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Colloquial Colloquial Japanese The Series Series Adviser: Gary King The following languages are available in the Colloquial series: Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic (Levantine) Arabic of Egypt Arabic of the Gulf and Saudi Arabia Basque Bulgarian * Cambodian * Cantonese * Chinese Croatian and Serbian Czech Danish Dutch Estonian Finnish French German Greek Gujarati Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian * Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Mongolian Norwegian Panjabi Persian Polish Portuguese Portuguese of Brazil Romanian Russian Scottish Gaelic Slovak Slovene Somali * Spanish Spanish of Latin America Swedish * Thai Turkish Ukrainian Urdu * Vietnamese Welsh Accompanying cassette(s) (*and CDs) are available for the above titles. They can be ordered through your bookseller, or send payment with order to Taylor & Francis/Routledge Ltd, ITPS, Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hants SP10 5BE, UK, or to Routledge Inc, 29 West 35th Street, New York NY 10001, USA. COLLOQUIAL CD-ROMs Multimedia Language Courses Available in: Chinese, French, Portuguese and Spanish Colloquial Japanese The Complete Course for Beginners Second edition Hugh Clarke and Motoko Hamamura First published 2003 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to” Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 2003 Hugh Clarke and Motoko Hamamura Typeset in Times New Roman by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd, Chennai, India Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN 0-415-19478-4 (Book) 0-415-27911-9 (CDs) 0-415-19479-2 (Tapes) 0-415-19480-6 (Pack) ISBN 0-203-98691-1 Master e-book ISBN Contents Preface Introduction to the Japanese language 1 Meishi no kookan Exchanging business cards vii 1 11 28 41 58 75 2 3 4 Shopping Jiko-shookai Introducing yourself Kázoku no hanashi Talking about families Kaimono Getsuyóobi ni aimashóo. Let’s meet on Monday! 5 6 90 Suzuki san no kaisha e dóo yatte ikimásu ka. How do I get to your office, Mr Suzuki? 7 Dónna kanji no hito désu ka. What does he look like? 111 130 Shinai-kánkoo ni ikimashóo. Let’s take the city tour! 8 9 At the hotel Hóteru de Keiba o mí ni ikimasén ka. Would you like to come to the races? 145 160 10 vi 11 178 Nihón ni ikú nara, dóno kísetsu ga íi deshoo ka. If you’re going to Japan, which is the best season? 12 Dóomo kaze o hiita yóo desu. Somehow I seem to have caught a cold. 193 211 Kuruma ni butsukerareta. Another car ran into me! 13 14 229 Móshimoshi, Akimoto sensei irasshaimásu deshóo ka. Hello, may I speak to Professor Akimoto? 15 Jootatsu no hiketsu wa kore desu. The secret road to progress! 248 Key to the exercises Grammar summary Appendix: hiragána, katakána and kanji Japanese–English glossary Index of grammar and language functions 258 289 306 312 383 Preface In this completely new edition of Colloquial Japanese, we have integrated the writing system into the course from Unit 1. This has resulted in the unusual, dare we say unique, feature of combining romanised transcription and the Japanese script in the first five units. Instead of learning hiragána and katakána syllabaries mechanically by rote before embarking on your study of Japanese, running the risk of losing your enthusiasm before you have begun, you are introduced gradually to the Japanese writing system as you acquire useful phrases and expressions you can use immediately. From the beginning we introduce the three components of the Japanese script – kanji, hiragána and katakána – within a context of partly romanised, natural spoken Japanese. We hope this innovation will help you learn how to read and write Japanese as quickly and painlessly as possible. From Unit 6 the basic conversations and dialogues are given in kana and a restricted number of kanji. Students who apply themselves diligently to the study of the Japanese script should be able to learn the 200 kanji introduced in the fifteen units. For those who cannot afford the time to master all the kanji, however, it will be possible to complete the course with a knowledge of the script introduced in the first seven units. In addition to the introduction of the Japanese script, the new edition adopts a more interactive, communicative approach to the learning of Japanese. The language is introduced through a series of practical dialogues simulating the actual situations a learner of Japanese is likely to encounter. We have been careful, however, not to sacrifice the comprehensive coverage of grammar and vocabulary which were the hallmarks of earlier editions of Colloquial Japanese. We have received encouragement and advice from many friends and colleagues, too numerous to mention here. We are particularly grateful to our copy editor, Diane Stafford, whose excellent command of Japanese and meticulous eye for detail has purged the manuscript of many typographical errors and inconsistencies. Special thanks must also go to viii our editors Sophie Oliver and James Folan of Routledge, whose patience and understanding encouraged us to go on when it seemed at times we would never finish the manuscript. We hope their faith in us will be rewarded with this volume. Hugh Clarke and Motoko Hamamura May 2001 Introduction to the Japanese language Japanese, with over 127 million speakers in Japan, large emigrant communities in North and South America and a rapidly growing body of fluent non-native speakers, is one of the world’s major languages. Outside the languages of Europe, it is probably the most studied foreign language, with about a million learners in China, a similar number in Korea and around 300,000 in Australia and New Zealand. It is the most studied foreign language in Australian secondary schools and is now also becoming very popular in Britain and America. Japan is the world’s second-largest economy, a major provider of foreign aid and a significant force in world affairs, particularly in Asia. It has a rich, distinctive culture combining native elements with influences from the Asian mainland and, more recently, from Europe and America. A fascinating blend of tradition and modernity, Japan has a literary tradition extending back 1,200 years, yet is one of the most modern, some would say postmodern, high-tech, post-industrial societies in the world. The Japanese language is the key to understanding Japanese culture and society. Studying Japanese can be a very rewarding experience in its own right, but, more important, it has great practical value for anyone wishing to do business with the Japanese or planning to visit Japan. Pronunciation and romanisation Japanese has a relatively simple sound system. It does not have a strong stress accent as we have in English, preferring instead to use high and low pitch contrasts to mark the boundaries between phrases. For practical purposes, you will find that you can produce naturalsounding Japanese by giving each syllable equal stress and prominence (loudness). 2 Romanisation The romanisation used in this book is a modification of the Hepburn system which is the most practical for speakers of English. We have indicated long vowels by writing the short vowel twice, e.g. oo, uu, etc. The acute accent has been added to indicate the pitch accent. The following descriptions of Japanese sounds are approximations based on the pronunciation of south-eastern British English. The vowels Japanese has five short vowels a, e, i, o, u and five long vowels romanised here aa, ee, ii, oo and uu. The short vowels are all the same length, very short and crisp, giving Japanese its characteristic staccato rhythm. a e i o u like the u in cut like the e in get like the i in hit like the au in taught but shorter, like the o in hot like the u in put but without the lip-rounding (pull the corners of your mouth back slightly when you pronounce this vowel). The long vowels, indicated by double letters in our romanisation, are exactly the same sounds as their short counterparts, but are given twice the duration. A difference in the length of the vowel can make a difference in the meaning of a word. To avoid confusion and embarrassment, care must be taken to distinguish between long and short vowels. Take, for example, shujin ‘husband’ and shuujin ‘prisoner’ or, potentially even more dangerous, komon ‘adviser’ and koomon ‘anus’. When two or more vowels come together in Japanese each retains its original pronunciation. The sequence is pronounced without a pause in the middle, but each vowel is given its full value and duration, unlike the diphthongs in English which tend to coalesce the vowels together into a single sound. Note that the sequence ei is usually replaced in pronunciation by the long vowel ee, e.g. senséi ‘teacher’ is pronounced sensée. Devoicing of vowels Under certain circumstances the vowels i and u are omitted, reduced or whispered. This phenomenon, known as devoicing, is particularly 3 marked in the speech of Tokyo. You will notice it in the pronunciation recorded on the tapes which accompany this volume. It generally occurs when the vowels i or u are sandwiched between two of the consonants, p, t, k, s, sh, ts, ch, f and h (voiceless consonants), or when i or u follow one of these consonants at the end of a sentence (i.e. before a pause). Consonants The consonants p, b, t, d, k, h, m and y are pronounced pretty much the same as they are in English. ch j ts like ch in church, but for many speakers with the tip of the tongue down behind the lower front teeth. like j in judge, but for many speakers with the same tongue position as ch above. like the ts in cats. Note that this sound occurs at the beginning of the syllable in Japanese. You will need to practise this sound to avoid confusing it with s. like the z in zoo. Many Japanese speakers pronounce this sound like the ds in cards at the beginning of a word and like z elsewhere. differs slightly from English f. The lower lip does not touch the upper teeth. It is like the sound we make blowing out a candle. before a vowel like n in now. At the end of a word the sound is midway between the n in man and the ng in sang. Try pronouncing man without touching the roof of your mouth with the tip of your tongue. When n occurs at the end of a syllable it is influenced by the following consonant. It is pronounced n when followed by n, t, d, s, z, r or w. Before m, p or b it is pronounced m, e.g. shinbun (pronounced shimbun) ‘newspaper’, Nihón mo (pronounced nihom mo) ‘Japan too’. When followed by g or k, n is pronounced like the ng in singer. Note that this last sound change also occurs in English, the n in think is actually pronounced ng. like the g in get. Some speakers, particularly in Tokyo, pronounce this sound as the nasal ng (like the ng in singer) when it occurs between vowels. Although the nasal pronunciation still enjoys considerable prestige in the media, the tendency seems to be towards using the stop pronunciation (‘the hard g’) in all positions. this sound does not occur in English. To our ears it often sounds like a blend of d, l and r. Actually it is made by flapping (or tapping) the tip of the tongue against the gum ridge behind the upper teeth. z f n g r 4 The effect can be achieved by pronouncing the r of English word rat while placing the tip of the tongue in the position to form a d. w like the w in wonderful, but with the corners of the mouth pulled back slightly. This sound occurs only before a. Take care to pronounce wa like the wo in wonder and not like the wa in war. Double consonants Just as Japanese distinguishes short and long vowels it also makes a distinction between single and double consonants. Making these distinctions is the major difficulty English speakers encounter in pronouncing Japanese. The double consonants pp, tt, tts, tch, ss, ssh, kk, nn, nm (pronounced mm) take twice the time to pronounce of their single counterparts. Where the first element is p, t or k the sound is begun, then held for a syllable beat before being released. Double consonants occur in Italian and can be heard in English at word boundaries, as in take care or about time. Failure to distinguish single and double consonants can result in misunderstanding. Note, for example, káta ‘shoulder’, kátta ‘won’ or bata ‘butter’, batta ‘grasshopper’. Japanese also has syllables beginning with a consonant followed by y. This y is always pronounced as a consonant, like y in ‘yes’. We can hear a similar combination of a consonant plus y in English words like new, cue, amusing, etc. One combination English speakers find difficult is the initial ry in words like ryokan ‘a traditional Japanese inn’. The apostrophe An apostrophe is required in the romanisation to distinguish initial n from syllable-final n, which, you will recall, undergoes various sound changes according to the sound which follows. Compare tan’i ‘unit’ with tani ‘valley’ or kin’en ‘no smoking’ with kinen ‘memorial’. Pitch In the romanised vocabulary lists in the early units, the grammatical summary and the glossaries, we have indicated the Japanese pitch accent. A fall from high to low pitch, where it occurs in a word, is marked with the acute accent mark ´. This mark on what we call ‘the accented syllable’ indicates that all preceding syllables of the word or phrase, except the first syllable, are pronounced on a high, level pitch. In the pronunciation 5 of Tokyo words always begin with a low-pitched syllable unless that syllable carries the pitch accent mark. Where the final syllable of a word carries the accent mark it indicates that a following particle or ending begins with a low-pitched syllable. For example: hana ‘nose’ is pronounced hana (low–high) and, as it has no accent mark, any following particles also continue on a high pitch. hana ga takái ‘his nose is high, he is arrogant’ is pronounced hanagatakai. In contrast, while haná ‘flower’ is pronounced the same as hana in isolation, in connected speech it is followed by a low-pitched particle, e.g. haná ga akai ‘the flower is red’ is pronounced hanaga akai. On the other hand háshi ‘chopsticks’, with its initial accented syllable is pronounced, hashi (high–low). You may prefer to ignore the pitch notation used in our system of romanisation and simply model your pronunciation on the native speakers recorded on the tape which accompanies this volume. Unless you are keen to sound like a native of Tokyo you need not worry unduly about the pitch accent of Japanese. There is considerable regional variation in pitch tolerated within the definition of kyootsuugo or ‘the common language’. Words of foreign origin Japanese has borrowed many words from foreign languages, particularly from English. It is important to pronounce these words with the modifications they have undergone to accommodate them to the Japanese sound system and not in their original English, or other, pronunciation. As the Japanese writing system permits only very restricted consonant sequences, many loan-words in Japanese end up with more syllables than they have in their original languages, e.g. supúun ‘spoon’, fóoku ‘fork’, gasorin sutándo ‘gasoline stand (petrol station)’. Pronunciation practice 1 Listen carefully to the pronunciation of these famous Japanese brand names, then try repeating them after the speakers. The bold forms in brackets indicate that our romanisation differs from the conventional spelling. Sony (Sónii) Kawasaki Matsushita Toyota (Tóyota) Suzuki Subaru (Súbaru) Mitsubishi (Mitsúbishi) Toshiba (Tooshiba) Mazda (Matsuda) 6 Now listen to these Japanese words which have been borrowed into English. Notice the difference between the Japanese and English pronunciations. karate sashimi (sashimí) karaoke tsunami ikebana (ikébana) kabuki origami (orígami) Now some Japanese place names: Yokohama Okinawa Hiroshima Fukuoka (Fukúoka) Nagoya (Nágoya) Nagano (Nágano) Here are some more place names, personal names and well-known words which contain long vowels: Tokyo (Tookyoo) Kyushu (Kyúushuu) Kato (Kátoo) judo (júudoo) Osaka (Oosaka) Kyoto (Kyóoto) Noh (noo) Honshu (Hónshuu) Sato (Sátoo) sumo (sumoo) And some more with double consonants, vowel sequences and syllabic n: Nihon (Nihón) ‘Japan’ Hokkaido (Hokkáidoo) Nissan sensei (senséi) samurai banzai (banzái) Nippon (Nippón) ‘Japan – formal pronunciation’ Sapporo Honda geisha tempura (tenpura) kampai (kanpai) ‘cheers!’ Tottori Sendai (Séndai) ninja aikido (aikídoo) Listen to the following examples of devoiced vowels: Nagasaki (Nágasaki) sushi (súshi) Makita (Mákita) Shikoku (Shikóku) Tsuchida (Tsuchida) sukiyaki (sukiyaki) Chikamatsu (Chikámatsu) Examples of consonants followed by y are given below. ryokan Japanese inn kyúuri cucumber Kyushu (Kyúushuu) okyakusamá guest, customer 7 Note the pronunciation of the following words of foreign origin. tákushii taxi térebi television supúun spoon supóotsu sport náifu knife fóoku fork sákkaa soccer supagéttii spaghetti Pitch accent Compare these accented and unaccented names listed below. Repeat the names after the native-speaker on the cassette tape. Unaccented (First syllable low, all following syllables high.) Abe, Ono, Sano, Mori, Wada Yoshida, Aoki, Ikeda, Nomura Kimura, Murata, Matsumoto, Ishikawa, Sugiyama, Inoue, Ookubo, Saitoo Accented (Unless it carries the accent mark, the first syllable is low, then all syllables up to the accent mark are high. Syllables after the accent mark are low.) Súgi, Óka, Háta, Míki, Séki Sátoo, Kátoo, Fújita, Sákai, Támura, Mórita, Nishímura, Akíyama, Ichikáwa, Takáhashi, Yamáguchi The writing system The Japanese writing system has been shaped by the historical accident of Japan’s proximity to China. The Chinese language began to be used extensively in Japan after the introduction of Buddhism in the sixth century. Unfortunately, however, the characters which provided an ingenious solution to the representation of the largely monosyllabic, uninflected tonal language spoken in China were quite unsuitable as a means of writing Japanese which was, and is, a highly inflected polysyllabic language. Some time around the beginning of the eighth century Chinese characters, known in Japan as kanji, were adapted to the writing of Japanese. This was achieved by ignoring the meaning of the Chinese 8 characters and simply borrowing their sounds. This system was refined further by abbreviating or simplifying those Chinese characters used phonetically, resulting in the invention of the native syllabaries, hiragána and katakána some time in the tenth century. Japanese is still written with a combination of these three separate writing systems. Kanji are used for writing most nouns, and the roots of verbs and adjectives. They are used in their pseudo-Chinese pronunciation (called the on-reading) to convey the sounds of words borrowed from Chinese and in the nativeJapanese, kun-reading to write original Japanese words. This means that you will learn at least two different pronunciations (readings), for most of the kanji introduced in this book. Hiragána is used for writing particles, suffixes and words with difficult or unusual characters, while katakána is used for writing words borrowed from languages other than Chinese. In this book kanji, hiragána and katakána are introduced together in gradual stages from the very first unit. By the end of the book you should have an active mastery of hiragána, katakána and approximately 250 kanji. In addition, where appropriate, the glossary provides kanji transcriptions of all the words used in the book and other important vocabulary items. Writing kanji Kanji are made up of a relatively small number of distinct strokes, written, for the most part, from left to right or from top to bottom. As the classification of kanji is based on the number of strokes they contain and this is the principle upon which character dictionaries are arranged, it is important to learn how to count the number of strokes in a character and to execute them in the correct order. The glossaries also list the kanji used for writing vocabulary items introduced in the book, even where the characters they contain have not been introduced for specific study. The secret of learning kanji is to be aware of the discreet elements which form the character, linking them in your mind with a mnemonic of your own making, and practising writing them over and over again. The movements of hand and eye as you trace over the strokes of the character help to etch the image onto your memory. How to use this book The course has been designed to meet the needs of those who wish to acquire a thorough grounding in Japanese in a relatively short time. 9 The primary focus of the course is on the spoken language. It is indeed possible to work through the book without attempting to learn the written language at all. One the other hand, if your goal is to be able to read Japanese as well as speak it, it is important that you familiarise yourself with the Japanese script as early as possible. We have tried to design a book which will simultaneously meet the needs of these two different groups of learners. If you have decided not to tackle the written language you must rely more on your ears than your eyes. You will find the accompanying tapes an indispensable part of this course. The romanised text should be taken merely as a guide to the pronunciation of Japanese and an aid to help you remember the vocabulary. All the grammatical points are explained with romanised examples and all the glossary entries are given in both Japanese script and romanised transliteration. We recommend, however, that serious students should at least learn the two Japanese syllabaries, hiragána and katákana. You acquire the new symbols gradually over the first seven units. By the time you reach Unit 8 you should be able to follow most of the material without looking at the romanised versions. If literacy in Japanese is your ultimate goal you must get into the habit of reading and writing the Japanese script. Don’t fall into the trap of romanising everything before you try to work out what it means. Your aim should always be the comprehension of written texts as Japanese, not the laborious decoding of a series of abstract signs to produce an English translation. If you need a high level of proficiency for business or other professional communication you should be prepared to learn a fair number of Chinese characters. You will find as you acquire more and more kanji that these are the building blocks of the Japanese vocabulary. You should learn how to read and write the 200 or so basic characters introduced in this course. In the first ten units new kanji are given with an indication of the number of strokes and the order in which they should be written. If you practise writing the kanji following the correct order of strokes you will soon acquire the basic principles of writing and counting strokes. For this reason we felt it was not necessary to continue giving the stroke order after Unit 10. From Unit 11 we have included a large number of kanji not included in the lists to be learnt by heart. We have shown the pronunciation of these additional characters with small superscript hiragána syllables known as furigana. This traditional system will help you to recognise a large number of kanji compounds in context even though you may not be able to write the individual characters. Advanced students might like to learn the new kanji compounds as they are introduced, whiting out the furigana readings when they are confident they can read the words without them. 10 Another major turning point you will notice in Unit 11 is that we no longer give lists of new vocabulary. This is partly to save space, but also because we believe that it is important that you become more actively involved in the learning process. You will find that making your own vocabulary lists and looking up the meanings of new words in the glossaries will speed up your acquisition of the language. We have designed the course so that you can use it as a practical, direct-method language course, as a grammar handbook or as a basic dictionary. The glossaries, grammar index, kanji lists and grammar summary have been included so that you can find your way around the book with minimum effort. Although the course progresses in sequence from Unit 1 to Unit 15 you will often need to return to earlier units or jump to an explanation given in the grammar summary at the end of the book. The numbering system used in the main text, the Key to the Exercises and the recordings makes it easy for you to navigate from one part of the course to another. 1 Meishi no kookan Exchanging business cards By the end of this unit you should be able to: • • • • • • • Greet somebody Introduce yourself and respond to introductions Introduce others Thank someone and respond to thanks Apologise and respond to an apology Enquire about the jobs people do Say goodbye. You will also learn: • 16 hiragána symbols: • 7 kanji characters: • 3 katakána symbols: • To use the voicing marks, nigori. Dialogue 1 1 At an office reception for a visiting Japanese trade delegation you exchange business cards and practise your few words of Japanese. You are surprised to discover that you can identify some of the kanji used to write the visitors’ names. The Japanese guests are impressed and flattered by your efforts to learn Japanese. As you listen to the tape follow the text carefully to see if you can identify any of the Japanese characters below. Then look at the romanised 12 text and the English translation. Come back to the Japanese text when you have studied the section on the script. A. : : : : : B. : : : : jime ra shi yoroshiku. : mo mi se A. SÚMISU: HONDA: SÚMISU: HONDA: SÚMISU: HONDA: B. TANAKA: SÚU: TANAKA: SÚU: Konnichi wa. Konnichi wa. Honda san désu ka. Hái, sóo desu. Honda désu. Hajimemáshite. Súmisu desu. Dóozo yoroshiku. Kochira kóso. Mími san desu ka. Iie, Súu desu. Dóomo sumimasén. Lie. SMITH: HONDA: SMITH: HONDA: SMITH: HONDA: TANAKA: SUE: TANAKA: SUE: Hello. Good afternoon. Are you Mr Honda? Yes, that’s right. I’m Honda. How do you do? I’m Smith. Pleased to meet you. The pleasure is mine. Are you Mimi? No, I’m Sue. I’m sorry. That’s all right Vocabulary konnichi wa san … désu ka hái iie Sóo desu hajimemáshite hello, good day, good afternoon Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms (polite term of address) is it?, are you?, etc. yes no, don’t worry (reply to an apology) that’s right (literally, ‘it is so’) how do you do? (literally, ‘for the first time’) hajime shi 13 yoroshiku ra do mo mi se dóozo yoroshiku kochira kóso dóomo sumimasén pleased to meet you me too, the pleasure is mine, etc. very, really (grateful, sorry, etc.) I’m sorry Grammar points In many ways Japanese grammar is less complex than that of the European languages. There are no changes indicating singular or plural nouns and no definite or indefinite articles. You will already have gathered from the example dialogues introduced in this unit that the verb comes at the end of the sentence and that the question marker, ka , follows the verb. You will also have noticed that no is used to join nouns to indicate that the word preceding no possesses, or describes in some way, the following noun, e.g. Tanaka san no hón ‘Mr Tanaka’s book’, yama no náka ‘in the mountains’ (literally, ‘inside of the mountains’, ‘the mountains’ inside’), náka no hito ‘the person inside’ or ‘the person in the middle’. It is worth noting here that nouns with an accent on the final vowel lose that accent when followed by no. For example, yamá loses its accent in the phrase yama no náka, above. These little words which show the grammatical relationship between the various components of a Japanese sentence are called ‘particles’, or 14 sometimes, because they follow the nouns to which the refer, they are called ‘postpositions’ in contrast with English ‘prepositions’ which precede the noun. We refer to them as ‘particles’ in this book. In addition to the possessive particle no and the question marker, ka, in this unit we meet the topic particle, wa. This particle is used to indicate the topic of the sentence and means something like, ‘as for …’ or ‘speaking of …’. Of course, it is used far more frequently in Japanese than we would use these expressions in English. Notice, too, that the particle wa is written with the hiragána symbol for ha, . This is one of the rare cases in which the kana spelling reflects an earlier stage of the Japanese language and does not coincide with the modern Japanese pronunciation. The particle to , ‘with’ or ‘and’ is also used for joining nouns. And the tag question marker ne operates in the same way as ka. Japanese names Japanese usually have two names, the family name, séi or myóoji, which comes first and the given name, namae. Given names are generally used only within the family or between close friends. Most family names and place names in Japanese are compounds of two kanji. Here are some names which can be written with the seven characters introduced in this unit. Notice that the t and k at the beginning of a word often change to d and g respectively when that word occurs as the second element of a compound. This phenomenon is known as ‘sequential voicing’ (rendaku). It is a common feature of Japanese but occurs somewhat unpredictably, so learn each new compound as a new vocabulary item. Pronunciation practice Tanaka Nakada Shimoda Yamada Honda Ueda Táyama Káwada 1 Yamamoto Nakamoto Kawamoto Yamanaka Ueyama Nakayama Yamáshita Tágawa The polite suffix san, , meaning Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, must be used when addressing anyone but a family member or a very close friend. 15 It can follow either the family name, the given name or the family name plus the given name, e.g. Tanaka san, ‘Mr Tanaka’, Jiroo san, ‘Jiro’ or Tanaka Jiroo san, ‘Mr Jiro Tanaka’. Never use san to refer to yourself. Business cards or Meishi In Japan the exchange of business cards is an important ritual accompanying introductions. You offer your card with your name turned to face the recipient of the card. You make a slight bow, ojígi in Japanese, as you hand over your card. Usually you will also receive a card from the person to whom you are presenting your card. Having received the card you should take it in both hands and read it carefully, noting the katagaki, literally ‘shoulder writing’, the details of the company, position, rank, etc., written to the right or above the name. This information tells you a lot about the social standing of the person you have just met so you can choose the appropriate level of language when addressing him or her. Writing In this unit we introduce sixteen hiragána syllables, seven Chinese characters or kanji and three katakána syllables. If you are still unsure how these three different scripts are used for writing Japanese you can reread the section on the Japanese writing system in the introduction. The language can be written in the traditional fashion, i.e. in vertical columns starting from the upper right-hand corner of the page, or horizontally, left to right, as in English. Hiragána The hiragána symbols themselves, like kanji, are generally written from left to right and from top to bottom. The syllables introduced in Unit 1 are given below with the order and direction of the strokes indicated with a number placed at the beginning of each stroke. 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 sa n te su 16 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 ka 2 1 ha 1 (wa) 2 ko ni 3 1 1 2 chi 1 2 to 1 no ma 1 2 1 2 3 so u i e You will notice that with the addition of two dots in the upper right-hand corner, a syllable starting with t– is transferred into a syllable beginning with d–. Similarly, syllables with an initial s– or k– are transformed into z– or g– syllables with the addition of the same two dots. These are the voicing marks, known as nigori (or dakuten) in Japanese. For example: te de so zo to do ka ga sa za ko go The voicing mark is used with syllables beginning with h– to indicate an initial b– sound. For example: becomes as in konban wa ‘good evening’. Notice, too, that the second element of the long oo vowel is spelt with the hiragána symbol for u, . For example: in Sóo desu ka. ‘Is that so?’ From the outset it is very important to ensure that characters are written with the correct number of strokes performed in the correct order. This is 17 particularly so in the case of kanji because they are arranged in dictionaries according to the number of strokes they contain. Besides, cursive handwriting is very difficult to decipher unless you have a sound knowledge of the principles of stroke order. Exercise 1.1 Next time you go to eat sushi, perhaps you might like to try these delicacies. Imagine you are sitting at the sushi counter confronted by a menu written in hiragána and English. How would you order these from the sushi chef, who, incidentally, is called itamae or, more politely, oitamae san in Japanese. A transliteration of the items on this menu, and answers to all the exercises in the book, can be found in the ‘Key to the Exercises’ that starts on p. 258. Sushi Menu Today’s Specials Crab Squid Salted herring roe Sea urchin Yellow-tail kingfish Kanji The kanji introduced in this unit are all basic characters based on the original pictographs depicting natural phenomena or spatial relationships. These characters are particularly common in Japanese place names and family names. The kanji introduced in Unit 1 are given below in the square handwritten style with numbers indicating the order and starting point of each stroke. As a general rule kanji are written from left to right and from top to bottom. Often, however, a high central element will have precedence over 18 2 1 4 5 3 1 3 5 2 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 ta, –da rice field 1 2 3 3 hón, moto book, origin 1 2 1 naka middle 23 kawa, –gawa river yama mountain ue above, top shita, shimo below, bottom the left hand stroke, as in yamá and ue and there are some characters like náka, in which a final down-stroke bisects the rest of the character. Katakána As we mentioned in the section on the Japanese writing system in the Introduction, katakána is used nowadays for writing foreign names and words borrowed from languages other than Chinese. In this book we introduce katakána gradually a few syllables at a time. When you have learnt all the hiragána characters we will speed up the introduction of the remaining katakána. Unit 1 gives you just two syllables su and mi and the length mark, called boo, which is used in katakána script to indicate that the preceding vowel is lengthened. The length mark is written horizontally in horizontal writing, but in vertical script it would be written as a vertical line from top to bottom. 