people can defend themselves in law by claiming that they committed a murder because they were mentally ill, and therefore not responsible for any of their actions. In 1957 it was adapted to include the idea of knowing that an action is wrong but being unable to stop yourself from committing it because of your mental condition. MCP joint / em si pi d int/ noun same as | | | MCP joint McNaghtens Rules on Insanity at Law metacarpophalangeal joint MCU, MCUG abbreviation micturating cysto(MCU urethro)gram MD abbreviation doctor of medicine ME abbreviation myalgic encephalomyelitis measles / mi z()lz/ noun an infectious disease of children, where the body is covered with a red rash Shes in bed with measles. Hes got measles. They caught measles from their friend at school. Have you had the measles? Also called morbilli, rubeola (NOTE: Takes a singular MD ME measles modern matron mattress suture / m trs su t/ noun a suture made with a loop on each side of the incision maturation / m t rei()n/ noun the process of becoming mature or fully developed mature /m t/ adjective fully developed mature follicle /m t flik()l/ noun a Graafian follicle just before ovulation maturing /m tri/ adjective becoming mature maxilla /m k sil/, maxilla bone /m k sil bn/ noun the upper jaw bone (NOTE: The plural maturation | mature | mature follicle | maturing | maxilla | | mattress suture or plural verb.) meat- /mieit/ prefix relating to a meatus meatus /mi eits/ noun an opening leading to meatmeatus | an internal passage in the body, e.g. the urethra or the nasal cavity (NOTE: The plural is meatuses or meatus.) mechanism is maxillae. It is more correct to refer to the upper jaw as the maxillae, as it is in fact formed of two bones which are fused together.) maxillary /m k silri/ adjective referring to maxillary | the maxilla mechanism / mekniz()m/ noun 1. a physical or chemical change by which a function is carried out 2. a system in the body which carries out or controls a particular function The inner ear is the bodys mechanism for the sense of balance. mechanism of labour / mekniz()m v leib/ noun all the forces and processes which combine to push a foetus out of the uterus during its birth, together with the ones which oppose it mechanotherapy / mekn erpi/ noun the treatment of injuries through mechanical means, such as massage and exercise machines meconism / mekniz()m/ noun poisoning by opium or morphine mechanism of labour mechanotherapy | meconism Nursing.fm Page 181 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 181 medical social worker meconium /mi knim/ noun the first dark green faeces produced by a newborn baby media / mi di/ noun same as tunica media medial / mi dil/ adjective nearer to the central midline of the body or to the centre of an organ. Compare lateral medially / mi dili/ adverb towards or on the sagittal plane of the body. See illustration at ANA| media medial medially meconium medical certificate / medik()l s tifikt/ noun an official document signed by a doctor, | medical certificate in Supplement medial malleolus / mi dil m li ls/ noun a TOMICAL TERMS medial malleolus | bone at the end of the tibia which protrudes at the inside of the ankle median / mi din/ adjective towards the central midline of the body, or placed in the middle median nerve / mi din n v/ noun one of the main nerves of the forearm and hand median plane / mi din plein/ noun an imaginary flat surface on the midline and at right angles to the coronal plane, which divides the body into right and left halves. See illustration at median median nerve median plane in Supplement mediastinal /mi di stain()l/ adjective referring to the mediastinum the mediastinal surface of pleura or of the lungs mediastinitis / mi disti naitis/ noun inflammation of the mediastinum mediastinoscopy / mi disti nskpi/ noun an operation in which a tube is put into the mediastinum so that its organs can be examined mediastinum /mi di stainm/ noun the section of the chest between the lungs, where the heart, oesophagus and phrenic and vagus nerves are situated medic / medik/ noun a doctor or medical student (informal ) medical / medik()l/ adjective referring to the study of diseases a medical student noun an official examination of a person by a doctor He wanted to join the army, but failed his medical. You will have to have a medical if you take out an insurance policy. medical alert bracelet / medik()l l t breislt/ noun a band or chain worn around the wrist giving information about the wearers medical needs, allergies or condition medical assistant / medik()l sist()nt/ noun someone who performs routine administrative and clinical tasks to help in the offices and clinics of doctors and other medical practitioners medical audit / medik()l dit/ noun a systematic critical analysis of the quality of medical care provided to a person, which examines the procedures used for diagnosis and treatment, the use of resources and the resulting outcome and quality of life for the person medical audit advisory group / medik()l dit d vaiz()ri ru p/ noun a body with the responsibility of advising on medical audit in primary care. Abbreviation MAAG ANATOMICAL TERMS mediastinal | mediastinitis | mediastinoscopy | mediastinum | medic medical medical alert bracelet | medical assistant | medical audit medical audit advisory group | giving someone permission to be away from work or not to do specific types of work medical committee / medik()l k miti/ noun a committee of doctors in a hospital who advise the management on medical matters medical doctor / medik()l dkt/ noun a doctor who practises medicine, but is not usually a surgeon medical ethics / medik()l eiks/ plural noun the moral and professional principles which govern how doctors and nurses should work, and, in particular, what type of relationship they should have with their patients medical examination / medik()l i z mi nei()n/ noun an examination of a person by a doctor medical history / medik()l hist()ri/ noun the details of a persons medical condition and treatment over a period of time medical intervention / medik()l int venn/ noun the treatment of illness by drugs medicalisation / mediklai zei()n/, medicalization noun the act of looking at something as a medical issue or problem medical jurisprudence / medik()l d ris pru d()ns/ noun the use of the principles of law as they relate to the practice of medicine and the relationship of doctors with each other, their patients and society. forensic medicine Medical Officer of Health / medik()l fisr v hel/ noun formerly, a local government official in charge of the health services in an area. Abbreviation MOH medical practitioner / medik()l pr k ti()n/ noun a person qualified in medicine, i.e. a doctor or surgeon medical profession / medik()l pr fe()n/ noun all doctors Medical Register / medik()l red ist/ noun a list of doctors approved by the General Medical Council The committee ordered his name to be struck off the Medical Register. Medical Research Council / medik()l ri s t kansl/ noun a government body which organises and pays for medical research. Abbreviation MRC medical school / medik()l sku l/ noun a section of a university which teaches medicine He is at medical school. medical secretary / medik()l sekrit()ri/ noun a qualified secretary who specialises in medical documentation, either in a hospital or in a doctors surgery medical social worker / medik()l s()l w k/ noun someone who helps people with family problems or problems related to their work medical committee | medical doctor medical ethics medical examination | | medical history medical intervention | medicalisation | medical jurisprudence | Medical Officer of Health medical practitioner | medical profession | Medical Register Medical Research Council | medical school medical secretary medical social worker Nursing.fm Page 182 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM medical ward which may have an effect on their response to treatment medical ward / medik()l w d/ noun a ward for people who do not have to undergo surgical operations Medicare / medike/ noun a system of public health insurance in the US medicated / medikeitid/ adjective containing a medicinal drug medicated cough sweet medicated shampoo / medikeitid m pu / noun a shampoo containing a chemical which is supposed to prevent dandruff medication / medi kei()n/ noun 1. the treatment of illnesses by giving people drugs. premedication 2. a drug used to treat a particular illness What sort of medication has she been taking? 80% of elderly patients admitted to geriatric units are on medication. medicinal /m dis()n()l/ adjective which has healing properties or a beneficial effect on someones health He has a drink of whisky before he goes to bed for medicinal purposes. medicinal leech /m dis()n()l li t/ noun a leech which is raised specially for use in medicine medicine / med()s()n/ noun 1. a preparation taken to treat a disease or condition, especially one in liquid form Take some cough medicine if your cough is bad. You should take the medicine three times a day. 2. the study of diseases and She is studying how to cure or prevent them medicine because she wants to be a doctor. medicine cabinet / med()s()n k bint/, medicine chest / med()s()n test/ noun a cupboard where medicines, bandages, thermometers and other pieces of medical equipment can be left locked up, but ready for use in an emergency medico /medik/ noun a doctor (informal ) The medico said I was perfectly fit. medico- /medik/ prefix referring to medicine or to doctors medicochirurgical / medikkai r d ik()l/ adjective referring to both medicine and surgery medicolegal / medik li ()l/ adjective referring to both medicine and the law medicosocial / medik s()l/ adjective involving both medical and social factors medium / mi dim/ adjective average, in the middle or at the halfway point noun a substance through which something acts medroxyprogesterone /m drksipr d estrn/ noun a synthetic hormone used to treat menstrual disorders, in oestrogen replacement therapy and as a contraceptive medulla /me d l/ noun the soft inner part of an organ, as opposed to the outer cortex. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement medical ward Medicare medicated medicated shampoo | medication | medicinal | medicinal leech | medicine medicine cabinet medico medicomedicochirurgical | | medicolegal | medicosocial | medium medroxyprogesterone | | | medulla | 182 medulla oblongata /me d l bl eit/ noun a continuation of the spinal cord going through the foramen magnum into the brain medullary /me d lri/ adjective similar to marrow medullary cavity /me d lri k viti/ noun a hollow centre of a long bone, containing bone marrow. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement medullated nerve / medleitid n v/ noun a nerve surrounded by a myelin sheath mefenamic acid / mefn mik sid/ noun a drug which reduces inflammation and pain, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and menstrual problems mefloquine / meflkwi n/, mefloquine haidr hydrochloride / meflkwi n kl raid/ noun a drug used in the prevention and treatment of malaria mega- /me / prefix 1. large. Opposite micro2. one million, or 106 megacolon / me kln/ noun a condition in which the lower colon is very much larger than normal, because part of the colon above is constricted, making bowel movements impossible megajoule / me d u l/ noun a unit of measurement of energy equal to one million joules. Symbol Mj megakaryocyte / me k risait/ noun a bone marrow cell which produces blood platelets megalo- /me l/ prefix large megaloblast / me lbl st/ noun an unusually large blood cell found in the bone marrow of people who have some types of anaemia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency megaloblastic anaemia / me l bl stik ni mi/ noun anaemia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency megalocyte / me lsait/ noun an unusually large red blood cell, found in pernicious anaemia megalomania / me l meini/ noun a psychiatric disorder in which a person believes they are very powerful and important megalomaniac / me l meini k/ noun someone who has megalomania adjective having megalomania -megaly /me li/ suffix enlargement megaureter / me j ri t/ noun a condition in which a part of the ureter becomes very wide, above the site of a blockage meibomian cyst /mai bmin sist/ noun the swelling of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid. Also called chalazion meibomian gland /mai bmin l nd/ noun a sebaceous gland on the edge of the eyelid which secretes a liquid to lubricate the eyelid. Also called tarsal gland | | medullary | medullary cavity | medullated nerve mefenamic acid mefloquine | megamegacolon | megajoule megakaryocyte | megalomegaloblast megaloblastic anaemia | | megalocyte megalomania | megalomaniac | -megaly megaureter | meibomian cyst | meibomian gland | medulla oblongata Nursing.fm Page 183 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 183 meninx Johann Mendel (182284), Austrian Augustinian monk and naturalist of Brno, whose work was rediscovered by de Vries in 1900.] Mnires disease /meni ez di zi z/, Mnires syndrome / sindrm/ noun a disMnires disease | | meibomianitis /mai bmi naitis/ noun a condition in which the meibomian glands become swollen Meigs syndrome / me z sindrm/ noun a condition in which liquid collects in the chest and abdominal cavities. It is associated with pelvic tumours. meiosis /mai sis/ noun the process of cell division which results in two pairs of haploid cells, i.e. cells with only one set of chromosomes. Compare mitosis Meissners corpuscle / maisnz k p s()l/ noun a receptor cell in the skin which is thought to be sensitive to touch Meissners plexus / maisnz plekss/ noun a network of nerve fibres in the wall of the alimentary canal [Described 1853. After Georg | | Meigs syndrome meiosis | Meissners corpuscle Meissners plexus meibomianitis ease of the middle ear, in which someone becomes dizzy, hears ringing in the ears and may vomit, and becomes progressively deaf. The causes may include infections or allergies, which increase the fluid contents of the labyrinth in the middle ear. [Described 1861. After Prosper Mnire (17991862) and his son, Emile Antoine Mnire (18391905), French physicians.] mening- /menind / prefix same as meningo(used before vowels) meningeal /me nind il/ adjective referring to meningmeningeal | Meissner (18291905), German anatomist and physiologist.] melaena /m li n/ noun black faeces where melaena | the meninges meninges /me nind i z/ plural noun the membranes which surround the brain and spinal cord meninges | the colour is caused by bleeding in the intestine melan- /meln/ prefix same as melano- (used melan- (NOTE: The singular is meninx.) meningioma / menind i m/ noun a benign meningioma | before vowels) melancholia / meln kli/ noun a severe depressive illness occurring usually between the ages of 45 and 65 melanin / melnin/ noun a dark pigment which gives colour to skin and hair, also found in the choroid of the eye and in some tumours melano- /meln/ prefix black or dark melanocyte / melnsait/ noun any cell which carries pigment melanocyte-stimulating hormone / melnsait stimjleiti h mm/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which causes darkening in the colour of the skin. Abbreviation MSH melanoma / mel nm/ noun a tumour formed of dark pigmented cells melatonin / mel tnin/ noun a hormone produced by the pineal gland during the hours of darkness, which makes animals sleep during the winter months. It is thought to control the bodys rhythms. melena /m li n/ noun same as melaena mellitus / melits/ diabetes mellitus membrane / membrein/ noun a thin layer of tissue which lines or covers an organ membranous / membrns/ adjective referring to membranes, or like a membrane membranous labyrinth / membrns l brin/ noun a series of ducts and canals formed of membrane inside the osseous labyrinth menarche /m n ki/ noun the start of menstrual periods Mendels laws / mendlz l z/ plural noun the laws of heredity, that are the basis of the science of genetics [Described 1865. After Gregor | melanin melanomelanocyte melanocyte-stimulating hormone melanoma | melatonin | melena | mellitus membrane membranous membranous labyrinth menarche | Mendels laws melancholia tumour in the meninges meningism /me nind iz()m/ noun a condition in which there are signs of meningeal irritation suggesting meningitis, but where there is no pathological change in the cerebrospinal fluid meningitis / menin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the meninges, causing someone to have violent headaches, fever, and stiff neck muscles, and sometimes to become delirious meningo- /mni / prefix referring to the meninges meningocele /m ni si l/ noun a condition in which the meninges protrude through the vertebral column or skull meningococcal /m ni kk()l/ adjective referring to meningococci meningococcal meningitis /m ni kk()l menin d aitis/ noun the commonest epidemic form of meningitis, caused by a bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, where the meninges become inflamed causing headaches and fever meningococcus /m ni kks/ noun the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis which causes meningococcal meningitis (NOTE: The meningism | meningitis | meningomeningocele | meningococcal | | meningococcal meningitis | | | meningococcus | | plural is meningococci.) meningoencephalitis /m ni en kef laitis/ noun inflammation of the meninges and the brain meningoencephalocele /m ni en keflsi l/ noun a condition in which part of the meninges and the brain push through a gap in the skull meningomyelocele /m ni mailsi l/ noun the pushing forward of part of the meninges and spinal cord through a gap in the spine. Also called myelomeningocele, mye| | | | meningoencephalocele | | | meningomyelocele | | meningoencephalitis locele meninx / meniks/ noun meninges meninx Nursing.fm Page 184 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM meniscectomy meniscectomy 184 | meniscectomy / meni sektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a cartilage from the knee meniscus /m nisks/ noun one of two pads of cartilage, the lateral meniscus and medial meniscus, between the femur and tibia in a knee joint. Also called semilunar cartilage (NOTE: The plumeniscus | ral is menisci.) meno- /men/ prefix referring to menstruation menopause / menp z/ noun a period, usumenomenopause making their own decisions, that they should be given support in decision-making, that it is patients capacity to make decisions that should be judged, not the decisions themselves, that treatment must be in patients best interests, and that treatment should restrict rights and freedoms as little as possible mental deficiency / ment()l di fi()nsi/ noun a former term for learning disability (NOTE: mental deficiency | ally between 45 and 55 years of age, when a woman stops menstruating and can no longer bear children. Also called climacteric, change of life menorrhagia / men reid i/ noun very heavy bleeding during menstruation. Also called menorrhagia | This term is regarded as offensive.) flooding menses menses / mensi z/ plural noun same as menstruation menstrual / menstrul/ adjective referring to menstruation menstrual cramp / menstrul kr mp/ noun a cramp in the muscles round the uterus during menstruation menstrual cycle / menstrul saik()l/ noun a period, usually of 28 days, during which a woman ovulates, the walls of the uterus swell and bleeding takes place if the ovum has not been fertilised menstrual flow / menstrul fl/ noun the discharge of blood from the uterus during menstruation menstruate / menstrueit/ verb to bleed from the uterus during menstruation menstruation / menstru ei()n/ noun bleeding from the uterus which occurs in a woman each month when the lining of the uterus is shed because no fertilised egg is present mental / ment()l/ adjective 1. referring to the mind 2. referring to the chin mental aberration / ment()l b rei()n/ noun slight forgetfulness or confusion (often humorous) I thought the meeting was at 11 I must have had a mental aberration. mental age / ment()l eid / noun a measurement based on intelligence tests that shows a persons intellectual development, usually compared to standardised data for a chronological age hes nine, but he has a mental age of five although he is nine years old, his level of intellectual development is the same as that of an average child of five mental block / ment()l blk/ noun a temporary inability to remember something, caused by the effect of nervous stress on the mental processes Mental Capacity Act / ment()l k p siti kt/ noun a piece of UK legislation, introduced in 2007, that establishes five principles in relation to mental capacity and medical treatment, namely that patients should be assumed to be capable of menstrual cramp menstrual cycle menstrual flow menstruate menstruation | mental mental aberration | mental age mental block Mental Capacity Act | menstrual mental development / ment()l di velpmnt/ noun the development of the mind Her mental development is higher than usual for her age. mental disorder / ment()l dis d/ noun a temporary or permanent change in a persons mental state which makes them function less effectively than they would usually, or than the average person would be expected to function mental faculties / ment()l f klti z/ plural noun abilities such as thinking and decision-making There has