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 su mi long vowel (horizontal script) long vowel (vertical script) Foreign words Modern Japanese uses many words which have been borrowed from foreign languages, mostly from English. These words, however, are 19 often quite unrecognisable to native speakers of English because they have been adapted to the Japanese writing system and obey the Japanese rules of pronunciation. Because katakána, the script used for writing foreign loan words, is a syllabary and not an alphabet, it is not usually possible to write sequences of two or more consonants. Consequently, the Sm– at the beginning of Smith becomes Sumi– with the addition of the dummy vowel –u. As Japanese has no ‘th’ sound ‘s’ is substituted, again followed by the dummy vowel –u. The Japanese equivalent of the one-syllable name, Smith, then, has three syllables, su–, mi–, –su. Note that u is the weakest of the five Japanese vowels and is hence the one usually used as a dummy vowel, but after t– or d– the dummy vowel is o and after ch– or j– it is i. More will be said of these spelling conventions as you learn more katakána words. As a general rule, however, you should treat katakána words as you would any new vocabulary item and only use words you have seen or heard before. Exercise 1.2 The following reading exercise will test your knowledge of the meanings of the characters introduced in this unit and the use of the particles no and to. Match the Japanese phrases on the left with the English equivalents on the right. Read the Japanese phrases aloud as you go. Then cover up the Japanese and practise writing the phrases from the English cues. Check your answers with the Key to the Exercises on p. 258. For example: 1. a. the top of the mountain yama no ue Now you are on your own. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. in the river mountains and rivers the river at the bottom of the mountain the rice-field up on the mountain the mountain above the river a book about mountains below the mountain a mountain (i.e. pile or stack) of books rivers and rice-fields 20 Exercise 1.3 Some Japanese girls write their family names, séi or myóoji, in kanji and their given names, namae, in hiragána. What are the names of the girls listed below? Notice that many girls’ names end in –ko or –e. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. How would these girls write their names in kanji and hiragána? 6. Táyama Masue 7. Tanaka Hámako 8. Nakayama Sónoko Dialogue 2 1 Greetings used in Japanese vary according to the time of day. To a lesser extent the same is true of expressions of leave-taking. When greeting someone the Japanese are far less inclined to use the name of the person they are addressing than we do in English. In this section the pronunciation guide and the English gloss appear beneath each dialogue. A Mr Yamanaka greets Mr Smith as he arrives at the office at 8:30 a.m. one Monday morning. He thanks Mr Smith for inviting him to play golf the day before. When you make a greeting in Japanese you often include a reference to the last time you met. : : : : o yo o yo ki tashi mo ari shi shita YAMANAKA: Ohayoo gozaimásu. SMITH: Ohayoo gozaimásu. YAMANAKA: Kinoo wa dóomo arígatoo gozaimashita. SMITH: Dóo itashimashite. Good morning. Good morning. Thanks for yesterday. Not at all. B Even Japanese sometimes get names wrong. Mr Honda recognises one of his customers on the platform at Shinjuku station when he is on his way home from work at about 8:00 p.m. In the dark he mistakes 21 Mr Nakada for Mr Tanaka. Mr Honda apologises for his mistake and there are no hard feelings. : : : : : : HONDA: NAKADA: HONDA: NAKADA: mo shitsure shi shita Konban wa. Konban wa. Tanaka san désu ka. Iie, chigaimásu. Nakada désu. HONDA: Dóomo shitsúrei shimashita. NAKADA: Iie. HONDA: NAKADA: HONDA: NAKADA: HONDA: Good evening. Good evening. Are you Mr Tanaka? No, I’m not. I’m Nakada. I’m very sorry. NAKADA: That’s all right. C Mr Nakagawa tentatively approaches a young man at the reception for the visiting trade delegation. Someone has told him there is a man called John from one of the British firms who can speak Japanese. Relieved to find he has the right man, Nakagawa introduces himself. : JÓN: : JÓN: NAKAGAWA: JOHN: NAKAGAWA: JOHN: NAKAGAWA: JOHN: NAKAGAWA: JOHN: shitsure Jon hajime shi yoroshiku ona Shitsúrei desu ga, onamae wa? Jón desu. Hajimemáshite. Nakagawa désu. Dóozo yoroshiku. Excuse me, but (may I ask) your name? (It’s) John. How do you do? I’m Nakagawa. Pleased to meet you. D Sue Smith is so thrilled that she can write her name with the only three katakána symbols she knows she decides to have her name in 22 Japanese put on her business card. Mr Yamamoto who runs a beach resort hotel in Shimoda looks a little bemused as he reads the card Sue has given him. : : : : SÚMISU: YAMAMOTO: SÚMISU: YAMAMOTO: SMITH: YAMAMOTO: SMITH: YAMAMOTO: yoroshiku Watashi no meishi désu. Áa, Súu Súmisu san désu ne. Hái, sóo desu. Yamamoto désu. Dóozo yoroshiku. (This) is my business card. Ah, you are Sue Smith, aren’t you? Yes, I am. I’m Yamamoto. Glad to meet you. watashi aa me shi ne E The following exchange is between Sue Smith and her close colleague Mr Tanaka. Sue picks up a book left on the table and asks Mr Tanaka if it is his. Notice how Sue uses Mr Tanaka’s name where in English we would use the pronoun ‘you’. The tone is rather casual and informal. watashi : SÚMISU: TANAKA: SÚMISU: TANAKA: SMITH: TANAKA: SMITH: TANAKA: mo Tanaka san no hón desu ka. Hái, watashi no hón desu. Dóozo. Dóomo. Is this your book, Mr Tanaka? Yes. It’s my book. Here you are, then. Thanks. 23 F Mr Yamanaka introduces his workmate Mr Nakada to Ms Yamamoto, a customer from Shimoda on the Izu Peninsula south-west of Tokyo. : sho ra sha jime shi Let me introduce you. This is Mr Nakada. He is a friend from the company. I’m Nakada. Pleased to meet you. How do you do? I’m Yamamoto from Shimoda. shi moda yoroshiku : : YAMANAKA: Goshookai shimásu. Kochira wa Nakada san désu. Kaisha no tomodachi désu. NAKADA: Nakada désu. Dóozo yoroshoku. YAMAMOTO: Hajimemáshite. Shimoda no Yamamoto désu. G After a fruitless few hours trying to interest Mr Yamamoto in new sail-board technology our friends Yamanaka and Nakada decide to finish the day with a sake or two at their favorite izakaya or Japanese pub. They part at about 10:30 p.m. so they will be fresh for another day at the office tomorrow. : : : : YAMANAKA: NAKADA: YAMANAKA: NAKADA: YAMANAKA: NAKADA: YAMANAKA: NAKADA: ja, yonara oya mi na ta ashita ja, ta Ja, sayonará. Oyasumi nasai. Mata ashita. Ja, mata. Well, goodbye. Good night. See you tomorrow. See you, then. 24 Vocabulary o oya yo yo mi na nara ohayoo gozaimásu konban wa oyasumi nasai sayoonara sayonara mata ashita ja mata chigaimásu ari ari tashi shi arígatoo gozaimasu arígatoo gozaimashita dóo itashimashite good morning good evening good night (before retiring) goodbye (formal pronunciation) goodbye (casual pronunciation) I’ll see you again tomorrow see you! I’ll see you again (casual) that’s not right, that’s incorrect, no thank you thank you (past tense) not at all, don’t mention it (in reply to thanks) pardon me, I’m sorry, it was rude of me, etc. excuse me, but … (may I ask …, etc.) please, go ahead, take one, etc. business card (note: ei is pronounced ee) book company, firm let me introduce (your, his/her) name (honorific) (my) name (neutral) friend I, me this side, this person yonara ta ashita ja ta shita shitsure shi ta shitsúrei shimashita shitsure shitsúrei desu ga dóozo me shi meishi sha sho ona na moda watashi ra shi hón kaisha goshookai shimásu onamae namae tomodachi watashi kochira 25 ki ashita ta kinóo ashita mata kóso yesterday tomorrow again indeed (kochira kóso I’m pleased to meet you, too) Particles wa no to ka ne as for, speaking of (topic particle) ’s, belonging to (possessive or descriptive particle) with, and ? (question particle) isn’t it?, didn’t we? aren’t you? (a tag question, seeks agreement from the listener) ne Exercise 1.4 1 Imagine the voice on the tape is talking to you. Listen carefully and give an appropriate answer. Turn off your cassette between questions if you need more time to respond. You will find the English prompts given below helpful, but remember they are not necessarily in the same order as the answers you’ll need. ENGLISH PROMPTS: Don’t mention it. Bye, I’ll see you again tomorrow. My name is … (your name, but pronounced in a Japanese way if you can manage it). How do you do? I’m (your name). Good night. Exercise 1.5 Copy out the following printed sentences and phrases in appropriate handwritten characters following the correct stroke order shown in the models given on pp. 15–18. Read them over several times until you are sure of the pronunciation and the meaning of each example. If you get stuck look up the readings in the Key to the Exercises. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 26 Exercise 1.6 Choose an appropriate response from the list on the right to the phrases on the left. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. b. c. d. e. yonara ta ashita. yoroshiku. ra Exercise 1.7 1 A comprehension There is an optional barbecue lunch arranged for the Japanese guests and people from your company. As husbands and wives are also invited the gathering includes a range of occupations. Over lunch there is a lively discussion about the kind of work each of them is doing. Listen to the tape and identify the occupations of all the guests mentioned. Write down the names with their respective occupations and check your answers with the key in the back of this book. You will need some new vocabulary items for this exercise. Occupations sha shacho bucho kuse mu shufu kyo shi sha na shi oshi kaisháin shachoo buchoo gakusei koomúin shúfu kyóoshi isha nán shigoto oshígoto company employee director, company president, CEO department head student civil servant housewife teacher doctor what (my) job, work (neutral) (your, his/her) job, work (honorific) Dialogue : : kyo shi oshi na ? 27 : : : : : kuse oshi sha mu na sha B Practice Now try asking some of your friends, real or imaginary, the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is your occupation? Are you a company employee? Are you a housewife? Ms Smith is a company director, isn’t she? Is Mr Yamada a student? Exercise 1.8 You are waiting in the lobby of the hotel for your Japanese guests to come down to meet you. How will you greet them, assuming the time is: 1. 9:00 a.m.? 2. 1:00 p.m.? 3. 7:00 p.m.? 4. What would you say to them after you had brought them back to the hotel at 11:00 p.m.? 5. How would you say goodbye to your guests at the airport? 6. How many cultural keywords do you remember? Katagaki, nigori, izakaya, myóoji, ojígi and itamae were all introduced in Unit 1. Could you explain these concepts to your friend who is planning a trip to Japan? 2 Jiko-Shookai Introducing yourself In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • Say who you are and where you come from Say where you live and ask people where they live Tell people you are learning Japanese Discuss nationality, country and language Express your likes and dislikes. You will also acquire: • 15 more hiragána: • 5 more kanji: • 5 more katakána: Dialogue 1 1 You are at an international health conference. The chair person, Dr Nakayama, is getting the members of your panel to introduce themselves. You recognise a lot of the vocabulary introduced in Unit 1. You realise listening to the material over and over again gives you confidence. Practice makes perfect. : : o ne Rondon 29 o : Tsu : me Pekin : : : NAKAYAMA SENSÉI: SÚMISU SAN: Sak shúmi gubi t NAKAYAMA SENSÉI: RÍI SAN: NAKAYAMA SENSÉI: RÍI SAN: NAKAYAMA SENSÉI: DR NAKAYAMA: MS SMITH: Súmisu san, jiko-shóokai o onegai shimásu. Hái, wakarimáshita. Minásan, ohayoo gozaimásu. Watashi wa Méarii Súmisu desu. Róndon kara kimáshita. Eikokújin desu. Íma, Nihongo o narátte imasu. Dóozo yoroshiku. Arígatoo gozaimashita. Tsugí wa Ríi san o goshookai shimásu. Dóomo. Hajimemáshite. Watashi wa Ríi desu. Chúugoku no Pékin kara désu. Nihongo ga sukóshi dekimásu. Ríi san no goshúmi wa nán desu ka. Sákkaa to rágubii desu. Ryóori mo sukí desu. Dóomo arígatoo gozaimashita. Ms Smith, I’d like you to introduce yourself. Yes, certainly. Good morning everyone. I’m Mary Smith. I come from London. I’m British. Now I am learning Japanese. 30 DR NAKAYAMA: MR LEE: DR NAKAYAMA: MR LEE: DR NAKAYAMA: Next, let me introduce Mr Lee. Thanks. I’m Lee. I’m from Beijing in China. I can speak a little Japanese. What are your interests, Mr Lee? Soccer and rugby. I’m also fond of cooking. Thank you very much. Vocabulary teacher, Dr, Mr, etc. (title for teachers, doctors, etc.) jiko-shóokai self-introduction onegai please give us …, I’d like to ask you for … shimásu wakarimáshita I understand, certainly minásan everyone, all of you (honorific) kara from (particle) kimáshita (I) came Eikokújin Briton, English (person) íma now Nihongo Japanese narátte imasu is/am/are learning tsugí wa next Chúugoku China Pékin Peking, Beijing sukóshi a little dekimásu can (speak), can do shúmi hobby, interest, pastime nán desu ka what is it … ga sukí desu (I) like … sákkaa soccer rágubii rugby (union football) ryóori cooking mo also, too, even senséi ne t tsu Pekin shu … sak gubi— Hiragána In this unit we learn fifteen more hiragána symbols. You have now seen 31 of the 46 hiragána symbols you will need to read and write Japanese. Practise writing them on squared paper following the examples below. Make sure you write the strokes in the correct order. 31 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 a 2 1 ri 1 1 3 4 2 se o 2 1 4 3 yo 1 1 2 4 shi 3 ta 1 2 3 na 1 2 ra 1 2 ki 1 1 2 2 ku mo wa mi re With the addition of the nigori, or voicing mark, this basic list can be extended to include: ze ji da gi gu Notice that the symbol for sho is made up of the two hiragána characters for shi and yo with the yo written smaller to indicate it should be pronounced as a single syllable with the preceding symbol. This in turn can be combined with the nigori mark to produce the syllable jo, . As we have not yet learnt how to write double consonants, in this unit the first element of a double consonant is left in romanisation, e.g. narátte is written t . Similarly, most syllables that would be written in katakána will have to remain in romanised script until the symbols have been introduced. Of course many of the words written in hiragána in the early units will gradually be replaced with kanji. 32 Katakána In this unit you learn five more katakána symbols, a, me, ri, ka and ra. You will notice the similarity between the hiragána and katakána symbols for ri and ka. Note too, the raised dot in (Dialogue 1) which is often used to indicate a break between words borrowed from foreign languages. Normally Japanese does not have spaces between words as the alternation of kanji, hiragána and katakána tends to break up the text into easily identifiable units. In textbooks such as this one and in material written for young children, however, spaces are often used to break up a sentence. Note that where spaces are used particles are always written attached to the preceding noun. 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 a me ri ka ra Kanji In this unit we introduce five more kanji characters. You will notice that some characters have two or more pronunciations, or readings. The readings written in capital letters are the pseudo-Chinese pronunciations, or on-readings, which are mostly used in compound words of two or more kanji characters. Contrasting with the on-readings are the native Japanese pronunciations, or kun-readings, given in lower case, which are most often used when a kanji character stands alone. There are, however, exceptions to this general rule, as we saw in Unit 1 with the kuncompounds which are common in personal names and place names. As we shall see in the next unit, the kanji, for ‘person’, , also has the reading –ri, but only when combined with the numbers for ‘one’ and 2 13 5 6 2 1 3 4 1 4 7 2 2 1 8 10 9 2 1 4 6 3 8 11 3 4 6 12 13 5 7 14 57 8 NICHI hi sun, day KOKU, –GOKU kuni country JIN hito person GO language EI England, Britain 33 ‘two’ in the words hitóri ‘one person’ and futari ‘two people’, so this reading is not listed separately below. Exercise 2.1 Write these sentences in Japanese script, combining hiragána, katakána and kanji as appropriate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kawada san wa Nihonjín desu. Rárii Miraa san wa Chúugoku ni súnde imasu. Nihongo mo Chuugokugo mo dekimásu. Ríi san wa íma Eigo o narátte imasu. Yamamoto san wa Amerika ni súnde imasu. Grammar points The simple sentence introduced in Unit 1 is extended to include the present continuous tense of the verbs, ‘to live’, and ‘to learn’. These sentence patterns should be learnt at this stage as vocabulary items without worrying too much about their grammatical structure. In due course you will understand the various forms and functions of the Japanese verbal system. Sentence patterns … ni súnde imasu … o narátte imasu … ga wakarimásu … ga dekimásu … ga dekimasén … ga sukí desu … ga sukí ja arimasén or … ga sukí dewa arimasén … ga dáisuki desu (s/he is, I am, you are, we are, they are) living in … (s/he is, I am, you are, we are, they are) learning … (I, you, s/he, we, they, etc.) understand … (I) can do, can speak … (used with languages) (I) can’t do, can’t speak … (used with languages) (I) like … (I) don’t like … (I) don’t like … (I) love … You will notice that some verbs mark their objects with o and others with the particle ga. Actually, there is only a small group of verbs in this 34 latter category, but it is convenient to introduce some of them now as they occur very frequently in everyday conversation. At this stage just be aware that different verbs require different particles. In the meantime, use the expressions introduced here simply as set phrases to add a little variety to your conversation. Here are some more sports, hobbies and pastimes you will be able to work into your conversations. Most of these should not cause you any problems as they are borrowed from English. They would normally be written in katakána, but, as our main purpose at this point is to enrich your Japanese conversation, the vocabulary is provided here only in romanised form. Go through this list saying aloud either, ‘I like …’ or ‘I don’t like … very much’ – only in Japanese, of course, i.e. … ga sukí desu or … ga amari sukí ja arimasen. As in these suggested sentence patterns it is usual to leave out the first person pronoun ‘watashi wa’. ténisu tennis suiei swimming basukétto (booru) basketball báree (booru) volley ball hókkee hockey sukíi skiing karaóke karaoke singing sukéeto skating yakyuu baseball górufu golf sumoo sumo wrestling dókusho reading júudoo judo háikingu hiking takkyuu table-tennis sáafin surfing booringu (10 pin) bowling jooba horse-riding ópera opera shibai theatre éiga film, movie kaimono shopping ryokoo travel Perhaps you have an even stronger passion or affection for something else, which will require the use of dáisuki (or ‘big like’). This expression has a very wide usage ranging from food to people and most things in between. For example: Watashi wa chokoréeto ga dáisuki desu. Nihonjín wa yakyuu to sákkaa ga dáisuki desu. Nihongo no senséi ga dáisuki desu. I love chocolate. Japanese love baseball and soccer. I love our Japanese teacher. Exercise 2.2 1 Here is another passage demonstrating these structures. Read it out aloud before checking your understanding of the passage with the key at the 35 back of the book. You will probably have to refer to the vocabulary list which follows the passage. Paku fu Paku kurashikk rókku rókku pootsu Paku Sóoru o shu i hokke Teni t n futtobooru Vocabulary Kánkoku Kankokujín Sóoru futari tomo … yóku rókku óngaku amari koten-óngaku dókusho uchi supóotsu ais uhókkee oru Amerikan fúttobooru Korea Korean (person) Seoul both of them well rock (music) music (not) much, (not) very classical music (more often kuráshikku) reading house sports ice-hockey American football So—ru rokku pootsu i hokke n futtobo Country, language and nationality Japanese uses the suffixes –go and –jin after the name of a country to express the language or a national of that country. Here is a list of countries, languages and nationals. 36 COUNTRY Eikoku England, Britain Nihón Japan Kánkoku Korea Chúugoku China LANGUAGE Eigo English PERSON Igirisújin Igiri (regular form, Eikokújin, not often used) the British Nihonjín Japanese Kankokujín Korean Chuugokújin Chinese Nihongo Japanese Kankokugo Korean Chuugkugo Chinese Note that Kánkoku refers only to South Korea. North Korea is generally called Kita Choosen. Here are some more continents, countries and cities. How is your katakána reading coming along? Yooróppa Ájia Afurika Amerika Oosutorária Tái Furansu Róndon Pári Itaria Supéin Airurándo Kánada Nyuujiirándo Indo Róoma Suéeden Shídonii Doitsu Arasuka ji fu Oo to Tai Fu n Rondon Pa Ita pein iru ndo nada Nyuujii ndo Indo Ro ma e den Shidoni Doitsu Europe Asia Africa America Australia Thailand France London Paris Italy Spain Ireland Canada New Zealand India Rome Sweden Sydney Germany Alaska Exercise 2.3 Using the written cues below, ask each member of your group which country he or she comes from. Then take the part of the other person and 37 make an appropriate response, again relying on the cues given. Some of the cues will also test your ability to read kanji and katakána. Remember in Japanese it is usual to use the name of the person you are talking to rather than the pronoun, ‘you’. For example: Cue: Paku Korea Q: Paku san wa dóchira kara kimashitaka or Paku san wa dóchira kara desu ka. A: (Watashi wa) Kánkoku kara kimáshita or (watashi wa) Kánkoku kara desu. 1. 4. 2. 5. India 3. Han 6. Korea Exercise 2.4 A new Japanese student has joined your aerobics class. You decide to use the opportunity to practise your Japanese by introducing her to the members of your cosmopolitan group. You give the nationality of each member of your class and mention what other languages they speak. Use the following cues to guide your Japanese explanations. For example: Cue: Kim Korea Spanish Kochira wa Kímu san desu. Kímu san wa Kankokujín desu. Supeingo mo dekimásu. 1. Wang China Japanese 4. Rani India Thai 2. Baker England French 5. Gordon America Russian 3. Braun Germany Chinese Exercise 2.5 How would you ask someone where he or she lives? When you have asked the question, make an appropriate reply using the word supplied in brackets. For example: Cue: Honda (Tokyo) Q: Honda san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. A: Tookyoo ni súnde imasu. 38 1. (Nagoya) 5. Leclerc (Paris) 2. (Sapporo) 6. (Sydney) 7. (Rome) 3. (London) 4. (Beijing) 8. Kim (Seoul) Exercise 2.6 1 Listen carefully to the tape. One of the students in your Japanese class is telling you where her friends come from. See if you can match all the names and nationalities correctly. Hérena san wa watashi no Nihongo no kúrasu no tomodachi désu. Suéeden kara kimáshita. Érikku san mo Nihongo ga sukóshi dekimásu. Doitsújin desu. Píitaa san wa Nyuujiirandójin desu. Kímu san wa Sóuru kara kimáshita. Kankokujín desu. Méarii san wa Amerikájin desu. Edouíina san wa Igirisu kara kimáshita. Bóbu san wa Oosutorária kara desu. Minna watashi no Nihongo no kúrasu no tomodachi desu. Watashi wa Nihongo ga sukí desu. Kurasuméeto mo minná sukí desu. Vocabulary kúrasu kurasuméeto minná class classmate all, everyone Exercise 2.7 1 Now, using the English prompts below, tell your new Japanese friend about the hobbies of the various members of your class. This time the prompts will be given on the tape and there will be a short pause to give you time to Register to View Answermodel answer for each question will be provided on the tape and in the key at the back of the book. Follow this example: Cue: Helena movies rock-music Hélena san no shúmi wa éiga to rokku desu. 1. Michael surfing basketball 2. Robert horse-riding soccer 3. Anne music hiking 39 4. Karl reading travel 5. Gordon swimming baseball 6. you shopping tennis Exercise 2.8 1 Listen to Dialogue 2 on the tape and see if you can answer the following comprehension questions. Only turn to the written text after you have made two or three attempts to answer the questions after listening to the tape. 1. Where does Mr Miller live? 3. What language does Mr Miller speak a little? 5. What is Mr Kim’s hobby? 2. Does Mr Kim live in Korea? 4. Does Mr Kim speak Thai? Dialogue 2 1 During the morning tea break at the conference Mr Kim finds himself in a long queue waiting for coffee. To pass the time he talks to the person in front of him. Listen to the dialogue and answer the questions which follow this passage. KÍMU: : KÍMU: : KÍMU: Tái : KÍMU: : KÍMU: : ro Kim po tsu Górufu górufu ke shu Tai O Kim to me me Kim 40 Vocabulary okuni dóko dóchira dekimasén ée dake tokoró de your country (honorific) where which one, where (polite) can’t speak, can’t do yes only by the way … ke ro 3 Kázoku no hanashi Talking about families In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • Use neutral and honorific terms for family members Count people with the numeral classifiers –ri and –nin Say ‘this’, ‘that’ and ‘that over there’ Tell the time Name the months of the year Count from 1 to 99 Give and ask for telephone numbers. You will also acquire: • 15 more hiragána: • 20 more kanji: • 5 more katakána: Dialogue 1 1 Mr Cooper is visiting his neighbour Mr Yamashita, who has invited him in for a cup of tea. After a while Mr Yamashita produces a pile of photos, which he proceeds to spread out on the coffee table in front of them. : : : : : ? 42 : : : : : teni gorufu : : : : : : KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: Sore wa nán desu ka. Kore wa chichi no kanreki no shashin désu. Kanreki? Rokujússai no tanjóobi desu. Sóo desu ka. Kore wa chichí to háha desu. Otóosan wa wakái desu née. Ée, génki desu. Ténisu to górufu ga sukí desu. Sore wa dáre no shashin desu ka. Kore wa áni to ane désu. Áni wa dokushin désu ga, ane wa kekkon shite imásu. Nite imásu née. Are wa dáre (no shashin) desu ka. Dóre desu ka. Áa, are wa imooto no kodomo désu. Kawaíi desu née. Nánsai desu ka. Nísai desu. Onnánoko desu ka. Iie, onnánoko dewa arimasén. Otokónoko desu. What’s that? These are my father’s kanreki photos. Kanreki? It’s the 60th birthday. KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: KÚUPAA: YAMÁSHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: 43 COOPER: YAMASHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: Really? This one’s my mother and father. Your father’s young, isn’t he? Yes. He’s fit. He likes tennis and golf. Whose photo is that? This is my elder brother and elder sister. My brother is a bachelor, but my sister is married. They look alike, don’t they? Who’s (or whose photo is) that? Which one? Oh, that’s my younger sister’s child. Cute, isn’t it? How old? Two years old. Is it a girl? No, it’s not a girl. It’s a boy. COOPER: YAMASHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: COOPER: YAMASHITA: Vocabulary sore kore are chichi kanreki shashin rokujússai tanjóobi háha otóosan wakái génki áni ane dokushin kekkon shite imásu nite imásu dáre dóre that (near addressee) this (close to speaker) that (over there) father (neutral) 60th birthday photograph 60 years old birthday mother (neutral) father (honorific) young fit, well, healthy elder brother elder sister bachelor, single/ unmarried person (is) married looks like, resembles, look alike who? which one? 44 imootó kodomo kawaíi nánsai nísai onnánoko otokónoko née/né younger sister child cute, appealing how many years old? two years old girl boy isn’t it, etc. (question markers; the former is slightly more formal) / Hiragána In this unit we meet a further 15 hiragána symbols. 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 ke 1 2 3 tsu 1 4 1 nu 1 ne 2 3 4 hi 2 1 3 1 fu 2 1 3 he 2 1 ho 2 mu 1 1 me 2 1 ya yu 3 ru ro o You have now been introduced to the 46 hiragána symbols. The full chart included in the Appendix (see p. 306) lists all the hiragána syllables. The shaded rows indicate the basic symbols in the traditional order. Read across the page from the upper left hand corner. You can remember the order of the rows with the mnemonic, ‘a kana syllabary, think now how much you really want (to learn it)’. 45 One more rule you will need to learn is how to form a double consonant sequence with the use of the hiragána symbol for tsu , written smaller to indicate that it is pronounced without its usual vowel as the first element of a double consonant. For example: tta , kko , sshi , etc. : The first element of –nn–, however, is e.g. onnánohito, a woman Note the following combinations with the y– syllables. Here the y– syllables are written smaller to indicate they are to combine with the preceding hiragána and are pronounced as a single syllable. We have already learnt the hiragána syllables sho and jo in Unit 2. kya gya sha ja cha nya hya mya rya kyu gyu shu ju chu nyu hyu myu ryu kyo gyo sho jo cho nyo hyo myo ryo Syllables with b and p The syllables beginning with b– or p– are formed from the symbols in the h– line. b– is made with the nigori mark and p– with a small raised circle, known as maru, for example: ha ba pa hi bi pi fu bu pu he be pe ho bo po hya bya pya hyu byu pyu hyo byo pyo P in particular, is only rarely found in native Japanese words. You will normally encounter it in loan words, e.g. pásu ‘a pass’, súupaa ‘a supermarket’, when, of course, it is written in katakána. 46 Katakána Here are five more katakána symbols. 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 ta ku shi i ha These can be combined with the eight katakána symbols you have learnt so far to write a large number of loan words from English and other languages. Remember that the katakána symbols follow the same spelling conventions outlined above for hiragána. Exercise 3.1 1 Look at the list of katakána words below and see if you can guess what each one means (we have used romaji where you have not yet learnt the katakána). When you have read through the list a few times, try listening to the tape and imitating the pronunciation of your Japanese instructor. 1. 4. pa 7. 10. 2. 5. 8. 3. 6. 9. terebi Now, using the words introduced above, see if you can translate the following phrases into Japanese, then write them with katakána words or kanji joined by the particle no . 11. Italian pasta 13. a Japanese colour television 15. air-conditioner for a taxi 12. a camera manufacturer 14. an American lighter Kanji In this unit we introduce more kanji than usual to include the numbers from 1 to 10, in addition to ten more basic characters. 47 1 2 2 3 5 1 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 1 ICHÍ hitoone NI futatwo SAN three SHI yon four 1 2 GÓ five 1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 ROKU six SHICHÍ nanaseven 1 2 3 3 HACHÍ eight KÚ, KYÚU nine 2 JÚU ten 23 1 4 5 7 1 2 1 1 2 3 3 6 otoko man onna woman ko child DAI oo (kii) large 2 13 4 SHOO chii (sai) small 2 1 3 4 25 6 1 3 4 6 2 5 7 9 8 1 3 2 5 4 6 7 1 3 4 su (ki) like JI toki o’clock hours nán, náni what –GATSU month HAN half Numbers and counting 1 Just as we say, ‘two bottles of milk’, ‘three planks of wood’ or ‘three head of cattle’, in which ‘bottles’, ‘planks’ and ‘head’ might be regarded as numeral classifiers appropriate to the kind of object we are counting, Japanese employs a number of classifiers for counting objects depending on their shape and size. We have included a fairly comprehensive list of these numeral classifiers in the Grammar Summary (see p. 302). 48 Up to 10, Japanese has two sets of numbers, one a native Japanese set and the other borrowed from Chinese. In this unit the kanji for the numbers 1 to 10 are introduced with a few simple counters or units of measurement which require the pseudo-Chinese pronunciation, or the on-reading. Although the kanji for the numbers are used frequently with small numbers and in telling the time or enumerating the months of the year, etc., the Arabic numerals are commonly used in everyday communication and, of course, are used exclusively for mathematics or finance. You will notice that the numbers 4, 7 and 9 each have two pronunciations. Yón is often used instead of shi, which has the same pronunciation as the Japanese word for ‘death’. Nána often replaces shichí as this latter is too easily confused with 1 ichí, 4 shí and 8 hachí. The pronunciations kú– and kyúu– are both common. Which one is used seems to be largely a matter of convention and depends on just what is being counted, though at times it seems either of the two pronunciations can be used. Kú like shí has an inauspicious meaning as it is a homophone for kú meaning ‘suffering’. With the ten number kanji you can count from 1 to 99. ‘Eleven’ is juuichí or ‘ten-one’, fifteen is ‘ten-five’ or júugo , ‘twenty’ is ‘two-ten’ or níjuu , and ‘ninety-eight’ is kyúujuu-hachí or ‘nine-ten-eight’. ‘Forty’ is generally yónjuu rather than shijúu, though you will also hear this form, ‘seventy’ is nanájuu and ‘ninety’ is kyúujuu. Exercise 3.2 Identify the following numbers. Pronounce them all in Japanese and write in kanji those numbers given in Arabic numerals. 1. 6 4. 27 7. 10. 2. 5 5. 62 8. 3. 18 6. 9. The months of the year 1 The months from January to December are formed with the ending –gatsú which is used for naming, but not counting, the months of the year. In this case April, the fourth month is pronounced shigatsú (yón is not used in this case) and July (the seventh month) is shichigatsú. 49 January ichigatsú July February nigatsú August March April May June rokugatsú December sangatsú shigatsú gogatsú September October November shichigatsú hachigatsú kugatsú Nángatsu juugatsú juuichigatsú juunigatsú means ‘which month’. Telling the time 1 The on-readings of the numerals are also used for telling the time, but sound changes occur when the word for minute, –fun, combines with the numerals other than go ‘five’. So in this unit we introduce only, –ji, ‘o’clock’, used for counting the hours of the day, hán, which means ‘half’ and is used to indicate time half-past the hour, and –fun, which means ‘minute’ in combination with –go, ‘five’. There is one slight irregularity in combination with –ji, when yón loses its final –n to form the word for 4 o’clock, yóji. The words for ‘a.m.’ and ‘p.m.’ are, respectively, gozen and gógo. In accordance with the structure of Japanese sentences, which run from the general to the particular, hours come before minutes. Here are some examples of how you tell the time in Japanese. Notice the question word nán in nánji desu ka, , ‘What time is it?’ gozen júuji juuníji hán gógo yóji yonjuugofun Telephone numbers The numbers introduced in this unit are also used for telephone numbers, serial numbers, account numbers and so on. Zero is either réi or the 50 English word zéro. Sometimes a telephone number can be broken up into smaller components, such as its area code etc., with the addition of the particle no. When giving a telephone number Japanese usually lengthen the short vowels in ni (‘two’) and go (‘five’) to give níi and góo respectively. Here are some examples of telephone numbers, bank account numbers and computer passwords. 1. San yón rokú ichi no níi nána zéro hachí 2. San góo kyúu yón (no) nána nána zéro níi 3. San níi zéro hachí Exercise 3.3 1 Practise pronouncing these times, telephone numbers and account codes after the instructor. Write down the first five examples from dictation. The answers are given in the key at the end of the book (p. 262). 6. 9. 26-3465-8791 7. 10. (03) 9786-3342 8. Age One way to express age in Japanese is by adding the ending –sai to the on-readings of the numbers. Japanese generally feel no compunction about asking you how old you are regardless of your sex. Although the old Confucian values are breaking down in modern Japan, it is still true that older people are afforded a good deal more respect and consideration than they are generally in most western societies. The point of asking your age is often to determine whether you are older or younger than the questioner, thereby establishing the degree of respect and deference you should be given. In addition to the expression, nánsai desu ka, introduced in this unit, you may also hear, oikutsu désu ka, which means the same thing, but is more polite. Notice the sound changes which occur when –sai follows the numerals 1, 8 and 1demonstrative adjectives Make simple requests Count the storeys in a building Use larger numbers. You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji • 10 more katakána Dialogue 1 1 Browsing in one of Tokyo’s famous department stores you overhear this conversation at a specialist counter selling scarves. You recognise Mr Yamada, whom you met in Unit 1. He is talking to a young woman behind the sales counter. : : : : : 59 : : : : reze : : : : : : : YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: YAMADA: TEN’IN: Kírei na sukáafu desu ne. Ée, mezurashíi iró desu. Íkura desu ka. Ichiman’en desu. Íi monó desu yo. Moo sukóshi yasúi no wa arimasén ka. Hái, gozaimásu. Sono sukáafu wa ikága desu ka. Dóno sukaafu desu ka. Sono chiisái no desu. Iró ga chótto … Tomodachi no tanjóobi no purézento desu. Otomodachi wa oikutsu désu ka. Nijússai desu. Déwa, ano sukáafu wa ikága desu ka. Onédan wa sóo tákaku arimasen. Íkura desu ka. Hassen’en désu. Déwa, sore o kudasái. Kashikomarimáshita. It’s a beautiful scarf, isn’t it? Yes. It’s an unusual colour. How much is it? It’s ten thousand yen. It’s a good one! Don’t you have any a bit cheaper? to YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: 60 SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: YAMADA: SHOP ASSISTANT: Yes, we do, Sir. How about that scarf there? Which scarf ? That small one. The colour is a bit … It’s a birthday present for a friend. How old is your friend? She’s twenty. Well, what about that scarf over there? It’s not so expensive. How much is it? It’s eight thousand yen. Give me that one, then. Certainly, Sir. Vocabulary sukáafu íkura ichiman’en monó moo sukóshi arimasén ka scarf how much? ten thousand yen thing a little more …, a little —er don’t you have, aren’t there any … there is, there are; we have (formal) colour a little, a bit …, not really to my liking present price please give me … certainly, Sir/Madam high, expensive rare, unusual good gozaimásu iró chótto … reze ( … to ) / purézento nedan ( … o) kudasái kashikomarimáshita takái mezurashíi íi, yói 61 ( ) kírei (na) yasúi ikága beautiful cheap how much? Adjectives In Japanese, adjectives and other descriptive words and phrases always precede the noun they describe. We have already seen how a noun followed by no can be used to describe another noun (Tokyo no hóteru ‘hotels in Tokyo’ or ‘Tokyo hotels’, watashi no tomodachi ‘my friend’). Japanese has two types of adjective: ‘TRUE ADJECTIVES’ and ‘NA ADJECTIVES’ or ‘DESCRIPTIVE NOUNS’. A list showing examples of both types can be found below. true adjectives takái expensive yasui cheap wakái young sugói great ookíi big chiisái small na adjectives kírei na pretty, beautiful hadé na gaudy génki na fit, healthy sukí na favourite (like) ookíi na big chíisa na small True adjectives always end in a vowel followed by the suffixes –i, that is, –ai, –ii, –ui, or –oi (but not –ei) and behave in many respects like verbs. They directly precede the noun they describe. For example: takái hon an expensive book chiisái kodomo a small child Na adjectives, on the other hand, can be thought of as nouns which require na to link them to the noun they describe. For example: shízuka na kawá a quiet river hadé na sukáafu a gaudy scarf Both true adjectives and na adjectives can be used before désu, e.g. sono hón wa takái desu ‘that book is expensive’, ano kodomo wa chiisái desu ‘that child is small’, kono sukáafu wa kírei desu ‘this scarf is beautiful’. Note that in the latter case there is no na between the na adjective and desu. In Unit 3 we met the vocabulary items, wakái ‘young’ and génki ‘fit, healthy’. We can see now that these are a true adjective and 62 a descriptive noun, respectively, e.g. wakái onnánoko ‘a young girl’ and génki na krufu ga dáisuki desu. Kono iró wa mezurashíi desu. Mr Yamanaka loves golf. This colour is unusual. When arimásu is used, as it frequently is, in the sense of ‘to have’, it can also be used when the object is a person. In this case the object is marked with the particle, ga. More will be said about subjects and objects in Japanese in a later unit. Tanaka san wa Kankokujín no tomodachi ga arimásu. Sannin no kodomo ga arimásu or kodomo ga sannin arimásu. Mr Tanaka has Korean friends. I have three children. If you compare the two versions in the last example you will notice that a numeral and the appropriate classifier can come before the 68 noun to which it refers, in which case it is linked to the noun by the particle, no. Or the number expression can follow both the noun and its particle. The latter of these two constructions seems to be the more common. Dialogue 3 1 At the department store : : : : : : : : MÁRIA: TEN’IN: MÁRIA: TEN’IN: MÁRIA: TEN’IN: MÁRIA: TEN’IN: Chotto oukagai shimásu. Hái, nán deshoo ka. Kutsu-úriba wa nangai ni arimásu ka. Fujin no kutsú wa sangai ni arimásu. Shínshi no kutsú wa? Sangai désu. Arígatoo gozaimásu. Dóozo goyukkúri. I wonder if you could tell me… Yes. What would you like to know? What floor is the shoe department? Ladies’ shoes are on the second floor (first floor). What about gentlemen’s shoes? They’re the third floor (second floor). Thank you. Please take your time. ? MARIA: SHOP ASSISTANT: MARIA: SHOP ASSISTANT: MARIA: SHOP ASSISTANT: MARIA: SHOP ASSISTANT: Note that Japanese designates floor numbers in the same way as American English, i.e. ground floor = ‘first floor’, etc. 69 Vocabulary oukagai shimásu nán deshoo ka uriba kutsu-úriba kai nankai, nangai kutsú shínshi fujin goyukkúri I wonder if you can help me (literally, ‘I’d just like to ask’) what is it, I wonder (polite) department, counter shoe counter floor, storey (classifier) which floor shoes gentleman lady at leisure, taking time (honorific) Numeral classifier In this unit we meet the numeral classifier kai, which is used for counting floors or storeys in a building. Note the sound changes which occur when it combines with 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10. Remember, Japanese count floors starting from 1 at ground-floor level. ‘Which floor?’ is either nankai or nangai. 1 floor ikkai 6 floor rokkai th st 2 floor nikai 7 floor nanakai th nd 3 floor sangai 8 floor hakkai th rd 4 floor yonkai 9 floor kyuukai th th 5 floor gokai 10 floor jukkai th th Exercise 4.3 You ask the well-groomed young woman sitting at the first-floor information desk, annaijo, at Mitsukoshi department store, if she can direct you to various departments in the store. Using the cues (and vocabulary given below the exercise) ask her on which floor each sales counter is located, then repeat the answer to confirm that you have understood correctly. For example: Cue: men’s clothing, third floor Q: Shinshiyoofuku-úriba wa nangai ni arimásu ka. A: Wakarimáshita. Sangai désu ne. 70 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. electronic goods department, fifth floor camera department, sixth floor watch department, fourth floor furniture department, seventh floor sporting goods department, third floor computer department, fifth floor women’s shoes, second floor food hall, first-floor basement parking, second-floor basement plant nursery, roof Vocabulary denka-séihin denkaseihin-úriba chiká chika-íkkai chuushajoo shokuryoohin shokuryoohinúriba konpyúuta yoofuku shínshi fujin kágu tokei kutsú okujoo ueki-úriba electronic goods electronic goods counter/department underground, basement first-floor basement parking (station/ floor etc.) food food hall computer clothes gentleman lady furniture watch, clock shoes roof plant nursery Bigger numbers In Unit 3 we met the numbers from 1 to 99. Now we introduce the numbers from 100 to 100 million. Because the yen is a very small unit of currency you will soon become accustomed to using large numbers in 71 Japanese. The Japanese have a separate term for ten thousand which can make counting a little complicated for English speakers. Note the sound changes which occur in combination with other numbers. 100 hyakú 1,000 sén 10,000 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 ?00 nihyakú sánbyaku yónhyaku gohyakú roppyakú nanáhyaku happyakú kyúuhyaku nánbyaku 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 ?000 ni sén 20,000 sánzen 30,000 sanmán yónsen 40,000 yonmán gosén 50,000 gomán rokusén 60,000 nanasén 70,000 hassén 80,000 kyuusén 90,000 nanzén ?0000 nanmán ichimán nimán rokumán nanamán hachimán kyuumán Remember when pronouncing these numbers that n at the end of a syllable (i.e. hiragána ), is pronounced m before p, b or m. ‘One thousand’ is either sén or issén , but you do not get the choice with ‘one hundred’ and ‘ten thousand’. The former never has a ‘one’ in front of it and the latter always does. Numbers over ten thousand require a little extra practice. Notice that Japanese does not have a separate term for a million, preferring to say, ‘a hundred ten thousands’ instead. If you remember that ‘one million’ is hyakumán , you should not have too much difficulty. Consider, for example, the following: gomán 50,000 gohyakumán 5,000,000 gojuumán 500,000 gosenmán 50,000,000 Although you have learnt the kanji for the numbers, remember that the Arabic numerals we use in English are usually used in Japan too. Even when kanji are used, as, for example, for price labels or for numbering the pages in a book, large numbers are frequently written with just the basic kanji from 1 to 9 with the addition of the sign for zero, 0, e.g. instead of (¥350) written out in full, you might simply see, . 1 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 34 67 5 89 10 HYAKU (–BYAKU, –PYAKU) hundred SEN (–ZEN) thousand MAN ten thousand EN yen KO O taka (i) high, tall 72 1 23 6 8 4 5 12 45 6 3 1 2 3 6 4 10 5 7 1 9 8 4 2 5 3 12 6 5 4 3 7 yasu (i) cheap GAKU learning KOO school SEN saki ahead, future SEI student; life Exercise 4.4 Here are some words and phrases we have met before, but this time written in kanji. See if you can give the pronunciations and meanings of the following. You will need to refer to this unit’s new kanji given below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exercise 4.5 1 See if you can follow this passage. First try to read it without listening to the cassette tape. Then listen to the tape without looking at the text to see if you can understand the gist of the passage. Finally, follow the text as it is being read on the tape. First just listen, then try reading along with the native speaker, trying to imitate the Japanese intonation and grouping of syllables. 73 Katakána Now you have learnt all the hiragána syllables, you can concentrate your efforts into building up your store of katakána. We learn ten new katakána symbols in this unit. 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 fu ko n 1 3 hi 1 2 3 ki 1 2 1 2 2 1 yu ma mo tsu he Exercise 4.6 See if you can match the new katakána words with the appropriate illustrations on this and the next page. Some of the words might be a little difficult to guess. The Japanese word for ‘bread’, for example, is borrowed from the Portuguese. If in doubt, check with the key on p. 266. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 74 i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. r. s. t. 5 Getsuyóobi ni aimashóo. Let’s meet on Monday! In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • • • Make suggestions and issue invitations Offer to do something Say you are going to do something Talk about time – past, present and future Arrange the time and place for a meeting Say where something happens Count hours, days, months and years Say the days of the week Use the prefixes for this …, last …, next … and every … You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji: • 10 more katakána: Dialogue 1 1 While taking a stroll along the Ginza, doing what the Japanese call a Ginbura, Bob Smith bumps into his friend Shuuji Imada whom he met some years ago in New York. After exchanging the usual greetings Bob suggests they both get together with their mutual friend Harry Wong for a meal later in the week. 76 : : : : : : : : : : : : SUMISU: IMADA: SUMISU: IMADA: SUMISU: IMADA: SUMISU: IMADA: SUMISU: IMADA: SUMISU: IMADA: SMITH: IMADA: SMITH: IMADA: SMITH: Shibáraku desu ne. Ogénki desu ka. É, okagesama de. Otaku no minásan mo ogénki desu ka. É. Tokoróde, Imada san, Wón san to sanin de aimasén ka. Íi desu yo. Raishuu wa itsudé mo daijóobu desu. Sóo desu ka. Watashi wa kayóobi ga damé de, Wón san wa suiyóobi ga damé desu. Ja, getsuyóobi ni shimashóo ka. A, íi desu née. Jikan wa ítsu ga íi desu ka. Ja, minná de ohíru o tabemashóo ka. Sushikóo wa dóo desu ka. Íi desu née. Déwa, raishuu no getsuyóobi juuníji ni aimashóo. Hái. Déwa, watashi wa Wón san ni denwa shimásu. Sayonará. Ja, mata getsuyóobi ni. Sayonará. It’s been a while, hasn’t it? Are you keeping well? Yes. Thank you. Is everybody well at your place? Yes. By the way, Mr Imada, what say the two of us get together with Mr Wong? Fine! Anytime next week is all right with me. Tuesday is no good for me and Mr Wong can’t make Wednesday. 77 IMADA: SMITH: IMADA: SMITH: IMADA: SMITH: IMADA: Shall we make it Monday, then? Mm, that’s fine. What would be a good time? Then, what say we all have lunch together? What about Sushikóo? That would be nice. So, let’s meet next Monday at twelve. Sure. Then I’ll ring Mr Wong. Bye. Then, see you on Monday. Bye. Vocabulary shibáraku ogénki desu ka okagesama de for a while, for a (long) time Are you well? How are you? (honorific) Thanks to you (suggesting that my good health is the result of your being kind enough to ask after it) your place, you (honorific) all, all of you (honorific) by the way the three of us/them any time at all all right, okay, no need to worry no good is … and (form of désu used to link clauses) Shall we make it …?, what about …? midday, midday meal, lunch shall we eat telephone otaku minásama tokoróde sannin de itsudémo daijóobu damé de … ni shimashóo ka ohíru tabemashóo ka denwa More verbs So far we have met the Japanese copula, désu, which is used like the equals sign in an equation to equate one noun with another. In the last unit we were also introduced to the verbs arimásu and imásu which tell us where something, or, in the case of imásu, someone, is situated. We have also met one or two other verbs, which have been introduced as vocabulary 78 items to add a little zest to your Japanese conversation without your needing to worry exactly how they perform in the sentence. We have met kimáshita ‘came’ in expressions like Kánkoku kara kimáshita ‘I come (literally ‘came’) from Korea.’ We also met Wakarimáshita ‘I understand’ and Róndon ni súnde imasu ‘I live in London.’ Apart from the obvious fact that the Japanese verb comes at the end of the sentence, you will have noticed that many sentences end in –másu or –máshita. Actually, this is the ending you use to show politeness to the person you are addressing. It is the form used in all conversation, except between close friends and among children, so it is the most appropriate form for foreign learners of the language to start with. Later we will also learn the plain verb forms used in the written language and in subordinate clauses. Japanese marks the past tense with the ending –máshita. This indicates that the action of the verb is complete and contrasts with –másu, which is used for actions and states where the action is not yet completed. For this reason –másu doubles up to cover both present and future time and is hence often called the ‘non-past form’. Of course, each of these forms has a negative equivalent, as shown below. Non-past affirmative –másu Non-past negative –masén ikimasén (I) don’t go Past affirmative –mashita ikimáshita (I) went Past negative –masén deshita ikimasén deshita (I) didn’t go Suffix: Example: ikimásu (I) go Some verbs in Japanese which describe states rather than actions are generally used with some form of the auxiliary verb, imásu. The verb ‘to live’, for example, appears as súnde imasu ‘I live’, súnde imashita ‘I lived’, etc. More will be said of this construction in a later unit. In the meantime, remember these verbs in the contexts in which you have seen them so far. You will have noticed also that sometimes a Japanese adjective or descriptive noun is used where we would use a verb in English. Take, for example, the expressions in Japanese for liking or disliking something: hambáagaa ga sukí desu ‘I like hamburgers’. Verbs with shimásu Apart from its function as the freestanding verb ‘to do’, shimásu combines with a number of nouns to form quasi compound verbs. Here are 79 some common verbs with shimásu, and each one is followed by a sentence showing how it can be used. benkyoo shimásu Mainichi nánjikan benkyoo shimásu ka. ryóori (o) shimásu Píitaa san no ouchi de dáre ga ryóori o shimásu ka. shokuji (o) shimásu Kyóo wa issho ni shokuji shimasén ka. kekkon shimásu Onéesan wa ítsu kekkon shimashita ka. ryokoo shimásu Rainen Amerika o ryokoo shimásu. to study How many hours do you study every day? to cook Who cooks at your place, Peter? to have a meal, eat Won’t you join me for a meal today? to marry When did your elder sister get married? to travel Next year I’m going to travel through America. (Note: In this construction the course travelled is marked with the particle o.) Dialogue 2 1 Yamada and Tanaka are hiring a car. : : : : : : : : re YAMADA: Ashita rentakáa de doráibu ni ikimasén ka. TANAKA: Sore wa íi desu née. Dóko e ikimashóo ka. 80 YAMADA: TANAKA: YAMADA: TANAKA: YAMADA: TANAKA: Úmi to yamá to dóchira ga íi desu ka. Watashi wa dochira démo kamaimasén. Sore déwa yamá e ikimashóo. Dáre ga unten shimásu ka. Píitaa san ni onegai shimashóo. Soo shimashóo. Píitaa san wa unten ga joozú desu kara. YAMADA: Let’s hire a car and go for a drive tomorrow. TANAKA: That would be great! Where shall we go? YAMADA: Which do you prefer, sea or mountains? TANAKA: I don’t mind which. (‘I’d be happy with either.’) YAMADA: In that case, let’s go to the mountains. TANAKA: Who’ll drive? YAMADA: Let’s ask Peter. TANAKA: Let’s do that. Peter’s a good driver. Vocabulary re unten shimásu rentakáa de to drive car for hire, car rental with, by, by means of (instrumental particle) e to, towards (directional particle written with hiragána ‘he’). úmi sea dochira démo either one kamaimasén it doesn’t matter onegai shimásu to request (agent indicated by ni) désu kara because … is. (Often used, as in the example here, in an incomplete sentence to indicate a reason.) Exercise 5.1 How would the following statements be altered by the addition of the time expressions provided in the brackets (you can check their meaning in the table on p. 86)? Perhaps there are some sentences where no change is necessary. See the example below. Cue: Ikimasén (kinóo) A: Kinóo ikimasén deshita. 81 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tanaka san ni aimáshita. (ashita) Nihón ni ikimáshita. (rainen) Góhan o tabemáshita. (mainichi) Atarashíi kuruma o kaimásu. (séngetsu) Kyóo wa mokuyóobi desu. (kinóo) Vocabulary gohan atarashíi kuruma (cooked) rice; meal new car, cart Exercise 5.2 1 Here are some more time expressions to help you practise your tense endings. You can look up the days of the week on p. 85. otótoi asátte otótoshi sarainen the day before yesterday the day after tomorrow the year before last the year after next Now tell your Japanese friend: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You came from London the year before last. You are going to China the year after next. The day after tomorrow is Saturday. The day before yesterday was Tuesday. What’s today? That’s right. It’s Thursday. ‘How about …?’ In this unit we also meet the ending –mashóo, which is sometimes called the ‘tentative’, ‘propositive’ or ‘hortative’ suffix because it is used when you want to make a suggestion or put a proposition. In English we would normally say ‘let’s do’ something or other where Japanese would use the –mashóo construction. If the suggestion is more tentative, or if you want to give the listener the opportunity to suggest something else, the –mashóo sentence can be framed as a question, –mashóo ka ‘Shall we …?’ ‘What say we …?’, etc. Here are 82 some examples and an exercise to help you get the hang of this useful expression. Háyaku kaerimashóo. Yasúi no o kaimashóo. Nánji ni ikimashóo ka. Let’s go home quickly. Let’s go back early. Let’s buy the cheap(er) one. What time shall we go? Funnily enough, this last example can also mean ‘What time shall I come?’ in a context where the speaker is going to visit the listener. In Japanese kimásu is only used for movement towards the speaker or to a place associated with the speaker. In all other cases ikimásu is used. If we hear a knock at the door we might say, ‘Just a minute, I’m coming’ whereas a Japanese would say ‘Just a minute I’m going.’ The –mashóo ending also provides a very convenient way to offer to do something for someone. For example: Suutsukéesu o mochimashóo ka. Eigo de kakimashóo ka. Shall I carry your (mochimásu to suitcase for you? hold, carry) Shall I write it in English? Exercise 5.3 1 Soften the following statements and questions by rephrasing the ideas as propositions or suggestions, retaining the ka ending when it occurs. If called upon to do so, could you also translate your new sentences into English and also write them in Japanese script? Some of the kanji you will need for this exercise are introduced later in this unit. Just in case you feel the urge to do so, the answers are included in the key at the end of the book. Follow the example below: Cue: Sánji ni ikimásu. A: Sánji ni ikimashóo. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Íma kaerimásu ka. Aói no o kaimásu. Nánji ni aimásu ka. Hachíji ni tabemásu. Súgu ikimásu ka. 83 Knowing the object Japanese shows the relationship between the various elements in a sentence by the use of particles. We have already met some such as wa (topic), ga (subject), ni (location) and so on. In this unit we meet o, written with the hiragána symbol (once pronounced wo, but now indistinguishable in pronunciation from o ). This is another example of historical spelling, just as the topic particle pronounced wa is written with the hiragána character for ha . The object is the noun, i.e. the thing, person or concept affected by the action of the verb. Not all verbs have objects, but those that do so are called ‘TRANSITIVE VERBS’. Conversely, verbs which do not normally take an object are ‘INTRANSITIVE VERBS’. As we shall see later, the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs is an important one in Japanese grammar. Here are some more examples illustrating the use of the particle o. Nihonjín wa mainichi góhan o tabemásu. Dóno shinbun o yomimásu ka. Atarashíi kuruma o kaimáshita. The Japanese eat rice every day. Which newspaper do you read? I bought a new car. With verbs which indicate movement over a distance, or what we call ‘verbs of linear motion’, like ‘to go’, ‘to walk’, ‘to fly’ and ‘to run’, the object particle o is used to indicate the course of the movement and corresponds to English prepositions like ‘along’, ‘through’ and ‘over’. We meet this construction again in the next unit. Michi o arukimásu Sóra o tobimásu Nihón o ryokoo shimásu to walk along a road to fly through the sky to travel through Japan Note that some verbs, which are transitive in English and take a direct object, are intransitive in Japanese. One such verb is aimásu, ‘to meet’, which takes an indirect object, marked by ni, in Japanese. Kinóo Tanaka san ni aimáshita. Yesterday I met Mr Tanaka. Note that where the noun object forms a kind of compound verb with shimásu, as introduced on p. 78, the noun, which constitutes the first element, is not usually followed by the object particle o. For example: Jón san wa Tookyoo de Nihongo o benkyoo shimáshita. John studied Japanese in Tokyo. 84 Where the action is We have seen how location, ‘in’, ‘at’ etc., with the verbs imásu and arimásu is indicated using the particle ni. For example: Shachoo wa kaigíshitsu ni imásu The director is in the conference room With more active verbs, however, the place of action is indicated with de. For example: Mainichi kaisha de shinbun o yomimásu. Éki no kiósuku de zasshi o kaimáshita. I read the newspaper every day at the company. I bought the magazine at the kiosk at the station. Kanji In this unit we introduce the kanji for writing the days of the week and a few other time expressions. All of these are used very frequently and some are basic elements that occur in a large number of other kanji. It is important, therefore, that you cannot only recognise them in context, but that you can write them confidently. Practise writing them following the stroke order shown below: 1 3 4 2 4 1 2 6 5 3 7 6 1 3 2 4 9 5 10 11 2 1 12 3 5 7 4 3 6 6 4 5 8 KON ima now 3 2 1 4 2 RAI, ki (masu) come, next1 3 4 –MAI every, each SHUU week NEN tóshi year 2 1 6 3 2 1 3 4 5 7 4 12 3 KA hi fire SUI mizu water MOKU ki tree, wood KIN kane gold, metal; money DO tsuchi earth 85 The days of the week The days of the week are named after the five traditional Chinese elements of fire, water, wood, metal and earth with the addition of the sun (Sunday) and the moon (Monday) to make up the seven days of the week according to the western calendar. This solar calendar was introduced into Japan in 1872. The first kanji in the suffix –yóobi, used for naming days of the week, is rather complicated so it is given here with the reading indicated in small hiragána characters above the kanji. These hiragána symbols used to indicate the readings of difficult or unusual kanji are known as furigana. As we progress in this course we will be introducing more kanji with furigana to help you develop your reading skills in Japanese. Remember most kanji have both Chinese-style on-readings, used in compounds and other words borrowed from Chinese, and the native kun-readings, used when the character stands alone or forms part of a Japanese proper noun. There are exceptions to these rules of combination of kanji readings. Take, for example, the names of the days of the week where the first two kanji are read in the on-reading and the third –bi, is a variant kun-reading. Actually, the final –bi is optional. You will also hear getsuyóo ‘Monday’, etc. for the names of the days of the week. getsuyóobi kayóobi suiyóobi mokuyóobi kin’yóobi doyóobi nichiyóobi Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Prefixes in time expressions Although Japanese relies heavily on suffixes (i.e. endings) and particles, which follow the forms to which they refer, there are also a number of useful prefixes used with time expressions. The following chart shows how these are used. Note that there are some irregular forms. 86 sen– last … kon– this … rai– next … mai– every … –shuu week –getsu month –nen year –nichi day senshuu last week séngetsu last month * konshuu this week kongetsu this month kotoshi this year raishuu next week raigetsu next month rainen next year maishuu every week maigetsu, maitsuki every month mainen, maitoshi every year máinichi every day ** konnichi, kyóo ** today Notes: * sennen does not mean ‘last year’, but ‘in recent years’. ‘Last year’ is kyónen ( ). ** is pronounced senjitsu and means, ‘recently, the other day’. rainichi does not mean ‘tomorrow’ but ‘coming to Japan’. Of course, ‘yesterday’ is kinóo and ‘tomorrow’ is ashita. Time duration The numeral classifier for counting hours is –jíkan . The –kan of the suffix expresses duration and is also found in the classifiers for counting weeks, –shúukan and years, –nénkan . Although the –kan is required when counting hours or weeks, for counting years either –nénkan, or simply –nen may be used. For example: Nínen Nihón ni imáshita or Ninénkan Nihón ni imáshita. I was in Japan for two years. We have already met the suffix –gatsu , used for naming the months (ichigatsú ‘January’ etc.), but for counting months, the numeral classifier –kágetsu is used. For example: Sankágetsu Tookyoo de Nihongo o benkyoo shimáshita. I studied Japanese for three months in Tokyo. Incidentally, the permitted word order in Japanese sentences is very flexible. As long as the verb is at the end of the sentence, the order of the 87 subject, object and expressions of time and place can be changed about freely. To illustrate, the example above would mean the same thing if it were Tookyoo de sankágetsu Nihongo o benkyoo shimáshita or Nihongo o Tookyoo de sankágetsu benkyoo shimáshita. Generally, the words towards the front of the sentence seem to carry a stronger emphasis. Exercise 5.4 1 Here are some sentences to help you learn the Japanese script. First, read the sentences aloud, then check your results by comparing your voice with that on the tape. Then practise your comprehension skills by listening to the tape with your book closed. Finally, translate the sentences into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Exercise 5.5 Can you read this note Tom has left pinned to the door of his flat in Tokyo? He has been giving English lessons privately for about a year, while teaching himself Japanese with the aid of this book. 88 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which class has Tom cancelled? Why? What day did he say Yasuko should return? What time will the class be held? How do you think Yasuko feels about the note? Katakána The katakána symbols introduced in this unit will bring the total you have learnt to around thirty, leaving the final fifteen for the next two units. While it takes a bit of practice to remember katakána, you will find it a lot easier if you learn it in context rather than as isolated characters. You can usually guess the meaning of words written in katakána as the vast majority of them are borrowed from English. 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 4 u 1 3 2 o 1 2 1 sa 2 so ho 1 1 2 chi to na ni no Exercise 5.6 Here is the menu of a little coffee shop or kissáten in the back blocks of Shinjuku. Or was it Shibuya? Or perhaps even Ikebukuro? Somewhere in Tokyo anyway. 89 For the price of a cup of coffee you can sit there for an hour chatting with friends, writing letters or just listening to the music. Look at the menu and answer the questions below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How much would you pay for an iced coffee? What kinds of dessert are there? What is the most expensive beverage? How much would you pay for an orange juice and a hot dog? How much would an American coffee (not as strong as a regular Japanese coffee), toasted cheese on toast and a salad cost? 6 Suzuki san no kaisha e dóo yatte ikimásu ka. How do I get to your office, Mr Suzuki? In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • Give and follow directions Make requests Ask and give permission Discuss existing states and actions in progress Make longer sentences Say what you want to do Say why you go somewhere. You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji: • 10 more katakána: Dialogue 1 1 Not long after you arrive in Tokyo you decide to look up Mr Suzuki. You got his phone number and a letter of introduction from Mr Honda, whom you met in Unit 1. Mr Suzuki works in the Nihonbashi office of Mr Honda’s trading company. You meet in a kissáten (coffee shop) in Shinjuku to discuss your proposed visit to Mr Suzuki’s office. You may need to refer to the new kanji introduced later in this chapter. 91 : : : : :A : : : : : : : : : A : : (Looking at the map Mr Suzuki has drawn for you.) : : : ANÁTA: Suzuki san no kaisha e dóo yatte ikimásu ka. SUZUKI: Nihonbashi no chikatesu no éki no chikaku ni arimásu. Sono hen o yóku gozónji desu ka. ANÁTA: Iie, amari yóku shirimasén. Chízu o káite kudasaimasén ka. SUZUKI: Áa, íi desu yo. Chikatetsu no éi no ní no dégcribe a state most Japanese verbs use the –te imásu construction, as shown below. kekkon shimásu to marry futorimásu to get fat yasemásu to get thin tsukaremásu to become tired okorimásu to get angry yorokobimásu to rejoice onaka ga sukimásu to get hungry nódo ga kawakimásu to get thirsty kekkon shite imásu to be married futótte imasu to be fat yasete imásu to be thin tsukárete imasu to be tired okótte imasu to be angry yorokónde imasu to be happy onaka ga suite imásu to be hungry nódo ga kawaite imásu to be thirsty 97 The literal meaning of onaka ga sukimásu is ‘the stomach becomes empty’ and nódo ga kawakimásu means ‘the throat becomes dry’. In either case a plain past tense verb can be used to convey much the same idea as the –te imásu form. For example: Onaka ga sukimáshita or Nódo ga kawakimáshita I’m hungry I’m thirsty Some verbs seem to occur only in the –te imásu construction, for example: Ásako san wa Jiroo san o ái shite imásu. Asako loves Jiro. The verb shirimásu to get to know, occurs in the –te imasu form in the affirmative, but not in the negative. Yamamoto san o shitte imásu ka. Iie, shirimasén. Do you know Mr Yamamoto? No, I don’t. The honorific expression gozónji desu ka ‘do you know?’, introduced in this unit, is a safer alternative if you are addressing an older person or a social superior of little acquaintance. If you are addressed this way yourself you must not reply using the honorific prefix go–. You can say either shitte imásu or zonjimásu if you are replying in the affirmative and shirimasén or zonjimasén if your answer is negative. Exercise 6.1 1 Imagine you are having a telephone conversation with a Japanese friend. Your friend asks you what you are doing now. Just as in English we would not expect the reply ‘I’m talking to you over the phone’ so too in Japanese – the –te imásu form refers more generally to what we have been doing recently or how we have been spending our time these days. The point about the activity described in the –te imásu form is that it is not finished. Using the cues given below tell your friend what you are doing. Follow the example below: Cue: reading a magazine (zasshi) Q: Íma náni o shite imásu ka. A: Íma zasshi o yónde imasu. 