been no impairment of the mental faculties. mental handicap / ment()l h ndik p/ noun a former term for learning disability (NOTE: | mental disorder | mental faculties mental handicap mental development This term is regarded as offensive.) mental health / ment()l hel/ noun the condition of someones mind Mental Health Acts / ment()l hel kts/ plural noun laws made by a parliament which lay down rules for the care of people with mental illness Mental Health Review Tribunal / ment()l hel ri vju trai bju n()l/ noun a committee which makes decisions about whether people who have been detained under the Mental Health Acts should be released. It consists of medical members, legal experts and lay members, who include people with experience in social services. Abbreviation MHRT mental hospital / ment()l hspit()l/ noun a psychiatric hospital (NOTE: This term is Mental Health Acts Mental Health Review Tribunal | | mental hospital mental health regarded as offensive.) mental illness / ment()l ilns/ noun any disorder which affects the mind mental impairment / ment()l im pemnt/ noun a temporary or permanent condition which affects a persons mental state, making them function less effectively than they would usually, or than the average person would be expected to function mentally / ment()li/ adverb in the mind Mentally, she is very advanced for her age. mentally handicapped / ment()li h ndik pt/ adjective a former term for someone with learning disability (NOTE: This term is mental impairment | mentally mentally handicapped mental illness usually regarded as offensive.) mentally ill mentally ill / ment()li il/ adjective experiencing mental illness Nursing.fm Page 185 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 185 metastasise mesothelium mental nerve / ment()l n v/ noun a nerve which supplies the chin mental patient / ment()l pei()nt/ noun a former term of a patient who has mental illness mental patient mental nerve mesothelium / mes i lim/ noun a layer of cells lining a serous membrane. Compare epithe| lium, endothelium (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) mental retardation messenger RNA / mes()nd r en ei/ noun a type of ribonucleic acid which transmits the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes which form the proteins coded on the DNA. Abbreviation mRNA mestranol / mi strnl/ noun a synthetically produced oestrogen used in birth control pills meta- /met/ prefix referring to change metabolic / met blik/ adjective referring to metabolism metabolic acidosis / metblik si dsis/ noun acidosis caused by a malfunction of the bodys metabolism metabolic alkalosis / metblik lk lsis/ noun alkalosis caused by a malfunction of the bodys metabolism metabolise /m t blaiz/, metabolize verb to change the nature of something by metabolism The liver metabolises proteins and carbohydrates. metabolism /m t bliz()m/ noun the chemical processes which are continually taking place in the human body and which are essential to life, especially the processes that convert food into energy metabolite /m t blait/ noun a substance produced by metabolism, or a substance taken into the body in food and then metabolised metacarpal bone / met k p()l bn/, metacarpal / met k p()l/ noun one of the five bones in the metacarpus metacarpophalangeal / met k pf l nd il/ adjective relating to the part of the hand between the wrist and the fingers metacarpophalangeal joint / met k p f l nd il d int/ noun a joint between a metacarpal bone and a finger. Also called MCP joint, mestranol metametabolic | metabolic acidosis | metabolic alkalosis | metabolise | metabolism | metabolite | metacarpal bone | | metacarpophalangeal | | | metacarpophalangeal joint | | | messenger RNA mental retardation / ment()l ri t dei()n/ noun a former term for learning disability, a condition that results in someone finding it difficult to learn skills or information at the same rate as others of a similar age (NOTE: This | term is regarded as offensive.) mental subnormality / ment()l s bn m liti/ noun a former term for mental impairment (NOTE: This term is usually regarded as offensive.) mental subnormality | menthol / menl/ noun a strongly scented compound, produced from peppermint oil, used in cough medicines and in the treatment of neuralgia mentholated / menleitid/ adjective impregnated with menthol mento- /ment/ prefix relating to the chin mentor / ment / noun somebody who advises and guides a younger, less experienced person verb to act as a mentor to somebody mentum / mentm/ noun the chin mercury / m kjri/ noun a poisonous liquid metal, used in thermometers (NOTE: The chemimentholated mentomentor mentum mercury menthol cal symbol is Hg.) mercury poisoning / m kjri piz()ni/ noun poisoning by drinking mercury or mercury compounds or by inhaling mercury vapour mercy killing / m si kili/ noun same as mercy killing mercury poisoning euthanasia meridian meridian /m ridin/ noun in acupuncture and Chinese medicine, one of the pathways in the body along which its energy is believed to flow mes- /mes/ prefix same as meso- (used before | mes- vowels) mesencephalon /mesen kefln/ noun same as midbrain mesenteric / mesen terik/ adjective referring to the mesentery mesentery / mesent()ri/ noun a double-layer peritoneum which attaches the small intestine and other abdominal organs to the abdominal wall mesial / mi sil/ adjective 1. in dentistry, relating to the middle of the front of the jaw, or occurring in a place near this 2. relating to or located in the middle part of something meso- /mes/ prefix middle mesometrium / mes mi trim/ noun a muscle layer of the uterus mesothelioma / mesti li m/ noun a tumour of the serous membrane, which can be benign or malignant | mesenteric | mesentery mesial mesomesometrium | mesothelioma | mesencephalon MP joint metacarpus metacarpus / met k ps/ noun the five bones in the hand between the fingers and the wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement metaphase / metfeiz/ noun one of the stages in mitosis or meiosis metaphysis /me t fsis/ noun the end of the central section of a long bone, where the bone grows and where it joins the epiphysis metaplasia /met pleizi/ noun a change of one tissue to another metastasis /me t stsis/ noun the spreading of a malignant disease from one part of the body to another through the bloodstream or the lymph system. Also called secondary growth (NOTE: | metaphase metaphysis | metaplasia | metastasis | The plural is metastases.) metastasise /me t stsaiz/, metastasize verb to spread by metastasis metastasise | Nursing.fm Page 186 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM metastatic 186 | metastatic /met st tik/ adjective relating to, or produced by, metastasis Metastatic growths developed in the liver. metatarsal / met t s()l/ noun one of the five bones in the metatarsus adjective relating to the metatarsus metatarsal arch / met t s()l t/ noun an arched part of the sole of the foot, running across the sole of the foot from side to side. Also called metatarsal | metatarsal arch | metastatic transverse arch metatarsalgia metatarsalgia / mett s ld / noun pain in the heads of the metatarsal bones metatarsophalangeal joint /met t sf l nd il d int/ noun a joint between a metatarsal bone and a toe metatarsus / met t ss/ noun the five long bones in the foot between the toes and the tarsus. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement (NOTE: | metatarsophalangeal joint | | | metatarsus | The plural is metatarsi.) meteorism / mi tiriz()m/ noun same as tympanites meter / mi t/ noun US same as metre -meter /mi t, mit/ suffix measuring instrumeteorism meter -meter methotrexate / me trekseit/ noun a drug which helps to prevent cells reproducing, used in the treatment of cancer methyl alcohol / mi ail lkhl/ noun same as methanol methylated spirits / meleitid spirits/ plural noun almost pure alcohol, with wood alcohol and colouring added methylphenidate / mi ail fenideit/ noun a drug which stimulates the central nervous system, used in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder methylprednisolone / mi ailpred nisln/ noun a corticosteroid drug which reduces inflammation, used in the treatment of arthritis, allergies and asthma metoclopramide / met klprmaid/ noun a drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and indigestion metoprolol /mi tprll/ noun a drug which controls the activity of the heart, used to treat angina and high blood pressure metr- /metr/ prefix same as metro- (used before | methyl alcohol methylated spirits methylphenidate | methylprednisolone | | metoclopramide | | metoprolol | metr- methotrexate vowels) metra ment metformin /met f min/ noun a drug which reduces the level of the blood sugar levels, used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes which does not respond to dietary measures methadone / medn/ noun a synthetically produced narcotic drug, used to reduce pain and as a substitute for heroin in the treatment of addiction methaemoglobin /met hi m lbin/ noun a dark brown substance formed from haemoglobin which develops during illness, following treatment with some drugs. Methaemoglobin cannot transport oxygen round the body, and so causes cyanosis. methaemoglobinaemia /met hi m lbi ni mi/ noun the presence of methaemoglobin in the blood methane / mi ein, meein/ noun a colourless flammable gas with no smell methanol / menl/ noun a colourless poisonous liquid, used as a solvent and a fuel. It changes easily into a gas. Also called methyl alcohol methicillin / mei silin/ noun a synthetically produced antibiotic, used in the treatment of infections which are resistant to penicillin methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus /mei silin ri zistnt st fil kks ris/ noun a bacterium resistant to almost all antibiotics and which can cause life-threatening infection in people recovering from surgery. Abbreviation MRSA methionine /me aini n/ noun an essential amino acid metformin | methadone methaemoglobin | | methaemoglobinaemia | | | methane methanol methicillin | methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus | | | methionine | metra / metr/ noun the uterus metralgia /me tr ld / noun pain in the uterus metre / mi t/ noun an SI unit of length The room is four metres by three. Symbol m metritis /me traitis/ noun same as myometrimetralgia | metre metritis | tis metro- /metr/ prefix referring to the uterus metrocolpocele / metr klpsi l/ noun a condition in which the uterus protrudes into the vagina metronidazole / metr nidzl/ noun a yellow antibiotic compound, used especially in the treatment of vaginal infections metroptosis / metr tsis/ noun a condition in which the uterus has moved downwards out of its usual position. Also called prolapse of the metrocolpocele | metronidazole | metroptosis | metro- uterus metrorrhagia metrorrhagia / mi tr reid i/ noun unusual bleeding from the vagina between the menstrual periods -metry /mtri/ suffix relating to the process of measuring, or to instruments which are used for measuring mg abbreviation milligram MI abbreviation 1. mitral incompetence 2. myocardial infarction Michels clips /mi elz klips/ plural noun metal clips used to suture a wound [After Gaston | -metry mg MI Michels clips | Michel (18741937), Professor of Clinical Surgery at Nancy, France.] miconazole /mai knzl/ noun a drug used miconazole | to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails micro- /maikr/ prefix 1. very small. Opposite macro-, mega-, megalo- 2. one millionth (10-6) micro- Nursing.fm Page 187 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 187 mid-life crisis Viruses, bacteria and protozoa are microorganisms. microphthalmia / maikrf lmi/ noun a condition in which the eyes are unusually small microscope / maikrskp/ noun a scientific instrument with lenses, which makes very small objects appear larger The tissue was examined under the microscope. Under the microscope it was possible to see the cancer cells. microscopic / maikr skpik/ adjective so small that it can only be seen through a microscope microscopy /mai krskpi/ noun the science of the use of microscopes Microsporum / maikrsp rm/ noun a type of fungus which causes ringworm of the hair, skin and sometimes nails microsurgery / maikr s d ri/ noun surgery using tiny instruments and a microscope. Microsurgery is used in operations on eyes and ears, and also to connect severed nerves and blood vessels. microvillus / maikr vils/ noun a very small process found on the surface of many cells, especially the epithelial cells in the intestine (NOTE: microphthalmia | microscope microscopic | microscopy | Microsporum microsurgery | microvillus | microangiopathy / maikr nd i pi/ noun any disease of the capillaries microbe / maikrb/ noun a microorganism | | microbe microangiopathy which may cause disease and which can only be seen with a microscope, e.g. a bacterium microbiologist / maikrbai ld ist/ noun a scientist who specialises in the study of microorganisms microbiology / maikrbai ld i/ noun the scientific study of microorganisms microcephalic / maikrke f lik/ adjective having microcephaly microcephaly / maikr kefli/ noun a condition in which a person has an unusually small head, sometimes caused by the mother having had a rubella infection during pregnancy microcyte / maikrsait/ noun an unusually small red blood cell microcythaemia /maikrsai i mi/ noun same as microcytosis microcytic / maikr sitik/ adjective referring to microcytes microcytosis / maikrsai tsis/ noun the presence of excess microcytes in the blood microdactylia / maikrd k tili/, microdactyly / maikr d ktili/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small or short fingers or toes microdiscectomy / maikrdisk ektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a disc in the spine which is pressing on a nerve microglossia / maikr lsi/ noun a condition in which a person has an unusually small tongue micrognathia / maikr neii/ noun a condition in which one jaw is unusually smaller than the other microgram / maikr r m/ noun a unit of measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram micromastia / maikr m sti/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small breasts micromelia / maikr mi li/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small arms or legs micromole / maikr ml/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of substance equal to one millionth of a mole. Symbol micronutrient / maikr nju trint/ noun a substance which an organism needs for normal growth and development, but only in very small quantities, e.g. a vitamin or mineral. Compare microbiologist | microbiology | microcephalic | microcephaly | microcyte microcythaemia | microcytic | microcytosis | microdactylia | | microdiscectomy | | microglossia | micrognathia | microgram micromastia | micromelia | micromole | micronutrient | The plural is microvilli.) microwave therapy / maikrweiv erpi/ noun treatment using high-frequency radiation micturate / miktjreit/ verb same as urinate micturating cystogram / miktjreiti sist r m/, micturating cysto-urethrogram / miktjreiti sist j ri r r m/ noun an X-ray of the bladder and urethra taken microwave therapy micturate micturating cystogram | while the bladder is being filled and then emptied. Abbreviation MCU, MCUG micturition / miktj ri()n/ noun same as micturition | urination mid- /mid/ prefix middle midazolam /mi d zl m/ noun a drug used to midmidazolam | macronutrient microorganism / maikr niz()m/ noun an organism which can only be seen under a | microorganism microscope and which may cause disease. produce sleepiness and to reduce anxiety before surgery or other procedures midbrain / midbrein/ noun the small middle section of the brain stem above the pons and between the cerebrum and the hindbrain. Also called mesencephalon midcarpal /mid k p()l/ adjective between the two rows of carpal bones middle colic / mid()l klik/ noun an artery which leads from the superior mesenteric artery middle ear / mid()l i/ noun a section of the ear between the eardrum and the inner ear middle ear infection / mid()l ir in fekn/ noun same as otitis media midgut / mid t/ noun the middle part of the gut in an embryo, which develops into the small intestine mid-life crisis / mid laif kraisis/ noun a period in early middle age when some people midbrain midcarpal | middle colic middle ear middle ear infection | midgut mid-life crisis Nursing.fm Page 188 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM midline experience feelings of anxiety, insecurity and self-doubt midline / midlain/ noun an imaginary line drawn down the middle of the body from the head through the navel to the point between the feet midstream specimen / midstri m spesimin/, midstream specimen of urine / midstri m spesimin v jrin/ noun a sample of urine collected in a sterile bottle in the middle of a flow of urine, because the first part of the flow may be contaminated with bacteria from the skin. Abbreviation MSU midtarsal /mid t s()l/ adjective between the tarsal bones midwife / midwaif/ noun a professional person who helps a woman give birth to a child, often at home midwifery /mid wifri/ noun the profession of a midwife midwifery course /mid wifri k s/ noun a training course to teach nurses the techniques of being a midwife Midwives Rules / midwaivz ru lz/ plural noun laws relating to midwifery migraine / mi rein, mai rein/ noun a sharp severe recurrent headache, often associated with vomiting and visual disturbances He had an attack of migraine and could not come to work. Her migraine attacks seem to be worse in the summer. miliaria / mili eri/ noun itchy red spots which develop on the chest, under the armpits and between the thighs in hot countries, caused by blocked sweat glands. Also called prickly heat, midline midstream specimen midtarsal | midwife midwifery | midwifery course | Midwives Rules migraine miliaria | 188 milk rash milk rash / milk r / noun a temporary blotchiness of the skin seen in young babies milk sugar / milk / noun same as lactose milk tooth / milk tu / noun same as primary milk sugar milk tooth tooth Miller-Abbott tube Miller-Abbott tube / milr bt tju b/ noun a tube with a balloon at the end, used to clear the small intestine. The balloon is inflated after the tip of the tube reaches an obstruction. milli- /mili/ prefix one thousandth (10-3). Symbol milli- m heat rash miliary / miliri/ adjective small in size, like a miliary seed miliary tuberculosis / miliri tju b kj lsis/ noun a form of tuberculosis which occurs as little nodes in many parts of the body, including the meninges of the brain and spinal cord milk /milk/ noun 1. a white liquid produced by female mammals to feed their young. Cows milk and other dairy products are important parts of most diets, especially childrens. The patient can only drink warm milk. (NOTE: No plural: miliary tuberculosis | milk | some milk, a bottle of milk or a glass of milk.) 2. the breast milk produced by a woman The milk will start to flow a few days after childbirth. (NOTE: For other terms referring to milk, see words beginning with galact-, galacto-, lact-, lacto-.) milk dentition / milk den ti()n/ noun same as deciduous dentition milk leg / milk le / noun acute oedema of the milk dentition | milk leg milligram / mili r m/ noun a unit of measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Symbol mg millilitre / milili t/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one thousandth of a litre. Abbreviation ml millimetre / milimi t/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one thousandth of a metre. Abbreviation mm millimole / miliml/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of a substance equal to one thousandth of a mole. Abbreviation mmol millisievert / milisi vt/ noun a unit of measurement of radiation Milwaukee brace /mil w ki breis/ noun a support for people with unusually curved spines, consisting of a leather or metal pelvic girdle with two bars at the back and one at the front, which connect into a neck ring mind /maind/ noun the part of the brain which controls memory, consciousness or reasoning minimally invasive surgery / minim()l in veisiv s d ri/ noun surgery which involves the least possible disturbance to the body. It often uses lasers and other high-tech devices. mini mental state examination / mini ment()l steit i z mi nei()n/ noun a test performed mainly by psychiatrists to determine someones mental ability, used in the diagnosis of dementia minimum lethal dose / minimm li ()l ds/ noun the smallest amount of a substance required to kill someone or something. Abbreviation MLD ministroke / ministrk/ noun same as tranmillilitre millimetre millimole millisievert Milwaukee brace | mind minimally invasive surgery | mini mental state examination | minimum lethal dose ministroke milligram sient ischaemic attack minitracheostomy / minitreiki stmi/ noun a temporary tracheostomy minor injuries unit / mainr ind riz ju nit/ noun a hospital department which treats most accidents and emergencies. Abbreviation | | minor injuries unit minitracheostomy MIU mio- leg, a condition which affects women after childbirth, where a leg becomes pale and inflamed as a result of lymphatic obstruction. Also called white leg, phlegmasia alba dolens mio- /mai/ prefix less miosis /mai sis/ noun 1. the contraction of the pupil of the eye, as in bright light 2. US same as meiosis miosis | Nursing.fm Page 189 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 189 molecule miotic /mai tik/ noun a drug which makes the pupil of the eye become smaller adjective causing the pupil of the eye to become smaller mis- /mis/ prefix wrong miscarriage / misk rid / noun a situation in which an unborn baby leaves the uterus before the end of the pregnancy, especially during the first seven months of pregnancy She had two miscarriages before having her first child. Also called spontaneous abortion mismatch / mism t/ verb to match tissues wrongly missed case / mist keis/ noun someone with an infection or disease which is not identified by a doctor mist. /mist/, mistura /mis tjr/ re. mist. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 /mis ju s v dr z kt/ noun a law relating to all aspects of the supply and possession of dangerous drugs such as morphine, anabolic steroids, LSD and cannabis. In 2002 many new benzodiazepines were added. mite /mait/ noun a very small parasite, which causes dermatitis mitochondrial / mait kndril/ adjective referring to mitochondria mitochondrion / mait kndrin/ noun a tiny rod-shaped part of a cells cytoplasm responsible for cell respiration (NOTE: The plural is mito| mismiscarriage mismatch missed case mist. | Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 | mite mitochondrial | mitochondrion | miotic chondria.) mitomycin C / maitmaisin si / noun an antibiotic which helps to prevent cancer cells from growing, used especially in the chemotherapy treatment of bladder and rectal cancers mitosis /mai tsis/ noun the process of cell division, where the mother cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compare meiosis mitral / maitrl/ adjective referring to the mitral valve mitral incompetence / maitrl in kmpit()ns/ noun abbreviation MI. Now called mitosis | mitral mitral incompetence | mitomycin C mitral regurgitation mitral regurgitation / maitrl ri di tei()n/ noun a situation in which the mitral valve does not close completely so that blood goes back into the atrium mitral stenosis / maitrl ste nsis/ noun a condition in which the opening in the mitral valve becomes smaller because the cusps have fused | | mitral stenosis | mitral regurgitation (NOTE: This condition is almost always the result of rheumatic endocarditis.) mitral valve / maitrl v lv/ noun a valve in mitral valve the heart which allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle but not in the opposite direction. Also called bicuspid valve mitral valvotomy / maitrl v l vtmi/ noun a surgical operation to separate the cusps of the mitral valve in mitral stenosis mitral valvotomy | mittelschmerz / mit()l mets/ noun a pain felt by women in the lower abdomen at ovulation MIU abbreviation minor injuries unit ml abbreviation millilitre MLD abbreviation minimum lethal dose MLSO abbreviation medical laboratory scientific officer mm abbreviation millimetre mmol abbreviation millimole MMR / em em /, MMR vaccine / em em v ksi n/ noun a single vaccine given to small children to protect them against measles, mumps and rubella MND abbreviation motor neurone disease MO abbreviation medical officer mobilisation / mbilai zei()n/, mobilization noun the act of making something mobile modality /m d liti/ noun a method used in the treatment of a disorder, e.g. surgery or chemotherapy modernisation agenda / mdnai zei()n d end/ noun same as Agenda for Change modern matron / md()n meitrn/ noun a nursing post which supports the ward sister in ensuring that basic care of patients, including cleanliness of the ward and infection control, is carried out to a high standard MODS abbreviation multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MOF abbreviation 1. male or female 2. multiorgan failure Mogadon / m dn/ a trade name for nitrazepam MOH abbreviation Medical Officer of Health mol symbol mole 2 molar / ml/ adjective 1. referring to the large back teeth 2. referring to the mole, the SI unit of amount of a substance noun one of the large back teeth, used for grinding food. In milk teeth there are eight molars and in permanent teeth there are twelve. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement molarity /m l riti/ noun the strength of a solution shown as the number of moles of a substance per litre of solution mole /ml/ noun 1. a dark raised spot on the skin She has a large mole on her chin. melanoma 2. an SI unit of measurement of the amount of a substance. Symbol mol molecular /m lekjl/ adjective referring to a molecule molecular biology /m lekjl bai ld i/ noun the study of the molecules of living matter molecular weight /m lekjl weit/ noun the weight of one molecule of a substance molecule / mlikju l/ noun the smallest independent mass of a substance | MIU ml MLD MLSO mm mmol MMR MND MO mobilisation | modality | modernisation agenda | | modern matron MODS MOF Mogadon MOH mol molar molarity | mole molecular | molecular biology | | molecular weight | molecule mittelschmerz Nursing.fm Page 190 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM molluscum contagiosum molluscum contagiosum 190 | | molluscum contagiosum /m l skm kn teid i sm/ noun a contagious viral skin infection which gives a small soft sore molluscum fibrosum /m l skm fai brsm/ noun same as neurofibromatosis monaural /mn rl/ adjective referring to the use of one ear only mongolism / m liz()m/ noun a former name for Downs syndrome (NOTE: This term is | molluscum fibrosum | | monaural | mongolism monoplegia / mn pli d / noun the paralysis of one part of the body only, i.e. one muscle or one limb monosaccharide / mn s kraid/ noun a simple sugar which cannot be broken down any further, such as glucose or fructose monosodium glutamate / mnsdim lu tmeit/ noun a sodium salt of glutamic acid, often used to make food taste better. Chinese | monosaccharide | monosodium glutamate monoplegia regarded as offensive.) monitor / mnit/ noun a screen on a computer verb 1. to check something 2. to examine how someone is progressing monitoring / mnit()ri/ noun the regular examination and recording of a persons temperature, weight, blood pressure and other essential indicators mono- /mn/ prefix single or one monoamine oxidase / mn mi n ksideiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down the catecholamines to their inactive forms. Abbreviation MAO monoamine oxidase inhibitor / mn mi n ksideiz in hibit/ noun a drug which inhibits monoamine oxidase and is used to treat depression, e.g. phenelzine. Its use is limited, because of the potential for drug and dietary interactions and the necessity for slow withdrawal. It can also cause high blood pressure. Abbreviation MAOI. Also called MAO inhibitor monoblast / mnbl st/ noun a cell which produces a monocyte monochromatism / mn krm ti ()m/ noun colour blindness in which all colours appear to be black, grey or white. Compare dichromatism, trichromatism monoclonal / mn kln()l/ adjective referring to cells or products of cells which are formed or derived from a single clone monoclonal antibody / mnkln()l ntibdi/ noun an antibody which can be easily made in the laboratory by a single clone of cells. It may be useful in the treatment of cancer. monocular /m nkjl/ adjective referring to one eye. Compare binocular monocular vision /m nkjl vi ()n/ noun the ability to see with one eye only, so that the sense of distance is impaired monocyte / mnsait/ noun a white blood cell with a nucleus shaped like a kidney, which destroys bacterial cells monocytosis / mnsai tsis/ noun a condition in which there is an unusually high number of monocytes in the blood. Symptoms include sore throat, swelling of the lymph nodes and fever. It is probably caused by the EpsteinBarr virus. Also called glandular fever mononucleosis / mn nju kli sis/ noun same as monocytosis monitoring monomonoamine oxidase | monoamine oxidase inhibitor | | monoblast monochromatism | monoclonal | monoclonal antibody monocular | monocular vision | monocyte monocytosis | mononucleosis | | monitor restaurant syndrome monosomy / mnsmi/ noun a condition monosomy in which a person has a chromosome missing from one or more pairs monoxide /m nksaid/ carbon monozygotic twins / mnzai tik twinz/ plural noun same as identical twins mons /mnz/ noun a fleshy body part which sticks out, especially the one formed by the pad of flesh where the pubic bones join (NOTE: The plumonoxide | monozygotic twins | mons ral is montes.) mons pubis mons pubis / mnz pju bis/ noun a cushion of fat covering the pubis mons veneris / mnz venris/ noun same as mons veneris mons pubis Montgomerys glands Montgomerys glands /mnt mriz l ndz/ plural noun sebaceous glands around the nipple which become more marked in pregnancy | [After William Fetherstone Montgomery (1797 1859), Dublin gynaecologist.] mood /mu d/ noun a persons mental state at a mood particular time a mood of excitement in a bad mood feeling angry or irritable in a good mood feeling happy moon face / mu n feis/ noun a condition in which someone has a round red face, occurring in Cushings syndrome and when there are too many steroid hormones in the body Moorens ulcer / mrnz ls/ noun a persistent ulcer of the cornea, found in elderly people moon face Moorens ulcer [After Albert Mooren (182899), ophthalmologist in Dsseldorf, Germany.] morbid / m bid/ adjective showing symptoms morbid of being diseased The X-ray showed a morbid condition of the kidneys. morbid anatomy / m bid n tmi/ noun same as pathology morbidity /m biditi/ noun the condition of being diseased or sick morbidity rate /m biditi reit/ noun the number of cases of a disease per hundred thousand of population morbilli /m bili/ noun same as measles morbilliform /m bilif m/ adjective referring to a rash which is similar to measles morbus / m bs/ noun disease moribund / mrib nd/ adjective dying noun a dying person morbid anatomy | morbidity | morbidity rate | morbilli | morbilliform | morbus moribund Nursing.fm Page 191 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 191 MRC vehicles which are closed, such as planes, coaches, hovercraft. motor / mt/ adjective referring to movemotor morning-after pill / m ni ft pil/ noun a contraceptive pill taken after intercourse. Also called next-day pill morning sickness / m ni sikns/ noun nausea and vomiting experienced by women in the early stages of pregnancy when they get up in the morning Moro reflex / m r ri fleks/ noun a reflex of a newborn baby when it hears a loud noise (NOTE: morning sickness Moro reflex morning-after pill The baby is laid on a table and observed to see if it raises its arms when the table is struck.) [After Ernst Moro (18741951), paediatrician in Heidelberg, Germany.] morphea /m fi/ noun a form of scleroderma, morphea | a disease where the skin is replaced by thick connective tissue morpho- /m f/ prefix relating to form, shape or structure morphoea /m fi/ noun same as morphea morphology /m fld i/ noun the study of the structure and shape of living organisms -morphous /m fs/ suffix relating to form or structure of a particular type mortality rate /m t lti reit/ noun the number of deaths per year, shown per hundred thousand of population mortification / m tifi kei()n/ noun morphomorphoea | morphology | -morphous mortality rate | mortification | ment, which produces movement motor area / mtr eri/, motor cortex / mt k teks/ noun the part of the cortex in the brain which controls voluntary muscle movement by sending impulses to the motor nerves motor disorder / mt dis d/ noun impairment of the nerves or neurons that cause muscles to contract to produce movement motor end plate / mtr end pleit/ noun the end of a motor nerve where it joins muscle fibre motor nerve / mt n v/ noun a nerve which carries impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and causes movements. Also called efferent nerve motor neurone / mt njrn/ noun a neurone which is part of a nerve pathway transmitting impulses from the brain to a muscle or gland motor neurone disease / mt njrn di zi z/ noun a disease of the nerve cells which control the movement of the muscles. Abbreviation MND motor area motor disorder | motor end plate motor nerve motor neurone motor neurone disease | necrosis mortis / m tis/ rigor mortuary / m tjuri/ noun a room in a hospimortis mortuary tal where dead bodies are kept until removed by an undertaker for burial mosquito /m ski t/ noun an insect which sucks human blood, some species of which can pass viruses or parasites into the bloodstream mother / m / noun a biological or adoptive female parent mother-fixation / m fik sei()n/ noun a condition in which a persons development has been stopped at a stage where he or she remains like a child, dependent on his or her mother motile / mtail/ adjective referring to a cell or microorganism which can move spontaneously Sperm cells are extremely motile. motility /m tiliti/ noun 1. (of cells or microbes) the fact of being able to move about 2. (of the gut) the action of peristalsis motion / m()n/ noun 1. movement 2. same as bowel movement motion sickness / m()n sikns/ noun illness and nausea felt when travelling. It is caused by the movement of liquid inside the labyrinth of the middle ear and is particularly noticeable in vehicles which are closed, such as planes, coaches or hovercraft. (informal ) mosquito | mother mother-fixation | motile motility | motion motion sickness COMMENT: Motor neurone disease has three forms: progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), which affects movements of the hands, lateral sclerosis, and bulbar palsy, which affects the mouth and throat. motor pathway / mt p wei/ noun a motor pathway series of motor neurones leading from the motor cortex to a muscle mottled / mt()ld/ adjective with patches of different colours mountain fever / mantin fi v/ noun same as brucellosis mountain sickness / mantin sikns/ noun same as altitude sickness mouth /ma/ noun an opening at the head of the alimentary canal, through which food and drink are taken in, and through which a person speaks and can breathe She was sleeping with her mouth open. (NOTE: For other terms referring mottled mountain fever mountain sickness mouth to the mouth, see oral and words beginning with stomat-, stomato-.) mouth-to-mouth / ma t ma/, mouthto-mouth resuscitation / ma t ma ri s si tei()n/, mouth-to-mouth ventilation / ma t ma venti lei()n/ noun same as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (informal ) mouthwash / maw/ noun an antiseptic mouth-to-mouth | | | mouthwash COMMENT: The movement of liquid inside solution used to treat infection in the mouth movement / mu vmnt/ noun the act of changing position or the fact of not being still MP joint / em pi d int/ noun same as metamovement MP joint the labyrinth of the middle ear causes motion sickness, which is particularly noticeable in carpophalangeal joint MRC MRC abbreviation Medical Research Council Nursing.fm Page 192 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM MRCGP 192 and throat, and secretes mucus. Also called mucosa mucous plug MRCGP abbreviation Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners MRCP abbreviation Member of the Royal College of Physicians MRCS abbreviation Member of the Royal College of Surgeons MRI abbreviation magnetic resonance imaging mRNA abbreviation messenger RNA MRSA abbreviation methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MS abbreviation 1. mitral stenosis 2. multiple sclerosis MSH abbreviation melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSU abbreviation midstream specimen of urine mSv abbreviation millisievert mucin / mju sin/ noun a compound of sugars and protein which is the main substance in mucus muco- /mju k/ prefix referring to mucus mucocele / mju ksi l/ noun a cavity containing an accumulation of mucus mucociliary transport / mju k siliri tr nsp t/ noun the process in which the cilia, the microscopic structures within the nose, move mucus towards the oesophagus, cleansing the nose of dust and bacteria mucocoele / mju ksi l/ noun 1. a condition in which a cavity or organ becomes swollen because there is too much mucus in it 2. the swelling produced by this condition mucocutaneous / mju kkju teinis/ adjective referring to both mucous membrane and the skin mucoid / mju kid/ adjective similar to mucus mucolytic / mju k litik/ noun a substance which dissolves mucus mucopurulent / mju k pjrlnt/ adjective consisting of a mixture of mucus and pus mucopus / mju k p s/ noun a mixture of mucus and pus mucosa /mju kz/ noun same as mucous MRCP MRCS MRI mRNA MRSA MS MSH MSU mSv mucin mucomucocele mucociliary transport | mucocoele mucocutaneous | | mucoid mucolytic | mucopurulent | mucopus | mucosa | MRCGP mucous plug / mju ks pl / noun a plug of mucus which blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy mucoviscidosis /mju kvisi dsis/ noun same as cystic fibrosis mucus / mju ks/ noun a slippery liquid secreted by mucous membranes inside the body, which protects those membranes (NOTE: For mucoviscidosis | mucus other terms referring to mucus, see words beginning with blenno-.) multi- /m lti/ prefix many multidisciplinary / m lti disiplinri/ adjective using or involving several specialised submultimultidisciplinary | jects or skills a multidisciplinary team multifactorial / m ltif k t ril/ adjective 1. involving several different factors or elements 2. referring to inheritance which depends on more than one gene. Height and weight are examples of characteristics determined by multifactorial inheritance. multifocal lens / m lti fk()l lenz/ noun a lens in spectacles whose focus changes from top to bottom so that the person wearing the spectacles can see objects clearly at different distances multiforme / m ltif m/ erythema multimultifactorial | multifocal lens | multiforme forme membrane (NOTE: The plural is mucosae.) mucosal /mju kz()l/ adjective referring to mucosal | a mucous membrane mucous / mju ks/ adjective referring to mucus, covered in mucus mucous colitis / mju ks k laitis/ noun an inflammation of the mucous membrane in the intestine, in which the person experiences pain caused by spasms in the muscles of the walls of the colon, accompanied by constipation or diarrhoea or alternating attacks of both. Also called mucous mucous colitis | irritable bowel syndrome mucous membrane / mju ks membrein/ noun a wet membrane which lines internal pasmucous membrane sages in the body, e.g. the nose, mouth, stomach multigravida / m lti r vid/ noun a pregnant woman who has been pregnant two or more times before multi-infarct dementia / m lti inf kt di men/ noun dementia caused by a number of small strokes, when the dementia is not progressive as in Alzheimers disease but increases in steps as new strokes occur multilocular / m lti lkjl/ adjective referring to a body part or growth which has a lot of separate compartments or locules multi-organ failure / m lti n feilj/ noun an extremely serious condition in which several of the bodys organs stop functioning at the same time. The person may survive, depending on how many organs fail and the length of time that the failure lasts. Abbreviation MOF multipara /m l tipr/ noun a woman who has given birth to two or more live children multiple / m ltip()l/ adjective occurring several times or in several places multiple birth / m ltip()l b / noun a birth where more than one child is born at the same time multiple fracture / m ltip()l fr kt/ noun a condition in which a bone is broken in several places multiple organ dysfunction syndrome / m ltip()l n dis f k()n sindrm/ noun a state of continuous disturbances and abnormalities in organ systems, rather than true | multi-infarct dementia | multilocular | multi-organ failure multipara | multiple multiple birth multiple fracture multiple organ dysfunction syndrome | multigravida Nursing.fm Page 193 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 193 failure, e.g. following trauma and sepsis. It is often fatal. Abbreviation MODS multiple pregnancy / m ltip()l pre nnsi/ noun a pregnancy where the mother is going to give birth to more than one child multiple sclerosis / m ltip()l skl rsis/ noun a nervous disease which gets progressively worse, where patches of the fibres of the central nervous system lose their myelin, causing numbness in the limbs and progressive weakness and paralysis. Abbreviation MS. Also called disseminated sclerosis. arteriosclerosis, atheromultiple pregnancy multiple sclerosis | muscle mutism muscle / m s()l/ noun 1. an organ in the body, which contracts to make part of the body move If you do a lot of exercises you develop strong muscles. The muscles in his legs were still weak after he had spent two months in bed. She had muscle cramp after going into the cold water. See illustration at EYE in Supplement 2. same as muscle tissue muscle fatigue sclerosis muscle fatigue / m s()l f ti /, muscular fatigue / m skjl f ti / noun tiredness in the muscles after strenuous exercise muscle fibre / m s()l faib/ noun a component fibre of muscles (NOTE: There are two types | | muscle fibre multipolar neurone /m lti pl njrn/ noun a neurone with several processes. See illus| multipolar neurone tration at multiresistant NEURONE in Supplement. Compare | bipolar neurone, unipolar neurone multiresistant / m ltiri zistnt/ adjective of fibre which form striated and smooth muscles.) muscle relaxant / m s()l ri l ksnt/ noun a muscle relaxant | resistant to several types of antibiotic multivitamin / m lti vitmin/ noun a preparation containing several vitamins and sometimes minerals, used as a dietary supplement adjective referring to a preparation containing several vitamins, and sometimes minerals multivitamin pills multivitamin supplement mumps /m mps/ noun an infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus He caught mumps from the children next door. Also called multivitamin | mumps infectious parotitis (NOTE: Takes a singular or a plural verb.) Mnchausens syndrome / m ntaz()nz sindrm/ noun a mental disorder in which Mnchausens syndrome someone tries to get hospital treatment by claiming symptoms of an illness which he or she does not have. Many people will undergo very painful procedures which they do not need. [Described by Richard Asher in 1951, and named after Baron von Mnchhausen, a 16th century traveller and inveterate liar.] Mnchausens syndrome by proxy / m ntaz()nz sindrm bai prksi/ noun a mental disorder in which someone tries to get hospital treatment for someone else such as their child or an elderly relative. It is regarded as a form of child abuse, as the person may cause a child to be ill in order to receive attention. murmur / m m/ noun a sound, usually the sound of the heart, heard through a stethoscope muscae volitantes / m skai vli t nteiz/ plural noun pieces of cellular or blood debris present in the vitreous of the eye, common in old age but, if a sudden event, can be a symptom of retinal haemorrhage. Also called floaters muscarine / m skri n/ noun a poison found in fungi muscarinic / m sk rinik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor stimulated by acetylcholine and muscarine murmur muscae volitantes | muscarine muscarinic | Mnchausens syndrome by proxy drug which reduces contractions in the muscles, e.g. baclofen muscle spasm / m s()l sp z()m/ noun a sudden contraction of a muscle muscle tissue / m s()l tiu /, muscular tissue / m skjl tiu / noun the specialised type of tissue which forms the muscles and which can contract and expand muscle wasting / m s()l weisti/ noun a condition in which the muscles lose weight and become thin muscular / m skjl/ adjective referring to muscle muscular dystrophy / m skjl distrfi/ noun a type of muscle disease where some muscles become weak and are replaced with fatty tissue. Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscular fatigue / m skjl f ti / noun same as muscle fatigue muscular tissue / m skjl tiu / noun same as muscle tissue musculo- /m skjl/ prefix relating to or affecting muscle musculocutaneous / m skjlkju teinis/ adjective referring to muscle and skin musculoskeletal / m skjl skelit()l/ adjective referring to muscles and bone mutant / mju t()nt/ adjective in which mutation has occurred mutant gene / mju t()nt d i n/ noun a gene which has undergone mutation mutation /mju tei()n/ noun a change in DNA which changes the physiological effect of the DNA on the cell mute /mju t/ adjective 1. unwilling or unable to speak 2. felt or expressed without speech noun somebody who is unable or unwilling to speak muscle spasm muscle tissue muscle wasting muscular muscular dystrophy muscular fatigue | muscular tissue musculomusculocutaneous | | musculoskeletal | mutant mutant gene mutation | mute (NOTE: This term is sometimes considered offensive.) mutism / mju tiz()m/ noun the condition of being unable to speak. Also called dumbness mutism Nursing.fm Page 194 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM mymy- 194 my- /mai/ prefix same as myo- (used before vowels) myalgia myalgia /mai ld / noun a muscle pain myalgic encephalomyelitis /mai ld ik en keflmai laitis/ noun a long-term condition affecting the nervous system, in which someone feels tired and depressed and has pain and weakness in the muscles. Abbreviation ME. Also called chronic fatigue syndrome, postviral | myalgic encephalomyelitis | | | fatigue syndrome myasthenia myasthenia / mais i ni/, myasthenia gravis / mais i ni r vis/ noun a general weakness and dysfunction of the muscles, caused by poor conduction at the motor end plates myc- /maik, mais/ prefix same as myco- (used | | myc- before vowels) myco- /maik/ prefix referring to fungus Mycobacterium / maikb k ti rim/ noun one of a group of bacteria including those which cause leprosy and tuberculosis Mycoplasma / maik pl zm/ noun a type of microorganism, similar to a bacterium, associated with diseases such as pneumonia and urethritis mycosis /mai ksis/ noun any disease caused by a fungus, e.g. athletes foot mydriasis /mai draisis/ noun an enlargement of the pupil of the eye mydriatic / midri tik/ noun a drug which makes the pupil of the eye become larger myelin / mailin/ noun the substance of the cell membrane of Schwann cells that coils into a protective covering around nerve fibres called a myelin sheath myelinated / mailineitid/ adjective referring to nerve fibre covered by a myelin sheath myelination / maili nei()n/ noun the process by which a myelin sheath forms around nerve fibres myelin sheath / mailin i / noun a layer of myelin that insulates some nerve cells and speeds the conduction of nerve impulses. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement myelocele / mailsi l/ noun same as meninMycobacterium | Mycoplasma | mycosis | mydriasis | mydriatic | myelin myelinated myelination | myelin sheath myelocele myco- gomyelocele myelography / mai l rfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space after a radio-opaque substance has been injected myeloid / mailid/ adjective 1. referring to bone marrow, or produced by bone marrow 2. referring to the spinal cord myeloid leukaemia / mailid lu ki mi/ noun an acute form of leukaemia in adults myeloid tissue / mailid tiu / noun red bone marrow | myeloid myeloid leukaemia | myeloid tissue myelography myeloma / mai lm/ noun a malignant tumour in bone marrow, at the ends of long bones or in the jaw myelomeningocele / mailm ni si l/ noun same as meningomyelocele myelopathy / mai lpi/ noun any disorder of the spinal cord or bone marrow myelosuppression / mails pre()n/ noun a condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, often occurring after chemotherapy myo- /mai/ prefix referring to muscle myocardial / mai k dil/ adjective referring to the myocardium myocardial infarction / mai k dil in f kn/ noun the death of part of the heart muscle after coronary thrombosis. Abbreviation MI myocarditis / maik daitis/ noun inflammation of the heart muscle myocardium / mai k dim/ noun the middle layer of the wall of the heart, formed of heart muscle. See illustration at HEART in Supplement myocele / maisi l/ noun a condition in which a muscle pushes through a gap in the surrounding membrane myoclonic / mai klnik/ adjective referring to myoclonus myoclonic epilepsy / maiklnik epilepsi/ noun a form of epilepsy where the limbs jerk frequently myoclonus /mai klns/ noun a muscle spasm which makes a limb give an involuntary jerk myocyte / maisait/ noun a muscle cell myofibril / mai faibril/ noun a long thread of striated muscle fibre myofibrosis / maifai brsis/ noun a condition in which muscle tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue myoma /mai m/ noun a benign tumour in a smooth muscle myomectomy / mai mektmi/ noun the surgical removal of a benign growth from a muscle, especially removal of a fibroid from the uterus myometritis / maim traitis/ noun inflammation of the myometrium. Also called metritis myometrium / mai mi trim/ noun the muscular tissue in the uterus myoneural / mai njrl/ adjective relating to or involving both the muscles and the nerves myoneural junction / mainjrl d k()n/ noun same as neuromuscular | myelomeningocele | | myelopathy | myelosuppression | | myomyocardial | myocardial infarction | | myocarditis | myocardium | myocele myoclonic | myoclonic epilepsy myoclonus | myocyte myofibril | myofibrosis | myoma | myomectomy | myometritis | myometrium | myoneural | myoneural junction myeloma junction myopathy myopathy /mai pi/ noun a disease of a muscle, especially one in which the muscle wastes away | Nursing.fm Page 195 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 195 myxovirus myopia /mai pi/ noun a condition in which someone can see clearly objects which are close, but not ones which are further away. Also called shortsightedness. Opposite longsightedness myopic /mai pik/ adjective able to see close objects clearly, but not objects which are further away. Also called shortsighted, nearsighted myoplasty / maipl sti/ noun a form of plastic surgery to repair a muscle myosarcoma / mais km/ noun a malignant tumour containing unstriated muscle myosis /mai sis/ noun another spelling of | myopic | myoplasty myosarcoma | myosis | myopia miosis 1 myositis / mai saitis/ noun inflammation and degeneration of a muscle myotic /mai tik/ noun a drug which causes the pupil of the eye to contract myotomy /mai tmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a muscle myotonia / mai tni/ noun difficulty in relaxing a muscle after exercise myotonic / mai tnik/ adjective referring to tone in a muscle myringa /mi ri / noun same as eardrum myringitis / mirin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the eardrum | myotic | myotomy | myotonia | myotonic | myringa | myringitis | myositis myringoplasty /mi ri pl sti/ noun the surgical repair of a perforated eardrum. Also called tympanoplasty myringotome /mi ri tm/ noun a sharp knife used in myringotomy myringotomy / miri tmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the eardrum to allow fluid to escape. Also called tympanotomy myx- /miks/, myxo- /miks/ prefix referring to mucus myxoedema / miks di m/ noun a condition caused when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The person, often a middle-aged woman, becomes overweight, moves slowly and develops coarse skin. It can be treated with thyroxine. myxoedematous / miks demts/ adjective referring to myxoedema myxoid cyst / miksid sist/ noun a cyst which develops at the base of a fingernail or toenail myxovirus / miks vairs/ noun any virus which has an affinity for the mucoprotein receptors in red blood cells. One of these viruses causes influenza. | myringotome | myringotomy | myxmyxoedema | myxoedematous | myxoid cyst myxovirus | myringoplasty Nursing.fm Page 196 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM N n symbol nanonabothian cyst /n bin sist/, nabothian follicle /n bin flik()l/, nabothian gland /n bin l nd/ noun a cyst which forms in the cervix of the uterus when the ducts in the cervical glands are blocked Naegele rule / nei l ru l/ noun a method used to determine when a pregnant woman is likely to go into labour, in which nine months and seven days are added to the date on which her last period started. If the woman does not have a 28day menstrual cycle, an adjustment is made: e.g., if she has a 26-day cycle you would subtract 2 days from the Naegeles estimated due date. naevus / ni vs/ noun same as birthmark nabothian cyst | | | Naegele rule naevus n (NOTE: The plural is naevi.) NAI NAI abbreviation non-accidental injury nail /neil/ noun a hard growth, made of keratin, which forms on the top surface at the end of each finger and toe. Also called unguis (NOTE: For nail terms referring to nail, see words beginning with onych-, onycho-.) nail avulsion / neil v ln/ noun the act of pulling away an ingrowing toenail nail bed / neil bed/ noun the part of the finger which is just under the nail and on which the nail rests nail matrix / neil meitriks/ noun the internal structure of the nail, the part of the finger from which the nail grows naloxone /n lksn/ noun a drug resembling morphine, used in the diagnosis of narcotics addiction and to reverse the effects of narcotics poisoning named nurse / neimd n s/ noun a nurse, midwife or health visitor who is responsible for communicating with a particular person and ensuring that his or her needs for care and information are met nandrolone / n ndrln/ noun an anabolic steroid which builds muscle. Its use is banned by the International Amateur Athletics Federation. nano- /n n/ prefix one thousand millionth (10-9). Symbol n | nail bed nail matrix naloxone | named nurse nandrolone nano- nail avulsion nanometre / n nmit/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one thousand millionth of a metre. Symbol nm nanomole / n nml/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of a substance equal to one thousand millionth of a mole. Symbol nmol nanosecond / n n seknd/ noun a unit of measurement of time equal to one thousand millionth of a second. Symbol ns nape /neip/ noun the back of the neck. Also called nucha nappy / n pi/ noun a cloth used to wrap round a babys bottom and groin, to keep clothing clean and dry nappy rash / n pi r / noun sore red skin on a babys buttocks and groin, caused by long contact with ammonia in a wet nappy naproxen /n prksen/ noun a drug which reduces inflammation and pain, used in the treatment of arthritis narcissism / n sisiz()m/ noun in psychiatry, a personality disorder in which someone has a very confident opinion about their own appearance and abilities, and a great need to be admired by other people. It sometimes involves sexual interest in their own body. narco- /n k/ prefix referring to sleep or stupor narcolepsy / n klepsi/ noun a condition in which someone has an uncontrollable tendency to fall asleep at any time narcoleptic / n k leptik/ adjective 1. causing narcolepsy 2. having narcolepsy noun 1. a substance which causes narcolepsy 2. someone who has narcolepsy narcosis /n ksis/ noun a state of lowered consciousness induced by a drug narcotic /n ktik/ noun a pain-relieving drug which makes someone sleep or become unconscious The doctor put her to sleep with a powerful narcotic. adjective causing sleep or unconsciousness the narcotic side-effects of an antihistamine nares / neri z/ plural noun the nostrils (NOTE: nanomole nanosecond | nape nappy nappy rash naproxen | narcissism narconarcolepsy narcoleptic | narcosis | narcotic | nares nanometre The singular is naris.) nasal nasal / neiz()l/ adjective referring to the nose Nursing.fm Page 197 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 197 navel these fields in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland National Council for Vocational Qualifications / n ()nl kans()l f v kei()nl kwlifi kei()nz/ noun full form of NCVQ National Health Service / n ()nl hel s vis/ noun a government service in the UK which provides medical services free of charge at the point of delivery, or at reduced cost, to the whole population. The service is paid for out of tax revenue. Abbreviation NHS National Institute for Clinical Excellence / n ()n()l institju t f klinik()l ekslns/ noun an organisation in the UK which produces recommendations for treatments based on clinical evidence and cost-effectiveness. Abbreviation NICE National Service Framework / n ()nl s vis freimw k/ noun full form of NSF natriuretic / neitrij retik/ noun something which helps sodium to be excreted in the urine natural childbirth / n t()rl taildb / noun childbirth where the mother is not given any pain-killing drugs or anaesthetic but is encouraged to give birth after having prepared herself through relaxation and breathing exercises and a new psychological outlook natural immunity / n t()rl i mju niti/ noun the immunity from disease which a newborn baby has from birth and which is inherited or acquired in the uterus or from the mothers milk natural killer cell / n t()rl kil sel/ noun a white blood cell which can recognise microorganisms and tumour cells as foreign without any previous exposure to them, and destroy them natural mother / n t()rl m /, natural parent / n t()rl pernt/ noun same as National Council for Vocational Qualifications | | National Health Service National Institute for Clinical Excellence National Service Framework natriuretic | natural childbirth natural immunity | natural killer cell natural mother nasal apertures / neiz()l pts/ plural noun the two openings shaped like funnels leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx. choana nasal cavity / neiz()l k viti/ noun the cavnasal cavity nasal apertures ity behind the nose between the cribriform plates above and the hard palate below, divided in two by the nasal septum and leading to the nasopharynx nasal conchae / neiz()l kki / plural noun the three ridges of bone, called the superior, middle and inferior conchae, which project into the nasal cavity from the side walls. Also called turnasal conchae binate bones nasal congestion / neiz()l kn d est()n/ noun the blocking of the nose by inflammation as | nasal congestion a response to a cold or other infection nasal drops / neiz()l drps/ plural noun drops of liquid inserted into the nose nasal septum / neiz()l septm/ noun a wall of cartilage between the two nostrils and the two parts of the nasal cavity nasal spray / neiz()l sprei/ noun a spray of liquid into the nose nascent / n s()nt, neis()nt/ adjective 1. in the process of coming into existence and starting to develop 2. referring to a substance, especially hydrogen, in the process of being created. At this stage it is often in a highly active form. Naseptin /n septin/ a trade name for a mixture containing chlorhexidine and neomycin, used to treat nasal infection by organisms such as staphylococci naso- /neiz/ prefix referring to the nose nasogastric / neiz strik/ adjective referring to the nose and stomach nasogastric tube / neiz strik tju b/ noun a tube passed through the nose into the stomach nasolacrimal / neiz l krim()l/ adjective referring to the nose and the tear glands nasolacrimal duct / neiz l krim()l d kt/ noun a duct which drains tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose nasopharyngeal / neiz f rin d i l/ adjective referring to the nasopharynx nasopharyngitis / neiz f rin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx nasopharynx / neiz f riks/ noun the top part of the pharynx which connects with the nose nasosinusitis / neiz sain saitis/ noun a condition in which the nose and sinuses swell up nates / neiti z/ noun same as buttock National Boards / n ()nl b rdz/ plural noun the National Boards for Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Visiting, which were formerly responsible for the education of professionals in nasal drops nasal septum nasal spray nascent Naseptin | nasonasogastric | nasogastric tube | nasolacrimal | nasolacrimal duct | nasopharyngeal | | nasopharyngitis | | nasopharynx | nasosinusitis | | nates National Boards birth mother, birth parent nature nurture debate nature nurture debate / neit n t di beit/ noun the arguments put forward about whether human beings behave in the way they do because of their genetic make-up and instincts or because of the way they are educated and the influences they are exposed to when they are young naturopathy / neit rpi/ noun a method of treatment of diseases and disorders which does not use medical or surgical means, but natural forces such as light, heat, massage, eating natural foods and using herbal remedies nausea / n zi/ noun a feeling that you want to vomit She suffered from nausea in the morning. He felt slight nausea after getting onto the boat. nauseated / n zieitid/ adjective feeling as if you are about to vomit The casualty may feel nauseated. navel / neiv()l/ noun the scar with a depression in the middle of the abdomen where the umbilical | naturopathy | nausea nauseated navel Nursing.fm Page 198 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM navicular cord was detached after birth. Also called umbilicus (NOTE: For other terms referring to the navel, see words beginning with omphal-, omphalo-.) 