98 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. washing the car (kuruma, araimásu, arratte) writing a letter (tegami) studying Japanese cleaning the room watching television (térebi) The following are not recorded on the cassette tape. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. waiting for a friend (machimásu, mátte) listening to the radio (kikimásu, kitte) reading a novel (shoosetsu) drinking coffee (nomimásu, nónde) making a cake (kéeki, tsukurimásu, tsukútte) Exercise 6.2 Match the following pictures with the appropriate captions. a. b. c. d. e. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. futótte imasu okótte imasu tsukárete imasu yasete imásu yorokónde imasu Requests using the ‘–te form’ 1 The –te form followed by kudasái is a very useful way to request someone to do something for you. Actually, this auxiliary is a form of the verb, ‘to give’, which will be treated in greater detail in the discussion of verbs of giving and receiving in Unit 12 (see p. 195). For the time being, you can think of kudasái as being close to the idea of ‘please’ in 99 English. Here are some requests that any language learner would find indispensable. Listen to the examples from the list below recorded on the cassette tape. Moo ichido itte kudasái. Mótto yukkúri hanáshite kudasai. And if all that fails you could try: Eigo de itte kudasái. Please say it in English. Please say it again. Please speak more slowly. Another very useful phrase is … o oshiete kudasái ‘please teach me’ or ‘please tell me’: Nihongo o oshiete kudasái. Yuubínkyoku e no michi o oshiete kudasái. Please teach me Japanese. Please tell me the way to the post office. While these –te kudasái forms make perfectly acceptable requests for most situations, there are times when you might need a more polite expression. Generally, you can make a request more polite by framing it as a question. A negative question is politer still. It is interesting to see how a similar pattern can be seen in both the Japanese sentences below and their English translations. Chízu o káite kudasai. Chízu o káite kudasaimasu ka. Chízu o káite kudasaimasen ka. Please draw me a map. Would you draw me a map? Wouldn’t you draw me a map? A very polite request form, which you are likely to hear and perhaps even use yourself, is –te itadakemásu ka, which we shall gloss for the time being as ‘would you be so kind as to …’ or ‘would you mind …’, but which we shall see later is also bound up with the idea of giving and receiving. Shitsúrei desu ga, onamae o oshiete itadakemásu ka. Excuse me, but would you mind telling me your name? 100 The particle o with verbs of motion You will recall that intransitive verbs which describe movement from one place to another often mark the location through which the motion occurs with the particle o. The English gloss for this o might be a preposition like ‘along’, ‘through’, ‘over’, etc. Sono semái toorí o massúgu itte kudasái. Tsugí no kádo o migi e magatte kudasái. Densha ga nagái tonneru o toorimashita. Please go straight along that narrow road. Turn right at the next corner. The train went through a long tunnel. Exercise 6.3 Using the request form introduced above, ask your friend to do the following for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Write it in romanised Japanese (roomáji). Wait a minute (use chotto). Say it again. Ring you at three o’clock. Draw (write) you a map. Dialogue 2 1 A stranger is asking directions to the central post office. In the written text of this dialogue we have introduced some additional kanji compounds for recognition only. From this point on we will indicate with furigana the pronunciation of any words written with kanji not previously introduced. : : : 101 : : : : : : : : : OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: OTOKÓNOHITO: ONNÁNOHITO: Sumimasén. Hái. Chotto oukagai shimásu ga chuuoo-yuubínkyoku wa dóchira deshoo ka. Tsugi no kádo o hidari e magatte, hirói michi o zutto massúgu itte kudasái. Soko no kádo o hidari desu ne. Hái, sóo desu. Soshite mittsume no shingoo o migi e magatte kudasái. Suruto, súgu arimásu. Tookyoo éki, Marunóuchi no minamiguchi no máe ni arimásu. Arúite nánpun gurai kakarimásu ka. Soo desu nee. Shigofun kakarimásu. Dóomo arígatoo gozaimashita. Áme desu kara tochuu kara chikádoo o tóotte itte kudasái. Hái. Dóomo, goshínsetsu ni. Dóo itashimashite. MAN: WOMAN : MAN: WOMAN : Excuse me. Yes? I wonder if you could tell me where the central post office is? Turn left at the next corner, and keep going straight along the wide road. 102 MAN: WOMAN : Left at the corner there, is it? Yes, that’s right. And turn right at the third set of traffic lights. Then it’s right there. It is in front of the Marunouchi southern entrance to Tokyo Station. About how many minutes will it take on foot? Let me think. It’ll take four or five minutes. Thank you very much. As it is raining, take the underground walkway part of the way. (literally, ‘from along the way’) Yes. It’s very kind of you (to suggest that). Not at all. MAN: WOMAN : MAN: WOMAN : MAN: WOMAN : Vocabulary chótto oukagai shimásu tsugí hirói áme áme desu kara a little; just excuse me, may I ask …? next wide, broad, spacious (room) rain because it is raining (literally, ‘because it is rain’) walking, on foot along the way, part of the way underground walkway aruite tochuu chikádoo Exercise 6.4 A new flatmate has moved into your flat. You decide to show him around the town. Can you explain how to get from where you are standing to the following places? You’ll need to familiarise yourself with some new vocabulary items first. Try to come up with your own directions first then check your answers in the Key to the Exercises (p. 268). 103 Vocabulary éki basutei takushii-nóriba chuushajoo gasorin-sutándo eigákan kooen súupaa konbíni byooin hanáya yaoya kusuriya station bus stop taxi rank car park petrol station cinema, movie theatre park supermarket convenience store hospital florist greengrocer chemist, pharmacy 104 saisho no hajime no hitotsume futatsume mittsume yottsume tsukiatari shingoo koosaten toorí oodan-hódoo watarimásu watatte kudasái wataru to mukoogawa mukoo tonari kooban koosaten temae mata tsugi first first, beginning first second third fourth end of the road/corridor etc.; T-junction signal, traffic lights intersection, junction street, road pedestrian-crossing to cross please cross when one crosses opposite side opposite, beyond, overseas next to, neighbouring police box cross-roads, junction in front of, before (with location) again; further next, following Use the map and the vocabulary list supplied above and give her the directions she needs. For those of you without the tape we have given cues in English and sample answers in the key at the back of the book. Q: Dóo yatte gasorin-sutándo e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, futatsume no shingoo o hidari e magatte kudasái. Gasorin-sutándo wa migigawa de, súupaa no tonari désu. 1. 4. 7. 10. the post-office the park the florist the convenience store 2. the school 5. the hospital 8. the restaurant 3. the taxi rank 6. the chemist 9. the station Make sure you can explain how to get to all of the destinations marked on the map. 105 Ordinal numbers In addition to the quasi-Chinese set of numbers, ichí, ní, san, etc., Japanese has a set of native numerals which are used with the suffix –tsu to count miscellaneous objects with no obvious numeral classifier and also for counting age. The native numerals have been largely replaced by the Chinese numerals and are now generally found only up to ten. Here are the native Japanese numerals up to ten, paired with the numeral classifier, –tsu. Notice the word for ‘ten’ does not take the classifier. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 hitótsu futatsú mittsú yottsú itsútsu muttsú nanátsu 8 9 10 yattsú kokónotsu tóo It is this set of numbers, up to ten at any rate, which take the ordinal number suffix –me . In the previous exercise we met hitotsume ‘the first’, futatsume ‘the second’, etc. It is also possible to use the Chinese set of numerals with the ordinal suffix, –bánme, as in ichibánme ‘the first’, nibánme ‘the second’, etc. After 10, of course, the –bánme alternative must be used, e.g. sanjuuichibánme ‘the thirty-first’. Exercise 6.5 1 1. Listen to this dialogue we overheard in a department store. A middleaged female customer is looking for the toilet. She asks a young shop assistant for help. You can find the romanised version of this passage and the translation in the key at the back of the book. : : : ? 106 : : 2. Now imagine you are working in a large resort hotel. A Japanese guest approaches and asks you the way to the gentlemen’s toilet. Using the cues and vocabulary items given below, direct the guest to where he has to go. He is greatly relieved to find someone here who can speak Japanese. Tell him to go straight ahead down here until he reaches the end of the corridor. Then he should turn right and he will find the gents’ on his left. ? Vocabulary josei woman, female dansei man, male kono saki ni ahead, along in front tsukiatari mázu oteárai end of the road/ corridor, etc. first, to start with toilet This last is a rather genteel word. You will also hear tóire borrowed from English, obénjo or simply benjo (the form with the o- prefix is softer, more feminine) and keshóoshitsu, a euphemism equivalent to ‘powder room’. Expressing your wishes with –tai One good way to say what you want to do is simply to use the suffix –tai on the verb stem. Another way of putting this might be to say that you replace the –másu ending with –tai, as the verb stem is what is left after –másu has been removed. The –tai ending is conjugated like an adjective, giving the negative forms, either –taku arimasén or –taku nái desu. As the –tai ending behaves like an adjective, you would expect the object of a verb with –tai to be marked by ga, but although purists still insist on ga, it is not at all uncommon to hear o used in this position instead. Kyóo wa Chuuka-ryóori o tabetái desu. Ashita wa ikitaku arimasén (or ikitaku nai desu). Today I want to eat Chinese food. I don’t want to go tomorrow. 107 As –tai implies a degree of subjective judgement it is not usually used to refer to third persons and only refers to the second person in questions. Nihongo de hanashitáku arimasen ka. Don’t you want to speak Japanese? Coming or going to do something The verb stem followed by the particle ni and a verb of coming or going is used to express a reason for going somewhere. Pán o kai ni ikimáshita. Éiga o mí ni ikitai désu. Shuumatsu ni asobi ni kite kudasái. I went to buy bread. I want to go to see a film. Please come to visit (literally ‘to play’) at the weekend. In this construction the idea of going seems to have precedence over the other action, with the result that the place phrase, if mentioned, is followed by the directional particle e or ni. Yokohama e Chuuka-ryóori o tabe ni ikimashóo ka. Shall we go to eat Chinese food in Yokohama? Exercise 6.6 1 Using the English cues given below, create a role-play dialogue in which Asako says she would like to do something and you respond suggesting that you both do it together. For example: Cue: buy new clothes Asako: Atarashíi yoofuku ga kaitai désu. You: Já, issho ni kai ni ikimashóo. 1. eat Chinese food 4. study English in London 2. see a film 5. listen to rock music 3. buy a mobile phone Kanji In this unit we introduce the kanji for some common Japanese verbs and adjectives, some of which we have met before. The letters in parenthesis are to be written in hiragána. 108 1 2 3 23 4 2 1 3 4 56 12 7 + 7 = 14 strokes 7 4 5 6 4 1 3 5 2 1 6 57 68 9 10 11 KOO i (kimásu) to go KAI ai (másu) to meet BAI ka (imásu) to buy 4 BAI u (rimásu) to sell DOKU, TOKU yo (mimasu) to read 1 2 12 9 3 4 10 11 13 14 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 2 1 3 5 6 7 8 9 1 6 8 5 7 2 56 3 7 4 8 9 11 14 10 12 13 1 2 3 5 7 8 4 6 9 10 11 12 10 GIN silver SHA company SHO ka (kimásu) to write BUN ki (kimásu) to hear SHIN atara (shíi) new Katakána We have almost come to the end of the katakána syllabary. The five remaining symbols will be introduced in Unit 7. You should now be able to read and write almost all of the katakána words you come across and most of you should be able to write your names in katakána. 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 4 2 ke 2 se te 2 ne 1 1 nu 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 ya yo ru re ro 109 Exercise 6.7 What do the items in each of the following lists of katakána words have in common? The answers plus the meaning and romanisation of the words appear in the Key to the Exercises (p. 271). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exercise 6.8 1 First, read through the following passage silently to yourself. Then, following the written text with your eyes listen carefully to the voice on the cassette tape. Finally, read the passage aloud. Can you answer the questions below the passage? New vocabulary items are given below the passage. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Where did I meet Mr Yasuda? When did I meet Mr Takayama? Why do you think Mr Takayama speaks such good English? Where does Mr Takayama work? What do Mr Yasuda and Mr Takayama have in common? What project is Mr Yasuda engaged in at the moment? 110 Vocabulary shinbun-kísha tsutómete imasu shigoto mukashi inaka ni tsúite joozú na journalist, newspaper reporter works for, serves (takes ni) work formerly, in the past country(side) about be skilled in, be good at 7 Dónna kanji no hito désu ka. What does he look like? In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • • • • Describe how things look or seem Ask, give and refuse permission Report what people say or think Explain when things happen Make compound sentences Give reasons Use plain-form verbs in subordinate clauses Form the plain past-tense form of verbs Describe sequences of events Say what happened before something else. You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji: • 5 more katakána: Dialogue 1 1 Graham Short is due to arrive at Narita Airport tomorrow morning. Mr Abe, a division head with Nichiei Trading asks his young Australian assistant, Bruce, to go to the airport to meet him. Bruce wonders how he will recognise Mr Short. : 112 : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ashita, Igirisu kara Shóoto san ga kimásu kara, kuukoo e mukae ni itte kudasai. Ása kúji sanjúppun no hikóoki de tsukú yotei désu. BURUUSU: Sóo desu ka. Tokoróde, Shóoto san wa dónna iro no fukú o kite iru deshóo ka. ABE: Fákkusu ni yoru to kón no sebiro o kite, aói nékutai o shímete kuru soo desu. BURUUSU: Sóo desu ka. Sore de wa dónna kanji no hito ka oshiete kudasái. ABE: Sóo desu née, kao wa hósokute, kaminóke wa chairo da sóo desu. BURUUSU: Mégane o kákete imasu ka. ABE: 113 ABE: BURUUSU: ABE: BURUUSU: ABE: BURUUSU: ABE: BURUUSU: ABE: Iie, kákete imasen. Sé no takasa wa dóo desu ka. Sé wa takákute, yasete iru sóo desu. Déwa, namae to hantai désu ne. Hontoo desu nee. Sore kara, nenrei désu ga, yónjuu gurai rashíi desu. Hái. Daitai dónna kanji no hito ka wakarimáshita. Sore déwa, ashita onegai shimásu. Hóteru ni chekkuín shite kara, kaisha ni tsurete kite kudasái. Hái, wakarimáshita. Tomorrow Mr Short is coming from England, so please go to the airport to meet him. He is scheduled to arrive in the morning on the 9:30 plane. I see. By the way, what colour clothes will he be wearing? According to the fax he’ll be wearing a navy suit and a blue tie. Oh really? Then could you tell me what he looks like? Let me think, they say he has a narrow face and brown hair. Does he wear glasses? No, he doesn’t. What about his height? Apparently he is tall and thin. Then, he is the opposite of his name, isn’t he? That’s right, isn’t it! Then there’s his age. Apparently he is around forty. I see. Well then, I have a pretty good idea what he looks like. Well then, I’m counting on you for tomorrow. Bring him to the office after he has checked in at the hotel. Yes, certainly sir. BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: ABE: BRUCE: Vocabulary kara kuukoo mukae ni itte fukú fákkusu … ni yoru to because …, … and so (conjunction) airport going to meet clothes fax, facsimile according to … 114 hikóoki tsukú yotei dónna kanji fukú deshóo ka áo kao hósokute kaminóke mégane sé no takasa yasete iru … sóo desu nenrei gurai daitai chekkuín suru tsurete kúru aeroplane, plane arrive schedule, plan what kind of feeling, impression clothes … do you think? blue (noun) face slender and …, thin and … hair (of head) glasses, spectacles height is thin they say …, apparently age about more or less, approximately check in (verb) to bring (a person) Compound sentences The easiest way to expand on the simple sentence is to combine two contrasting sentences with ga or keredomo (kedo in informal colloquial speech), both of which carry the idea of ‘but’ in English. Generally, in these constructions the verb before ga or keredomo carries the same –másu ending as the verb at the end of the sentence. You should take care to pronounce these clause-final particles as if they were attached to the preceding verb and not as the first word of the second clause as we do in English. Jikan wa arimasu ga, okane wa arimasen. I have the time, but I don’t have the money. Note that in sentences of this kind, where a strong contrast is implied, the contrasting nouns are usually followed by the particle wa. Abe san wa kimásu ga, Yamamoto san wa kimasén. Nihongo wa mushikashíi desu keredomo, omoshirói desu. Mr Abe is coming, but Mr Yamamoto is not. Japanese is difficult, but it is interesting. 115 Giving reasons Another common compound sentence is formed by two clauses linked by kara, ‘because’. The clause preceding kara gives the reason for the action described by the main verb at the end of the sentence. Íma jikan ga arimasén kara, ashita shimásu. I haven’t time now, so I’ll do it tomorrow. Sometimes, a sentence ending in kara is tacked on as if it were an afterthought. Ashita ni shimashóo. Kyoo wa isogashíi kara. Let’s make it tomorrow. I’m busy today. As in this example, Japanese tends to be more explicit, indicating the reason with kara, whereas in English the reason is implied by simply juxtaposing the two sentences. Exercise 7.1 Match the consequences in the left-hand column with the most appropriate reasons on the right, joining them into a single sentence with kara. Several new vocabulary items are introduced in this exercise. Follow the example below: Cue: ashita shimásu kyoo wa isogashíi desu A: Kyoo wa isogashíi desu kara ashita shimásu. Consequences 1. háyaku yasumimásu 2. 3. 4. 5. tabemásu bíiru demo nomimashóo sen’en kashite kudasái kusuri o nomimásu Reasons a. onaka ga itái desu (I have a stomach ache) b. onaka ga sukimashita (I’m hungry) c. okane ga arimasén d. tsukarete imásu e. nódo ga kawakimáshita (I’m thirsty) Vocabulary onaka nódo stomach, belly throat kawakimásu kasu to become dry to lend 116 sukimásu tsukaréru to become empty to become tired kusuri itai medicine hurts, aches, is painful Verbs in the plain form We have seen Japanese verbs with the polite –másu ending and in the gerund or –te form. Another form of the verb is the PLAIN FORM, often also called the ‘dictionary form’ for the obvious reason that this is how verbs are usually listed in dictionaries. Here again it is necessary to revisit the four conjugations of Japanese verbs, the copula, consonantroot verbs, vowel-root verbs and irregular verbs. Here, using some verbs we have already met, are examples of the –másu form, –te form and the plain form of each of these verb conjugations: Form Conjugation copula consonant-root verb vowel-root verb irregular verb –másu form désu kakimásu tabemásu shimásu –te form de káite tábete shite –plain form da (de aru) ( ) káku tabéru suru All vowel-root verbs have dictionary forms ending in –ru, but not all verbs ending in –ru are vowel-root verbs. That is to say, it is not always possible to tell the dictionary form from the –másu form. Verbs ending in –emásu are all vowel-root verbs with plain forms ending in –eru, but with other verbs you can never be really sure. If you know the dictionary form you can accurately predict the –másu form, except in the case of verbs ending in –ru, where you need the additional information of the verb’s conjugation before you can correctly assign its –másu form. Take, for example, the Japanese equivalents of the verbs ‘to wear’ and ‘to cut’, the vowel-root verb kiru and the consonant-root verb kíru (note the difference in pitch accent), which respectively have the –másu forms kimásu ‘wears’ and kirimásu ‘cuts’. To form the –másu form from the plain form, then, vowel-root verbs simply drop the –ru ending and add –másu, whereas consonant-root verbs drop the final –u and add –imásu. In the process of adding the –imásu ending, verbs ending in –tsu and –su undergo slight sound changes becoming –chimásu and –shimásu 117 respectively. For example, mátsu ‘to wait’ becomes machimásu and hanásu ‘to speak’ becomes hanashimásu. Note that the plain-form equivalent of the copula, désu, is da. The plain-form past tense We have already met the past-tense marker, –ta, in the polite, final-verb endings –máshita and déshita. This ending attaches to the verb stem in the same way as the –te form does and undergoes all the same sound changes depending on the immediately preceding sounds. For practical purposes, then, all you need do to form the plain past tense is to substitute an ‘a’ for the final ‘e’ of the –te form. káite writing yónde reading itte going káita wrote (plain past tense form) yónda read (plain past tense form) itta went (plain past tense form) Uses of the plain form The plain form is used as a final verb in casual conversations between family members or close friends and when talking to children. As you become more fluent in Japanese you will learn when it is appropriate to switch to the plain form for final verbs. In the meantime, however, you should continue using the polite style, ending every sentence in –másu or désu. You cannot avoid learning the plain forms, however, as they occur frequently in non-final verbs (i.e. in subordinate clauses). The various uses of the plain form will be introduced gradually over the next few units. In this unit we introduce the plain form as it is used in a number of time constructions and for quoting what one says or thinks. Probability The conjectural form of the copula, deshóo, is used after a plain-form verb to express probability, supposition or speculation. Tanaka san wa ashita kúru deshoo. Mr Tanaka will probably come tomorrow. This same sentence with the final deshóo pronounced with a rising then falling question intonation means something like, ‘Mr Tanaka will be coming tomorrow, won’t he?’ or ‘I’m right in thinking Mr Tanaka will be coming tomorrow, aren’t I?’ 118 After a verb in the plain past tense, deshóo, usually expresses a supposition. Abe san no hikóoki wa moo Tookyoo ni tsúita deshóo. Mr Abe’s plane must have already arrived in Tokyo. Before The plain form of the verb followed by the noun, máe ‘front’, is used to convey the idea of ‘before’. The use of the time particle ni after máe seems to be optional. Where it is used it emphasises the point of time more precisely. Irassháru máe ni denwa o kudasái. Tookyoo ni kuru máe Róndon ni súnde imashita. Please give me a ring before you come. Before I came to Tokyo I lived in London. After … –ing … ‘–te kara’ We have seen the particle, kara, used after a noun in the sense of ‘from’, e.g. Tookyoo kara Shizuoka made Shinkánsen de ichijíkan kakarimásu. ‘It takes an hour on the Shinkansen (‘bullet train’) from Tokyo to Shizuoka.’ After the –te form of a verb, kara means ‘after’. In this construction the event in the main clause (i.e. the verb at the end of the sentence) generally follows on immediately after the verb in the subordinate clause and the sequence of events has been planned in advance by the subject of the main clause. Shokuji shite kara térebi o mimáshita. Suzuki san ga kite kara soodan shimashóo. Nihón ni tsúite kara súgu Nihongo no benkyoo o hajimemásu. I watched television after having my meal. Let’s discuss it after Mr Suzuki comes. I’ll start studying Japanese immediately after I arrive in Japan. A sentence such as Senséi ga káette kara Fújiko san ga kimáshita ‘Fujiko came after the teacher had gone home’, would indicate that Fujiko had timed her arrival to occur after the teacher’s departure. Where this sense of planning is absent, ‘after’ is expressed with the conjunction, áto ‘after’. More of this construction later. 119 Exercise 7.2 1 Listen to the pairs of sentences given on the cassette tape and join them with máe ni or –te kara as the sense demands. You should have time to give your answer before the correct answer comes on the tape. You should keep the sentences in the same order when you combine them. Cue: dekakemásu térebi o keshite kudasái A: Dekakeru máe ni térebi o keshite kudasái. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. kaisha e dekakemásu okane o iremásu bótan o oshimásu denwa o shimáshita jogingu o shimasu nemásu chooshoku o tabemásu bótan o oshimásu nomímono ga déte kimásu denwa-bángoo o shirabemáshita sháwaa o abimásu sutóobu o keshite kudasái Vocabulary dekakéru kesu chooshoku or asa-góhan chuushoku or hiru-góhan yuushoku or ban-góhan bótan to set out, leave (for = e) to put out, turn off breakfast lunch dinner button osu nomímono déte kuru sháwaa o abiru to push drink to come out to have a shower, take a shower to sleep, go to bed stove, heater neru sutóobu Indirect or reported speech or thought To report what you or others have said or what you think, the Quotative Particle, to, ‘that’ or ‘thus’, is used after the verb in the subordinate clause (i.e. clauses containing a non-final verb) and the principal clause contains a verb of saying or thinking. In casual conversation, you will often 120 hear this particle pronounced te or tte, but for the time being you should stick to the standard pronunciation, to. Suzuki san wa ashita kúru to iimáshita yo. Onamae wa nán to osshaimásu ka. Jón to mooshimásu. Nihon-ryóori wa oishii to omoimásu ka. Mr Suzuki said he is coming tomorrow, you know. What is your name? (honorific) My name is John. (formal) Do you think Japanese cooking tastes good? Another way to indicate that you are passing on what someone else has told you is to simply add sóo desu (the accent is lost after an accented verb) ‘I hear’, ‘they say’, ‘the story goes’, etc., after the plain form of the verb. Ashita kúru soo desu. Ano résutoran wa takái soo desu yo. Apparently he is coming tomorrow. They say that restaurant is expensive, you know. The expression yóo desu ‘it seems’, ‘it looks as if ’ is similar to sóo desu, but tends to be used to indicate a judgement based on visible evidence rather than hearsay. Kono térebi wa kowárete iru yoo desu. This television appears to be broken. Another expression used after a plain verb form, rashíi desu, ‘it seems’, ‘it appears’, can be used for either hearsay or appearance, thus combining the functions of sóo desu and yóo desu. Anóhito wa máinichi gókiro hashíru rashíi desu yo. Apparently he runs five kilometres every day. Indirect questions The quotative particle, to, is not generally used in reported or indirect questions. In this case the question particle, ka, follows the plain verb 121 form in the subordinate clause in conjunction with a main verb of asking, telling, understanding, knowing or believing. Kyoo nánji ni káeru ka wakarimasén. Anóhito ga náni o itte iru ka sappári wakarimasén. I don’t know what time I’ll (or ‘he’ll’) be home today. I can’t understand a word he is saying. It is usual to leave out the plain copula, da, before the question marker ka, as in the following examples taken from the opening dialogue, but you will sometimes hear the sequence da ka … in indirect questions. Sore dewa, dónna hito ka oshiete kudasái. Taitei dónna kanji no hito ka wakarimáshita. Nán da ka wakarimasén or Náni ka wakarimasén. Then, tell me what sort of person he is? I have a general idea of what kind of person he is. I don’t know what it is. When or whenever We have met the particle to used to link nouns in the sense of ‘and’ or ‘with’ and we have seen in this unit how to can be used to mark the end of a quotation. Another clause-final particle, to, which follows the plain present tense (dictionary form) of the verb, expresses the idea of ‘when’, ‘whenever’ or ‘if ’ . When the final verb is in the present tense the main clause is a natural or habitual consequence of the clause ending in to. In this construction the main verb cannot be an imperative, request or verb expressing the speaker’s determination. Suzuki san ga kúru to tanoshíi desu. Íma súgu iku to básu ni ma ni aimásu yo. It’s fun when Mr Suzuki comes. If you go straight away you’ll be in time for the bus. When the final verb is in the past tense there is not necessarily an antecedent and consequent relationship between the clauses, but there is often a sense of surprise at the outcome expressed in the main verb. 122 Mádo kara sóto o míru to áme ga fútte imashita. Uchi ni káeru to kodomo ga byooki de nete imáshita. When I looked out of the window (I was surprised to notice that) it was raining. When I got home my child was sick in bed. The time when, toki Another very common way of expressing time is simply to use a verb in the plain form followed by the noun toki ‘time’. This last construction, however, is used only for ‘when’ and does not carry the sense of hypothetical or uncertain events conveyed by English ‘if ’ or Japanese to. Kaisha ni tsúita toki ni wa súgu watashi ni denwa shite kudasái. When you get to the office please ring me at once. Sequences of events While nouns can be joined with to, verbs, adjectives and clauses are linked by putting all but the final element in the –te form. The –te form carries no tense in itself, the tense being conveyed by the final verb. Kaisha e itte shinbun o yomimáshita. Tookyoo e itte Nihongo o benkyoo shitai désu. Kono résutoran no shokuji wa oishikute yasúi desu. I went to the office and read the newspaper. I’d like to go to Tokyo and study Japanese. The food at this restaurant is tasty and cheap. Permission and prohibition A verb in the –te form followed by the particle mo means, ‘even if one does …’. Perhaps the most common use of this construction is in combination with íi desu, ‘it is good’, ‘it will be all right’, etc., to indicate permission. Koko de tabako o sutte mo íi desu. Kono hón o karite mo íi desu ka. You may smoke here. May I borrow this book? 123 Instead of íi desu, kamaimasén (‘it doesn’t matter’) can be used to make the expression a little softer. Kyoo wa háyaku káette mo kamaimasén. Today you may go home early (literally, ‘I don’t mind even if you go home early’). The idea of prohibition is suggested with the use of –te wa damé desu, literally, ‘as for doing …, it is no good’, or –te wa ikemasén ‘as for doing …, it will not do’, etc. Résutoran de tabako o sutte wa ikemasén. Sono hón o karite wa ikemasén. You must not smoke in the restaurant. You must not borrow that book. Exercise 7.3 A young Japanese on a working holiday is spending a week at your place to improve his English. You explain to him the rules of your house. Follow the example and use the lists below to tell your visitor what he can and cannot do. Cue: tabako o suimasu (to smoke cigarettes) A: Sóto de tabako o sutté mo íi desu. Náka de tabako o sutté wa damé desu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. keitai-dénwa o tsukaimásu (to use a mobile phone) kakimásu hanashimásu haraimásu (to pay) sháwaa o abimásu (abite) to take a shower Prohibited náka de eigákan de (in the cinema) enpitsu de (in pencil) Nihongo de (in Japanese) en de (in yen) yóru (at night) Permitted sóto de (outside) básu de (on the bus) pén de (with a pen) Eigo de (in English) dóru de (in dollars) ása When you have finished making your pairs of dos and don’ts, try joining them into a single sentence with ga (‘but’). For example: Sóto de tabako o sutté mo íi desu ga, náka de sutté wa damé desu. 124 Now practise asking permission, approving or rejecting your own requests according to the instructions in the permitted and prohibited columns. Follow the two examples: Q: Keitai-dénwa o básu de tsukatté mo íi desu ka. A: Hai, tsukatté mo íi desu. Q: Keitai-dénwa o eigákan de tsukatté mo íi desu ka. A: Iie, tsukatté wa damé desu. Exercise 7.4 You have just arrived at a traditional Japanese inn, or ryokan, in a hot spring (onsen) resort in the Japanese Alps. After changing into your summer kimono or yukata you come down to the front desk to sort out a few problems. Fill in the blanks in the following dialogue that you have with the manager. MANAGER: YOU: MANAGER: YOU: MANAGER: YOU: MANAGER: YOU: MANAGER: YOU: MANAGER: Ohéya wa ikága desu ka. How is your room, Sir/Madam? Íi héya de, nagamé mo subarashíi desu. It is a nice room with a wonderful view. Oki ni itte itadaite ureshíi desu. I’m glad you like it. Keredomo, 1. _________________________ (the TV is broken) Dóomo sumimasén. Súgu naoshimásu. I’m very sorry. We’ll fix it at once. 2. _________________________________ (Are the shops [mise] in the hotel lobby [róbii] open now?) Iie, íma wa 3. ______________________ (No, they are closed now.) Shokuji wa moo 4. _____________________ (Is the meal ready yet?) Iie, máda 5. ________________________ (No, it’s not ready yet.) Ja, 6. _______________________________ (Is there an automatic vending machine, then?) Hái, dansei no ofúro no máe 7. _______________ (Yes, there is one in front of the men’s bath.) You will need some vocabulary items to complete this exercise. 125 Vocabulary ohéya heyá nagamé subarashíi oki ni itte itadaite ureshíi naósu akimásu shimarimásu kowaremásu dékite imasu moo máda jidoohanbáiki dansei josei ofúro your room, room (honorific) room view wonderful to have you like it, that you like it happy, glad to fix, mend to open (intransitive) to close (intransitive) to break, get broken (intransitive) to be ready, to be done already still (not) yet automatic vending machine men, male women, female bath Exercise 7.5 1 Listen to the passage on the tape then answer the following questions in English. You will need to learn a few more vocabulary items, listed below, before you can follow the passage. You will find the answers in the Key to the Exercises (p. 272). For those of you without the cassette tape, a romanised version of the passage appears in the Key to the Exercises. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Where was Mr Tanaka born? How old is he now? What does Mr Tanaka look like? What sport did he play at university? Which university did he attend? When did he graduate? How often does he play tennis these days? Which company does he work for? Where is Mr Tanaka working now? What is happening next year? 126 Vocabulary umareru hikúi sumóobu tsutoméru kawaru sotsugyoo suru sei hairu to be born short, low the sumo club to work for (takes ni) to change, move, transfer to graduate stature, height, build rejoin, enter, fit Possession Japanese makes a distinction between owning things which may be taken away by others (alienable possession) and things which are intrinsically part of the individual. So to express the idea of ‘to have’ with material objects, Japanese generally uses the verb áru ‘to be’, ‘to exist’, e.g. Takayama san wa atarashíi kuruma ga arimásu. ‘Mr Takayama has a new car., On the other hand ‘to have’ with parts of the body, etc., is conveyed with the verb suru ‘to do’. Séeraa san wa aói me o shite imasu. Yásuko san wa kírei na te o shite imasu. Sarah has blue eyes. Yasuko has beautiful hands. Wearing clothes In Japanese a number of different verbs are used where we would use ‘to wear’ in English. As we have seen the general verb ‘to wear’ is the vowel-root verb kiru ‘to wear’ or ‘to put on’. There are, however, more specific verbs for headwear, kabúru; footwear, trousers, skirts, etc., haku; glasses, necklace, pendant, etc., kakéru; tie or belt, shiméru; gloves or rings, hameru; jewellery, tsukéru. To have or wear a beard (hige) or moustache (kuchihige) is expressed with the verb hayásu ‘to grow’. Exercise 7.6 1 Read the description and match each sentence with the appropriate illustration. 1. Tanaka san wa kurói booshi o kabútte ite, mégane o kákete imasu. 2. Ueda san wa shirói booshi o kabútte ite, mégane o kákete imasen. 127 3. 4. 5. 6. Tákushii no unténshu san wa shirói tebúkuro o hamete imásu. Aóyama san wa kuchihige o hayáshite ite, kurói óbi o shímete imasu. Yamamoto san wa kírei na buróochi o tsukéte imasu. Aoki san wa gurée no sebiro o kite ite, shirói kutsú o haite imásu. A B C D E F When you have identified all the people from the clues on the tape, try describing the characters in the pictures in Japanese. Finally see if you can write all their names in Japanese. You will need a few more vocabulary items to complete this exercise. Vocabulary booshi óbi buróochi unténshu tebúkuro gurée hat sash, belt brooch driver gloves grey 128 Katakána and kanji With these five katakána symbols we have come to the end of both native Japanese syllabaries. You will rarely see two of these new syllables. is used exclusively for the grammatical function of indicating the object and is hence not used in writing words borrowed from other languages. The only time you might see it is in a text written entirely in katakána, as in a telegram or a computer game. has been manufactured artificially by combining the symbol for u and the nigori marks to convey the ‘v’ sound of European languages, but, apart from its use in some names, it has been virtually abandoned in favour of katakána syllables beginning with b. For example, is now usually written , ‘violin’ . This unit’s new kanji appear directly below the katakána. 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 4 5 e 1 4 7 5 6 wa 2 3 8 6 8 3 4 (w)o 12 3 4 7 5 6 n 9 10 11 vu 7 12 3 4 1 2 5 7 1 3 9 8 12 2 6 4 5 SHOKU ta (bemásu) to eat JI kotó thing, fact IN no (mimásu) to drink SHA karuma car, cart FUN minute BUN part, share wa (karimásu) to understand 1 1 5 2 3 4 6 2 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 57 6 8 1 4 2 3 2 3 45 6 7 SOO hayá (i) fast, early HAKU shiró (i) white SEI aó (i) blue, green SHU té hand SHI watashi, watakushi I, me 129 Exercise 7.7 Read the following sentences aloud. To make sure you have understood what you have read check with the English equivalents in the Key to the Exercises. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 8 Shinai-kánkoo ni ikimashóo. Let’s take the city tour! In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • Use the past tense of adjectives Give advice and suggest alternatives Use adjectival clauses Express ability to do something using kotó ga dekíru Express experience using kotó ga áru Make comparisons using the particle yori. You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 Miss Yamada is about to set off on a city tour. We overhear her discussing the day’s schedule in the lobby with the tour guide. She seems to be more interested in shopping for souvenirs than seeing the city sights, however. : : : : 131 : : : : : : : YAMADA: GÁIDO: YAMADA: GÁIDO: YAMADA: GÁIDO: YAMADA: GÁIDO: YAMADA: GÁIDO: YAMADA: Kyóo wa nánji ni shuppatsu shimásu ka. Hachíji desu. Chooshoku o tábete kara súgu róbii ni atsumátte kudasai. Hái, wakarimáshita. Kore kara iku tokoro wa ómo ni shínai desu ka. Ée, gózen wa shinai-kánkoo desu. Gógo wa hakubutsúkan to bijutsúkan o mí ni iku yotei désu. Sóo desu ka. Kaimono o shitái n’ desu ga, ítsu dekimásu ka. Kaimono wa yuushoku no máe ni dekimásu. Mise ga shimáru jikan wa daitai nánji góro desu ka. Sóo desu née. Daitai rokúji góro desu. Tanomáreta o-miyage ga takusan áru n’ desu ga. Daijóobu desu yo. Menzéiten wa osoku máde aite imásu kara. Itsudemo kau kotó ga dekimásu. Áa yókatta. YAMADA: What time do we leave today? GUIDE: At 8 o’clock. Please assemble in the lobby straight after breakfast. YAMADA: Right. Will the places we go to now be mainly in the city? GUIDE: Yes, in the morning we’ll do a city tour. In the afternoon we plan to go to see the museum and the art gallery. YAMADA: I see. I’d like to do some shopping. When will I get the chance to do it? GUIDE: You will be able to do some shopping before dinner. YAMADA: About what time do the shops close? GUIDE: Let me see. Mostly around six o’clock. YAMADA: I’ve got lots of presents I’ve been asked to buy. GUIDE: It’ll be all right. The duty-free shops are open until late. You can buy them any time. YAMADA: Ah. That’s good. 132 Vocabulary shuppatsu suru róbii atsumáru ómo ni gózen gógo shinai-kánkoo hakubutsúkan bijutsúkan mí ni iku shitái n’ desu ga dekimásu (from dekíru) mise shimáru góro tanomáreta omiyage n’ desu ga to leave, depart lobby to gather, assemble mostly, mainly morning, a.m. afternoon city tour, city sight-seeing museum art gallery to go and see, go to see I would like to, but … to be able to do; can shop to close about have been asked, have been requested souvenirs, presents you see, the fact is … (used to give an explanation) duty-free shop late (adverb) to be open Good! I’m glad (past tense of adjective) … menzéiten osoku aite iru yókatta Past tense of adjectives True adjectives in Japanese behave in much the same way as verbs. They can constitute predicates in their own right and they also occur in the past tense. In the Dialogue above we met the exclamation, yókatta ‘Good! I’m glad’, etc. Actually, this is the past tense form of yói ‘good’, the more formal form of íi, which we have seen several times before. It should be noted that íi, in fact, is rather restricted in its use. It does not occur in the adverbial form or in the past tense, being replaced by yóku 133 and yókatta respectively. The past tense of true adjectives is formed by adding the suffix –katta to the adjective root, or, if you prefer, by replacing the –i of the present tense by –katta. In the polite speech style a past tense adjective in the principal clause is followed by a form of the copula, désu. Kinóo no chuushoku wa oíshikatta desu. Senshuu wa zútto isogáshikatta desu. Yesterday’s lunch was delicious. I was busy all last week. The negative past tense of true adjectives is formed by adding –nakatta (the past tense of the suffix nai, ‘not to exist’, ‘to be not …’, which is actually an adjective in form to the adverbial form (–ku form) of the adjective. Ano éiga wa amari omoshíroku nakatta desu. That film was not very interesting. Remember that the –tai, ‘(I) want to …’, ending introduced in Unit 6, also behaves like an adjective. Consequently, it forms its past tense with –katta: Kono máe no nichiyóobi ni hanamí ni ikitákatta desu ga, áme ga furimáshita kara ikimasén deshita. Last Sunday I wanted to go and see the cherry blossom, but I didn’t go because it was raining. Exercise 8.1 Read the sentences below then change the time expression as indicated, making any other changes the sense demands. For example: Cue: Kyóo wa isogashíi desu. (kinóo) A: Kinóo wa isogáshikatta desu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kyóo no shokuji wa totemo oishíi desu. (kinóo) Kyóo no éiga wa amari omoshíroku nai desu. (senshuu) Nihongo no shikén wa ítsumo muzukashíi desu. (sengetsu) Kónban no páatii wa tanoshíi deshoo née. (yuube) Kyóo no okyakusan wa amari óoku nai desu. (kinóo) 134 Vocabulary shikén ítsumo examination always yuube óoi last night numerous Giving advice and suggesting alternatives The noun hoo, ‘direction’, ‘side’ is used in comparisons and, after the plain past tense of a verb, to give advice. Chooshoku o tábete kara súgu dekáketa hoo ga íi desu. You had better set out straight after breakfast. It would be better to leave straight after breakfast. You’d better ask Dr Tanaka. You’d better get up early tomorrow. Tanaka senséi ni kiita hoo ga íi desu. Ashita háyaku ókita hoo ga íi desu. Notice that a past-tense verb is used even where the reference is to an action in the future. Exercise 8.2 Answer your Japanese friend’s questions with a recommendation to do what is suggested in the question. Follow the example below: Q: Íma súgu kaerimashóo ka. A: Ée, íma súgu káetta hoo ga íi desu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Koko de mátte mo íi desu ka. Móo hajimemashóo ka. Háyaku okimashóo ka. Takai no o kaimashóo ka. Nihongo de hanashimashóo ka. Vocabulary móo hajiméru okíru already to start, begin to get up 135 Adjectival clauses In Japanese descriptive words and phrases always precede the nouns they describe. We have seen how the descriptive phrase can be a noun followed by the particle no, as in Tookyoo no hóteru, ‘hotels in Tokyo’. It can be a na adjective, as in kírei na haná ‘beautiful flowers’, or an adjective, takái yamá ‘a high mountain’. Actually, takái yamá means ‘a mountain which is high’. Sometimes a noun might be described by an adjective in the past tense, e.g. isogáshikatta toki ‘when I was busy’. In the same way, a verb can also be used to describe a following noun, e.g. máiasa yómu shinbun ‘the newspaper I read every morning’ or kinóo átta hito ‘the person I met yesterday’, raishuu iku tokoro ‘the place I am going to next week’. These clauses are generally equivalent to a relative clause in English, but because they precede rather than follow the noun they describe we prefer to call them ‘adjectival clauses’. The time clauses (when something happens/happened, etc.) we met in the last unit with a plain tense verb followed by toki, ‘time’ are actually adjectival clauses, literally, ‘the time, when …’. Kinóo kaisha ni tsúita toki ni hoka ni dáremo imasén deshita ‘When I arrived at the company yesterday there was nobody else there’. In adjectival clauses the subject particle, ga, is often replaced by no. Kore wa Suzuki senséi ga káita hón desu or Kore wa Suzuki senséi no káita hón desu. This is the book Dr Suzuki wrote. Vocabulary hoka ni dáremo besides, apart from nobody, anybody Exercise 8.3 Combine two simple sentences into a compound sentence using an adjectival clause as in the example below. Cue: Kore wa hón desu. (kinóo kaimáshita) A: Kore wa kinóo katta hón desu. 136 1. Anóhito wa Suzuki san desu. (senshuu Méari san no páatii de aimáshita) 2. Kore wa booshi désu. (ototoi depáato de kaimáshita) 3. Íma shinbun o yónde imasu. (kore wa Asahi-shínbun desu) 4. Kore wa tegami désu. (watashi ga Nihongo de kakimáshita) Exercise 8.4 Using the English prompts combine the phrases given below into sentences containing adjectival clauses, following the example below. Cue: (The person I am going to meet this afternoon is Dr Yamakawa.) A: 1. (I hear the book I bought yesterday is a bestseller.) 2. (Who is the person wearing a kimono?) 3. (There are things I wish to discuss.) 4. (The film I saw yesterday was funny.) 5. (Which are the things you are taking to China?) ‘Can do’ We have already met the verb dekíru in the sense of to be able to speak a foreign language, e.g. Chuugokugo ga dekimásu ka ‘Can you speak Chinese?’ It is also used in a number of idiomatic expressions in which it has the basic meaning of ‘to be done’, ‘to be ready’, ‘to be produced’. Shashin wa ítsu dekimásu ka. Okinawa déwa paináppuru ga dekimásu. When will the photos be ready? In Okinawa they can grow pineapples. 137 Dekíru replaces suru in those verbs made up of a noun plus the verb ‘to do’, such as benkyoo suru ‘to study’, unten suru ‘to drive’, kaimono suru, ‘to shop’, etc., to express ability or potential. Kuruma no unten ga dekimásu ka. Koko de okane no ryoogae ga dekimásu ka. Can you drive a car? Can I change money here? (ryoogae suru ‘to change money’) To make a potential form of a verb with dekíru it is necessary first to transform the verb into a noun phrase with the addition of kotó ‘thing’, ‘fact’. That is to say, the plain present-tense form (or dictionary form) of the verb plus kotó ga dekíru expresses the idea, ‘can do ...’. Nihongo o káku koto ga dekimasu ka. Sashimí o tabéru kotó ga dekimásu ka. Can you write Japanese? Can you eat sashimi (raw fish)? Experience This same kotó, is also used with the verb áru ‘to exist’, ‘to have’, to express the idea of experience. When kotó ga áru is used after the plain past tense of a verb it means ‘to have done …’. After the plain present tense it means, ‘to sometimes do …’. Nihón ni itta kotó ga arimásu ka. Nihón no éiga o míru kotó ga arimásu ka. Have you (ever) been to Japan? Do you ever see Japanese films? Exercise 8.5 1 The Japanese Embassy in London is seeking to employ a local member of staff who can drive, cook, use a computer and speak Japanese. The following is the text of the interview between the applicant and the Senior Consul, Mr Tanaka. Imagine you are the applicant responding to Mr Tanaka’s questions. When you have finished filling in the blanks, listen to the complete interview on the cassette tape. TANAKA: Kono shigoto ni wa kuruma no unten ménkyo ga hitsuyoo désu ga, unten dekimásu ka. APPLICANT: (Tell him you can. You have licences for both car and motorbike.) 138 TANAKA: APPLICANT: TANAKA: APPLICANT: TANAKA: APPLICANT: TANAKA: APPLICANT: TANAKA: APPLICANT: TANAKA: APPLICANT: Tama niwa resépushon ga áru toki ryóori no tetsudái mo shimásu ga, ryóori ga dekimásu ka. (Tell him you can. Explain that you used to work in a hotel in Paris.) Dónna ryóori ga dekimásu ka. (Tell him you can cook Italian food. Say you can also cook Chinese and Thai food.) Parii no hóteru de Chuuka-ryóori o naraimáshita ka. (Say no. You learnt from your mother.) Okáasan wa Chúugoku no katá desu ka. (Tell him your mother isn’t Chinese. She is Japanese.) Nihongo o joozu ni hanásu kotó ga dekimásu ga, káku kotó mo dekimásu ka. (Tell him you can write only hiragána and katakána.) Konpyúuta wa dóo desu ka. (Tell him you can use a computer.) You will need some more vocabulary items to do this exercise. Vocabulary licence katá person (honorific, not used to refer automobile, car to oneself or motorbike occasionally, one’s family) sometimes resépushon reception … wa dóo what about …? dake only (e.g. hiragána desu ka only (takes a negadake desu ‘(I know) shika tive verb, e.g. only hiragana.’) Nihongo shika tetsudái help, assistance dekimasén ‘I hataraku to work can only speak tsukúru to make Japanese.’) ménkyo jidóosha ootóbai tama níwa Comparisons There is no change in the form of adjectives to express the comparative or superlative degree. Instead, Japanese uses the particle yóri ‘than’, the 139 noun hoo ‘side’, ‘direction’ and a set of demonstrative pronouns dótchi, kótchi, etc. Tookyoo wa Róndon yori ookíi desu. Sukiyaki yóri sushi ga sukí desu. Tokyo is bigger than London. I like sushi more than sukiyaki. A question of the type, ‘Which is … er, A or B?’ is expressed as A to B to (déwa), dótchi ga …desu ka. Nihongo to Chuugokugo to déwa dótchi ga muzukashíi desu ka. Which is more difficult, Japanese or Chinese? Corresponding to the question word dótchi or its more formal equivalent dóchira ‘which one of two?’ are the demonstrative pronouns kótchi/kochira ‘this (one of two)’, sótchi/sochira ‘that (one of two)’ and átchi/achira ‘that (one of two over there)’. Sótchi o kudasái. Please give me that one (of two). These demonstrative pronouns are also used to indicate direction, ‘this way’, ‘that way’, etc. The forms ending in –ra, in particular, are more polite and are often used in invitations or instructions. Kochira e dóozo. This way please. For emphasis the hoo we met earlier in the unit can be used. Róndon yori Tookyoo no hoo ga zutto hirói desu. Tokyo is far larger than London. Where only one of the items in the comparison is mentioned, it is usual to use hoo. Tookyoo no hoo ga hirói desu. Tokyo is the larger. Comparison can also be suggested by using the adverb mótto, ‘more’. Mótto yasúi no ga arimasén ka. Don’t you have a cheaper one? 140 Superlatives are generally expressed with the aid of ichiban, ‘number one, most’. Ichiban ookíi kutsú o mísete kudasai. Please show me your biggest pair of shoes. Exercise 8.6 Using the data supplied below, fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 178 cm, 174 cm) 170 cm 68 kg, 160 cm 92 kg) 1930 , 1935 ) , ) , ) , ) 26ºC, 22ºC) , ) __________wa ___________ yori se ga takái desu. ___________wa ___________ yori futótte imasu. ___________wa ___________ yori toshiue désu. ___________yori __________no hoo ga hayái desu. ___________wa ___________ yori yasúi desu. ___________wa ___________ yori takái desu. ___________wa ___________ yori atatakái desu. ___________no hoo ga tsugoo ga íi desu. Vocabulary se ga takai … nen-umare toshiue hima tsugoo ga íi … to be tall (literally, ‘stature is tall’) born in … (year) older, more senior (person’s age) free time to be convenient, to be suitable Dialogue 2 1 Frank Anderson is talking to his business associate Mr Baba about his coming trip to Japan. 141 : : : : : : : : ANDÁASON: BABA: ANDÁASON: BABA: ANDÁASON: BABA: ANDÁASON: BABA: Raishuu Nihón ni iku yotei desu ga, Nihón ni iru aida wa sakura no haná ga mitái desu. Choodo íma hanamí no kísetsu desu yo. Hanamí ni dóko ga íi desu ka. Kyóoto no Arashiyama ga yuumei desu ga, Tookyoo démo míru kotó ga dekimásu yo. Tookyoo déwa dóko ga íidesu ka. Kóokyo no mawari ya, Meiji-jínguu ya, Inokashira-kóoen nádo mo ninki no áru tokoro désu yo. Watashi ga iku kaisha wa kóokyo no chikáku desu kara, choodo yókatta desu. Tenki ga íi to íi desu ne. Áme ga fúru to sakura wa súgu chirimásu kara. ANDERSON: I’m going to Japan next week and while I’m there I’d like to see the cherry blossom. BABA: It’s just the right season for viewing the cherry blossom. ANDERSON: Where is a good place for seeing the cherry blossom? BABA: Arashiyama in Kyoto is famous (for its cherry blossom), but you can also go blossom viewing in Tokyo. ANDERSON: I wonder where in Tokyo would be good? BABA: The area around the Imperial Palace, the Meiji shrine and Inokashira Park and so on are all popular spots. 142 ANDERSON: That’s just fine for me. The company I’m going to is near the Imperial Palace. I hope the weather is good. Cherry blossom scatters as BABA: soon as it rains. Vocabulary … yotei désu ga iru aida sakura hana chóodo hanamí kísetsu Arashiyama yuumei (na) kóokyo mawari Meiji-jínguu Inokashira-kóoen … ya… ya nádo ninki ga áru chikáku tenki … to íi desu chiru to plan to… and (when first clause is a general statement and second is explanation of detail) while (I am) in cherry (tree) flower just, precisely, exactly cherry-blossom viewing season place name famous Imperial Palace surrounds, area around the Meiji Shrine the Inokashira park and, such things as … and … (used to join similar items) et cetera, and so on to be popular vicinity, nearby weather (I) hope…, it will be good if … to scatter, fall (of blossom) Exercise 8.7 1 Listen to the dialogue on the cassette tape and answer the questions which follow. You will find a romanised transcription of this passage in the Key to the Exercises (p. 275). 143 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Where was Jane born? In what year was she born? What did she do when she graduated from university? Where is she working now? What does the company produce? Who are the main users of the product? What does Jane say she wants to do next year? What does she intend to do in September? Vocabulary … ni tsutómete iru ryokóosha … no tame no Eiji to be working in / for … traveller, tourist bakkupákkaa hitotachi back-packer people (–tachi = plural suffix) overseas for …, for the kaigai sake of … English script, English language Kanji In this unit we introduce ten more kanji. As many of them are used in Dialogue 2, we suggest that you read through the list of new characters, then go back to the Japanese script version of the dialogue. 6 1 23 2 8 1 4 35 68 7 1 3 5 2 4 11 9 10 6 7 8 1 4 5 7 56 2 7 3 8 4 10 9 11 12 2 1 4 5 7 3 6 TOO higashi east KYOO capital TO metropolis KAN aida interval; between KA haná flower 144 12 3 4 5 12 1 3 4 7 3 2 4 3 45 6 7 1 8 2 9 1 2 378 9 4 5 6 5 6 MOKU me eye KEN mi (másu) to see GO zodiac sign of the horse; noon ZEN máe front; before GO, KOO áto after ushi (ro) behind Exercise 8.8 Rewrite the following romanised sentences in Japanese script, using kanji, hiragána and katakána as appropriate. Check with the answers in the key at the back of the book to see if you have understood them correctly. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Senshuu Kyóoto e itte kimáshita. Raigetsu Tanaka senséi to hanamí ni ikimásu. Me no máe ni takusan no kírei na haná ga arimáshita. Gógo gojihán ni Tookyoo-éki no máe de mátte ite kudasai. Tookyoo wa Kyóoto yori ookíi desu. 9 Hóteru de At the hotel In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • Discuss conditions and consequences Use more numeral classifiers Narrate what happened in the past Talk about doing two or more things at the same time Talk about doing things frequently or alternatively using –tari • Use the indefinite pronouns dáreka, nánimo, etc. You will also acquire: • 10 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 Come along with me as I check in with my family at a hotel in Kyoto. Just my luck! There has been a mix-up over my booking. This is the conversation I had with the young woman at the hotel front desk or furónto. : : … : : : … 146 : : : … : : : : FURÓNTO: KURÁAKU: FURÓNTO: KURÁAKU: FURÓNTO: KURÁAKU: FURÓNTO: KURÁAKU: FURÓNTO: KURÁAKU: FURÓNTO: Irasshaimáse. Kuráaku desu ga, chekkuin o shítai n’ desu. Hái, kashikomarimáshita. Shóoshoo omachi kudasái. Tadáima oshirabe itashimásu. Tsúin to dáburu no heyá o yoyaku shimáshita ga. Hai, Kyóo kara asátte made sanpaku de, yonin sama désu ne. Sóo desu. Ohéya wa sháwaa-tsuki no heyá desu ne. Iie, yoyaku shita tokí wa, furó-tsuki no heyá o onegai shitá n’ desu ga … Mooshiwake gozaimasén. Kyóo wa chótto gozaimasén ga, ashita deshitara, áru to omoimásu. Déwa, ashita furó-tsuki no heyá ga áttara kaette kudasái. Kashikomarimáshita. Sore déwa, kochira ni gojuusho to onamae o onegai shimásu. Sore kara, sain o kochira ni onegai shimásu. Hái, wakarimáshita. May I help you? My name is Clark. I’d like to check in, please. Yes, certainly Sir. Just one moment please. I’ll check your booking now. I booked one twin and one double room. Three nights from tonight till the day after tomorrow for four people, isn’t it? KURÁAKU: FRONT DESK: CLARK: FRONT DESK: CLARK: FRONT DESK: 147 CLARK: FRONT DESK: CLARK: FRONT DESK: CLARK: FRONT DESK: CLARK: That’s right. Your room was a room with a shower, wasn’t it? No. When I made the booking, I asked for a room with a bath. I’m terribly sorry, Sir. We don’t have anything today, but I think we could find you one tomorrow. Well then, if you have a room with a bath tomorrow please change the room for me. Certainly, Sir. Well then, could you write your name and address here, please? Then sign here, please. Yes, I see. Vocabulary furónto chekkuin shóoshoo omáchi kudasai tadaima oshirábe itashimasu yoyaku suru tsúin dáburu sanpaku front desk, reception to check in a little (formal) please wait (honorific) just now; now (formal) I’ll check / investigate (respectful) to reserve, book twin (-bed room) double (-bed room) three nights’ stay (haku = counter for nights’ stay) four people (very formal) your room (honorific) with a shower with a bath I requested you know, but … We’re terribly sorry (very formal) There aren’t any, I’m afraid. yonmeisama oheya sháwaa-tsuki furo-tsuki onegai shita n’ desu ga mooshiwake gozaimasen gozaimasén ga … 148 kaeru gojúusho sáin o onegai shimásu to change address please sign (formal request) More ways to say ‘if’ and ‘when’: –tára In Unit 7 we met the clause-final particle to, which expresses the idea of ‘if, when or whenever’. It describes natural or habitual consequences beyond the control of the subject of the main verb and therefore cannot be used in sentences which contain a request or command. This restriction does not apply to the suffix –tára which is perhaps the most common ways of saying ‘if ’ or ‘when’ in Japanese. It attaches to the stem of verbs, undergoing the same sound changes as with the –te form and the plain past tense. The accent of the first syllable of –tára is lost if the vowel stem already carries an accent. In essence you can form the –tára conditional by attaching ra to the plain past tense, e.g. tábetara ‘if one eats’, ittára ‘if one goes’. This also applies to adjectives, which form their plain past tense by adding –katta to the adjective root, e.g., isogáshikatta ‘was busy’ and the conditional by adding a further –ra, isogáshikattara ‘if you are busy’. The basic meaning of the –tára conditional is ‘if or when the action of the subordinate verb is completed the action of the main verb follows’. Yókattara chotto ocha demo nomimasén ka. Okane ga áttara ryokoo shitai desu. Okyakusan ga kitara watashi ni oshiete kudasai. If you like, what about having a cup of tea or something? If I had the money, I’d like to travel. Please let me know when the visitors come. When the main verb is in the past tense, the –tára construction, like to, usually carries a connotation of surprise. Uchi ni káettara tomodachi ga kite imashita. When I got home (I was surprised to discover) my friend had come. The difference between the uses of to and –tára can be illustrated by comparing the following two sentences. 149 Fuyú ni náru to sukíi ni ikimasu. Fuyú ni náttara sukíi ni ikimásu. When winter comes I go skiing. (i.e. every year, habitual consequence.) When winter comes I’m going skiing. (i.e. this year, single event.) –(r)éba Another conditional suffix, –(r)éba is attached to the verb root (the dictionary form of the verb minus the final u or, with vowel-root verbs and irregular verbs, –ru). The –(r) of this suffix drops when it is preceded by a consonant and the accent is lost with accented vowel roots, e.g. káku becomes kákeba ‘if one writes’, asobu becomes asobéba ‘if one plays’, tabéru gives tabéreba ‘if one eats’, akeru akeréba ‘if one opens’, kúru kúreba ‘if one comes’, suru suréba ‘if one does’, and so on. With true adjectives –kereba is added to the adjective root, yókereba ‘if it is good’, átsukereba ‘if you are hot’. Remember nái, the plain form of arimasén, behaves like an adjective, so its –(r)éba conditional is nákereba ‘if there is not’. The meaning of –(r)éba overlaps a great deal with -tára and in most cases the two are interchangeable. There are, however, a number of idiomatic expressions in which the –(r)éba conditional is preferred. As these are associated with the plain negative form of the verb they will be introduced in the next unit. In the meantime familiarise yourself with the formation of the –(r)éba conditional and learn to recognise it in contexts such as those introduced in the next exercise. Exercise 9.1 Complete sentences 1–8 by choosing an appropriate clause from the list below. You will probably need to refer to the vocabulary list at the end of the exercise. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 8. _____________________ 150 a. c. e. g. b. d. f. h. Vocabulary saki ni núgu omáwarisan hitóyasumi chuushi first, ahead, before to take off (clothes, etc.) policeman, policewoman a rest, a break cancellation, calling off Exercise 9.2 1 Listen to these examples on the tape and repeat, paying particular attention to the intonation patterns and the positions of pauses. Make sure you understand what the sentences mean by checking your translations against the Key to the Exercises (p. 275). You will need a few more vocabulary items, which you can find listed here below the exercise. Some of the kanji included here are those introduced later in this lesson. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Vocabulary ma ni áu hoshíi sugíru densha suku móofu tasu undoo to be in time (‘for’ = ni) to want to pass, exceed, be more than train (electric) to become empty blanket to add exercise 151 While – ‘nagara’ The idea of someone doing two or more things at the same time is expressed by –nagara attached to the verb stem: tabenágara ‘while eating’, kakinágara ‘while writing’, utainagara ‘while singing’. With accented verbs the accent moves to the first syllable of –nagara, while unaccented verbs have unaccented –nagara forms. In Japanese, the major, or longer, activity tends to go into the main clause, and the subordinate, or shorter activity, into the clause with –nagara, which seems, to me at least, to be the reverse of what happens with the use of ‘while’ in English. Shinbun o yominágara asagóhan o tabemáshita. Koohíi o nominágara soodan o shimáshita. I read the newspaper while I was having breakfast. We discussed it over a cup of coffee. If the subjects of the clauses are different, ‘while’ is expressed with aida ‘interval of time’, or aida ni after the plain present tense of the verb. Kánai ga kaimono o shite iru aida, kuruma de zasshi o yomimáshita. While my wife was shopping I read a magazine in the car. Exercise 9.3 How would you describe these situations in Japanese using –nagara? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Asako is eating potato chips as she reads a newspaper. Last night my mother fell asleep while watching television. The truck driver always listens to the radio while driving his truck. Tsutomu is singing a song while having a bath. My son often listens to music while he is studying. Vocabulary potetochíppu inemúri o suru rájio utá potato chips, crisps to fall asleep, doze off (when not in bed) radio song 152 utau musuko ofúro ni háiru sing (often used with , e.g., to sing) son (usually my son) to have a bath More numeral classifiers When counting objects in Japanese you must be careful to use the right numeral classifier. We have met some already, but in most cases, as for example when we were counting hours or minutes or the floors of the department store, the Japanese categories had clear English equivalents. This is not the case when we are counting dogs or pencils or cars, all of which come with a numeral classifier in Japanese and no particular word in English. The kanji for some of these numeral classifiers are introduced in this unit. With some common exceptions, most of the classifiers combine with numerals from the pseudo-Chinese set, ichí, ní, san, etc., often undergoing sound changes in the process. You will find an extensive chart of these classifiers and the sound changes in the Grammar Summary at the end of the book (p. 299). For counting miscellaneous objects with no clear numeral classifier, you should use the native Japanese set of numbers, hitótsu, futatsú, mittsú, etc., or the Chinese numerals followed by –ko, e.g. íkko, níko, sánko, etc. The numeral and its classifier usually appear in the adverbial position before the verb, but it is also possible to place the number followed by no in front of the noun to which it refers. When the number and its classifier follow the noun, the subject, topic or object particles are often omitted. The usage should be clear from the following example sentences and phrases. Note that sound changes occur most frequently in combinations with 1, 3, 6 and 8. Honda san wa ie ga níken to kuruma o sándai mótte imasu. Buráun san wa mainichi koohíi o róppai nomimásu. Inú ippikí to kanariya ichíwa kátte imasu. ‘Shichínin no samurai’ wa Kurosawa Ákira no ichiban yuumei na éiga desu. Mr Honda has two houses and three cars. Mr Brown drinks six cups of coffee every day. We have one dog and one canary. (káu to keep, have (a pet)) ‘The Seven Samurai’ is Akira Kurosawa’s most famous film. 153 Here is a list of some of the more common numeral classifiers. We have met some of them before; others are being introduced for the first time. The various sound changes are somewhat irregular but you will pick them up gradually with practice. If in doubt about a particular combination of number and classifier check it in the Grammar Summary. When asking how many things are being counted, use nán plus the numeral classifiers (nánbon, nánmai, nánbiki, etc.) with the pseudo-Chinese numerals, and íkutsu with the Japanese numerals. –nin –dai –ken –mai –hai –hon –satsu –hiki –wa –too –tsuu people (but hitóri ‘one person’, futarí ‘two people’) vehicles, machines, telephones, etc. houses, shops, etc. (1. íkken, 6. rókken, 8. hákken) flat objects, sheets of paper, plates, etc. ‘glassful’, ‘cupful’ (1. íppai, 3. sánbai, 6. róppai, 8. háppai) cylindrical objects, bottles, pens, etc. (1. íppon, 3. sánbon, 6. róppon, 8. háppon) books, volumes (1. issatsú, 8. hassatsú) small to medium animals (fish, dogs, cats, etc.) (1. ippikí, 3. sánbiki, 6. roppikí, 8. happikí ) birds (1. ichíwa, 3. sánba, 6. róppa, 8. hachíwa) large animals (horses, cows, etc.) (1. íttoo, 8. hátto) letters (1. ittsuu, 8. hattsuu) Exercise 9.4 Change the English prompts into Japanese to make a complete sentence with an appropriate numeral classifier. Note that we have introduced some more classifiers in the list of kanji for this unit. Refer to the Key to the Exercises (p. 276) to check whether you have understood the meaning of the sentences. Cue: A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (one dog) (twelve) (three tissues) (three glasses of milk) (two dogs) (two giraffes) (three small fish) (how many bottles?) (three) 154 9. 