198 navicular /n vikjl/ adjective relating to a navicular bone noun same as navicular bone navicular bone /n vikjl bn/ noun one of the tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement NCVQ / en si vi kju / noun a government body in the UK responsible for setting standards of qualification for specific jobs. Full form | navicular bone | NCVQ navicular National Council for Vocational Qualifications NDU NDU abbreviation Nursing Development Unit nearsighted /ni saitid/ adjective same as nearsighted | myopic nebula / nebjl/ noun a slightly cloudy spot on the cornea nebuliser / nebjlaiz/, nebulizer noun same as atomiser neck /nek/ noun 1. the part of the body which joins the head to the body He is suffering from pains in the neck. The front of the neck is swollen with goitre. The jugular veins run down the side of the neck. 2. a narrow part of a bone or organ neck collar / nek kl/ noun a strong high collar to support the head of a person with neck injuries or a condition such as cervical spondylosis necro- /nekr/ prefix referring to death necrology /ne krld i/ noun the scientific study of mortality statistics necrophilia / nekr fili/, necrophilism /ne krfiliz()m/ noun unusual pleasure in corpses necropsy / nekrpsi/ noun same as post mornebuliser neck neck collar necronecrology | necrophilia | | necropsy nebula tem necrosis /ne krsis/ noun the death of a part of the body such as a bone, tissue or an organ as a result of disease or injury Gangrene is a form of necrosis. necrotic /ne krtik/ adjective referring to, or affected with, necrosis necrotic tissue necrotising enterocolitis / nekrtaizi entrk laitis/ noun a disorder in which patches of dead tissue are found in the small or large intestine as a result of severe bacterial infection. It occurs in babies, especially premature ones. necrotomy /ne krtmi/ noun the dissection of a dead body (NOTE: The plural is necrotomies.) needle / ni d()l/ noun 1. a thin metal instrument with a sharp point at one end and a hole at the other for attaching a thread, used for sewing up surgical incisions 2. the hollow pointed end of a hypodermic syringe, or the syringe itself | necrotic | necrotising enterocolitis | necrotomy | needle necrosis needlestick / ni d()lstik/ noun an accidental pricking of your own skin by a needle, as by a nurse picking up a used syringe needlestick injury / ni d()lstik ind ri/ noun the real or potential harm resulting from a prick with a needle previously used to take blood or give an injection. The main concern is the risk of HIV or hepatitis B infection. needling / ni d()li/ noun the puncture of a cataract with a needle needs assessment / ni dz sesmnt/ noun the investigation of what a particular group of people need in terms of health and social care, so that services can be matched to their needs needs deprivation / ni dz depri vei()n/ noun a state in which someone does not have the opportunity or capacity to fulfil his or her basic needs negative / ne tiv/ adjective 1. meaning or showing no 2. indicating that something being tested for is not present The test results were negative. Opposite positive negative feedback / ne tiv fi db k/ noun a situation in which the result of a process represses the process which caused it negligence / ne lid ns/ noun the act of causing injury or harm to another person or to property as the result of doing something wrongly or failing to provide a proper level of care Neisseria /nai siri/ noun a genus of bacteria which includes gonococcus, which causes gonorrhoea, and meningococcus, which causes meningitis nematode / nemtd/ noun a type of parasitic roundworm, e.g. a hookworm, pinworm or roundworm neo- /ni / prefix new neoadjuvant chemotherapy / ni d vnt ki m erpi/ noun chemotherapy given to people with tumours instead of immediate surgery or radiotherapy, in the hope of reducing the need for these later neomycin / ni maisin/ noun a drug used externally to treat bacterial infections neonatal / ni neit()l/ adjective referring to the first few weeks after birth neonatal death rate / ni neit()l de reit/ noun the number of babies who die soon after birth, shown per thousand babies born neonatal screening / ni neit()l skri ni/ noun a set of tests performed on babies soon after birth so that any problems can be treated immediately (NOTE: Tests for certain disneedlestick injury needling needs assessment | needs deprivation | negative negative feedback negligence Neisseria | nematode neoneoadjuvant chemotherapy | | neomycin | neonatal | neonatal death rate neonatal screening | needlestick eases such as hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria are a legal duty.) neonate / ni neit/ noun a baby which is less neonate than four weeks old neonatologist / ni n tld ist/ noun a specialist who looks after babies during the first few neonatologist | Nursing.fm Page 199 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 199 weeks of life, or premature babies and babies with some congenital disorders neonatology / ni n tld i/ noun the branch of medicine dealing with babies in the first few weeks of life neoplasm / ni pl z()m/ noun any new and morbid formation of tissue neoplasty / ni pl sti/ noun the surgical repair or replacement of damaged tissue neostigmine / ni sti mi n/ noun a white crystalline compound used in the treatment of muscle fatigue myasthenia and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxant drugs nephr- /nefr/ prefix kidney nephralgia /ne fr ld / noun pain in the kidney nephralgic /ne fr ld ik/ adjective relating to pain in the kidney nephrectomy /ne frektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole kidney (NOTE: The neonatology | neoplasm neoplasty neostigmine | nephrnephralgia | nephralgic | nephrectomy | nephropathy | nerve gas nephropathy /ne frpi/ noun a disease or medical disorder of the kidney (NOTE: The plural is nephropathies.) nephropexy / nefrpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to attach a mobile kidney (NOTE: The plural is nephropexies.) nephroptosis / nefrp tsis/ noun a condinephropexy nephroptosis | tion in which a kidney is mobile. Also called floating kidney nephrosclerosis nephrosclerosis / nefrskl rsis/ noun a kidney disease due to vascular change nephroscope / nefrskp/ noun a type of endoscope used to examine the kidneys nephrosis /ne frsis/ noun degeneration of the tissue of a kidney nephrostomy /ne frstmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a permanent opening into the pelvis of the kidney from the surface (NOTE: The | nephroscope nephrosis | nephrostomy | plural is nephrostomies.) plural is nephrectomies.) nephritis /ne fraitis/ noun inflammation of the nephritis | kidney nephroblastoma / nefrbl stm/ noun a malignant tumour in the kidneys in young children, usually under the age of 10, leading to swelling of the abdomen. It is treated by removal of the affected kidney. Also called Wilms nephroblastoma | nephrotic /ne frtik/ adjective relating to or caused by nephrosis nephrotic syndrome /ne frtik sindrm/ noun increasing oedema, albuminuria and raised blood pressure resulting from nephrosis nephrotomy /ne frtmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut into a kidney (NOTE: The plural is | nephrotic syndrome | nephrotomy | nephrotic tumour (NOTE: The plural is nephroblastomas or nephrobrastomata.) nephrocalcinosis / nefr k lsi nsis/ noun a condition in which calcium deposits are nephrocalcinosis | | nephrotomies.) nephrotoxic / nefr tksik/ adjective poinephrotoxic | found in the kidney nephrocapsulectomy / nefr k psj lektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the capsule round a kidney (NOTE: The plural is nephrocapsulectomy | | sonous or damaging to kidney cells nephroureterectomy / nefr jrit rektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a kidney and the ureter attached to it. Also called ureteronephrectomy (NOTE: The nephroureterectomy | | plural is nephroureterectomies.) nerve nephrocapsulectomies.) nephrogram / nefr r m/ noun a radionephrogram graphic examination of the kidney nephrolith / nefrli/ noun a stone in the kidney nephrolithiasis / nefrli aisis/ noun a condition in which stones form in the kidney nephrolithotomy / nefrli tmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone in the kidney nephrolith nephrolithiasis | nephrolithotomy | nerve /n v/ noun 1. a bundle of fibres that can transmit electrochemical impulses and that forms part of the network that connects the brain and spinal cord to the bodys organs 2. the sensitive tissue in the root of a tooth (NOTE: For other terms referring to nerves, see words beginning with neur-, neuro-.) nerve block / n v blk/ noun the act of stopnerve block (NOTE: The plural is nephrolithotomies.) nephrologist /ne frld ist/ noun a doctor nephrologist | ping the function of a nerve by injecting an anaesthetic nerve centre / n v sent/ noun the point at which nerves come together nerve ending / n v endi/ noun same as nerve centre nerve ending who specialises in the study of the kidney and its diseases nephrology /ne frld i/ noun the study of the kidney and its diseases nephroma /ne frm/ noun a tumour in the kidney, or a tumour derived from renal substances nephrology | nephroma | sensory receptor nerve entrapment syndrome (NOTE: The plural is nephromas or nephromata.) nephron / nefrn/ noun a tiny structure in the nephron kidney through which fluid is filtered nerve entrapment syndrome / n v in tr pmnt sindrm/ noun pain caused by pressure on a nerve, especially where nerves occur in narrow passages such as the wrist nerve fibre / n v faib/ noun a thin structure leading from a nerve cell and carrying nerve impulses, e.g. an axon nerve gas / n v s/ noun a gas which attacks the nervous system | nerve fibre nerve gas Nursing.fm Page 200 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM nerve impulse 200 embryo, which develops into the brain and spinal cord neural tube defect / njrl tju b di fekt/ noun a congenital anomaly which occurs when the edges of the neural tube do not close up properly while the fetus develops in the uterus, e.g. spina bifida (NOTE: There is less risk of a neural neural tube defect | nerve impulse / n v imp ls/ noun an electrochemical impulse which is transmitted by nerve cells nerve regeneration / n v ri enrei()n/ noun the growth of new nerve tissue after damage has occurred nerve root / n v ru t/ noun the first part of a nerve as it leaves or joins the spinal column nerve regeneration | nerve root nerve impulse (NOTE: The dorsal nerve root is the entry for a sensory nerve, and the ventral nerve root is the exit for a motor nerve.) nerve tissue / n v tiu / noun tissue which nerve tissue tube defect if the mother takes folic acid during her pregnancy.) neurapraxia / njr pr ksi/ noun a lesion neurapraxia | forms nerves, and which is able to transmit the nerve impulses nervosa /n vs/ anorexia nervosa nervous / n vs/ adjective 1. referring to nerves 2. very easily worried Dont be nervous the operation is a very simple one. nervous breakdown / n vs breikdan/ noun any sudden mental illness (informal ) nervous complaint / n vs km pleint/, nervous disorder / n vs dis d/ noun an emotional or mental illness (informal ) nervousness / n vsns/ noun the state of being nervous nervous system / n vs sistm/ noun the nervous tissues of the body, including the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, ganglia and nerve centres nether parts / ne p ts/, nether regions / ne ri d ()nz/ plural noun the lower part of the body, especially the buttocks or genital area nervosa | nervous nervous breakdown nervous complaint | | nervousness nervous system nether parts of a nerve which leads to paralysis for a very short time, giving a tingling feeling and loss of function neurectomy /nj rektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a nerve (NOTE: neurectomy | The plural is neurectomies.) (informal ) nettle rash nettle rash / net()l r / noun same as urticaria network / netw k/ noun any of various computer-based systems designed to allow fast communication of information between NHS agencies, e.g. communication of X-ray results from a hospital to a GP surgery a network of fine blood vessels Neumans model / nimnz md()l/ noun a modern model for nursing in which prevention is the primary nursing aim (NOTE: Prevention Neumans model network neurilemma / njri lem/ noun the outer sheath, formed of Schwann cells, which covers the myelin sheath around a nerve fibre. Also called neurolemma. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement neuritis /nj raitis/ noun inflammation of a nerve, giving a constant pain neuro- /njr/ prefix nerve or nervous system neuroendocrine system / njr endkrin sistm/ noun a system in which the central nervous system and hormonal systems interact to control the function of organs and tissues neuroepithelial / njrepi i lil/ adjective referring to the neuroepithelium neuroepithelium / njrepi i lim/ noun the layer of epithelial cells forming part of the lining of the mucous membrane of the nose or the labyrinth of the middle ear neurofibril / njr faibril/ noun a fine thread in the cytoplasm of a neurone neurofibrilla / njr fibril/ noun same as neurofibril. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is neurofibrillae.) neurofibroma / njrfai brm/ noun a benign tumour of a nerve, formed from the neurilemma (NOTE: The plural is neurofibromas or | neuritis | neuroneuroendocrine system | neuroepithelial | neuroepithelium | neurofibril | neurofibrilla | neurofibroma | neurilemma neurofibromata.) neurofibromatosis focuses on keeping both the things which cause stress and the patients response to stress from having a damaging effect on the body.) neur- /njr/ prefix same as neuro- (used before vowels) neural / njrl/ adjective referring to a nerve neurneural neurofibromatosis / njr faibrm tsis/ noun a hereditary condition in which a person has neurofibromata on the nerve trunks, limb plexuses or spinal roots, and pale brown spots appear on the skin. Abbreviation NF. Also called molluscum fibrosum, von Reckling| | hausens disease or the nervous system neural arch / njrl t/ noun a curved part of a vertebra, which forms the space through which the spinal cord passes neuralgia /nj r ld / noun a spasm of pain which runs along a nerve neural tube / njrl tju b/ noun a tube lined with ectodermal cells running the length of an neural arch neuralgia | neural tube neurogenic / njr d enik/ adjective coming from the nervous system neurogenic bladder / njrd enik bl d/ noun a disturbance of the bladder function caused by lesions in the nerve supply to the bladder neurogenic shock / njrd enik k/ noun a state of shock caused by bad news or an unpleasant surprise | neurogenic bladder neurogenic shock neurogenic Nursing.fm Page 201 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 201 next-day pill neurorrhaphy neuroglandular junction / njr l ndjl d kn/ noun the point where a nerve joins the gland which it controls neurohormone / njr h mn/ noun a hormone produced in some nerve cells and secreted from the nerve endings neurohypophysis / njrhai pfsis/ noun the lobe at the back of the pituitary gland, which secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (NOTE: | neurohormone | neurohypophysis | neuroglandular junction The plural is neurohypophyses.) neurolemma / njr lem/ noun same as neurilemma neuroleptic / njr leptik/ noun an antineurolemma | neuroleptic | neurorrhaphy /nj r rfi/ noun a surgical operation to join by suture a nerve which has been cut (NOTE: The plural is neurorraphies.) neurosecretion / njrsi kri ()n/ noun a substance secreted by a nerve cell neurosis /nj rsis/ noun a disorder of the personality in which a person experiences obsessive negative emotions towards someone or something, e.g. fear of empty spaces or jealousy of a sibling. psychoneurosis (NOTE: The plural is | neurosecretion | neurosis | neuroses.) psychotic drug which calms a person and stops him or her from worrying, e.g. chlorpromazine hydrochloride neurological / njr ld ik()l/ adjective referring to neurology neurological assessment / njrld ik()l sesmnt/ noun an evaluation of the health of a person with a disorder of the nervous system, using interviews, a physical examination, and specific diagnostic tests, sometimes with the help of a family member or close friend neurologist /nj rld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of the nervous system and the treatment of its diseases neurology /nj rld i/ noun the scientific study of the nervous system and its diseases neuroma /nj rm/ noun a benign tumour formed of nerve cells and nerve fibres (NOTE: The neurological | neurological assessment | neurologist | neurology | neuroma | neurosurgeon / njr s d n/ noun a surgeon who operates on the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord neurosurgery / njr s d ri/ noun surgery on the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord neurotic /nj rtik/ adjective relating to or having neurosis neurotomy /nj rtmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a nerve (NOTE: The plural is neurot| neurosurgery | neurotic | neurotomy | neurosurgeon omies.) plural is neuromas or neuromata.) neuromuscular / njr m skjl/ adjective referring to both nerves and muscles neuromuscular | neuromuscular junction / njrm skjl d kn/ noun the point where a motor nerve joins muscle fibre. Also called myoneural junction neuron / njrn/, neurone / njrn/ noun a cell in the nervous system which transmits nerve impulses. Also called nerve cell neuropathic bladder / njrp ik bl d/ noun a condition in which the bladder does not function properly because its nerve supply is damaged, e.g. due to an injury to the spinal cord neuropathology / njrp ld i/ noun the study of diseases of the nervous system neuropathy /nj rpi/ noun a disease involving destruction of the tissues of the nervous system (NOTE: The plural is neuropathies.) neurophysiology / njrfizi ld i/ noun the study of the physiology of nerves neuroplasty / njrpl sti/ noun surgery to repair damaged nerves neuropsychiatry / njrsai kaitri/ noun the study of mental and nervous disorders neuron neuropathic bladder neuropathology | neuropathy | neurophysiology | neuroplasty neuropsychiatry | neuromuscular junction neurotoxic / njr tksik/ adjective harmful or poisonous to nerve cells neurotransmitter / njrtr ns mit/ noun a chemical substance which transmits nerve impulses from one neurone to another neurotripsy / njrtripsi/ noun surgical bruising or crushing of a nerve neurotrophic / njr trfik/ adjective relating to the nutrition and maintenance of tissue of the nervous system neurotropic / njr trpik/ adjective referring to a bacterium which is attracted to and attacks nerves neuter / nju t/ adjective neither male nor female neutral / nju trl/ adjective (of a substance) neither acid nor alkali A pH factor of 7 is neutral. neutralise / nju trlaiz/, neutralize verb 1. to counteract the effect of something Alkali poisoning can be neutralised by applying acid solution. (NOTE: neutralising neutralised) 2. to form a salt from an acid neutropenia / nju tr pi ni/ noun a condition in which there are fewer neutrophils than usual in the blood neutrophil / nju trfil/ noun a type of white blood cell with an irregular nucleus, which can attack and destroy bacteria. Also called poly| neurotransmitter | neurotripsy neurotrophic | neurotropic | neuter neutral neutralise neutropenia | neutrophil neurotoxic morph newton newton / nju t()n/ noun an SI unit of measurement of force. Symbol N new variant CJD / nju verint si d ei di / noun variant CJD next-day pill / nekst dei pil/ noun same as new variant CJD next-day pill morning-after pill Nursing.fm Page 202 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM next of kin next of kin 202 feeding difficulties, a large abdomen within 3 to 6 months, and progressive loss of early motor skills. nifedipine /ni fedipi n/ noun a drug which stops the heart muscles from taking up calcium, used in the treatment of high blood pressure and angina pectoris night nurse / nait n s/ noun a nurse who is on duty at night night sweat / nait swet/ noun heavy sweating when a person is asleep at night night terror / nait ter/ noun a period of disturbed sleep, which a child does not remember afterwards nigra / nai r/ linea nigra nihilism / naihiliz()m/ noun the rejection of all the usual social conventions and beliefs, especially of morality and religion nihilistic / naihi listik/ adj relating to or showing a belief in nihilism nipple / nip()l/ noun 1. same as mammilla 2. US a rubber teat on a babys feeding bottle Nissl granule / nis()l r nju l/, Nissl body / nis()l bdi/ noun one of the coarse granules surrounding the nucleus in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement nifedipine | night nurse night sweat night terror nigra nihilism nihilistic | nipple Nissl granule next of kin / nekst v kin/ noun the person or persons who are most closely related to someone The hospital has notified the next of kin of the death of the accident victim. (NOTE: Takes a singular or plural verb.) nexus nexus / nekss/ noun a point where two organs or tissues join NHS abbreviation National Health Service NHS Direct / en eit es di rekt/ noun in the UK, a national telephone helpline run by nurses to provide information about health and health services for the public NHS targets / en eit es t its/ plural noun performance targets set by the government for individual NHS primary care trusts niacin / naisin/ noun a vitamin of the vitamin B complex found in milk, meat, liver, kidney, yeast, beans, peas and bread, lack of which can cause mental disorders and pellagra. Also called NHS NHS Direct | NHS targets niacin nicotinic acid nicardipine /ni k dipi n/ noun a drug which slows down the movement of calcium ions into smooth muscle cells, used especially to treat angina NICE /nais/ abbreviation National Institute for Clinical Excellence niclosamide /ni klsmaid/ noun a drug used for removing tapeworms nicotine / nikti n/ noun the main alkaloid substance found in tobacco nicotine addiction / nikti n dikn/ noun an addiction to nicotine, derived from smoking tobacco nicotine patch / nikti n p t/ noun a patch containing nicotine which is released slowly into the bloodstream, applied to the skin as a method of curing nicotine addiction nicotine replacement / nikti n ri pleismnt/ noun the use of nicotine patches or other products to help during an attempt to give up smoking nicotinic acid / niktinik sid/ same as | NICE niclosamide | nicotine nicotine addiction | nicotine patch nicotine replacement | nicotinic acid nicardipine [Described 1894. After Franz Nissl (18601919), German psychiatrist.] nit /nit/ noun an egg or larva of a louse nitrate / naitreit/ noun a drug such as glyceryl nit nitrate trinitrate which dilates the vessels leading to the heart muscle and lowers cardiac work by reducing venous return to the heart, for rapid relief of angina and in heart failure (NOTE: Patients can develop tolerance to these drugs.) -nitrate niacin nictation -nitrate /naitreit/ suffix used in names of nitrate drugs nitrazepam /nai tr zip m/ noun a tranquilliser used in some sleeping pills nitrofurantoin / naitrfj r ntin/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the growth of bacteria, used in the treatment of urinary infections nitrogen / naitrd n/ noun a chemical