10. (how many cars?) (how many sheets of paper?) Vocabulary iru tishupéepaa gyuunyuu inú káu doobutsúen kirin umareru sakanaya sakana wáin nokóru ureru to need tissue paper milk dog to have, keep (an animal) zoo giraffe to be born fish shop fish wine to remain, be left to be sold, sell ((intrans.) often used instead of uru to sell (trans.)) letter tegami Counting the days To count the days of the month Japanese uses two different numeral classifiers, –ka for the days up to ten and for the 14th and 24th, and –nichi with almost all of the other numbers. The 20th, hatsuka, also uses the same classifier, but combined with an old native Japanese numeral, which now survives only in this word and in hátachi which means, ‘20 years old’. –ka combines with the Japanese set of numerals and –nichi with the pseudo-Chinese numerals. The first day of the month is either tuitachí or ichijitsu. With the exception of these last two forms which mean ‘the first day of the month’, these numeral classifiers for the days of the month can be used either to name the days of the month or count days’ duration, i.e. mikka means either ‘3rd of the month’ or ‘three days’. ‘One day’ is ichinichi. As the combinations of number and classifier are a little irregular they are introduced here in some detail. ichinichi futsuka one day 2nd, two days 155 mikka yokka itsuka muika nanoka yooka kokonoka tooka 3rd, three days 4th, four days 5th, five days 6th, six days 7th, seven days 8th, eight days 9th, nine days 10th, ten days The 14th of the month or fourteen days is juuyokka and the 24th or 24 days is nijuuyokka. The other days are quite regular, e.g. juurokunichi ‘16th’, sanjuuichinichi ‘31st’. ‘How many days?’ or ‘What day of the month?’ is nánnichi. Japanese dates (and addresses on envelopes too) proceed from the general to the particular, year followed by month then finally the day. Nánnen, nángatsu, nánnichi ni umaremáshita ka. Shóowa juukyúunen sangatsú kokonoka ni umaremáshita. What year, month and day were you born? I was born on the 9th March, 1944. Japanese dates Although the western calendar is well understood and often used in Japan, the usual way to express dates is in relation to the periods of the emperor’s reign. In the modern period there have been four emperors and four reign periods. They are the Méiji period which started in 1868, the Taishoo period from 1912, the Shóowa period from 1926 and the Heisei period from 1989. As these starting dates mark year one of each reign period, when converting Japanese dates to the western calendar remember to calculate from the year before, for example, Shóowa 19 is 1944 (1925 plus 19) and 1960 is Shóowa 35. Exercise 9.5 Read the dates below and see if you can convert them to dates in the western calendar. You might find it easier to write the Japanese year period first and leave the calculations till later. When you have finished converting the dates to English try the exercise in reverse. Check your efforts against the romanised answers in the Key to the Exercises (p. 276). 156 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Verb stem plus –tári This suffix, which indicates that two or more actions are performed alternately or frequently, attaches to the verb stem in the same way as the – te form and plain past tense –ta ending do, undergoing the same sound changes. It brings together two or more actions which are taken as examples of a potentially longer list in much the same way as nádo ‘… and so on, and the like’, does for nouns. When two or more verbs are linked with the –tari form, the last, that is the principal verb of the sentence, is usually followed by a form of the verb suru ‘to do’. Yoaké made osake o nóndari sushí o tábetari shimashita. Kono heyá de hón o yóndari tegami o káitari shimasu. We drank sake and ate sushi (and did various other things) until dawn. In this room we read books, write letters and so on. Often this expression is heard with just a single verb. Uchi de térebi o mítari shimasu. I stay home and watch TV or something. Sometimes the copula, désu, da, etc., replaces suru. Sóbo wa konogoro chooshi ga wárukute netári ókitari desu. Lately my grandmother is out of sorts and is in and out of bed all the time. Vocabulary yoaké konogoro chooshi warúi dawn, daybreak lately, these days tune, tuning, condition bad 157 Exercise 9.6 You are showing a visitor over the dormitory where you are staying as an exchange student in Japan. Explain the facilities available and give examples of the various ways you use them. Use the example below as a guide. Cue: my room, sleep, study A: Watashi no heyá desu. Koko de netári benkyoo shitári shimasu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. bathroom, shower, take baths lounge, chat, entertain visitors kitchen, cook, eat reading room, read newspapers, study laundry, wash clothes, iron Vocabulary furobá, ofúro sháwaa o abiru oosetsuma osháberi suru séttai suru daidokoro sentakuba sentaku (o) suru áiron o kakéru toshóshitsu bathroom to shower lounge, drawing room to chat to entertain kitchen laundry to wash clothes, do the laundry to iron reading room Indefinite pronouns Japanese has a series of indefinite pronouns formed by adding the suffix –ka to the various question words. náni what dáre who doko where dóre which one of many dótchira which one of two ítsu when ikura how much nánika something, anything dáreka someone dókoka somewhere dóreka any one (of many) dótchiraka either one (of two) ítsuka sometime íkuraka somewhat 158 The same question words can take the suffix –mo to give a negative connotation. These indefinite pronouns are often used in conjunction with negative verbs. For added emphasis the suffix –demo is used instead of –mo. nánimo nothing dókomo nowhere, everywhere ítsumo any time, always nándemo anything at all, nothing at all dókodemo anywhere at all ítsudemo anytime at all Where the verb requires a directional particle like e or ni these are inserted between the question word and mo. Dárenimo iimasén deshita. Dókoemo ikimasen. I didn’t tell anyone. I’m not going anywhere. Exercise 9.7 1 This exercise will give you practice in the use of the indefinite pronouns. Rearrange the components into complete Japanese sentences, then translate them into English. You can hear the finished sentences on the tape and check your English translations against those in the Key to the Exercises (p. 277). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vocabulary takarákuji ataranakute gakkári suru shízuka na dóa nókku suru lottery not winning and… (literally ‘not hitting’) to be disappointed quiet door to knock 159 hima na toki kómu komáru komátta kotó spare time (hima no toki also used) to become crowded to get into trouble, to get into a fix problem, getting into difficulty Kanji In this Unit we introduce ten more kanji. 2 1 3 5 6 9 7 10 8 11 13 12 4 2 3 45 1 9 8 10 6 11 12 4 1 3 7 2 5 6 7 8 2 1 3 5 6 7 4 12 8 3 9 10 11 2 9 6 4 1 5 7 8 CHAKU ki (ru) to wear tsu (ku) to arrive 6 7 8 WA haná (su) to speak, talk 1 23 5 6 4 MEI, MYOO aka (rui) bright CHOO ása morning KAI úmi sea 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 2 3 4 8 9 10 1 2 5 6 7 8 3 1 2 4 5 34 5 6 MON gate KYUU yasú (mu) to rest SHI kami paper MAI sheet (of paper etc.) DAI stand, platform; counter for machines Exercise 9.8 Read the following sentences aloud then translate them into English. Check your answers in the Key to the Exercises (p. 277). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (kyuujitsu ‘holiday’) (Note: yasúmu can be used as a transitive verb meaning ‘to take time off from.’) 10. (mukoo ‘over there’, ‘the other side’) 10 Keiba o mí ni ikimasén ka. Would you like to come to the races? In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • • • • Talk about your intentions Talk about your plans for the future Give explanations renraku o shiyóo to shimáshita ga dekimasén deshita. Kyoojuu ni owaróo to shite imásu. Yesterday I tried to contact my parents, but was unable to do so. We are trying to finish today (literally, ‘within today’). The phone rang just as I was about to leave. Choodo dekakeyóo to shite ita toki ni denwa ga narimáshita. The idea of being ‘about to do something’ is more often expressed with the noun tokoro ‘place’, ‘point’. Íma dekakéru tokoro desu. I’m about to leave (set out). Giving advice We have already met the expression, ikága desu ka used when offering food to a guest, as in Áisu koohíi wa ikaga desu ka? ‘May I offer you an iced coffee?’ The expression, centred around ikága, a polite word for ‘how,’ is also used in conjunction with the conditional form of a verb to make suggestions, ‘how about …?’ ‘why not …?’. The neutral equivalent 167 of the honorific ikága is simply the demonstrative adverb dóo, introduced in this unit. In less formal situations dóo is used instead of ikága. But it is always possible, in any language, that suggestions and offers of advice may be misinterpreted, so it is wise to err on the side of politeness in these constructions. Ashita irassháttara ikága desu ka. Shinkánsen ga takakéreba básu de ittára dóo desu ka. What say you come tomorrow? If the Shinkánsen (bullet train) is (too) expensive (for you) why don’t you go by bus? In less formal contexts a suggestion can be made simply with the –(r)éba ending alone. Hitóri de ikéba. Osóba ni suréba. Why don’t you go by yourself ? Why don’t you have the soba (buckwheat noodles)? Of course, the most obvious way to give advice is with the –ta hoo ga íi construction introduced in Unit 8. As hoo, meaning ‘side’ or ‘direction’, is also used in comparisons, its use for making suggestions closely parallels the use of ‘better’ in English. Háyaku itta hóo ga íi desu. You’d better go early. Exercise 10.2 Suggest an appropriate solution to the situation on the left by turning the clause into a conditional and combining it with one of the pieces of advice on the right. Follow the example. (You’ll need to learn the new vocabulary items given below the exercise before you start.) Cue: atamá ga itái, kusuri o nómeba dóo desu ka. A: Atamá ga itakereba kusuri o nómeba dóo desu ka. 1. Shéfu ni naritái. 2. Okane ga takusán hoshíi. 3. Jikan ga nákereba. 4. Jibun de dekinákereba. 5. Nedan ga tákakereba. a. Betsu no misé ni mo itta hóo ga íi deshoo. b. Hito ni tanóndara ikága desu ka. c. Minarai ni itta hóo ga íi desu. d. Úmaku tooshi o shita hóo ga íi desu. e. Áto ni shitára dóo desu ka. 168 Vocabulary betsu no nedan hito tanómu minarai a different, a separate, another price person; someone else to ask apprentice, apprenticeship jibun de úmaku tooshi suru áto ni suru by oneself skilfully to invest to make it later, put off till later, postpone Potential verbs We have already seen how we can express the idea of ‘can do …’ by using kotó ga dekimásu after the ‘dictionary’ form of the verb. Piano o hiku kotó ga dekimásu ka. Can you play the piano? There is, however, a more common way of expressing potential by using yet another form of the Japanese verb. Japanese consonant-root verbs have corresponding vowel-root verbs which convey the idea of being able to do this or that. To form the potential form from any consonantroot verb simply replace the final u with –eru. For example: káku ‘to write’ becomes kakéru ‘to be able to write’ and utau ‘to sing’ (verbs like this have roots ending in –w which is pronounced only before a, as we shall see in the next unit) becomes utáeru ‘to be able to sing’. As these potential verbs are stative verbs rather than action verbs they generally mark their objects with the particle, ga. Piano ga hikemásu ka. Can you play the piano? Kanji ga kakemásu ka. Can you write kanji? With vowel-root verbs the potential ending is –rareru, which, as we will see directly, is also the passive ending. The potential form of the irregular verb kúru ‘to come’ is koraréru ‘to be able to come’. The other irregular verb suru ‘to do’ does not have a potential form, dekíru being used instead. 169 Sashimi ga taberaremásu ka. Ítsu koraremásu ka. Mínibasu o unten dekimasu ka. Can you eat sashimi? When can you come? Can you drive a minibus? Often the idea of potential in Japanese is expressed not with a potential verb, but with an intransitive verb. These verbs are best learnt simply as vocabulary items. Here are three particularly useful ones. miéru to be able to see, to be visible Fuyu no háreta hi ni wa Tookyoo kara Fújisan ga miemásu. On a fine winter’s day you can see Mt. Fuji from Tokyo. kikoeru to be able to hear, to be audible Tonari no heya no kóe ga kikoemásu. You can hear the voices from the room next door. mitsukaru to be able to find, to be found Kuruma no kagí ga mitsukarimáshita. I found (was able to find) the car keys. Exercise 10.3 You have as your house guest this weekend an Italian visitor Franco, who has spent many years in the Far East. You ask him if he can do various things, using your newly acquired potential verbs, of course. 1. Ask Franco if he can speak Chinese. 2. Ask him if he can make (tsukuru) pasta tonight. 3. Ask Franco if he can come with you to the zoo on Thursday to see the panda. 4. Ask if he can eat Japanese shiokára (salted squid guts) and umeboshi (salted plums). 5. Ask Franco if he can read Japanese. Possibility We know how to say that this or that probably happened or will probably happen, using deshóo after the plain forms of the verb. Ashita kúru deshoo. Moo Igirisu ni káetta deshoo. (He’ll) probably come tomorrow. (He) has probably already returned to England. 170 If we are less sure about what might happen we move from the realms of probability to possibility and to Japanese uses of the expression kámo shiremasen (literally, ‘whether or not we cannot know’) to convey the idea of ‘might …’ or ‘may …’. Ashita yukí ga fúru kámo shiremasen. Denwa-bángoo o wasureta kámo shiremasen. It might snow tomorrow. She may have forgotten the phone number. Because Japanese carries so much information in the verb at the end of the sentence, it often employs adverbs at or near the beginning of the sentence to give the hearer an inkling of what lies ahead. With conditional clauses it is common to start with móshi ‘if ’ . Tabun ‘probably’ is often used with deshóo and with kámo shiremasen there is moshikashitára ‘possibly’, ‘perhaps’. Móshi jikan ga áttara kyóo no gógo kíte kudasai. Tabun kyóo wa osoku káeru deshoo. Moshikashitára wasureta kámo shiremasen. If you have time please come this afternoon. He’ll probably be back late today. Perhaps he’s forgotten. Giving explanations To give an added connotation of explanation or elaboration to a sentence Japanese often ends a sentence in n’ desu or the more formal no desu after the plain form of a verb. This means something like ‘the fact is’ or ‘let me explain that’, or just ‘you see’ or ‘you know’, and functions to link the sentence to the wider conversational context. Compare ashí ga itái desu and ashí ga itái n’ desu. Although both have the basic meaning ‘my foot hurts’, the former is a simple statement of fact, probably a piece of information with no particular connection to the present topic of conversation. The latter, however, is an explanation, perhaps in reply to the question ‘Why are you walking so slowly?’ Ashita shuppatsu surú n’ desu. Kaze o hiitá n’ desu. I’m leaving tomorrow, you see (and that’s why I’m busy packing). I’ve got a cold, you see (and that’s why my voice is husky). 171 The use of n’ desu is particularly common in questions beginning with dóoshite or náze (or the more colloquial nánde), all meaning ‘why’, and in answer to these questions. Note in the example below that da, the plain present form (dictionary form) of désu, becomes na before n’ desu. Dóoshite Nihóngo o benkyoo shite iru n’ desu ka. Kánai wa Nihonjín na n’ desu. Why are you studying Japanese? My wife’s Japanese, you see. More demonstratives We have met the demonstrative pronouns kore ‘this’, sore ‘that (by you)’, are ‘that’ (over there) and dóre ‘which one?’ and their corresponding demonstrative adjectives kono, sono, ano and dóno. We have also met the adverb sóo ‘like that’ in the expression Sóo desu ka ‘Is that so?’ As you may have suspected, sóo belongs to a series of demonstrative adverbs, kóo ‘like this’, sóo ‘like that’, áa ‘like that’ (over there) and dóo ‘how’. Kóo suréba dóo desu ka. What say we do it like this? In colloquial speech these adverbs are often replaced by the longer forms koo yuu fúu ni (literally, ‘in this kind of manner’), etc. Soo yuu fúu ni hanáshite wa damé desu. You mustn’t talk like that. There is another set of demonstrative adjectives meaning ‘this kind of ’, ‘that kind of ’ and ‘what kind of ?’. They are konna, sonna, anna and dónna. These, too, in informal colloquial language are often replaced by koo yuu, soo yuu, aa yuu and dóo yuu. Yuu is the verb ‘to say’ and is written iu . These demonstrative adjectives can in turn be converted into adverbs by adding the particle ni, as in konna ni ‘this much’, dónna ni ‘how much’, etc. Konna ryóori wa hajímete desu. Dónna hito to kekkon shitai désu ka. Shikén wa sonna ni muzukáshikatta désu ka. This is the first time I’ve had this kind of food. What sort of person do you want to marry? Was the exam (really) that difficult? 172 Exercise 10.4 1 You are a university student working part-time at the reception desk of a large hotel in London. A Japanese tourist comes in and reports that she has lost her handbag. Ask her the details of her handbag and its contents using dónna. Some model questions and answers are provided for you on the cassette. 1. What colour is it? 2. What shape is it? 3. What sorts of things were inside it? Now take the part of the tourist and answer your own questions. You will need the new vocabulary introduced below. Vocabulary dónna iro what colour (nániiro is also used) béiju beige pínku pink katachi shape marui round shikakú square sánkaku triangular choohóokei rectangular daenkei oval nakámi contents saifu purse, wallet kuréjitto káado credit card teikíken season ticket ie no kagí house key Listing reasons – ‘and what is more ...’ We have learnt that verbs or adjectives in Japanese can be joined by putting the first in the –te form. So we have met expressions like itte kimásu ‘goodbye’ (literally, ‘I’m going and coming’) and yásukute oishíi desu ‘it’s inexpensive and tasty’. Another way of joining clauses is with the emphatic particle shi, which is a more emphatic way of saying ‘and’ than the –te form. It means something like, ‘and what is more’ and ‘moreover’. Ashita ane mo kúru shi otootó mo kimásu. Tomorrow my sister is coming and my brother is coming too. Often shi is used for giving a number of reasons why something is, or should be, so. 173 Yúkiko san wa kírei da shi, atamá mo íi shi, kanemóchi desu kara, kánojo to kekkon shitai hito ga óoi sóo desu. Yukiko is beautiful, intelligent and rich so apparently there are lots of people who would like to marry her. Exercise 10.5 1 Listen carefully to the tape, press the pause button then practise repeating these sentences which drill some of the structures introduced in this unit. If you find the sentences too long to remember all at once, practise by breaking them into smaller segments. Gradually you will find you can build up to longer sentences. New vocabulary is listed after the exercise and a translation is provided in the key on p. 278. 1. Tanaka Jiro is not feeling too well at work. He asks his boss if he can go home. A: B: A: 2. A conversation between doctor and patient. A: B: 3. Trying to get something for a headache on a public holiday. A: B: A: Vocabulary nódo sekí yoroshíi kaze throat cough good (formal, suggests approval by a social superior) a cold 174 subéru korobu hareru kossetsu to slip to fall over to swell broken bone Dialogue 2 1 Listen to the dialogue and see how much you can understand before learning the vocabulary. Then check the new vocabulary and listen again. : : : : : : : : : ABE: BABA: ABE: BABA: ABE: BABA: Kongoro totemotsukaréru n’ desu yo. Sóo desu ka. Kaisha de oisogashíi n’ deshoo. Isogashíi to yuu yori kachoo to shite no sekinin ga omói kara, sutorésu ga tamarú n’ desu. Sore wa ikemasén née. Sutoresu káishoo ni náni o shite imásu ka. Íya, betsu ni nánimo shite imasén. Kanarazu jikan o tsukútte, nánika sukí na kotó shita hóo ga íi desu yo. 175 ABE: BABA: BABA: Sóo desu ne. Hontoo ni konogoro wa undoobúsoku to yuu kanji désu yo. Sore nara, kóndo no nichiyóobi ni górufu demo issho ni shimasén ka. Íi desu nee. Zéhi otómo shitai désu ne. Vocabulary yóri kachoo sekinin omoi sutorésu tamaru sutoresu-káishoo betsu ni kanarazu tsukúru undoo-búsoku …to yuu sore nára kóndo no otómo suru than, rather than section head responsibility heavy stress to build up, accumulate stress relief in particular without fail to make lack of exercise, getting insufficient exercise that, of the kind that (often used in adjectival clauses to link noun to its qualifier) in that case this, next to join, accompany, go along with Kanji The kanji charts introduced from Units 1 to 10 have been included primarily to help you learn to write and recognise the Chinese characters. Only one or two readings have been given for each character and you have not always had examples demonstrating both the on and kun readings of the kanji. We feel that now you have learnt how to read and write over 100 kanji you should have a good idea of the principles underlying the stroke order and a feel for the correct proportions of written kanji. From Unit 11 the information about how to write the character will be dropped in favour of including more readings and English meanings for each kanji. As there are several kanji in this list with a variety of readings not included in the chart we have set out some additional information below. You will need to have read through this section carefully before starting the remaining exercises. 176 1 1 2 3 1 5 236 4 2 6 3 4 5 1 4 2 3 5 1 2 3 4 KOO kuchi mouth 2 1 JI mimí ear 1 2 4 JI character FU chichí father 1 2 3 5 67 8 BO háha mother 56 12 7 3 8 4 9 11 10 3 5 1 3 4 2 6 7 5 4 12 NYUU hái (ru) to enter SHUTSU dé (ru) to exit, leave JUU sú (mu) to live CHI shi (ru) to know KAI a (keru) to open Additional readings of this unit’s kanji i(reru) ‘to put in’. Note: could be either ireru ‘to put in’ or haireru ‘to be able to enter’. Context will usually determine which is the correct reading. Remember the important distinction in Japanese between transitive (trans.) and intransitive (intrans.) verbs. Hái(ru) is intransitive, i(reru) is transitive. dá(su) ‘to put out’, ‘send out’, ‘take out’, ‘pay’ (trans.). The intransitive dé(ru) means ‘to go out’, ‘come out’, ‘stick out’, ‘protrude’, etc. no extra readings to learn for this one, but remember that shi(ru) means ‘to get to know’, ‘to become acquainted with’. The equivalent of ‘I know’ in Japanese is shitte imásu (literally, ‘I am in a state of having got to know’). Just to make you thoroughly confused, however, ‘I don’t know’ is simply shirimasén. In the chart we have just a(keru) (trans.) ‘to open’. There is also its intransitive partner, a(ku) ‘to open, to come open’, etc., as in ‘the door opens’. There is also another verb hirá(ku), written in exactly the same way as a(ku), which means ‘to open’, ‘to uncover’, ‘spread open’. This is a transitive verb like a(keru) and its partner hirakéru ‘to become modern’, ‘become civilised’ is an intransitive verb like aku. Obviously the Japanese did not design their language with the needs of foreign learners uppermost in their minds! 177 Exercise 10.6 Read the following sentences aloud then translate them into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (hoka wa arimasén ‘there is nothing for it but to…’) 6. 7. 8. (tongue) 11 Nihón ni ikú nara, dóno kísetsu ga íi deshoo ka. If you’re going to Japan, which is the best season? In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • • • • Use the plain negative forms of verbs and adjectives Discuss obligation Say what will happen if something is not done Make decisions Talk about what you have done in the past Request people not to do certain things Use conditionals with nara Give reasons using no de. You will also acquire: • 20 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 Barbara who has been learning Japanese in London is talking to her friend about her plans to visit Japan next year. Can you follow the dialogue with the aid of the Japanese–English glossary (p. 312)? Making your own vocabulary list will help implant the words into your memory. 179 : : : : : : : : … : : ? : BÁABARA: TOMODACHI: BÁABARA: TOMODACHI: BÁABARA: TOMODACHI: BÁABARA: TOMODACHI: Iroiro kangáeta n’ desu ga, rainen no ryokoo wa Nihón ni iku kotó ni shimáshita. Íi desu née. Hajímete desu ka. Iie, júunen gurai máe ni chotto itta kotó ga arimásu. Sore de, ítsu goro iku yotei ni shite irú n’ desu ka. Máda kimete imasén ga, ikú nara, dóno kísetsu ga íi deshóo ka. Sóo desu née. Háru ka áki desu née. Sono hoka no kísetsu wa doo desuka? Natsú mo fuyú mo ryokoo ni wa mukimasén yo. Natsú wa mushiatsúi shi, fuyú wa kánari sámuku narimásu kara … Nihón no háru to áki wa dónna kanji désu ka. Háru wa sakura ga totemo kírei desu yó. Toku ni yozákura wa romanchíkku de, wakái hitotachi ni ninki ga arimasu haru ni ittara doo desuka. íi desu yo. ´ Totemo yosasoo desu née. Já, háru ni shimashóo. BÁABARA: TOMODACHI: BÁABARA: 180 The plain negative We have been trying to put a positive spin on learning Japanese, but we cannot delay any longer the introduction of the plain negative forms. Actually we have already met a negative form in the shape of nái in nái desu, an alternative to arimasén, and, in the negative of adjectives, tákaku nai ‘not expensive’, etc. What we already know about negatives is summarised in the following table. Verb kakimasén Adjective Copula Descriptive noun tákaku nai desu tákaku arimasen (I) don’t write (it) isn’t expensive déwa arimasén sukí dewa ( ja) arimasén sukí ja nái desu (it) is not (I) don’t like The plain non-past negative ending –(a)nai is added to the verb root, the initial –(a) dropping with vowel-root verbs, e.g. tabénai ‘to not eat’. The irregular verbs kúru and suru become kónai and shinai respectively. Unaccented verbs have unaccented negative forms, e.g. iku ‘to go’, ikanai ‘to not go’. With accented verbs the accent mark moves to the vowel before the –n of the suffix, káku ‘to write’, kakánai ‘not write’, míru ‘to see’ mínai ‘not see’. Verbs with dictionary forms (plain non-past forms) ending in –au or –ou are really consonant-root verbs ending in –w. This final –w of the root now appears only before –a, that is, in the various negative forms of the verb, omowánai ‘not to think’, warawanai ‘not to laugh’, etc. To recap, let us use the larger table to compare the non-past and past tense forms of the plain and polite-style negative in verbs, adjectives, descriptive nouns and the copula. Non-past affirmative C-root verb V-root verb Irreg. (k) Irreg. (s) Adjective Copula Des. noun káku míru kúru suru takái da sukí da Non-past negative kakánai mínai kónai shinai tákaku nai ja nái sukí ja nái Past affirmative káita míta kíta shita tákakatta dátta sukí datta Past negative kakánakatta minákatta konákatta shinákatta takaku nákatta ja nákatta sukí ja nákatta 181 Exercise 11.1 This exercise drills the negative forms of verbs and adjectives. How would you tell your friend, 1. 2. 3. 4. that she had better go in a season which is not too hot? that she had better take the train at a time when it is not too crowded? that you like desserts that are not too sweet? that Saturdays and Sundays are the days when you do not go to the gym? 5. that there are a few people who won’t be coming tonight? Double negatives and obligation Although you will hear a lot of Japanese using plain forms like these as final verbs in casual conversation, for the time being most of us will use the plain forms as non-final verbs in polite-style speech. The uses of the negative verbs are obviously the same as those of their affirmative counterparts, but there are a number of negative endings that deserve special treatment. These are the negative –te form endings and the negative conditionals. The negative forms of the conditional endings –tára and –(r)éba are –(a)nákattara and –(a)nákereba. Kyóo dekínakattara, zéhi ashita madé ni yatte kudásai. Anáta ga ikanákereba watashi mo ikimasén. If you can’t do it today please be sure to do it by (the end of ) tomorrow. If you’re not going, I’m not going either. A similar construction uses the clause final particle to meaning ‘if ’, ‘when’ or ‘whenever’ after a negative verb to mean ‘if not’. Súgu dénai to básu ni ma ni aimasén. If we don’t leave immediately we’ll be late for the bus. One very useful construction using the negative conditional form is –(a)nákereba narimasen, a double negative form which literally means ‘if one does not do something, it will not do’, which is the Japanese way of expressing obligation. 182 Kyóo wa háyaku kaeránakereba narimasen. Nihongo wa máinichi sukóshi zútsu benkyoo shinákereba narimasen. Today I have to go back early. With Japanese you have to study a little every day (zútsu ‘each’, e.g., Hitótsu zútsu ‘one each’ or ‘one of each’). Instead of narimasén in this construction you will sometimes hear ikemasén, literally, ‘it cannot go’. This also suggests obligation, but with perhaps a slightly stronger connotation of moral responsibility. Ikemasén alone means something like ‘Don’t!’ or ‘Stop it!’ and is often used as a rebuke to mischievous children. Ashita wa shikén desu kara kónban wa isshookénmei benkyoo shinákereba ikemasen. Tomorrow’s the exam, so I’ll have to study for all I’m worth. You may also hear expressions of compulsion with the descriptive noun damé ‘no good’ instead of a negative verb. The construction with damé is more emphatic and carries an even heavier connotation of moral obligation. Mata ashita konákereba damé desu. You must come again tomorrow. In addition to the conditional –(a)nákereba narimasen form, you will also hear –(a)nákute wa narimasen or the very colloquial –(a)nákucha naranai, which is sometimes contracted even further by dropping the final verb. This last is usually used in very informal casual conversation in plain-style speech. Minshuku no yoyaku o shinákute wa narimasen. I have to make the minshuku booking. (Note: Minshuku is a private house which offers homestay or similar budget accommodation.) Oh! It’s twelve o’clock. I’ll have to be going home. O! Juuníji da. Móo kaeranákucha! Exercise 11.2 1 You are having a party. From the list of sentences on the cassette tape say which are directly related to your preparations for the party. 183 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vocabulary iroiro na various (Note: the kanji sign indicating the previous kanji is to be repeated. A backward tick or a backward tick with the voicing marks performs the same function with hiragána, but its use is usually confined to writing in vertical script.) plate (Note: osára is a more genteel alternative used mainly by women.) sara Prohibition If, as we have seen, two negatives make a strong positive statement, ‘must’, then it follows that a single negative should convey a strong negative message. You will recall from Unit 7 that this is just what happens in Japanese. The idea of prohibition, ‘you must not …’ is expressed by a verb stem followed by –te wa ikemasén. Hikóoki no náka de keitai-dénwa o tsukátte wa ikemasén. You must not use a mobile phone inside the aircraft. Remember the opposite construction, that is, to express permission, use –te mo íi desu. Sóto de tabako o sutté mo íi desu. You may smoke outside. Exercise 11.3 Match the conditions in the left-hand column with the consequences set out in random order on the right. Then read the full sentences over two or 184 three times each, making sure you understand what they mean. Finally, check your answers against those in the Key to the Exercises (p. 279). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. b. c. d. e. f. Making decisions In English the verb ‘to make’ can be used to convey the idea of making a decision. For example, we might say, ‘I’m busy today. Let’s make it tomorrow’. In Japanese this idea is achieved with the verb, suru ‘to do’: Kyóo wa isogashíi kara ashita ni shimashóo. This construction, noun + ni + part of the verb suru, means to ‘decide on’ something. If you want to say you have decided to do this or that, in other words if you want to use this construction with a verb or adjective, you must use the noun kotó ‘thing’ after the plain form of the verb before you add ni suru. This kotó has the function of turning the verb into a noun so it can take the nominal particles, in this case ni, or be made the subject or object of another verb. In this respect its function is very similar to the –ing ending of the English gerund in expressions like, ‘I like reading books’, Hón o yómu kotó ga sukí desu. For practical purposes you can think of …–koto ni suru as being, ‘to decide to …’ and …–(a)nái kotó ni suru as being ‘to decide not to …’. Koosoku básu de iku kotó ni shimáshita. Shinkánsen de ikanai kotó ni shimáshita. We decided to go on the expressway bus. We decided not to go on the Shinkansen. Exercise 11.4 1 Haruo had not been feeling very well, so he decided to visit his doctor. The doctor diagnosed the trouble as gendáibyoo ‘sickness of the modern lifestyle’ brought on by overwork, lack of exercise and poor diet. Haruo has decided to turn over a new leaf to get fit and healthy. How would you go about this task if you were Haruo? On the tape and written below is the doctor’s advice. Use this, the vocabulary items beneath and the 185 numbered cues to make a list of the things you would do. There is also one example to help you. Cue: nikú herasu A: Nikú o herasu kotó ni shimásu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. tabako, suwanai amai monó, kawari ni, kudámono, tabéru osake, ryóo, herasu máinichi, undoo suru mótto, sakana, yasai, tabéru Vocabulary kawari ni instead of hóo ga ii it is better to … yóo ni suru to make it so that …, arrange to …, make sure that … ‘Please don’t …’ The negative request is formed with the ending –(a)naide kudasai. Shibafu ni hairánaide kudasái. Ki ni shináide kudasai. Shinpai shináide kudasai. Please don’t walk on the grass (shibafu ‘lawn’). Please don’t think anything of it. Don’t worry. It’s nothing, etc. Please don’t worry (more serious than the above). Often the negative request is dropped in favour of a more indirect approach. You might hear a tour guide, for example, say, Kochira de no shashin wa goénryo kudasái ‘Please refrain from taking photographs here.’ Or something along the lines of ‘please try not to’ shinai yóo ni shite kudasái or ‘be careful not to …’ shinai yóo ki o tsukéte kudasái. 186 Kása o wasurenai yóo ni ki o tsukéte kudasai. Please be careful not to forget your umbrella. Exercise 11.5 1 Each of the following role-play dialogues contains a negative request. First read through the dialogue making sure you understand the meaning of the sentences. Then find an appropriate answer to put into the blank space. Finally, listen to the tape and try repeating the whole dialogue yourself until you can memorise it. Repeat this procedure with each dialogue. 1. You notice the caretaker of your building mopping the floor in the corridor outside your office. : 2. The tour guide is giving instructions about tomorrow’s departure. 3. Tomoko and Yoko are sisters living together in an apartment in Tokyo. Tomoko is just about to go out to do some shopping. : : : Vocabulary osátoo sugar (Note: women’s word, men use satóo without the elegant o– prefix.) 187 More clause-final particles Giving reasons with no de Another useful way to show a cause and effect relationship between two clauses is to use the particles no de, ‘because’ after a plain form of the verb. This is similar in use and meaning to kara, but is more formal and is used more often in writing. no de is more restricted in its use than kara. It tends not to occur in sentences in which the main verb is imperative, interrogative or implies obligation or prohibition. In speech the no is often contracted to just n’. Yuki ga yandá no de yamá e sukíi ni dekakemáshita. Kono hen ni kitá n’ de, tsúide ni yotte mimáshita. As the snow had stopped we set out for the mountains to do some skiing. I was in the area so I just dropped in while I was at it. Nára – ‘if’ Nára after the plain form of the verb provides yet another conditional expression in Japanese. It is usually found in contexts where it means something like, ‘if as you say’ or ‘if it is so that…’. It picks up and expands an assertion made, or presumed to have been made, by the person you are addressing. In this respect it deals with factual rather than hypothetical situations. Róndon ni iku nara watashi no tomodachi no tokoro ni yottára dóo desu ka. If you are going to London (as you say you are) why don’t you drop in at my friend’s place? (yoru ‘to drop in’ [at = ni].) Exercise 11.6 Choose the most appropriate ending for each of the following nára clauses from the list of options on the right. When you have finished the exercise practise repeating the completed sentences. 1. a. 2. b. 188 3. 4. 5. c. d. e. Vocabulary íkoo tsuide ni Nára temíyage shikata ga nái after, from … onwards incidentally, at the same time, while … the ancient capital a gift (usually of food) taken when visiting someone it can’t be helped, never mind ‘Without doing …’ Perhaps a more common use of the –(a)náide construction is to join clauses. Kyóo wa kaisha e ikanáide Today I didn’t go to the office and spent all day in bed with a cold. ichinichijuu kaze de nete imáshita. This –(a)náide is often equivalent to ‘without’ in sentences like: Asagóhan o tabénaide kaisha e ikimáshita. I went to the office without having breakfast. There is another negative –te form, –(a)nakute which is used (without the initial –a) as the –te form of the verb nái ‘to have not’. Íma wa okane ga nákute komátte imasu. At the moment I’m a in fix because I’ve got no money. This is also the only form used with adjectives and descriptive nouns. Shokuji ga óishiku nákute gakkári We were disappointed the food shimashita. was not good. It is used for joining clauses, particularly when the subjects are different or there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the clauses. 189 Koko de kurejittokáado ga tsukaenákute fúben desu. It’s inconvenient not being able to use a credit card here. This is also the form used in the pattern –(a)nakute mo íi ‘need not …’ (literally, ‘even if not, it is good’). Nihongo ga ryúuchoo ja nákute mo kamaimasén. Móo kusuri o nománakute mo íi desu. It does not matter if you are not fluent in Japanese. You needn’t take the medicine any longer. Dialogue 2 Miss Abe, who is holidaying in Sydney, asks the concierge at her hotel if he can suggest an interesting optional tour. : : : : ? : : : : : ? 190 Vocabulary konsheruje … no kotó ukagaetái n’ desu ga concierge (in a hotel) about … (also… ni tsuite) I would just like to enquire, but… (a common polite opening gambit when requesting information) unusual, different, strange (from kawaru ‘to change’) let me think, hmm, I wonder, etc. I wonder (sentence-final particle used by women) looks/seems expensive looking…, seeming… (suffix attached to adjectives, forms a descriptive noun) safe (anzen dáiichi safety first) since you have gone to all the trouble of…, with difficulty once (at least) less than (cf. íjoo ‘more than’) to try doing…, do… and see kawatta sóo desu née káshira takasóo na –sóo na anzen na sekkaku ichidó wa íka … te míru Exercise 11.7 Answer the following comprehension questions based on Dialogue 2. 1. What kind of optional tour is Miss Abe looking for? 2. Why does she have reservations about a helicopter flight? 3. Give three reasons the concierge put forward to convince Miss Abe to take the flight. 4. Why hadn’t Miss Abe flown in a helicopter in Japan? Give two reasons. 5. Why did she finally decide to take the flight? Kanji From this unit we introduce the new kanji in a slightly different format. As you now know the principles of stroke order and stroke formation we no longer provide the stroke order for each character, though we do give the number of strokes in each character. It is important to practise writing the kanji as this process helps etch the correct balance and stroke count 191 into your memory. The readings and meanings given for each kanji are far from complete. Where possible, both Chinese-style on-readings (in small capital letters) and native Japanese kun-readings (lower case) are given, but often it has not been possible to find appropriate examples of each reading. Exercise 11.8 1 After you have tried reading these sentences aloud, repeat them after your tutor on the tape. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Useful expressions Omachidoosama déshita. Osewasamá deshita. Otsukaresama déshita. Gokúroosama deshita. Zannén deshita. Ganbátte kudasai. Sorry to have kept you waiting. Thank you for your help. Thank you for your efforts (literally, ‘you must be tired’). Thank you for your efforts. (Not used towards people of higher social status) What a pity! Stick to it! Work hard! 192 minami SEI, SAI nishi háru natsú natsuyásumi natsu no úmi áki fuyú yuu (honokatá, –gatá rific) (honorific) (honorific) suku(nái) sukó(shi) tabi óo(i) arú(ku) íppo ninki kíbun yuki kaze samú(i) 12 Dóomo kaze o hiita yóo desu. Somehow I seem to have caught a cold. In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • Talk about giving and receiving goods and favours Use more expressions with the –te form Discuss expectations using hazu Discuss obligation using the verbal auxiliary –beki Use concessive clauses with no ni. You will also acquire: 20 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 Akita san is concerned about his workmate Baba san, who has been unusually quiet during their regular Friday night round of drinks after work. : : : : 194 They continue the conversation after lunch at work on Monday. : : : : : : : : AKITA: BABA: AKITA: BABA: Baba san, kaoiro ga yóku nái desu ne. Dóomo kaze o hiita yóo desu. Atamá mo nódo mo itái shi, sekí mo déru n’ desu. Oisha san ni míte morattara dóo desu ka. Ée, ashita chótto isha ni itte koyóo to omótte imasu. They continue the conversation after lunch at work on Monday. AKITA: BABA: AKITA: BABA: Kusuri ka nánika moraimáshita ka. Ée, ichioo. Démo kiku ka dóo ka wakarimasén. Shokugo ni ichijoo nomanákute wa naránai soo desu. Já, mizu o motte kite agemashóo ka. Á, dóomo sumimasén. (Kokóro no náka de: Ákita san wa shínsetsu da náa. Byooki mo wáruku nai náa. Tokídoki byooki ni naróo ka ná. Gohón, gohón.) Baba san. Móo uchi ni káetta hoo ga íi n’ ja nái desu ka. Sekí mo hidói shi, darusóo da kara. Já, hoka no hito ni utsusu to ikenai kara, káette yasumu kotó ni shimásu. (Kokóro no náka de, táishita kaze ja nái no ni, nán da ka, warúi yoo na ki ga surunaa.) AKITA: BABA: 195 AKITA: BABA: Já, odaiji ni. Arígatoo gozaimasu. Já, osaki ni shitsúrei shimasu. Vocabulary kaze o hiku míte morau ichioo … ka dóo ka kiku ka dóo ka wakarimasén shokugo ichijoo motte kúru –te agemashóo ka wáruku nái náa –(y)óo ka náa gohón gohón darusóo yóo na ki ga suru warúi yóo na ki ga suru odaiji ni osaki ni shitsúrei shimásu to catch a cold get … to examine, have examined once, for the time being, tentatively, for what it’s worth whether or not … I don’t know whether it will work or not after meals (cf. shokuzen ‘before meals’) one tablet (–joo is the numeral classifier for tablets) to bring shall I … for you? it’s not so bad, it’s not bad at all (e.g. being sick) I think I’ll … (literally, ‘shall I just …?’) Cough ! Cough! (the sound of coughing, cf. hákushon ‘Atishoo’! for a sneeze) seem drowsy, look tired, seem to lack vitality, seem lethargic as if to feel, have the impression (that … = yóo na …) to feel bad, to feel one has done something wrong, to feel guilty look after yourself (said to a sick person) Sorry to leave early, good bye Giving and receiving verbs Japanese has a number of verbs for giving and receiving. Which is used depends on the relative status of the giver and receiver and whether the action is away from or towards the speaker. For in-giving, that is, for someone giving something to the speaker or a third person, the verb used is kudasáru where the giver is of higher social status than the speaker and kureru when the giver is of lower or equal social status. When you are talking to someone you do not know well, it is usually safer to use kudasáru. In practice kudasáru often indicates a secondperson subject and kureru a third-person subject. 196 Kore wa Suzuki san ga kudasátta yubiwa désu yo. Tomodachi ga kureta inú ni ‘Póchi’ to yuu namae o tsukemáshita. This is the ring you gave me, Mr Suzuki. I called the dog my friend gave me ‘Pochi’. For out-giving, ‘I give’, ‘he gives’, etc., ageru is generally used regardless of the status of the recipient, though sashiageru can be used in situations calling for particular respect and decorum. Kangófu wa kanja ni kusuri o agemáshita. Watanabe senséi ni omiyage o sashiagemáshita. The nurse gave medicine to the patient. I gave a souvenir gift to Professor Watanabe. There is a verb, yaru ‘to give to an inferior’, but this seems to be used mainly for actions directed towards junior members of one’s own family, particularly one’s own children. It is also used with non-human indirect objects. Musuko no tanjóobi ni táko o yarimáshita. Kíngyo ni esá o yarimáshita. I gave my son a kite for his birthday. I fed the goldfish. Paralleling the use of the giving verbs kudasáru and kureru, there are the receiving verbs: itadaku ‘to receive from a superior’ and morau ‘to receive from someone other than a social superior’. Itadaku is often used when the receiver is the first person (‘I’ or ‘we’) and the giver is the second person (‘you’). Notice that the person from whom something is received is usually indicated with the particle ni, though you will also occasionally hear kara used instead. Senséi ni itadaita hón wa totemo chóohoo desu. Tároo kun ni moratta okáshi wa sukóshi amasugimásu. The book I got from you (professor) is very useful. The cakes we got from Taro are a bit too sweet. Often there is little difference in meaning between giving and receiving sentences, such as the following: Senséi ga kudasátta jibikí o hóndana ni okimáshita. I put the dictionary the professor gave me on the bookshelf. 197 Senséi ni itadaita jibikí o hóndana ni okimáshita. I put the dictionary I got from the professor on the bookshelf. In purely neutral contexts where we are not concerned with the relative status of giver and receiver, ataeru is used for ‘to give’ and ukéru for ‘to receive’. Kono garasu wa sootoo no atsúryoku o ataete mo waremasén. Atatakái kangei o ukemáshita. This glass will not break even when subjected to considerable pressure. We received a warm welcome. For receiving letters, parcels, etc., uketóru is often used. Sokutatsu o táshika ni uketorimáshita. I am in receipt of your express delivery letter (formal cliché). Giving and receiving verbs as auxiliaries The giving and receiving verbs can also be used after the –te form to show the relationship between the instigator and recipient of an action. Saitoo san wa furúi kataná o mísete kudasaimáshita. Mr Saito showed me an old sword. The –te kudasáru ending usually indicates that a social superior does something for me or someone closely connected with me. –te kureru also suggests that I have been the recipient of some favour, but this time from a person who is clearly not of higher social standing. Kodomo ga michi o annái shite kuremáshita. The child showed me the way. To indicate that I, or we, have done or will do something for someone else, a verb in the –te form followed by ageru is used. Tokei o shúuri ni dáshite agemashóo ka. Shall I put your watch in for repair for you? As with the simple verb yaru, –te yaru is generally used when the speaker is doing something for his own children. –te yaru is not normally used by women or by junior members of the family. 198 Musuko o tsuri ni tsurete itte yarimáshita. I took my son fishing. –te yatte kudasái is used when one is asking for a favour to be done for a member of one’s family, a subordinate or a pupil. Kodomo no machigái o naóshite yatte kudasái. Please correct the child’s mistakes for him. When the receiving verbs are used as auxiliaries after the –te form they often, but not necessarily, suggest that the subject of the sentence, ‘I’ or ‘we’, instigated the action. Note that the agent is followed by the particle ni. Dáiku ni yáne o naóshite moraimáshita. Abe senséi ni subarashíi é o káite itadakimáshita. I got the carpenter to fix the roof. I was lucky enough to have Dr Abe paint a wonderful picture for me. In the last example there is no suggestion that I caused Dr Abe to paint the picture. It is very similar in meaning to: Abe senséi ga subarashíi é o káite kudasaimáshita. A very polite request form can be made with –te itadakemásu ka, or the even politer –te itadakemasén ka after the appropriate verb. In this case the potential form of the verb, i.e. ‘can receive’ is used in an affirmative or negative question. Shió to koshóo o tótte itadakemásu ka. –te itadakitái, –te moraitái Would you mind passing the salt and pepper? ‘I’d like you (him) to …’, ‘I wish you (he) would …’ The receiving verbs with the desiderative –tái ending can be used to express the idea that you would like someone to do something for you. –te itadakitái is usually used when referring to a second or third person present in the conversational situation and –te moraitái to an absent third person. Kinóo katta yasai wa kusátte imasu kara torikáette itadakitái n’ desu ga. Háyaku chichí ni káette kite moraitái desu. The vegetables I bought yesterday are rotten so I’d like you to change them for me. I wish father would come back home quickly. 199 In neutral situations, where the relationship between individuals is not involved, –te hoshíi is often used instead of –te moraitái. Moo sukóshi suzushiku nátte hoshíi desu née. I wish it would get a bit cooler. Don’t you? Exercise 12.1 Fill in the gaps with the appropriate form of the verbs, morau, kudasáru, ageru or yaru as the sense demands. 1. Chichi ni nékutai o katte _____. (I bought my father a tie.) 2. Suzuki senséi ga eigo o oshiete ______. (Mr Suzuki taught me English.) 3. Sumimasén ga, michi o oshiete _____tái n’ desu ga. (Excuse me. Would you mind showing me the way?) 4. Isha ni míte _______. (I had myself examined by the doctor.) 5. Imootó o éki made kuruma de okutte _____. (I gave my sister a lift to the station in my car.) Exercise 12.2 1 Listen to the following letter from Kaya to her friend Yohko. Play the cassette tape several times until you feel you can understand the gist of what the letter contains. Take notes as you go so you can answer the questions that follow. When you have finished the exercise read the text of the letter (N.B. The recording employs a slightly longer version of the letter). Finally, turn to the Key to the Exercises and see if you can reproduce the Japanese from the English translation. Don’t worry at this stage about reproducing the kanji with furigana readings. They are included here to get you used to reading longer texts in Japanese script. Notice in letter writing the polite –másu style is used even between close friends or family members. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 200 Vocabulary haruméite kimashita –meku narisóo desu –sóo there is a feeling of spring in the air (conventional reference to the season at the beginning of a letter) to seem like (a suffix added to season nouns, forms a consonant-root verb) it looks as if it (I) will become … seemingly, it looks as if … (a suffix which attaches to the verb stem) 201 minásama everyone (polite form of minásan often used in letters or speeches) More auxiliaries after the ‘–te form’ In Japanese it is very common to have more than one verb at the end of the sentence. We have seen how the giving and receiving verbs can be used as auxiliary verbs after the –te form to show who is doing what for whom, and we are now familiar with the use of the various forms of iru after the –te form to indicate an action in progress or a completed state. In this unit we meet several more verbs used as auxiliaries after the –te form. Try doing, do …and see, ‘–te míru’ The verb míru ‘to see’ is used after the –te form to convey the idea that the action was performed tentatively or casually in order to see what the outcome might be. The original meaning of míru is retained in this construction, which might be literally translated as ‘to do something and see …’. The same idea is often conveyed in English with the verb, ‘to try’. Kazuko san ni denwa o kákete mimáshita. Afurika ni itte mitái desu nee. I tried giving Kazuko a call. I’d like to go and have a look at Africa. Because the –te míru form is indirect and tentative it is often used to make suggestions. Okuchi ni áu ka dóo ka wakarimasén ga tábete mite kudasai. I don’t know whether you’ll like it, but just try some. The construction with –te miru should not be confused with the –(y)óo to suru form introduced in Unit 10, although both may often be translated by ‘to try’ in English. The former conveys the idea that you do something to see what happens, in other words you succeed in doing what you set out to do. The latter construction is used when you attempt to do something, but for one reason or another your ambitions are frustrated and you fail to complete your task. Some speakers of English make a distinction between ‘I tried doing … (to see what would happen).’ and ‘I tried to do … (but failed)’. Perhaps the point can be illustrated by comparing the following sentences. Michi o watatte mimáshita ga mukoogawa ni mo éetíiému ga arimasén deshita. I tried crossing the road but there was no ATM (cash dispenser) on the other side either. 202 Michi o wataróo to shimáshita ga kootsuu ga hagéshikute wataremasén deshita. I tried to cross the road but the traffic was so heavy I couldn’t get across. To do beforehand – ‘–te oku’ This construction with oku, the verb ‘to put’ carried out conveys the idea that an action has been carried out or has been done in preparation for something else. Sono mama ni shite oite kudasái. Bíiru o reizóoko ni irete okimáshita. Nihón ni iku máe ni Nihongo o sukóshi benkyoo shite oita hoo ga íi desu yo. Kinoo denwa de setsumei shite okimáshita kara wakáru hazu desu. Please leave it as it is (like that). I put some beer in the fridge (in preparation for tonight’s party). You should (take the precaution of) studying a little Japanese before you go to Japan. I explained it to him over the phone yesterday so he should know about it. (Note: hazu, ‘should’ is introduced later in this unit) To end up doing – ‘–te shimau’ Zénbu ippen ni tábete shimaimashita. Tabesugi de onaka o kowáshite shimaimashita. He ate it all up at once. I ended up with an upset stomach from eating too much. In colloquial Japanese this –te shimau construction is sometimes abbreviated to –chau, particularly in Tokyo where some speakers seem to use it indiscriminately even when there is no particular connotation of finality or completion. Sonna kotó o yuu to káetchau yo. I’ll go home if you talk like that. To have been …– ‘–te áru’ This construction is used with transitive verbs to convey the idea that the present state is the result of a completed action. It often strongly suggests 203 a deliberate action by a human agent. The same kind of idea is often expressed with a passive verb in English. In Japanese too, this construction generally requires that the object of the transitive verb become the subject (or topic) of the –te áru construction. Món ga akete áru kara náka de chuusha shimashóo. The gate has been opened (for us) so let’s park inside. The negative of the –te áru construction is, naturally enough, –te nái or, in the polite style, –te arimasén. Komugiko wa máda katte nái kara kónban okonomiyaki ga dekimasén. The flour hasn’t been bought yet so we can’t make okonomiyaki tonight. (Okonomiyaki is a kind of savoury pancake.) In the above example there is a strong suggestion that someone has deliberately opened the gate, which would not be conveyed by the neutral, món ga aite iru ‘the gate is open’, i.e. by –te iru after the intransitive verb, aku. In practice this construction is used in much the same way as the –te oku construction explained above. Keeps on getting more …– ‘–te kúru’ The verb, kúru ‘to come’ after the –te form indicates that the action of the verb started at some point in the distance or at some time in the past and continued until the present location or time. Mainichi kaisha kara káeru to inú ga mukae ni háshitte kimasu. Nihón demo isshoo kekkon shinai josei ga fúete kimashita. Every day when I get home from work the dog comes running to greet me. In Japan too there has been a continual increase in the number of women who never marry. Will go on getting more …– ‘–te iku’ This construction is similar to –te kúru above, but the starting point of the action is the speaker or narrator’s present location or time. Tsugí kara tsugí e to furúi tatémono ga kiete ikimásu. The old buildings go on disappearing one after another. 204 Kore kara wa moo sukóshi rakú ni nátte iku deshoo. I expect it will get a little easier for me from now on. Exercise 12.3 1 Listen to these questions on the tape and give your own answer to each question. You may need to pause the tape to give yourself time to respond. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Here are some new words which might help you answer these questions. Vocabulary the future, in Nára no the Great Buddha the future daibutsu in Nara eiga-kántoku film director shiro castles ongakka musician matsuri festival uchuu-hikóoshi astronaut okuresóo it looks as if we’ll be late (see grammar notes on –sóo in Unit 13) shoorai Exercise 12.4 Complete the following sentences by choosing the most appropriate clause from the list on the right. 1. Pán ga nái kara 2. Hóteru no heyá o 3. Okuresóo da kara 4. Tomodachi ga uchi ni asobi ni kúru no de 5. Chízu de iku basho o a. heyá o kírei ni shite okitái desu b. denwa o shite oita hoo ga ii to omoimasu c. sukóshi katte oite kudasái d. shirábete okimasu e. yoyaku shite okimáshita 205 Exercise 12.5 1 Paul has decided to invite a few friends around for a barbecue this weekend. Before he goes off to buy the food he makes a list of the things he has and does not have at home. As he is learning Japanese like you, for practice he writes his list in Japanese script. Paul’s Japanese neighbour, Taro, has come around early to help with the shopping. With the list to guide you, imagine you are Paul answering Taro’s questions, using móo, ‘already’ or máda, ‘not yet’ in your answers as appropriate. Press the pause button to give you time to supply the answer. You will find Paul’s responses in the Key to Exercises. Here are Paul’s list and Taro’s questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potetochíppusu o kaimashóo ka. Tomatosóosu ga irimásu ka. Kyúuri wa takusán áru deshóo? Uchi no niwa no rémon o motte kimashóo ka. Sutéeki wa móo katte áru deshóo? The plain style of speech The plain style of speech is used among close friends and family members and when talking to children. It is in this form of speech where the differences between men’s and women’s speech become most pronounced. Women, in particular, use a number of sentence-final particles, 206 like no (a question marker when pronounced with rising intonation, otherwise used for giving explanations, ‘the fact is…’, etc.), káshira ‘I wonder’ and wa, an assertive feminine particle. Sóo yo and sóo na no yo ‘that’s right’ are also typically feminine exclamations. In the plain form men tend to use the colloquial first-person pronoun boku or even the somewhat vulgar ore, the corresponding second-person pronouns, kimi and omae, and the sentence-final emphatic particles, ná(a), zó and zé, none of which are normally used by women. Of the final particles, zé differs from zó in that it can follow verbs in the plain hortative or propositive form, –(y)óo ‘let’s …’, e.g. Ikóo ze ‘Let’s go!’, whereas zó cannot. Exercise 12.6 1 Listen to the following exchange between Akiko and Haruo Yamaguchi, a young married couple. Like many such conversations the content is of no great import, but they provide us with examples of the plain style, some useful vocabulary and a number of new constructions using the –te form. How many –te forms can you find and what do they mean? : : : : : : : : : : : : : ÁKIKO: HARUO: Náni o sagashite iru nó? Kuruma no kagí wa dóko ka náa. ? ? ? … … 207 ÁKIKO: HARUO: ÁKIKO: HARUO: ÁKIKO: HARUO: ÁKIKO: HARUO: ÁKIKO: HARUO: ÁKIKO: Sákki téeburu no ue ni oite oita kedo. Á, átta, átta. Já, chótto itte kúru yo. Dóko e iku nó? Bíiru ga nái kara katte koyóo to omotte. Reizóoko ni kanbíiru ga sánbon irete átta kedo … Móo, yuube Tanaka san to futarí de zénbu nónde shimatta yo … Osoi kara, sakaya wa móo shimatte iru n’ ja nái no. Íya, ekimáe no konbíni de sakérui mo utte iru kara soko ni itte míru yo. Já, tsuide ni ashita no chooshoku no pán to gyuunyuu mo katté kite. Ún, wakátta. Já itte kúru yo. Itterasshái. Vocabulary ka náa kedo I wonder (masculine) but (casual speech abbreviation of keredomo) I’ve found it! íya wakátta no (when contradicting) okay, right, I’ve got it. átta Expectation and obligation Hazu désu is used after the plain form of a verb or adjective to indicate expectation. It often corresponds to the English, ‘ought to …’ or ‘should …’, etc., but without any suggestion of moral obligation. Ashita kúru hazu desu. Sono gurai no kotó o shitte iru hazu désu. He should come tomorrow. / I expect he’ll come tomorrow. He should at least know that. Where a sense of moral obligation is implied beki désu is used instead. Ashita kúru beki desu. Mae mótte denwa suru beki déshita ga … He should come tomorrow. (He owes it to us to come tomorrow.) I should have rung beforehand but … Where the obligation is not to do this or that, it is the final verb which takes the negation, becoming beki ja arimasén, etc. 208 Shachoo ni sonna kotó o yuu beki ja arimasén deshita. I should not have said that to the director. Exercise 12.7 In the following sentences fill in the blanks with either hazu or béki as the sense demands. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Densha wa taitei juugófun-okí ni kúru ____ desu. Wakái hito wa toshiyóri ni séki o yuzuru ____ desu. Kyóo ginkoo wa aite iru ____ desu. Supíido seigén o mamóru ____ desu. Kinóo tegami o dashimáshita kara kanarazu nisánnichi de tsuku ____ desu. 6. Háyaku isha ni míte morau ____ desu. Vocabulary –okí nisánnichi every …, at … intervals (suffix used with numbers and numeral classifiers) two or three days Although We have already learnt how to express concession using the coordinate particles ga and keredomo. These differ from most clause-final particles and resemble the particle kara ‘because’ in that they follow the same form as the main verb at the end of the sentence, that is to say, for most of us, the polite –másu form. There is, however, a compound particle, no ni ‘although’, which follows the plain form of the verb or adjective. Nankai mo oshieta no ni, máda obóete imasén. Takái no ni shitsu ga íi kara kaimáshita. Though I taught him time and time again he still doesn’t remember it. Although it’s expensive, it’s good quality so I bought it. As we saw with the compound particle no de ‘because’, the plain present form of the copula used before no ni is na. Ano hóteru wa yuumei na no ni sáabisu ga wárukute gakkári shimashita. Although that hotel is famous I was disappointed to find the service is terrible. 209 In formal written Japanese you may also come across the clause-final compound particle mono no, which has much the same meaning as no ni. Sooridáijin wa atarashíi náikaku o kessei shita mono no, tsugi no sénkyo de katéru ka doo ka wa utagawashíi. Although the Prime Minister formed a new cabinet it is doubtful whether he can win the next election. Exercise 12.8 1 Read these sentences aloud then listen to them on the tape. Finally translate them into English and check your answers with the Key to the Exercises (p. 282). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vocabulary furisóo genkisóo Osóre irimasu ga. Goméiwaku desu ga. Otesúu desu ga. Dóozo okake kudasái. … o oshiete itadakemásu ka. Osumai wa dóchira desu ka. to look like rain, look as if it will rain to look well (more on the suffix –sóo in Unit 13) I am very sorry/grateful, etc. I’m sorry to bother you, but … I’m sorry to bother you, but … Please sit down. Would you mind telling me …? Where do you live? (honorific) 210 Kanji This Unit’s new kanji are given in detail below. gaikokujin dénki electricity denwa telephone kumó(ru) ’ 13 Kuruma ni butsukerareta. Another car ran into me! In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • Use the causative form of verbs Recognise and use the passive voice Recognise the causative-passive Use the suffix –sóo, ‘it looks as if …’ Use the suffix –gáru to describe the behaviour of others. You will also acquire: • 20 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 Kitabayashi Yooko and Morita Yasuko, acquaintances from the same neighbourhood, meet on the street. We pick up their conversation after the usual bows, thanks and salutations have been exchanged. : : : 212 : : : : : ? … : : : : KITABAYASHI: MORITA: KITABAYASHI: MORITA: KITABAYASHI: MORITA: KITABAYASHI: MORITA: Morita san. Kubi ga itasóo desu née. Dóo shita n’ desu ka. Konoaida unten shite ita toki, yoko kara kyuu ni kuruma ga déte kite butsukeraretá n’ desu. Já, ísshu no muchiuchishoo desu ka. Ée, kubi to koshi o yararete, íma chiryoo ni kayotte imásu. Taihen désu née. Sore de kuruma no hóo wa? Íma, shúuri ni dáshite arimásu ga, kánari yararete imásu. Soo yuu ba’ai, hoken wa dóo náru n’ desu ka. Sassoku, uchi no hokengáisha ni renraku shite, yatte moratte imásu. Aite no fuchúui ni yorú no de, híyoo wa zénbu dáshite moraerú n’ ja nái ka to omoimásu ga … Mendóo desu née. Ée. Sore to kuruma ga nái to kaimono no toki tottemo fúben desu. Já, tsugí ni iku toki tsurete itte sashiagemásu yo. Enryonáku osshátte kudasai. Dóomo goshinsetsu ni. KITABAYASHI: MORITA: KITABAYASHI: MORITA: 213 Vocabulary itasóo butsukerareru yarareru sóo yuu ba’ai looks sore be hit be done in, take a blow in that case, in circumstances like that … ni yoru zénbu dáshite moraeru n’ ja nái ka to omoimásu enryo náku ossháru to be the result of, to stem from I think we can probably get them to pay the lot without reserve, don’t hesitate to … to say (honorific) Exercise 13.1 Answer the following comprehension questions on Dialogue 1. The questions are in English, but you should be able to answer them in both English and Japanese. The Key to the Exercises has model answers in both English and Japanese (p. 283). Your answers may well be correct even if they don’t correspond exactly to those in the back of the book. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What injury did Mrs Morita sustain in the accident? What is she doing about it? Is she still driving her car? What is the situation regarding insurance? What does Mrs Morita find inconvenient? How does Mrs Kitamura offer to help? Passive sentences Dialogue 1 introduces a number of passive sentences. To form a passive verb from its active voice equivalent, the subject of the active sentence becomes the agent of the passive sentence and is indicated with the particle ni, in much the same as ‘by’ marks the agent of an English passive sentence. The passive ending –(r)areru (which you met as a potential verb ending in Unit 10) is added to the verb root, the initial –(r) dropping after a consonant. For example, the active sentence, Senséi wa Tároo o homemáshita ‘The teacher praised Taro’ is transformed into the passive sentence, Tároo wa senséi ni homeraremáshita ‘Tároo was praised by the teacher’. Some more examples of passive verbs are 214 taberaréru ‘to be eaten’, miraréru ‘to be seen’, kakaréru ‘to be written’ and omowaréru ‘to be thought’ or ‘to spring to mind’. The passive forms of the irregular verbs suru ‘to do’ and kúru ‘to come’ are sareru (sometimes serareru) and koráreru respectively. You may find it puzzling to learn that kúru has a passive equivalent, because we do not make passives from intransitive verbs in English and we cannot imagine a context in which we might use a verb form meaning, ‘to be come’. In Japanese, however, even intransitive verbs can occur in the passive. When they do, they often carry a connotation of inconvenience or discomfort experienced by the subject of the sentence, usually ‘I ’ or ‘we’. This construction is known as the ‘INDIRECT PASSIVE’ or the ‘ADVERSATIVE PASSIVE’. A few examples should make the concept easier to understand. Kinóo áme ni furaremáshita. Kyuu ni tomodachi ni korárete komarimáshita. Kare wa háyaku ryóoshin ni shinarete shinseki ni sodateráreta. I was caught in the rain yesterday. I was put out when my friend turned up suddenly. He suffered the early death of his parents and was raised by relatives. This indirect passive construction can also be used with transitive verbs, in which case it strongly suggests that someone has been affected by the action. This contrasts with the direct passive which is simply a neutral description of what happened. For example, the direct passive saifu ga nusumaremáshita ‘the wallet was stolen’ merely tells us what happened to the wallet. On the other hand, the indirect passive, saifu o nusumaremáshita ‘I had my wallet stolen’, strongly suggest the distress and inconvenience I suffered as a result of the theft. Notice that in the indirect passive the object of the active sentence remains the object in the passive sentence, the subject being the person who suffers the inconvenience. Exercise 13.2 Complete the following sentences by choosing an appropriate ending from the list below (use the English cues as a guide). Then translate the completed sentences into English. 