element, which is a gas that is the main component of air and is an essential part of protein (NOTE: nitrazepam | nitrofurantoin | nitrogen nictation /nik tei()n/, nictitation /nikti tei()n/ noun the act of winking nidation /nai dei()n/ noun 1. the process of building the endometrial layers of the uterus between menstrual periods 2. the point in the development of an embryo at which the fertilised ovum reaches the uterus and implants in the wall of the uterus. Also called implantation nidus / naids/ noun a site where bacteria can settle and breed, which becomes a centre of infection (NOTE: The plural is niduses or nidi.) Niemann-Pick disease / ni mn pik di zi z/ noun a rare inherited disease of a group which affect metabolism. Signs in babies include | | nidation | nidus Niemann-Pick disease | The chemical symbol is N.) nitroglycerin nitroglycerin / naitr lisrin/ noun a drug which helps the veins and coronary arteries to become wider nitrous oxide / naitrs ksaid/ noun a colourless gas with a sweet smell, used in combination with other gases as an anaesthetic in dentistry and surgery. Also called laughing gas nm abbreviation nanometre NMC abbreviation Nursing and Midwifery Council nmol abbreviation nanomole NMR abbreviation nuclear magnetic resonance noci- /nsi/ prefix pain or injury | nitrous oxide nm NMC nmol NMR noci- Nursing.fm Page 203 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 203 non-union affairs (NOTE: From a Latin phrase meaning not of sound mind.) non-contagious nociassociation / nsi ssi ei()n/ noun an unconscious release of nervous energy, | | nociassociation e.g. as a result of shock nociceptive / nsi septiv/ adjective referring to nerves which carry pain to the brain nociceptor / nsi sept/ noun a sensory nerve which carries pain to the brain noct- /nkt/ prefix same as noctinocte / nkti/ adverb at night. Opposite mane nociceptive | nociceptor | noctnocte non-contagious / nn kn teid s/ adjective not contagious non-emergency surgery / nn i m d nsi s d ri/ noun a surgical operation which does not need to be performed immediately because it is for a condition which is not life-threatening, e.g. joint replacement. Also called non-urgent | non-emergency surgery | (NOTE: used on prescriptions) nocti- /nkti/ prefix referring to night nocturia /nk tjri/ noun the fact of passing noctinocturia | surgery an unusually large quantity of urine during the night nocturnal /nk t n()l/ adjective referring to or taking place at night nocturnal emission /nk t n()l i mi()n/ noun the production of semen from the penis while a man is asleep nocturnal enuresis /nk t n()l enj ri sis/ noun the act of passing urine when asleep in bed at night. Also called bedwetting nodal / nd()l/ adjective referring to nodes nodal tachycardia / nd()l t ki k di/ noun a sudden attack of rapid heartbeats. Also called paroxysmal tachycardia node /nd/ noun a small mass of tissue node of Ranvier / nd v r nvi/ noun one of a series of gaps in the myelin sheath surrounding a nerve fibre. See illustration at NEURONE in nocturnal | nocturnal emission | | nocturnal enuresis | | nodal nodal tachycardia | node node of Ranvier Supplement nod off / nd f/ verb to fall asleep (informal ) nodosum /n dsm/ erythema nodonod off nodosum | sum nodular / ndjl/ adjective formed of nodules nodule / ndju l/ noun 1. a small node or group of cells. Bohns nodules 2. the anterior part of the inferior vermis nomen proprium / nmn prprim/ noun full form of n.p. non- /nn/ prefix not non-absorbable suture / nn b z bb()l su t/ noun a suture made of a substance which cannot be absorbed into the body and which eventually has to be removed non-accidental injury / nn ksi dent()l ind ri/ noun an injury which is not caused accidentally non-allergenic / nn l d enik/ adjective not aggravating an allergy non-compliance / nn km plains/ noun the failure to take drugs at the correct times and in the dosages prescribed, or to take them at all non compos mentis / nn kmps mentis/ adjective referring to a person who is mentally incapable of managing his or her own nodule nomen proprium nonnon-absorbable suture | non-accidental injury | non-allergenic | non-compliance | non compos mentis nodular non-Hodgkins lymphoma / nn hd kinz lim fm/ noun a cancer of the lymph nodes which differs from Hodgkins disease by the absence of a particular type of cell with double nuclei non-insulin-dependent diabetes / nn insjlin di pendnt dai bi ti z/ noun same as Type II diabetes mellitus non-invasive / nn in veiziv/ adjective referring to treatment which does not involve entering the body by making an incision. invasive non-maleficence / nn m lefis()ns/ noun the concept that professionals in the health service have a duty to protect the patient from harm non-medical prescriber / nn medik()l pri skraib/ noun a professional healthcare worker who prescribes medicine but is not a registered doctor or dentist non-official drug / nn fi()l dr / noun a drug that is not listed in the national pharmacopoiea. Compare official drug non-palpable / nn p lpb()l/ adjective not able to be felt when touched non-secretor / nn si kri t/ noun a person who does not secrete substances indicating ABO blood group into mucous fluids such as semen or saliva non-smoker / nn smk/ noun a person who does not smoke non-specific / nn sp sifik/ adjective not caused by any single identifiable cause non-specific urethritis / nn sp sifik jri raitis/ noun any sexually transmitted inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhoea (dated ) Abbreviation NSU non-steroidal / nn ste rid()l/ adjective not containing steroids non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug / nn ste rid()l nti in fl mt()ri dr / noun a drug used in the treatment of pain associated with inflammation, including rheumatic disease, post-operative analgesia and dysmenorrhoea, by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins. Abbreviation NSAID (NOTE: Non-steroidal anti| non-insulin-dependent diabetes | | non-invasive | non-maleficence | non-medical prescriber | non-official drug | non-palpable non-secretor | non-smoker non-specific | non-specific urethritis | | non-steroidal | non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug | | non-Hodgkins lymphoma inflammatory drugs have names ending in -fen: ibuprofen.) non-union / nn ju njn/ noun a condition in non-union which the two parts of a fractured bone do not join together and do not heal Nursing.fm Page 204 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM non-urgent surgery 204 non-urgent surgery / nn d nt s d ri/ same as non-emergency surgery noradrenaline / n r drenlin/ noun a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands which acts as a vasoconstrictor and is used to maintain blood pressure in shock, haemorrhage or hypotension normal / n m()l/ adjective usual, ordinary or conforming to a standard After he took the tablets, his blood pressure went back to normal. Her temperature is two degrees above normal. He had an above-normal pulse rate. Is it normal for a person with myopia to suffer from headaches? normo- /n m/ prefix normal, usual or expected normoblast / n mbl st/ noun an early form of a red blood cell, usually found only in bone marrow but occurring in the blood in some types of leukaemia and anaemia normocyte / n msait/ noun a red blood cell normotension / n m tenn/ noun blood pressure at the usual level normotensive / n m tensiv/ adjective referring to blood pressure at the usual level Norton score / n t()n sk / noun a scale for deciding how likely it is that pressure sores will develop, used mostly in assessing elderly patients nortriptyline /n triptli n/ noun a drug used to reduce pain and as an antidepressant and tranquilliser nose /nz/ noun an organ through which a person breathes and smells nosebleed / nzbli d/ noun an incident of bleeding from the nose, usually caused by a blow or by sneezing, by blowing the nose hard or by high blood pressure (informal ) She had a headache, followed by a violent nosebleed. Also called noradrenaline | normal normonormoblast normocyte normotension | normotensive | Norton score nortriptyline | nose nosebleed non-urgent surgery notifiable disease / ntifaib()l di zi z/ noun a serious infectious disease which, in the UK, has to be reported by a doctor to the Department of Health so that steps can be taken to stop it spreading noxious / nks/ adjective harmful a noxious gas n.p. noun the name of the drug written on the label of its container. Full form nomen proprium NPO abbreviation used to refer to patients being kept without food The patient should be kept NPO for five hours before the operation. Full form ne per oris NSAID abbreviation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSF / en es ef/ noun a long-term strategy for improving a specific area of healthcare across the UK. Full form National Service Framework NSU abbreviation non-specific urethritis nucha / nju k/ noun same as nape (NOTE: The | noxious n.p. NPO NSAID NSF NSU nucha notifiable disease plural is nuchae.) nuchal / nju k()l/ adjective referring to the nuchal back of the neck nucle- /nju kli/ prefix same as nucleo- (used nucle- before vowels) nuclear / nju kli/ adjective referring to nuclei, nuclear epistaxis noso- /ns/ prefix disease nosocomial / ns kmil/ adjective refernosonosocomial | ring to hospitals nosocomial infection / ns kmil in fekn/ noun an infection which is passed on to a person being treated in a hospital nosology /n sld i/ noun the classification of diseases nostril / nstril/ noun one of the two passages in the nose through which air is breathed in or out His right nostril is blocked. (NOTE: The nostrils nosocomial infection | | nosology | nostril e.g. of a cell or an atom nuclear magnetic resonance / nju kli m netik reznns/ noun a scanning technique using magnetic fields and radio waves which reveals abnormalities in soft tissue and body fluids. magnetic resonance imaging. Abbreviation NMR nuclear medicine / nju kli med()s()n/ noun the use of radioactive substances for detecting and treating disorders nuclease / nju klieiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down nucleic acids nucleic acid /nju kli ik sid/ noun an organic acid of a type found in all living cells, which consists of complex nucleotide chains which pass on genetic information, e.g. DNA or RNA nucleo- /nju kli/ prefix referring to a cell or atomic nucleus nucleus / nju klis/ noun 1. the central body in a cell, which contains DNA and RNA and controls the function and characteristics of the cell. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement 2. a group of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord nuclear magnetic resonance | nuclear medicine nuclease nucleic acid | nucleonucleus are also referred to as the nares.) notch /nt/ noun a depression on a surface, notch usually on a bone, but sometimes on an organ. cardiac notch notifiable (NOTE: The plural is nuclei.) nullipara /n lipr/ noun a woman who has never had a child (NOTE: The plural is nulliparas or nulliparae.) adjective referring to a woman nullipara | notifiable / ntifaib()l/ adjective referring to an infectious disease which must be reported to the appropriate authorities when it occurs, so that they can attempt to control its spread who has never had a child nurse /n s/ noun a person who looks after sick people in a hospital or helps a doctor in a local surgery. Some nurses may be trained to diagnose nurse Nursing.fm Page 205 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 205 and treat patients. She works as a nurse in the local hospital. Hes training to be a nurse. nurse practitioner verb to look after a sick person, or to be employed as a nurse When he was ill his mother nursed him until he was better. nursing language nystatin nurse executive director / n s i zekjtiv dai rekt/ noun in the UK, a senior nurse who sits on the Board of an NHS Trust and has corporate as well as professional responsibilities in the organisation for nursing and sometimes other aspects such as quality or human resources | | nurse executive director nurse practitioner / n s pr k ti()n/ noun a nurse with additional clinical training at | nurse practitioner degree level who often works independently, assessing, diagnosing and treating patients, particularly in primary care nurse prescriber / n s pri skraib/ noun a nurse who is qualified and entitled to prescribe medicines for patients nurse station / n s stei()n/, nurses station / n siz stei()n/ noun an area in or near a ward from which nurses work, keep records and control the activities of the ward nursing / n si/ noun 1. the work or profession of being a nurse He has chosen nursing as his career. 2. care for sick people provided by a nurse adjective providing care as a nurse Nursing and Midwifery Council / n si n mid wifri kansl/ noun in the UK, an organisation that sets standards for the education, practice and conduct of nurses, midwives and health visitors. Abbreviation NMC nursing audit / n si dit/ noun a formal detailed review of records or observation of nursing actions so that judgments can be made about the quality of nursing care being given nursing dependency / n si di pendnsi/ noun the extent to which a patient requires nursing care nursing development unit / n si di velpmnt ju nit/ noun a nurse-led ward or unit that sets out to demonstrate by example innovative high-quality care, to reflect on practice and draw lessons from this experience, and to provide learning opportunities for other nurses. Abbreviation NDU nursing diagnosis / n si dai nsis/ noun an assessment of the nursing needs of a patient, which forms the basis of a subsequent care plan nursing home / n si hm/ noun a house where convalescents or dependent elderly people can live under medical supervision by a qualified nurse nursing intervention / n si int venn/ noun the treatment of illness by nursing care, without surgery | nurse station nursing Nursing and Midwifery Council | nursing audit nursing dependency | nursing development unit | nursing diagnosis | nursing home nursing intervention | nurse prescriber nursing language / n si l n wid / noun the standard terminology used in nursing nursing model / n si md()l/ noun a set of stated principles about nursing which gives professionals a way of formulating a plan of care, assessing its success and addressing any problems which arise from it nursing mother / n si m / noun a mother who breast-feeds her baby Nursing Officer / n si fis/ noun in the UK, a nurse employed by the Department of Health to assist the Chief Nursing Officer in providing professional advice to Ministers and policy-makers nursing practice / n si pr ktis/ noun treatment given by nurses nursing process / n si prses/ noun a standard method of treatment and documentation of treatment carried out by nurses nursing standard / n si st ndd/ noun an accepted level of achievement by which nursing care can be assessed or compared nutation /nju tei()n/ noun involuntary nodding of the head nutrient / nju trint/ noun a substance in food which is necessary to provide energy or to help the body grow, e.g. protein, fat or a vitamin nutrition /nju tri()n/ noun the study of the supply of nutrients to the body from digesting food nutritional /nju tri()n()l/ adjective referring to nutrition nyct- /nikt/ prefix night or darkness nyctalopia / nikt lpi/ noun the condition of being unable to see in bad light. Also called nursing model nursing mother Nursing Officer nursing practice nursing process nursing standard nutation | nutrient nutrition | nutritional | nyctnyctalopia | night blindness nyctophobia / nikt fbi/ noun fear of the dark | nymphae nyctophobia nymphae / nimfi / plural noun same as labia minora nympho- nympho- /nimf/ prefix 1. female sexuality 2. nymphae nymphomania / nimf meini/ noun an obsessive sexual urge in a woman (NOTE: A siminymphomania | lar condition in a man is called satyriasis.) nymphomaniac / nimf meini k/ noun a woman who has an unusually obsessive sexual urge (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) nystagmus /ni st ms/ noun a rapid, involuntary movement of the eyes up and down or from side to side nystatin /nai st tin/ noun an anti-microbial drug used in the treatment of fungal infections, especially thrush | nystagmus | nystatin | nymphomaniac Nursing.fm Page 206 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM O oat cell carcinoma / t sel k si nm/ noun a type of cancer of the bronchi, with distinc| oat cell carcinoma tive small cells OB abbreviation obstetrics obese / bi s/ adjective so overweight as to be at risk of several serious illnesses, including diabetes and heart disease obesity / bi siti/ noun the condition of being seriously overweight objective /b d ektiv/ noun an aim or goal adjective 1. existing independently of any individual persons mind 2. not influenced by any bias or prejudice caused by personal feelings 3. referring to symptoms of illness which can be observed by somebody other than the person who is ill. Compare subjective obligate / bli eit/ adjective referring to an organism which exists and develops in only one way, e.g. a virus which is a parasite only inside cells oblique / bli k/ adjective lying at an angle oblique fissure / bli k fi/ noun a groove between the superior and inferior lobes of a lung. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement oblique fracture / bli k fr kt/ noun a fracture in which the bone is broken diagonally oblique muscle / bli k m s()l/ noun 1. each of two muscles in the wall of the abdomen 2. each of two muscles which control the movement of the eyeball obliterans / blitr ns/ endarteritis oblitOB obese | obesity | objective | obligate oblique | oblique fissure | oblique fracture | oblique muscle | obliterans | erans oblongata / bl eit/ medulla oblonoblongata | gata observable /b z vb()l/ adjective which can be seen or measured observation / bz vei()n/ noun the process of watching and examining a person or thing over a period of time She was admitted to hospital for observation. observation register / bz vei()n red ist/ noun a record of children who have had problems at birth, or soon after their birth, and so need particular follow-up care from a health visitor, general practitioner or social worker | observation | observation register | observable observe /b z v/ verb 1. to see something The nurses observed signs of improvement in the patients condition. The girls mother observed symptoms of anorexia. 2. to watch a person or thing carefully in order to discover something Observe the way in which the patient is lying. 3. to take something into account Youre expected to observe the rules of conduct. obsession /b se()n/ noun a mental disorder in which a person has a fixed idea or emotion which he or she cannot get rid of, even if he or she knows it is wrong or unpleasant She has an obsession about cats. obsessional /b se()n()l/ adjective referring to or having an obsession He is suffering from an obsessional disorder. obsessive /b sesiv/ adjective having or showing an obsession He has an obsessive desire to steal little objects. obsessive action /b sesiv kn/ noun an action such as washing which is repeated over and over again and indicates a mental disorder obsessivecompulsive disorder /b sesiv km p liv dis d/ noun a mental disorder characterised by the need to perform repeated ritual acts such as checking or cleaning, which can be treated with psychotherapy and antidepressants. Abbreviation OCD obstetrical forceps /b stetrik()l f seps/ plural noun a type of large forceps used to hold a babys head during childbirth obstetrician / bst tri()n/ noun a doctor who specialises in obstetrics obstetrics /b stetriks/ noun a branch of medicine and surgery dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the period immediately after childbirth. Abbreviation OB obstipation / bsti pei()n/ noun severe constipation, often caused by a blockage in the intestines obstruction /b str kn/ noun something which blocks a passage or a blood vessel obstructive /b str ktiv/ adjective caused by an obstruction obstructive jaundice /b str ktiv d ndis/ noun jaundice caused by an obstruc| obsession | obsessional | obsessive | obsessive action | obsessivecompulsive disorder | | | obstetrical forceps | obstetrician | obstetrics | obstipation | obstruction | obstructive | obstructive jaundice | observe Nursing.fm Page 207 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 207 tion of the bile ducts. Also called posthepatic jaundice. acholuric jaundice, icterus gravis neonatorum obstructive lung disease /b str ktiv l di zi z/ noun bronchitis and emphysema obstructive sleep apnoea /b str ktiv sli p pni/ noun the stopping of breathing, or obstructive lung disease | | obstructive sleep apnoea | occupancy rate oculomotor nerve difficulty in breathing, during sleep, resulting in loud snoring obturation / btj rei()n/ noun the act of obstructing a body passage, or the state of a body passage when it is obstructed, e.g. by hard faeces obturator / btjreit/ noun one of two muscles in the pelvis which govern the movement of the hip and thigh obturator foramen / btjreit f reimn/ noun an opening in the hip bone near the acetabulum. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement obturation | obturator obturator foramen | (NOTE: The plural is obturator foramina.) obtusion /b tju ()n/ noun a condition in obtusion | which perception and feelings become dulled OC abbreviation oral contraceptive occipital /k sipit()l/ adjective referring to the back of the head noun same as occipital OC occipital | bone occipital bone /k sipit()l bn/, occipital noun the bone at the back of the head occipital condyle /k sipit()l kndail/ noun a round part of the occipital bone which joins it to the atlas occipito-anterior /k sipit n tiri/ adjective referring to a position of a baby during birth, in which the baby faces the mothers back occipito-posterior /k sipit p stiri/ adjective referring to a position of a baby during birth in which the baby faces the front occiput / ksip t/ noun the lower part of the back of the head or skull (NOTE: The plural is | occipital condyle | occipito-anterior | | occipito-posterior | | occiput occipital bone occupancy rate / kjpnsi reit/ noun the number of beds occupied in a hospital, shown as a percentage of all the beds occupational / kj pei()nl/ adjective referring to work occupational asthma / kjpei()n()l sm/ noun asthma caused by materials with which people come into contact at work occupational dermatitis / kjpei()n()l d m taitis/ noun dermatitis caused by materials touched at work occupational disease / kjpei()nl di zi z/ noun a disease which is caused by the type of work a person does or the conditions in which a person works, e.g. a disease caused by dust or chemicals in a factory occupational hazard / kjpei()n()l h zd/ noun a dangerous situation related to the working environment occupational health nurse / kjpei()n()l hel n s/ noun a nurse who deals with health problems of people at work. Abbreviation OH nurse occupational medicine / kjpei()n()l med()sin/ noun the branch of medicine concerned with accidents and diseases connected with work occupational therapist / kjpei()n()l erpist/ noun a qualified health professional who offers patients occupational therapy occupational therapy / kjpei()n()l erpi/ noun light work or hobbies used as a means of treatment, especially for physically challenged or mentally ill people, to promote independence during the recovery period after an illness or operation OCD abbreviation obsessive-compulsive disorder oct- /kt/ prefix same as octo- (used before occupational | occupational asthma occupational dermatitis | occupational disease | occupational hazard occupational health nurse occupational medicine occupational therapist occupational therapy OCD oct- occiputs or occipita.) occlusion / klu ()n/ noun 1. a thing which blocks a passage or which closes an opening 2. occlusion | the way in which the teeth in the upper and lower jaws fit together when the jaws are closed (NOTE: A bad fit between the teeth is a malocclusion.) occlusive / klu siv/ adjective referring to occlusive | vowels) octo- /kt/, octa- /kt/ prefix eight ocular / kjl/ adjective referring to the eye octoocular occlusion or blocking occlusive stroke / klu siv strk/ noun a stroke caused by a blood clot occlusive therapy / klu siv erpi/ noun a treatment for a squint in which the good eye is covered up in order to encourage the squinting eye to become straight occult / k lt/ adjective not easy to see with the naked eye. Opposite overt occult blood / k lt bl d/ noun very small quantities of blood in the faeces, which can only be detected by tests occlusive stroke | occlusive therapy | occult | occult blood | Opticians are trained to detect all kinds of ocular imbalance. ocular dominance / kjl dminns/ noun a condition in which a person uses one eye more than the other ocular prosthesis / kjl prs i sis/ noun a false eye oculist / kjlist/ noun a qualified physician or surgeon who specialises in the treatment of eye disorders oculo- /kjl/ prefix eye oculomotor / kjl mt/ adjective referring to movements of the eyeball oculomotor nerve / kjl mt n v/ noun the third cranial nerve which controls the eyeballs and eyelids ocular dominance ocular prosthesis | oculist oculooculomotor | oculomotor nerve | Nursing.fm Page 208 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM oculonasal oculonasal 208 oesophagitis | oculonasal / kjl neiz()l/ adjective referring to both the eye and the nose oculoplethysmography / kjl pleiz m rfi/ noun measurement of the pressure inside the eyeball OD /a di / abbreviation overdose o.d. adverb (written on a prescription) every day. Full form omni die abbreviation overdose ODA abbreviation operating department assistant odont- /dnt/ prefix same as odonto- (used oculoplethysmography | | OD o.d. ODA odont- oesophagitis /i sf d aitis/ noun inflammation of the oesophagus, caused by acid juices from the stomach or by infection oesophago- /i sf / prefix oesophagus | | oesophago- (NOTE: The US spelling is esophago-.) oesophagogastroduodenoscopy oesophagogastroduodenoscopy /i sf str dju d nskpi/ noun a surgical operation in which a tube is put down into the oesophagus so that the doctor can examine it, the stomach and the duodenum. Abbreviation OGD (NOTE: The plural is oesophagogas| | | | before vowels) odonto- /dnt/ prefix tooth odontoid / dntid/ adjective similar to a odontoodontoid | troduodenoscopies.) tooth, especially in shape odontoid process / dntid prses/ noun a projecting part of a vertebra, shaped like a tooth odontology / dn tld i/ noun the study of teeth and associated structures, and their disorders odyn- /din/ prefix same as odyno- (used odontoid process | odontology | odyn- oesophagojejunostomy /i sf d i d u nstmi/ noun a surgical operation to create a junction between the jejunum and the oesophagus after the stomach has been removed | | oesophagojejunostomy | (NOTE: The plural is oesophagojejunostomies.) oesophagoscope before vowels) -odynia /dini/ suffix pain odyno- /din/ prefix pain odynophagia / din feid / noun a condi-odynia odynoodynophagia | | oesophagoscope /i sf skp/ noun a thin tube with a light at the end, which is passed down the oesophagus to examine it oesophagoscopy /i sf skpi/ noun an examination of the oesophagus with an oesophagoscope (NOTE: The plural is | oesophagoscopy | | oesophagoscopies.) oesophagostomy tion in which pain occurs when food is swallowed oedema /i di m/ noun the swelling of part of the body caused by accumulation of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces Her main problem is oedema of the feet. Also called dropsy. tumesoedema | oesophagostomy /i sf stmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the oesophagus to allow the person to be fed, usually after an operation on the pharynx (NOTE: The plu| | ral is oesophagostomies.) cence oedematous /i demts/ adjective referring to oedema (NOTE: The US spelling is edematous.) Oedipus complex / i dips kmpleks/ noun (in Freudian psychology) a condition in which a boy feels sexually attracted to his mother and sees his father as an obstacle oesophag- /i sfd / prefix same as | Oedipus complex oesophag- oedematous oesophagus /i sf s/ noun a tube down which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach oestradiol / i str dail/ noun a type of oestrogen secreted by an ovarian follicle, which stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females at puberty (NOTE: A | oestradiol | oesophagus synthetic form of oestradiol is given as treatment for oestrogen deficiency. The US spelling is estradiol.) oestriol oesophago- (used before vowels) oesophageal /i sf d i l/ adjective referring to the oesophagus (NOTE: The US spelling is esophageal.) oesophageal hiatus /i sf d i l hai eits/ noun the opening in the diaphragm oesophageal | | oesophageal hiatus | | | oestriol / i stril/ noun a placental hormone with oestrogenic properties, found in the urine of pregnant women (NOTE: The US spelling is estriol.) through which the oesophagus passes oesophageal spasm /i sf d i l sp z()m/ noun a spasm in the oesophagus oesophageal ulcer /i sf d i l ls/ noun an ulcer in the oesophagus oesophageal varices /i sf d i l v risi z/ plural noun varicose veins in the oesophagus oesophagectomy /i sf d ektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove part of the oesophagus (NOTE: The plural is oesophagectomies.) oesophagi /i sf i/ plural of oesophagus oesophageal spasm | | oesophageal ulcer | | oesophageal varices | | oesophagectomy | | oesophagi | oestrogen / i strd n/ noun any steroid hormone which stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females at puberty (NOTE: The US spelling is estrogen.) oestrogenic hormone / i strd enik h mn/ noun synthetic oestrogen used to treat conditions which develop during menopause oestrogenic hormone oestrogen (NOTE: The US spelling is estrogenic hormone.) official drug official drug / fi()l dr / noun any drug listed in the national pharmacopoiea. Compare | non-official drug OGD OGD abbreviation oesophagogastroduodenoscopy Nursing.fm Page 209 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 209 oncometer oliguria OH nurse / eit n s/ abbreviation occupational health nurse -oid /id/ suffix like or related to ointment / intmnt/ noun a smooth oily medicinal preparation which can be spread on the skin to soothe or to protect old age / ld eid / noun a period in a persons life, usually taken to be after the age of sixty-five olecranon / lekrnn/, olecranon process / lekrnn prss/ noun a curved projecting part at the end of the ulna at the elbow, which gives rise to a painful tingling sensation if hit by accident. Also called funny bone oleic / li ik/ adjective referring to oil oleic acid / li ik sid/ noun a fatty acid which is present in most oils oleo- /li/ prefix oil oleum / lim/ noun oil (used in pharmacy) olfaction /l f kn/ noun 1. the sense of smell 2. the way in which a persons sensory organs detect smells olfactory /l f kt()ri/ adjective referring to the sense of smell olfactory cortex /l f kt()ri k teks/ noun the parts of the cerebral cortex which receive information about smell olfactory nerve /l f kt()ri n v/ noun the first cranial nerve which controls the sense of smell olig- /li / prefix same as oligo- (used before -oid ointment old age olecranon | | oleic | oleic acid | oleooleum olfaction | olfactory | olfactory cortex | olfactory nerve | olig- OH nurse oliguria / li jri/ noun a condition in which a person does not produce enough urine -ology /ld i/ suffix area of study -olol /ll/ suffix beta blocker atenolol propranolol hydrochloride o.m. adverb (written on a prescription) every morning. Full form omni mane om- /m/ prefix relating to the shoulder -oma /m/ suffix tumour oment- /ment/ prefix omentum omenta plural of omentum omental / ment()l/ adjective referring to the omentum omentum / mentm/ noun a double fold of peritoneum hanging down over the intestines. Also called epiploon (NOTE: The plural is | -ology -olol o.m. om-oma omentomenta omental | omentum | omenta. For other terms referring to the omentum see words beginning with epiplo-.) omeprazole / meprzl/ noun a drug omeprazole | which reduces the amount of acid released in the stomach, used in the treatment of ulcers and heartburn omphal- /mfl/ prefix same as omphaloomphal- (used before vowels) omphalitis / mf laitis/ noun inflammation omphalitis | vowels) oligaemia oligaemia / li i mi/ noun a condition in which a person has too little blood in his or her circulatory system (NOTE: The US spelling is | of the navel omphalo- /mfl/ prefix navel omphalocele / mflsi l/ noun a hernia in which part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall near the navel omphalus / mfls/ noun a scar with a depression in the middle of the abdomen where the umbilical cord was detached after birth. Also called navel, umbilicus (NOTE: The plural is omphaloomphalocele omphalus oligemia.) oligo- /li / prefix few or little oligodactylism / li d ktiliz()m/ noun oligooligodactylism | omphali.) a congenital condition in which a baby is born without some fingers or toes oligodipsia / li dipsi/ noun a condition in which a person does not want to drink oligodontia / li dn/ noun a state in which most of the teeth are lacking oligohydramnios / li hai dr mnis/ noun a condition in which the amnion surrounding the fetus contains too little amniotic fluid oligomenorrhoea / li men ri / noun a condition in which a person menstruates infrequently (NOTE: The US spelling is oligomenoroligodipsia | oligodontia | oligohydramnios | oligomenorrhoea | rhea.) oligo-ovulation oligo-ovulation / li vj lei()n/ noun ovulation which does not occur as often as is usual oligospermia / li sp mi/ noun a condition in which there are too few spermatozoa in the semen | oligospermia | -omycin /maisin/ suffix macrolide drug erythromycin o.n. adverb (written on a prescription) every night. Full form omni nocte onco- /k/ prefix tumour oncogene / kd i n/ noun a part of the genetic system which causes malignant tumours to develop oncogenesis / k d ensis/ noun the origin and development of a tumour oncogenic / k d enik/ adjective causing tumours to develop an oncogenic virus oncologist / kld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in oncology, especially cancer oncology / kld i/ noun the scientific study of new growths, especially cancers oncometer / kmit/ noun 1. an instrument for measuring swelling in an arm or leg using changes in their blood pressure 2. an instrument for measuring the variations in size of the kidney and other organs of the body o.n. oncooncogene oncogenesis | oncogenic | oncologist | oncology | oncometer | -omycin Nursing.fm Page 210 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ondansetron 210 | ondansetron /n d nsitrn/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the production of serotonin, used to control nausea and vomiting caused by drug treatment and radiotherapy for cancer onych- /nik/ prefix same as onycho- (used onych- ondansetron before vowels) onycho- /nik/ prefix nails onycholysis / ni klsis/ noun a condition in onychoonycholysis | which a nail becomes separated from its bed, without falling out onychomadesis / nikm di sis/ noun a condition in which the nails fall out onychomycosis / nikmai ksis/ noun an infection of a nail with a fungus oo- // prefix ovum or embryo oocyte / sait/ noun a cell which forms from an oogonium and becomes an ovum by meiosis oocyte donation / sait d nei()n/ noun the transfer of oocytes from one woman to another who cannot produce her own, so that she can have a baby. The oocytes are removed in a laparoscopy and fertilised in vitro. oogenesis / d ensis/ noun the formation and development of ova onychomadesis | onychomycosis | oooocyte oocyte donation | oogenesis | COMMENT: In oogenesis, an oogonium pro- duces an oocyte, which develops through several stages to produce a mature ovum. Polar bodies are also formed which do not develop into ova. oophor- /fr/ prefix same as oophoro(used before vowels) oophore / f / noun same as ovary oophorectomy / f rektmi/ noun a suroophoroophore oophorectomy | OP abbreviation outpatient opacification / p sifi kei()n/ noun the fact of becoming opaque, as the lens does in a case of cataract opacity / p siti/ noun the fact of not allowing light to pass through opaque / peik/ adjective not allowing light to pass through operant conditioning / prnt kn di()ni/ noun a form of learning which takes place when a piece of spontaneous behaviour is either reinforced by a reward or discouraged by punishment operating department assistant / preiti di p tmnt sistnt/ noun a person who works in an operating department. Abbreviation ODA operating microscope / preiti maikrskp/ noun a special microscope with two eyepieces and a light, used in very delicate surgery operating table / preiti teib()l/ noun a special table on which the patient is placed to undergo a surgical operation operating theatre / preiti it/ noun a special room in a hospital, where surgical operations are carried out (NOTE: The US term is operopacification | | opacity | opaque | operant conditioning | operating department assistant | | operating microscope operating table operating theatre OP ating room.) gical operation to remove an ovary. Also called ovariectomy (NOTE: The plural is oophorectomies.) oophoritis / f raitis/ noun inflammation oophoritis | operation / p rei()n/ noun 1. a surgical procedure carried out to repair or remove a damaged body part Shes had an operation on her foot. (NOTE: A surgeon performs or carries out an operation on a patient.) 2. the way in which a drug acts ophth- /f, p/ prefix eye ophthalm- /f lm, p lm/ prefix same as | ophthophthalm- operation in an ovary, which can be caused by mumps. Also called ovaritis oophoro- /fr/ prefix ovary oophorocystectomy / frsi stektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove an ovarian cyst (NOTE: The plural is oophorooophorooophorocystectomy | ophthalmo- (used before vowels) ophthalmectomy / f l mektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove an eye (NOTE: The plural is ophthalmectomies.) ophthalmia /f lmi/ noun inflammation of ophthalmectomy | ophthalmia | | cystectomies.) oophorocystosis oophorocystosis / frsi stsis/ noun the development of one or more ovarian cysts oophoron / frn/ noun same as ovary | | oophoron | (technical ) (NOTE: The plural is oophora.) oophoropexy / frpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to attach an ovary (NOTE: The plural is oophoropexies.) oophorosalpingectomy / fr s lpin d ektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove oophoropexy | oophorosalpingectomy | | | an ovary and the Fallopian tube attached to it (NOTE: The plural is oophorosalpingectomies.) op /p/ noun an operation (informal ) op the eye ophthalmia neonatorum /f lmi ni nei t rm/ noun conjunctivitis of a newborn baby, beginning 21 days after birth, caused by infection in the birth canal ophthalmic /f lmik/ adjective referring to the eye ophthalmic nerve /f lmik n v/ noun a branch of the trigeminal nerve, supplying the eyeball, the upper eyelid, the brow and one side of the scalp ophthalmic optician /f lmik p ti()n/, ophthalmic practitioner /f lmik pr k ti()n/ noun same as optician ophthalmic surgeon /f lmik s d n/ noun a surgeon who specialises in surgery to treat eye disorders ophthalmia neonatorum | | ophthalmic | ophthalmic nerve | ophthalmic optician | | | ophthalmic surgeon | | Nursing.fm Page 211 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 211 oral thermometer optical illusion ophthalmitis / f l maitis/ noun inflammation of the eye ophthalmo- /f lm, p lm/ prefix eye or eyeball ophthalmological /f lm ld ik()l/ adjective referring to ophthalmology ophthalmologist / f l mld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of the eye and its diseases. Also called eye specialist ophthalmology / f l mld i/ noun the study of the eye and its diseases ophthalmoplegia / f lm pli d / noun paralysis of the muscles of the eye ophthalmoscope /f lmskp/ noun an instrument containing a bright light and small lenses, used by a doctor to examine the inside of an eye ophthalmoscopy / f l mskpi/ noun an examination of the inside of an eye using an ophthalmoscope (NOTE: The plural is ophthalmo| ophthalmoophthalmological | | ophthalmologist | ophthalmology | ophthalmoplegia | ophthalmoscope | ophthalmoscopy | ophthalmitis optical illusion / ptik()l i lu ()n/ noun something which is seen wrongly so that it appears to be something else optic chiasma / ptik kai zm/ noun a structure where some of the optic nerves from each eye partially cross each other in the hypothalamus optic disc / ptik disk/ noun the point on the retina where the optic nerve starts. Also called | optic chiasma | optic disc optic papilla optic fundus optic fundus / ptik f nds/ noun the back part of the inside of the eye, opposite the lens optician /p ti()n/ noun a qualified person who specialises in making glasses and in testing eyes and prescribing lenses. Also called ophthaloptician | mic optician optic nerve scopies.) ophthalmotomy ophthalmotomy / f l mtmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the eyeball | optic nerve / ptik n v/ noun the second cranial nerve which transmits the sensation of sight from the eye to the brain. See illustration at EYE in Supplement optic neuritis / ptik nj raitis/ noun same as retrobulbar neuritis optic papilla / ptik p pil/ noun same as optic neuritis | optic papilla | (NOTE: The plural is ophthalmotomies.) ophthalmotonometer / f lmt nmit/ noun an instrument which measures pressure ophthalmotonometer | optic disc optics / ptiks/ noun the study of the visible optics inside the eye -opia /pi/ suffix eye condition opiate / pit/ noun a sedative which is prepared from opium, e.g. morphine or codeine opistho- /pis/ prefix backbone opisthotonos / pis tns/ noun a spasm of the body in which the spine is arched backwards, occurring, e.g., in people with tetanus opium / pim/ noun a substance made from poppies which is used in the preparation of codeine and heroin opponens / pnnz/ noun one of a group of muscles which control the movements of the fingers, especially one which allows the thumb and little finger to come together opportunist / p tju nist/, opportunistic / ptju nistik/ adjective referring to a parasite or microorganism which takes advantage of the hosts weakened state to cause infection opsonic index /p snik indeks/ noun a number which gives the strength of an individuals serum reaction to bacteria opsonin / psnin/ noun a substance, usually an antibody, in blood which sticks to the surface of bacteria and helps to destroy them optic / ptik/ adjective referring to the eye or to sight optical / ptik()l/ adjective 1. same as optic 2. relating to the visible light spectrum optical fibre / ptik()l faib/ noun an artificial fibre which can carry light or images -opia opiate opisthoopisthotonos | opium opponens | opportunist | | opsonic index | opsonin optic optical optical fibre light spectrum and sight opto- /pt/ prefix sight optometrist /p tmtrist/ noun mainly US a person who specialises in testing eyes and prescribing lenses optometry /p tmtri/ noun the testing of eyes and prescribing of lenses to correct sight -oquine /kwin/ suffix antimalarial drug chloroquine OR abbreviation US operating room ora / r/ plural noun plural of os 2 oral / rl/ adjective 1. referring to the mouth 2. referring to medication that is swallowed an oral contraceptive Compare enteral, parenteral oral cavity / rl k viti/ noun the mouth oral contraceptive / rl kntr septiv/ noun a contraceptive pill which is swallowed oral hygiene / rl haid i n/ noun the practice of keeping the mouth clean by gargling and mouthwashes orally / rli/ adverb by swallowing not to be taken orally oral medication / rl medi kei()n/ noun medication which is taken by swallowing oral rehydration therapy / rl ri hai drei()n erpi/ noun the administration of a simple glucose and electrolyte solution to treat acute diarrhoea, particularly in children, which has greatly reduced the number of deaths from dehydration. Abbreviation ORT oral thermometer / rl mmit/ noun a thermometer which is put into the mouth to take someones temperature optooptometrist | optometry | -oquine OR ora oral oral cavity oral contraceptive | oral hygiene orally oral medication | oral rehydration therapy | oral thermometer | Nursing.fm Page 212 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM orbicularis 212 | | orbicularis / bikj leris/ noun a circular muscle in the face orbicularis oculi / bikj leris kjlai/ noun a muscle which opens and closes the eye orbicularis oris / bikj leris ris/ noun a muscle which closes the lips tight orbit / bit/ noun the hollow bony depression in the front of the skull in which each eye and lacrimal gland are situated. Also called eye socket orbital / bit()l/ adjective referring to the orbit orchi- / ki/ prefix testiss orchidalgia / ki d ld / noun a neuralgictype pain in a testis orchidectomy / ki dektmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a testis (NOTE: The plural is orbicularis oculi | | orbicularis oris | | orbit orbital orchiorchidalgia | orchidectomy | orbicularis organ of Corti / n v k ti/ noun a membrane in the cochlea which takes sounds and converts them into impulses sent to the brain along the auditory nerve. Also called spiral organ [Described 1851. After Marquis Alfonso Corti (182288), Italian anatomist and histologist.] organ transplant / n tr nspl nt/ noun organ transplant organ of Corti orchidectomies.) orchidopexy orchidopexy / kid peksi/ noun a surgical operation to place an undescended testis in the scrotum. Also called orchiopexy (NOTE: The | plural is orchidopexies.) orchiepididymitis / ki epididi maitis/ noun a condition in which a testicle and its epidi| | orchiepididymitis dymis become swollen orchiopexy / ki peksi/ noun same as orchiopexy | orchidopexy (NOTE: The plural is orchiopexies.) orchis / kis/ noun a testis orchitis / kaitis/ noun inflammation of the orchis orchitis | a surgical operation to transplant an organ from one person to another orgasm / z()m/ noun the climax of the sexual act, when a person experiences a moment of great excitement orifice / rifis/ noun an opening in the body, e.g. the mouth or anus origin / rid in/ noun 1. the source or beginning of something 2. a place where a muscle is attached, or where the branch of a nerve or blood vessel begins oris / ris/ cancrum oris, orbicularis oris ornithosis / ni sis/ noun a disease of birds which can be passed to humans as a form of pneumonia oro- / r/ prefix mouth orogenital / r d enit()l/ adjective relating to both the mouth and the genitals oropharynx / r f riks/ noun a part of the pharynx below the soft palate at the back of the mouth (NOTE: The plural is oropharynxes or orgasm orifice origin oris ornithosis | oroorogenital | oropharynx | oropharynges.) testes, characterised by hypertrophy, pain and a sensation of weight Orems model / rmz md()l/ noun a modern model for nursing which focuses on a persons ability to perform self-care, defined as activities which individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf to maintain life, health and well-being. The goal of nursing is to help people meet their own self-care demands. organ / n/ noun a part of the body which is distinct from other parts and has a particular function, e.g. the liver, an eye or ovaries organic / nik/ adjective 1. referring to organs in the body 2. coming from an animal, plant or other organism organic disease / nik di zi z/, organic nik dis d/ noun a disease or disorder / disorder associated with physical changes in one or more organs of the body organisation / nai zei()n/, organization noun 1. a group of people set up for a particular purpose 2. the planning or arranging of something the organisation of the rota 3. the way in which the component parts of something are arranged organism / niz()m/ noun any single plant, animal, bacterium, fungus or other living thing organo- / n, n/ prefix organ Orems model organ organic | organic disease | | | | organisation | organism organo- ORT abbreviation oral rehydration therapy ortho- / / prefix correct or straight orthodontics / dntiks/ noun a branch of dentistry which deals with correcting badly placed teeth orthopaedic / pi dik/ adjective 1. referring to treatment which corrects badly formed bones or joints 2. referring to or used in orthopaedics (NOTE: The US spelling is orthopedic.) orthopaedic collar / pi dik kl/ noun a special strong collar to support the head of a person with neck injuries or a condition such as cervical spondylosis orthopaedic hospital / pi dik hspit()l/ noun a hospital which specialises in operations to correct badly formed joints or bones orthopaedics / pi diks/ noun a branch of surgery dealing with irregularities, diseases and injuries of the locomotor system (NOTE: The US orthoorthodontics | orthopaedic | orthopaedic collar orthopaedic hospital orthopaedics | ORT spelling is orthopedics.) orthopaedic surgeon / pi dik s d n/ noun a surgeon who specialises in orthopaedics orthopnoea / p ni / noun a condition in which a person has great difficulty in breathing while lying down. dyspnoea (NOTE: The US orthopnoea | orthopaedic surgeon spelling is orthopnea.) orthopnoeic orthopnoeic / p ni ik/ adjective referring to orthopnoea (NOTE: The US spelling is orthop| neic.) Nursing.fm Page 213 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 213 osteochondritis dissecans osmoreceptor orthoptics / ptiks/ noun the study of methods used to treat squints orthoptist / ptist/ noun an eye specialist, working in an eye hospital, who treats squints and other disorders of eye movement orthoptoscope / ptskp/ noun same as amblyoscope orthosis / sis/ noun a device which is fitted to the outside of the body to support a weakness or correct a malformation, e.g. a surgical collar or leg brace (NOTE: The plural is orthoses.) orthostatic / st tik/ adjective referring to the position of the body when standing up straight orthostatic hypotension / st tik haip tenn/ noun a common condition where the blood pressure drops when a person stands up suddenly, causing dizziness orthotics / tiks/ plural noun the branch of medical engineering which deals with the design and fitting of devices such as braces in the treatment of orthopaedic disorders (NOTE: Takes a | orthoptist | orthoptoscope | orthosis | orthostatic | orthostatic hypotension | orthotics | orthoptics osmoreceptor / zmri sept/ noun a cell in the hypothalamus which checks the level of osmotic pressure in the blood by altering the secretion of ADH and regulates the amount of water in the blood osmosis /z msis/ noun the movement of a solvent from one part of the body through a semipermeable membrane to another part where there is a higher concentration of molecules osmotic pressure /z mtik pre/ noun the pressure required to stop the flow of a solvent through a membrane osseous / sis/ adjective referring to or resembling bone osseous labyrinth / sis l brin/ noun same as bony labyrinth ossicle / sik()l/ noun a small bone ossification / sifi kei()n/ noun the formation of bone. Also called osteogenesis ossium / sim/ fragilitas ossium ost- /st/ prefix same as osteo- (used before | osmosis | osmotic pressure | osseous osseous labyrinth ossicle ossification | ossium ost- vowels) singular verb.) orthotist / tist/ noun a qualified person orthotist who fits orthoses Ortolanis sign / t l niz sain/, Ortolani manoeuvre / t l ni m nu v/, Ortolanis test / t l niz test/ noun a test for congenital dislocation of the hip in babies aged 612, in which the hip makes sharp sounds if the joint is rotated [Described 1937. After Marino Ortolani Ortolanis sign | | | | (190483), Italian orthopaedic surgeon.] os /s/ noun (technical ) 1. a bone (NOTE: The plural is ossa.) 2. the mouth (NOTE: The plural is ora.) os OSA abbreviation obstructive sleep apnoea osche- / ski/ prefix relating to the scrotum oscillation / si lei()n/ noun 1. the action of moving backwards and forwards between two points at a regular speed 2. a single movement between two points oscilloscope / silskp/ noun a device which produces a visual record of an electrical current on a screen using a cathode ray tube. It is used in the testing of electronic equipment and in measuring electrical impulses of the heart or the brain. osculum / skjlm/ noun a small opening or pore (NOTE: The plural is oscula.) -osis /sis/ suffix disease Oslers nodes / slz ndz/ plural noun tender swellings at the ends of fingers and toes in people who have subacute bacterial endocarditis oscheoscillation | oscilloscope | osculum -osis Oslers nodes OSA ostectomy / stektmi/ noun a surgical operation in which a bone, or a piece of bone, is removed (NOTE: The plural is ostectomies.) osteitis / sti aitis/ noun inflammation of a bone due to injury or infection osteitis deformans / sti aitis di f mnz/ noun a disease which gradually softens bones in the spine, legs and skull, so that they become curved. Also called Pagets disease osteitis fibrosis cystica / stiaitis fai brsis sistik/ noun a generalised weakness of bones, caused by excessive activity of the thyroid gland and associated with formation of cysts, in which bone tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue. Also called von Recklinghausens disease | osteitis | osteitis deformans | | osteitis fibrosis cystica | ostectomy (NOTE: The localised form is osteitis fibrosis localista.) osteo- /sti/ prefix bone osteoarthritis / sti raitis/ noun a osteoosteoarthritis | degenerative disease of middle-aged and elderly people characterised by inflamed joints which become stiff and painful. Also called osteoarthrosis osteoarthropathy [Described 1885. After Sir William Osler (1849 1919), Professor of Medicine in Montreal, Philadelphia, Baltimore and then Oxford.] osm- osm- /zm/ prefix 1. smell 2. osmosis osteoarthropathy / sti rpi/ noun a disease of the bone and cartilage at a joint, particularly the ankles, knees or wrists, associated with carcinoma of the bronchi osteoarthrosis / sti rsis/ noun same as osteoarthritis osteoarthrotomy / sti rtmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the articular end of a bone (NOTE: The plural is osteoarthrotomies.) osteochondritis / stikn draitis/ noun degeneration of the epiphyses osteochondritis dissecans / stikndraitis disk nz/ noun a painful | osteoarthrosis | osteoarthrotomy | osteochondritis | osteochondritis dissecans Nursing.fm Page 214 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM osteochondrosis condition where pieces of articular cartilage become detached from the joint surface osteochondrosis / stikn drsis/ noun a disorder of cartilage and bone formation which affects the joints in children, causing pain and a limp, probably due to circulation disturbances to that part of the bone osteoclast / stikl st/ noun a cell which destroys bone osteocyte / stisait/ noun a bone cell osteogenesis / sti d ensis/ noun same as ossification osteogenesis imperfecta / sti d ensis imp fekt/ noun a congenital condition in which bones are brittle and break easily due to unusual bone formation. Also called brittle bone osteochondrosis | osteoclast osteocyte osteogenesis | osteogenesis imperfecta | | 214 osteotome osteotome / stitm/ noun a type of chisel used by surgeons to cut bone osteotomy / sti tmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a bone, especially to relieve pain in a joint (NOTE: The plural is osteotomies.) ostium / stim/ noun an opening into a passage (NOTE: The plural is ostia.) -ostomy /stmi/ suffix operation to make an opening OT abbreviation occupational therapist ot- /t/ prefix same as oto- (used before vowosteotomy | ostium -ostomy OT ot- els) disease osteology otalgia / t ld / noun same as earache OTC abbreviation referring to medication which can be bought freely at a chemists shop, and does not need a prescription. Full form over the coun| OTC otalgia osteology / sti ld i/ noun the study of bones and their structure osteolysis / sti lsis/ noun destruction of bone tissue by osteoclasts osteolytic / sti litik/ adjective referring to osteolysis osteoma / sti m/ noun a benign tumour in a bone (NOTE: The plural is osteomas or osteo| osteolysis | osteolytic | osteoma | ter OTC drug OTC drug / ti si dr otic otitis / noun same as overthe-counter drug otic / tik/ adjective referring to the ear otitis / taitis/ noun inflammation of the ear otitis externa / taitis ik st n/ noun | otitis externa | | mata.) osteomalacia / stim lei/ noun a condition in adults in which the bones become soft because of lack of calcium and Vitamin D, or limited exposure to sunlight osteomyelitis / stimai laitis/ noun inflammation of the interior of bone, especially the marrow spaces osteon / stin/ noun same as Haversian sys| osteomyelitis | osteon osteomalacia inflammation of the external auditory meatus to the eardrum otitis interna / taitis in t n/ noun inflammation of the inner ear. Also called labyrinthitis otitis media / taitis mi di/ noun an infection of the middle ear, usually accompanied by headaches and fever. Also called middle ear otitis interna | | otitis media | infection, tympanitis oto- /t/ prefix ear oto- tem osteopath osteopath / sti p / noun a person who practises osteopathy osteopathy / sti pi/ noun 1. the treatment of disorders by massage and manipulation of joints 2. any disease of bone (NOTE: The plural is | osteopathy | osteopathies.) osteopetrosis / stip trsis/ noun a disease of a group in which bones increase in density. Also called marble bone disease osteophyte / stifait/ noun a bony growth osteoplasty / stipl sti/ noun plastic surgery on bones osteoporosis / stip rsis/ noun a condition in which the bones become thin, porous and brittle, due to low levels of oestrogen, lack of calcium and lack of physical exercise. Also called | osteophyte osteoplasty osteoporosis | osteopetrosis brittle bone disease osteosarcoma / stis km/ noun a malignant tumour of bone cells (NOTE: The plural is osteosarcomas or osteosarcomata.) osteosclerosis / stiskl rsis/ noun a osteosarcoma | osteosclerosis | condition in which the bony spaces become hardened as a result of persistent inflammation otolaryngologist / tl ri ld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in treatment of diseases of the ear and throat otolaryngology / tl ri ld i/ noun the study of diseases of the ear and throat otolith / tli/ noun a stone which forms in the inner ear otolith organ / tli n/ noun one of two pairs of sensory organs in the inner ear, the saccule and the utricle, which pass information to the brain about the position of the head otologist / tld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of the ear otology / tld i/ noun the scientific study of the ear and its diseases -otomy /tmi/ suffix an act of cutting into an organ or part of the body in a surgical operation otoplasty / tpl sti/ noun plastic surgery of the external ear to repair damage or deformity otorhinolaryngologist / t rain l ri ld ist/ noun a doctor who specialises in the study of the ear, nose and throat otorhinolaryngology / t rain l ri ld i/ noun the study of the ear, nose and throat. Also called ENT | otolaryngology | otolith otolith organ otologist | otology | -otomy otoplasty otorhinolaryngologist | | | otorhinolaryngology | | | otolaryngologist Nursing.fm Page 215 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 215 otorrhagia ovulate ovarian cancer otorrhagia / t reid / noun bleeding from the external ear otorrhoea / t ri / noun the discharge of pus from the ear (NOTE: The US spelling is otor| otorrhoea | rhea.) otosclerosis otosclerosis / tskl rsis/ noun a condition in which the ossicles in the middle ear become thicker and the stapes becomes fixed to the oval window leading to deafness otoscope / tskp/ noun same as auri| otoscope ovarian cancer / verin k ns/ noun a malignant tumour of the ovary, which occurs especially after the menopause ovarian cycle / verin saik()l/ noun the regular changes in the ovary during a womans reproductive life ovarian cyst / verin sist/ noun a cyst which develops in the ovaries ovarian follicle / verin flik()l/ noun a cell which contains an ovum. Also called Graa| ovarian cycle | ovarian cyst | ovarian follicle | scope otospongiosis fian follicle ovariectomy otospongiosis / t sp nd i sis/ noun the formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth of the ear which occurs in otosclerosis Otosporin / tsprin/ a trade name for ear drops containing hydrocortisone, neomycin and polymyxin ototoxic / t tksik/ adjective referring to a drug or an effect which is damaging to organs or nerves involved in hearing or balance outcome / atk m/ noun a measure of the result of an intervention or treatment, e.g. the mortality rate following different methods of surgery medical outcomes outer / at/ adjective outside or external outer ear / atr i/ noun the part of the ear which is on the outside of the head, together with the passage leading to the eardrum. Also called | | Otosporin ototoxic | outcome outer outer ear ovariectomy / vri ektmi/ noun same as | oophorectomy (NOTE: The plural is ovariectomies.) ovariotomy / vri tmi/ noun a surgical ovariotomy | operation to remove an ovary or a tumour in an ovary (NOTE: The plural is ovariotomies.) ovaritis / v raitis/ noun same as oophoriovaritis | tis ovary / v()ri/ noun one of two organs in a woman which produce ova or egg cells and secrete the female hormone oestrogen. Also called oophoron. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ovaries. For other terms referring to ovaries, see words beginning with oophor-, oophoro-.) over- /v/ prefix too much overbite / vbait/ noun the usual formation overoverbite ovary external ear outer pleura outer pleura / at plr/ noun same as parietal pleura out-of-body experience / at v bdi ik spirins/ noun an occasion when a person feels as though they have left their body and, often, travelled along a tunnel towards a bright light outpatient / atpei()nt/ noun someone who comes to a hospital for treatment but does not stay overnight She goes for treatment as an outpatient. Abbreviation OP. Compare inpatient outpatient department / atpei()nt di p tmnt/, outpatients department / atpei()nts di p tmnt/, outpatients clinic / atpei()nts klinik/ noun a department of a hospital which deals with outpatients outreach / atri t/ noun services provided for patients or the public in general, outside a hospital or clinic ova / v/ plural of ovum oval window / v()l wind/ noun an oval opening between the middle ear and the inner ear. Also called fenestra ovalis. See illustration at EAR in Supplement ovar- /vr/ prefix same as ovari- (used before | outpatient outpatient department | | outreach ova oval window ovar- out-of-body experience of the teeth, in which the top incisors come down over and in front of the bottom incisors when the jaws are closed overcompensation / vkmpn sei()n/ noun an attempt by a person to remove the bad effects of a mistake or a fault in their character in which they make too much effort, and so cause some other problem overflow incontinence / vfl in kntinns/ noun a leakage of urine because the bladder is too full overjet / vd et/ noun a space which separates the top incisors from the bottom incisors when the jaws are closed oversew / vs/ verb to sew a patch of tissue over a perforation (NOTE: oversewing overcompensation | overflow incontinence | overjet oversew oversewed oversewn) overt / v t/ adjective easily seen with the naked eye. Opposite occult over-the-counter drug / v kant dr / noun a drug which you can buy from a overt | over-the-counter drug vowels) ovari- /vri/ prefix ovaries ovarian / verin/ adjective referring to the ovariovarian | pharmacy without a doctors prescription. Also called OTC drug ovi- /vi/ prefix eggs or ova oviduct / vid kt/ noun same as Fallopian ovioviduct tube ovulate ovulate / vjleit/ verb to release a mature ovum into a Fallopian tube (NOTE: ovulating ovulated) ovaries Nursing.fm Page 216 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ovulation ovulation 216 oxygenator | ovulation / vj lei()n/ noun the release of an ovum from the mature ovarian follicle into the Fallopian tube ovum / vm/ noun a female egg cell which, when fertilised by a spermatazoon, begins