1. Shigoto ni iku tochuu (I was caught in the rain.) 2. Isha ni mótto (I was told to exercise.) 3. Sake wa kome kara (is made) a. tsukurárete imásu. b. homeraremáshita. c. saifu o nusumaremáshita. 215 4. Nihongo ga joozu da to (I was praised.) 5. Gaikoku de (I had my wallet stolen.) d. undoo suru yóo ni iwaremáshita. e. áme ni furaremáshita. Causative sentences In Japanese the causative is formed with the suffix, –(s)aséru after the verb root, the initial –(s) dropping after a consonant. For example: tabesaséru mataséru warawaseru to make eat to make wait to make laugh The irregular verbs suru and kúru have the causative forms saseru and kosaséru. In addition to the causative meaning, the –(s)aseru suffix is also often used to convey the idea of letting someone do something and is therefore sometimes called the ‘PERMISSIVE’. We will retain the causative tag, but remember the form carries both connotations. Sometimes the distinction between causative and permissive can be shown by the use of ni after the object of the permissive clause. For example: Watashi ni yarasete kudasái please let me do it as opposed to shachoo wa Suzuki san o yamesasemáshita the boss gave Mr Suzuki the sack (literally, ‘made him stop work’). This distinction cannot be made if there is another object in the sentence. In this case the person made or permitted to perform the action is always followed by ni. Tanaka kun ni gaikoku kara no okyakusan o mukae ni ikasemáshita. I had (or let) young Tanaka go to meet the customer from overseas. Here are some more examples of the causative. Warawasenáide kudasái. Please don’t make me laugh. Abe san ni iwaseru to, If you let Mr Abe have his say, (he’ll Edomae no sushí wa tell you) local Edo (i.e. Tokyo) sushi is the ichiban oishii désu. best. 216 In casual colloquial speech a shortened causative form, –(s)asu, often replaces the longer suffix. This shorter form is particularly common in the plain past-tense and conditional endings. Sonna íi nikú o inú ni tabesáshitara komáru yo. We can’t have you letting the dog eat such good meat. The causative form should be used with caution as it usually implies a person in authority issuing orders or distributing privileges. For this reason it is often used in conjunction with another verb, such as ageru or the suffix –tai, to soften the blow. Oishii jizake o nomásete agemasu. Koko no oishii unagi o sóbo ni tabesasetái desu. I’ll let you try some delicious local sake. I’d like to have my grandmother try some of the delicious eel they have here. –sasete itadakimásu This very polite verb ending is used in formal situations and is particularly favoured by certain types of middle-class ladies. It is formed with the causative form of a verb followed by the object honorific verb, itadaku ‘to receive’ (from a social superior). Literally the expression means something like ‘I receive the favour of being permitted to…’. You will hear it mainly in set formal routines found in speech-making or in the context of elaborate greeting or leave-taking. Minásan, kore kara Ákita no min’yoo o utawasete itadakimásu. Ladies and gentlemen, now I would like to take the liberty of singing a folk song from Akita. The causative-passive When the causative suffix attaches to a verb root it forms a new vowelstem verb which can take the various verb endings, including the passive suffix. However, as mentioned above, the short causative form is often preferred to the full form when other endings are to be added, and this is usually the case with the causative-passive. For example, the verb mátsu ‘to wait’ forms the causative verb mataséru, ‘to make wait’, ‘to keep waiting’, and we would expect the causative-passive, ‘to be kept waiting’ 217 to be mataseráreru, but, while this form is possible, matasáreru is far more common. The causative-passive of suru ‘to do’, however, is saserareu. Here are some examples of the causative-passive form. Byooin de zúibun nágaku matasaremáshita. Kekkónshiki de supíichi o saseraremáshita. I was kept waiting an awfully long time at the hospital. I was made to give a speech at the wedding ceremony. It is interesting to note that this causative-passive construction does not carry the connotation of permission commonly found in the –(sa)seru construction. Exercise 13.3 Using the English cues given, change the verb in brackets to the appropriate causative form, then translate the whole sentence into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Jón san wa joodan o itte hito o (warau – makes laugh). Yuushoku no shitaku wa watashi ni (suru – let do) kudasái. Shinpai (suru – making) sumimasén. Tsugí wa boku ni (haráu – let pay) kudasái. Kono konpyúuta o chótto (tsukau – let use) kudasái. Háisha de ichijíkan íjoo (mátsu – was kept waiting). Kodomo no toki ni múri ni (tabéru – was made to eat) no de, yasai ga kirai ná n’ desu. 8. Konogoro osoku made shigoto o (suru – made to). ‘It looks as if it will …’ We have already covered the use of sóo desu after the plain form of a verb or adjective to indicate hearsay or reported speech, when it is more or less equivalent to ‘I hear that’, ‘they say that’, ‘apparently’, etc. Attached to the stem of the verb or adjective (remember the stem is what is left when you cut off the –masu ending of a verb or the final –i of a true adjective), –sóo (which loses its accent when attached to unaccented stems) means ‘it looks …’ or ‘it looks as if it will …’. Here are some examples. Ano konpyúuta wa takasóo desu né. That computer looks expensive. 218 Kyóo wa gakkoo ni okuresoo désu. It looks as if he’ll be late for school today. The adjective íi (or yói) ‘good’ and the negative, nái, have irregular –sóo forms, becoming yosasóo ‘seems good’ and nasasoo ‘seemingly not’, respectively. Háyaku itta hoo ga yosasóo desu. Koko ní wa íi no ga nasasóo desu. It looks as if it would be better to go early. It doesn’t look as if there are any good ones here. Exercise 13.4 1 Listen to these casual plain-form dialogues between Yumi and her friend Yoshie. Notice the use of the –sóo suffix and the feminine final particles káshira and nó. After each dialogue practise the question and response taking the parts of each of the characters in turn. Pay particular attention to the intonation of questions without the question particle, ka. Finally, to make sure you have understood, use the vocabulary list to produce a translation of the dialogues. You’ll find a model answer in the Key to the Exercises (p. 283). 1. : : 2. ? ? : : 3. : ? 219 : : : 4. : : : : : ? ? ? Describing how others feel or behave In Japanese a distinction is made between subjective information based on our own opinions and feelings, and judgements and opinions about others which are formed on the basis of observed evidence. In Japanese samúi means, ‘I am cold’ or ‘I feel cold’, based on my own subjective experience. If I want to say someone else is cold, however, I cannot use the same subjective expression, but must make an objective judgement based on what I have seen or heard. We can say, ‘he looks cold’ samusóo desu or ‘he says he’s cold’ samúi soo desu or ‘he seems to be cold’ samúi yoo desu. We can also use the suffix –gáru, which is used to make an objective verb out of a subjective adjective, so samugáru means ‘to behave as if one feels cold’, hazukashigáru ‘to be shy, behave in an embarrassed manner’. The same ending can be added to the suffix –tái ‘(I) want to…’ to give –tagáru ‘(he) wants to…’. Compare watashi wa onsen ni hairitái desu ‘I want to take a hotspring bath’ with kare mo hairitagátte imasu ‘he wants to take one (i.e. a hotspring bath) too’. The suffix can also be used with a small number of descriptive nouns, like iya na in the list below. Here are some common pairs consisting of a subjective adjective and an objective verb formed with –gáru. 220 Subjective (‘I’) hoshíi iya da kowái atsúi omoshirói natsukashíi Objective (‘He’, etc.) hoshigáru iyagáru kowagáru atsugáru omoshirogáru natsukashigáru to want to dislike, find repugnant, be unwilling to to be frightened to feel the heat, be hot to find interesting or amusing to feel nostalgic about According to and in accordance with Two expressions often confused by learners of Japanese are ni yoru to and ni yotte. The confusion arises because the English translation ‘according to’ is from time to time applied to each construction. For example, we can say in English ‘according to Bill, it is going to rain tomorrow’ and ‘cultures differ according to the country’, using ‘according to’ both times for what are actually two quite different concepts. In Japanese, the former, indicating reported speech or quoted opinion, is expressed with ni yoru to and the latter, which can be paraphrased as ‘in accordance with’ or ‘depending on’ is ni yotte. The Japanese equivalents of the two English sentences given above, therefore, are, Bíru san ni yoru to ashita wa áme da sóo desu and kuni ni yotte búnka ga chigaimásu. Ni yoru to usually occurs in a sentence which ends with sóo desu ‘it seems’, ‘it appears’, ‘they say’. We can also express the idea of ‘according to’ with … no hanashi dé wa, ‘in the words of …’ or … ni iwaseru to ‘if we let … have his/her say’. Degrees of probability When we make a statement based on the evidence available to us, we indicate the degree to which we believe what we say to be true with adverbs like ‘definitely’, ‘probably’, ‘perhaps’, ‘possibly’ etc. The Japanese seem less inclined than we are to make dogmatic assertions. They qualify many of their statements with a final deshóo ‘probably’ or to omoimásu ‘I think …’. When necessary, however, they can indicate certainty with kanarazu ‘without fail’, ‘certainly’ at the beginning of a sentence, though paradoxically even these strong assertions tend to finish in a final deshóo or to omoimásu. 221 Kanarazu nyuugaku-shíken ni gookaku suru deshóo. He is sure to pass the entrance exam. At the other end of the certainty scale we have met the construction of a plain verb;ka mo shiremasen ‘perhaps’ (literally, ‘whether or not we cannot know’). Another common expression which falls somewhere between these two, is formed with n’ ja nái ka to omoimásu ‘probably’ (literally, ‘I think, is it not that …?’). In written Japanese and in more formal situations this contracted form is usually replaced by the full form no dewa nái ka to omoimásu: Ashita kúru n’ ja nái ka to omoimásu. He’ll probably come tomorrow. Knowing how to do things Japanese has a very convenient way of saying ‘how to do something’ or ‘the way to do something’. The suffix –kata is simply added to the verb stem, so tabekáta means ‘how to eat’ or ‘way of eating’, tsukaikata ‘how to use’, ‘way of using’, ikikata ‘how to go’, ‘way of going’, and so on. We have met this construction in the expression shikata ga arimasén ‘it can’t be helped’, which we can see now actually means, ‘there is no way of doing it’. Anóko no iikata wa otóosan to sokkúri desu. Kuni ni yotte kangaekáta ga chigaimásu. Kono ji no yomikáta o oshiete itadakemásu ka. His way of speaking is just like his father. Ways of thinking differ from country to country. Could you tell me how to read this character please? Difficult or easy to do We have met the adjectives muzukashíi ‘difficult’ and yasashíi ‘easy’. Japanese also has two suffixes –nikúi ‘difficult to …’ and –yasúi ‘easy to …’ which attach to the verb stem. Mifune san no Nihongo wa nakanaka wakarinikúi desu. Kono hón wa yomiyasúi desu. Mr Mifune’s Japanese is difficult to understand. This book is easy to read. 222 Exercise 13.5 1 In this exercise we drill some of the new constructions introduced above. First listen to this short dialogue then answer the questions that follow it. Takeo and Haruo are waiting for Akiko in a kissáten (coffee shop). : : : Takeo returns a few minutes later. : : : : 1. 2. 3. 4. What did Haruo think was the reason why Akiko had not shown up? Who rang her home? Who answered the phone? How long did they wait? Now following the example below, use the cues to make similar dialogues of your own. Model answers are given in the Key to the Exercises (p. 284). Cue: tsukaikata, kantan A: Chótto sumimasén. Kore no tsukaikata o oshiete kudasái. B: Ée, íi desu yo. Kantan désu. 5. 6. 7. 8. yarikata, sukóshi fukuzatsu. Éki e no ikikata, sukóshi yayakoshíi. makizúshi no tsukurikata, kotsu o oshiete agemásu. kippu no kaikata, koko ni okane o irete, kono botaic verbs ending in –áru which lose the final –r of the root before adding –másu. For example: Ítsu Nihón ni irasshaimáshita ka. When did you arrive in Japan? The other verbs in the group are kudasáru ‘to give’, ossháru ‘to say’ and nasáru ‘to do’. The –r of the root also drops in the imperative form of these verbs, as we have seen in the request form –te kudasái. Be careful, however, when using the imperative forms as, even though they derive from honorific verbs, they have only a mildly honorific connotation. Irasshái. ‘Come!’ or ‘Go!’, for example, is most often used for addressing children, junior workmates or close friends. Although meshiagaru, the honorific verb ‘to eat’, ends in –aru it has the regular –másu and imperative forms, meshagarimásu and meshiagare. (See p. 241 for the formation of the plain imperative forms.) The regular subject honorific form for verbs is formed by using the honorific nominal prefix o– followed by the verb stem and ni náru. The verb káku ‘to write’, for example, produces okaki ni náru ‘an honoured person writes’. There is an alternative form of the regular subjecthonorific construction in which ni náru is replaced by a form of the copula, da. This latter construction seems to be used to describe present states or actions in progress and is therefore more equivalent to the –te iru ending. Móo okaeri desu ka. Are you leaving (going back) already (so soon)? 233 Odekake désu ka. Are you going out somewhere (a common greeting)? A polite imperative form can be made with the honorific prefix o– plus the verb stem and kudasái. Gojúusho to onamae o koko ni okaki kudasái. Please write your name and address here. There is also a category of elegant or euphemistic verbs which usually replace the expected regular form. Náma no káki mo meshiagaremásu ka. Dóchira ni osumai désu ka. Kono óoba o omeshi ni narimásu ka. Can you also eat raw oysters? Where do you live? Will you try on this overcoat? The subject-honorific equivalent of shitte iru ‘to know’ is gozónji da, and the subject-honorific form of the copula, da, is de irassháru. Matsuzaki senséi o gozónji desu ka. Matsui senséi wa Nihon-búngaku no kyooju de irasshaimásu. Do you know Mr Yamazaki? Dr Matsui is a professor of Japanese literature. If the respected person is not the subject of the verb but the direct or indirect object, the object-honorific verb form is used. The subject of the object-honorific construction, though rarely explicitly expressed, is usually, ‘I’ or ‘we’. The regular object-honorific verb is formed with the honorific prefix o– plus the verb stem and part of the verb suru ‘to do’, or its formal equivalent itásu. There is an example in Dialogue 1 of this unit. Dóozo yoróshiku onegai itashimásu. I am very grateful for your help. Here are some more common uses of the object honorific form: Okaban o omochi shimashóo ka. Kinóo katta konpyúuta o omise shitái desu. Shall I carry your bag for you? I’d like to show you the computer I bought yesterday. 234 There are several object-honorific verbs which either replace, or occur alongside, their regular counterparts. An example here should suffice to give you an idea how these verbs behave. Séngetsu haishaku shita hón o ashita okaeshi shimásu. Tomorrow I’ll return the book I borrowed last month. Note that in this last example, the regular form okari shita could be used instead of haishaku shita with little change in the meaning. Exercise 14.1 Can you answer these comprehension questions on Dialogue 1? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why does Mr Nakamura ring Professor Akimoto? Why isn’t this Friday convenient for the professor? What date does Mr Nakamura suggest for their meeting? Why doesn’t Professor Akimoto reply immediately? When do they finally agree to meet? Honorifics with nouns and adjectives We have had many examples of nouns with the prefix o– or go– attached to them. In some cases this prefix has lost its original honorific force and simply forms an elegant alternative to a common word. This usage occurs frequently with a number of very common nouns, many of them the names of foods and beverages, and is employed particularly often by women. Examples include, oyu ‘hot water’, osake ‘rice wine’, ocha ‘tea’, okome ‘rice’ (uncooked), góhan ‘rice’ (cooked), okane ‘money’, oháshi ‘chopsticks’, otsuri ‘change’ (money), oteárai ‘lavatory’, etc. Elsewhere these prefixes are attached to nouns to indicate that they are owned by, or in some way connected to, a respected person. So otaku or ouchi means ‘an honorable house’, often ‘your house’, gohón means ‘your book’, and so on. Originally the prefix o– was used with nouns of native Japanese origin and go– with compounds borrowed from Chinese, but the situation has become very confused with some original Japanese words taking go–, as in goyukkúri ‘please take your time, please relax’ and Chinese loans taking o– as in odénwa ‘your telephone call’ (or ‘my telephone call to you’). Some words like, henjí ‘answer’, seem to occur with either prefix, so that you might hear ohenji ‘your answer’ one day then gohenji with the same meaning the next. 235 o– ohima oikutsu ogénki go– gojúusho gojibun gokenson spare time how old? fit, well address yourself, etc. modest Sometimes the honorific prefix indicates not that the noun is owned by a respected person but that it is a verbal noun or the like directed towards someone to whom respect is shown. Tookyoo o goannai shimásu. Odénwa o sashiagemásu. I’ll show you around Tokyo. I shall telephone you. True adjectives and descriptive nouns make their honorific forms with the addition of the honorific prefix o– or go– in the same way as that described above for nouns. Sensei no ókusan wa taihen outsukushíi katá desu né. Oisogashíi tokoro o dóomo sumimasén deshita. Your wife is a very beautiful lady, Sir. I’m sorry to have troubled you when you were so busy. There is one adjective íi (or yói) ‘good’ which has a separate honorific form, yoroshíi. It is generally used to indicate that someone in a respected position approves or endorses a particular situation. In practice it is frequently used in questions seeking the approval of a respected superior. Móo káette mo yoroshíi desu ka. Kore de yoroshíi desu ka. May I go home now? Is this all right? Polite and formal styles In Japanese there are three speech styles, plain, polite and formal, which show increasing degrees of politeness to the person being addressed. All final verbs in Japanese carry an indication of the degree of politeness to the addressee and the degree of respect shown to the subject or object of the main verb. So far in this book you have become very familiar with the polite desu/–másu style. You also know the plain style as it occurs in non-final verbs and you have heard a few dialogues between close friends with final plain-form verbs. The formal style too, is not 236 altogether new to you as it occurs in a number of greetings and formal routines with the verb gozaimásu. This verb along with a small number of verbs listed below are characteristic of the formal style which is used mainly in greetings, speech making and over the telephone. Other verbs used in the formal style are móosu ‘to say, to be called’, itásu ‘to do’, máiru ‘to come’ or ‘to go’, óru ‘to be’ and itadaku in the sense of ‘to eat’. These verbs usually have the speaker, or someone close to the speaker, as subject. Watakushi wa Nakamura to mooshimásu. Itte mairimásu. Súgu itashimásu. Róndon ni rokúnen súnde orimáshita. Móo juubún itadakimáshita. My name is Nakamura. Goodbye. I’ll do it straight away. I lived six years in London. I’ve already had sufficient. Perhaps you have noticed that adjectives in the formal style have a long vowel before the final gozaimásu. We have already met arígatoo gozaimásu from the adjective arigatái ‘grateful’ and ohayoo gozaimásu from hayái (or rather its honorific form ohayai). Adjectives with roots ending in –a or –o have formal forms ending in –oo, those with roots in –u become –uu and those with roots ending in –ki or –shi become –kyuu or –shuu respectively. The adjective íi ‘good’ becomes yóo (from yóku) and the honorific yoroshíi becomes yoroshúu. Kyóo wa oatsúu gozaimásu né. Yuube no éiga wa taihen omoshiróo gozaimáshita. Kono séki de yoroshúu gozaimásu ka. It’s hot today isn’t it (both honorific and formal). Last night’s film was very interesting. Is this seat all right? The formal style also uses certain vocabulary items, usually of Chinese origin, in place of the more common native Japanese words. Ashita ‘tomorrow’, for example, is likely to be replaced by myóonichi and kinóo ‘yesterday’ by sakújitsu. The noun monó ‘person’ is also frequently used in this style to refer to oneself. For example as you hand over your business card you might say. Watakushi wa koo yuu monó de gozaimásu. ‘Here is my card.’ (literally, ‘I am this kind of person.’) 237 Exercise 14.2 Complete the sentences on the left by choosing the most appropriate ending from the list on the right. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. b. c. d. e. Exercise 14.3 The honorific verb irassháru replaces a number of different verbs. Identify the meaning of irassháru in each of these sentences and give the neutral (i.e. non-honorific) polite-style equivalent. Look through the kanji introduced in this unit before you tackle this exercise. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The passive as an honorific Generally, not every verb in an honorific sentence need carry an honorific suffix. As long as one verb near the end of the sentence is marked as honorific, the sentence is interpreted as an honorific sentence. Often only the auxiliary verb carries an honorific suffix. For example, it is possible to say, Sensei, íma náni o nasátte irasshaimasu ka ‘What are you doing now, Sir?’, but in practice it is usual to use just one honorific verb, Sensei, íma náni o nasátte imasu ka or the more common, Sensei, íma náni o shite irasshaimásu ka. The passive voice ending can also be used as a regular subjecthonorific construction. This is perhaps a little less respectful than the full 238 o– verb stem –ni náru form. It seems to be used more by men and is used as a matter of personal preference more by some individuals than others. It can be distinguished from a true passive by the lack of an agent marked by the particle ni. Matsuzaki senséi wa kinóo Yooróppa kara kaeraremáshita. Ototói Tanaka san no okáasan ga nakunararemáshita. Mr Matsuzaki returned home from Europe yesterday. Mrs Tanaka’s mother passed away the day before yesterday. Exercise 14.4 1 Imagine you are a student talking to an eminent university professor, Dr Yamamoto. Using the respect language you have learnt and the cues in parentheses supply the questions which drew these responses from the Professor. 1. 2. with dónna) 3. 4. 5. –másu ka) (your question ends in désu ka) (you offered to carry his bag) (your question ends in (your question ends in désu ka) (your question begins Abstract nouns from adjectives There is a very convenient suffix, –sa, which attaches to the adjective root (the bit left when you chop off the final –i) to form an abstract noun. Here are some examples of abstract nouns formed with –sa. The adjective from which each is derived is given in parentheses; takása ‘height’ (takái), nagása ‘length’ (nagái), óokisa ‘size’ (ookíi), yósa ‘value’ (yói ‘good’), nása ‘absence’ of (nái), subaráshisa ‘splendour’ (subarashíi), kireisa ‘cleanliness’ (kírei ‘clean’), shizukása ‘tranquillity’ (shízuka). There is another similar suffix –mi, which is also used to form abstract nouns. It is far less frequent than –sa and seems to be used to convey a more figurative or metaphorical meaning. From the adjective omoi ‘heavy’, for example, we get both omosa ‘weight’ and omomi ‘gravity’, 239 ‘significance’. Another common abstract noun in –mi is umami ‘deliciousness’, ‘wonderful taste’ from umái ‘delicious’. Particles of extent and degree We have learnt that Japanese has no equivalents to the comparative degree of adjectives in English. You will recall that to compare the attributes of two things, Japanese uses the noun hóo ‘side, direction’ and the particle yori ‘than, from’, but the form of the adjective concerned remains unchanged. Taihéiyoo to Taiséiyoo to de wa dóchira no hóo ga hirói desu ka. Taihéiyoo wa Taiséiyoo yori hirói desu. Taihéiyoo no hóo ga hirói desu. Which is larger the Pacific or the Atlantic? The Pacific Ocean is larger than the Atlantic. The Pacific is larger. We did not learn, however, how to say, for example, that A is not bigger than B or that A is about the same size as B. To do this we need to call into service two more particles, hodo and gúrai. Taiséiyoo wa Taihéiyoo hodo híroku arimasén. Otootó wa bóku hodo omoku nái desu. Áni wa chichi gúrai se ga takái desu. Kore wa Pári de tábeta ryóori gúrai oishii desu. The Atlantic is not as large as the Pacific. My younger brother is not as heavy as I am. My elder brother is as tall as my father. This is as good as the food we ate in Paris. Exercise 14.5 Use the data in parentheses to fill in the gaps in these sentences. 1. Chikatetsu wa _____________ tákaku arimasén. (densha ¥360; chikatetsu ¥280) 2. Bíiru wa _____________ tsúyoku arimasén. (bíiru, 5do; osake, 12do) 3. Wáin wa _____________ tsuyói desu. (wáin, 12do; osake, 12do) 4. Oosaka wa _____________ óoku nái desu. (oosaka, jinkoo 500mannin; Tookyoo, jinkoo 1,000mannin) 5. Otootó wa _____________ sé ga takái desu. (otootó 181 sénchi, chichi 178 sénchi) 240 Vocabulary –do degrees (measure of alcohol content) sénchi centimetre Compound verbs Japanese has a large number of compound verbs, most of which will be acquired as separate vocabulary items. However, it is useful to learn some of the common endings with wide application, so you can form compounds from many of the verbs you have already learnt. Compound verbs are formed by adding a verb to the stem of another verb. Here we have set out some of the most common second elements with example sentences. –dásu furidásu nakidásu waraidásu iidásu –hajiméru yomihajiméru narihajiméru naraihajiméru –owaru kakiowáru tabeowáru –naosu yarinaósu kangaenaósu –tsuzukéru to begin, start suddenly, to break out to start raining, e.g. Áme ga furidashimáshita. to burst into tears, e.g. Akanboo ga nakidashimáshita. to burst out laughing, e.g. Okíi kóe de waradashimáshita. to start saying, to speak out, e.g. Kyuu ni iidashimáshita. to begin to begin to read, e.g. Sensoo to Heiwa (War and Peace) o yomihajímeta bákari desu. to begin to become, e.g. Kuraku narihajimemáshita. to begin to learn, e.g. Obáasan wa saikin Eigo o naraihajimemáshita. to finish to finish writing, e.g. Yatto kono hón o kakiowarimáshita. to finish eating, e.g. Tabeáwótte kara mata benkyoo shihajimemáshita. to redo, to do again to redo, e.g. Moo ichido saisho kara yarinaoshimashóo. to rethink, e.g. Kangaenaóshite kudasai. to continue 241 arukitsuzukéru hanashitsuzukéru –sugíru nomisugíru tabetoosugíru takasugíru to keep walking, e.g. Ashí ga ítaku náru made arukitsuzukemáshita. to keep talking, e.g. Nanjíkan mo hanashitsuzukemáshita. to overdo, to be too much (also used with adjective roots) to drink too much, e.g. Uísukii o nomisugimáshita. to eat much, e.g. Shoogatsú (New Year) ni náru to ítsumo tabesugimásu. to be too high, too expensive, e.g. Keitai-dénwa no ryóokin ( fees, charges) wa takasugimásu. The plain imperative In your dealings with Japanese, or anyone else for that matter, you will probably get greater cooperation if you avoid ordering people around. The –te kudasái request form will suffice for most everyday purposes. You should know, nevertheless, that Japanese has a plain imperative form, which you will hear used from time to time in conversation between close friends and within the family. The plain imperative of consonant-root verbs is formed by adding –e to the verb root, e.g. ike ‘go!’, nóme ‘drink!’, warae ‘laugh!’. With vowel-root verbs the suffix –ro is generally added, though –yo is also quite common in western Japan and in written Japanese, e.g. tabéro ‘eat!’, míro ‘look!’, tsugi no mondai ni kotaeyo ‘answer the following questions’ (written instruction). The plain imperative forms of the irregular verbs, kúru and suru are kói and shiró (or séyo) respectively, e.g. Póchi, kotchí e kói ‘Come here, Pochi!’ (calling a dog), háyaku shiró ‘do it quickly!’, 20 péeji o sanshoo séyo ‘refer to page 20’ (written instruction). The in-giving verb kureru ‘someone gives me’ also has an irregular imperative, becoming kuré ‘give me!’, without the anticipated –ro suffix. This also applies when kureru is used as an auxiliary verb, e.g. tasukete kuré ‘Help me!’ The plain negative imperative is formed by adding the particle na to the plain form of the verb, e.g. ikú na ‘don’t go!’, míru na ‘don’t look!’. Often in the plain style the request forms are used without kudasái or, put differently, the –te form alone is used as a request. Sometimes choodai ‘accept with thanks’, ‘please’ is added to the –te form to make a casual, friendly request in the plain style. Kore o yónde. Sore o mísete choodai. Read this (please). Show me that (please). 242 In practice these brusque plain imperatives are often softened with the addition of the sentence final particle, yo. Ki ni surú na yo. Kyóo wa sore de íi ni shiró yo. Oshiete choodái yo. Joodan yuú na yo. Don’t worry about it! Leave it at that for today! Please tell me (pleading tone). Stop kidding! Don’t make jokes! The brusque imperatives are used even in polite-style speech when reporting instructions that have been made to oneself. Iké to iwaremáshita. Súgu dáse to iimáshita. Míru na to okoraremáshita. I was told to go. He said to send it straight away. I was angrily told not to look. Direct requests with kudasái can be changed to reported speech with the imperative of kureru, kuré. Yóji ni kite kuré to tanomaremáshita. I was told to come at 4 o’clock. Of course, reported commands can also be expressed with the plain form of the verb followed by yóo ni. Iku yóo ni iwaremáshita. I was told to go. Exercise 14.6 In the following sentences replace the indirect imperative in yóo ni with the plain imperative form, then translate into English. We give you an example to help you get started. Cue: Osoku naranái yoo ni iwaremáshita. A: Osoku náru na to iwaremáshita. I was told not to be late. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ashita kúru yoo ni iwaremáshita. Róbii de mátsu yoo ni iimáshita. Senséi wa séito ni yóku benkyoo suru yóo ni iimáshita. Densha no náka de keitai-dénwa o tsukawanai yóo ni to yuu anaúnsu ga arimashita. 5. Asoko de chuusha shinai yóo ni to káite arimashita. 243 Dialogue 2 1 At the restaurant : : : table for four) the guests) : : : : the drinks) : : : (after a while he brings (the waiter goes to look for a (after he has seated : : : : : : : (after they have finished the main course) (looking at the wine list) 244 : : (he returns a few moments later) WEITAA: Irasshaimáse. Nánmeisama desu ka. KYAKU: Yonin désu. WEITAA: Shóoshoo omachi kudasai. Dóozo kochira e. Wain rísuto to ményuu de gozaimásu. KYAKU: Dóomo. WEITAA: Onomímono wa náni ni nasaimásu ka. KYAKU: Mázu, namabíiru no chuujókki futatsu to mineraru uóotaa futatsú kudasái. WEITAA: Hái, kashikomarimáshita. Oshokuji no hoó wa okimari deshóo ka. KYAKU: Kono yúdeta kani-ryóori desu ga, kani wa dóno gurai no óokisa désu ka. WEITAA: Sóo desu née, kono gurai désu. KYAKU: Déwa, sore o hitótsu onegai shimásu. Méen wa kani to iseebi de, minná de wákete tabemasu. Soshite zensai wa kono yasai-súupu o yoninmae onegai shimásu. WEITAA: Wáin wa náni ni nasaimásu ka. KYAKU: Kono náka de karakuchi no shíro wa dóre desu ka. WEITAA: Kochira no Oosutorária no wáin wa nakanaka koohyoo désu. KYAKU: Déwa, sore ni shimásu. WEITAA: Kashikomarimáshita. Gochúumon wa íjoo de yoroshii désu ka. KYAKU: Ée, toriáezu sore de kékkoo desu. Tarinákattara áto de tsuika shimásu. WEITAA: Hái, kashikomarimáshita. Shibáraku omachi kudasái. Osage shimásu. Dezáato wa ikága desu ka. KYAKU: Dezáato wa kékoo desu. Okanjoo o onegai shimásu. Vocabulary –mei nánmeisama desu ka numeral class (for counting people) How many of you are there, Sir/Madam? (honorific) 245 óokisa yoninmae gochúumon wa íjoo de yoroshii désu ka toriáezu osage shimásu okanjoo size (–sa, suffix to form abstract noun from adjectives) four portions/servings (–ninmae counter for servings) will that be all for your order, Sir/Madam? for the time being, first, for a start I’ll clear the table for you bill (also kanjóo) Exercise 14.7 Answer the following questions on Dialogue 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What drinks did they order before the meal? What entrées did they have? What was ordered for the main meal? Why were only two main meals ordered? What wine did they settle on and why? Exercise 14.8 1 After studying the list of new kanji for this unit translate the following sentences into English. Then read the sentences aloud. Finally, see if you can reproduce the Japanese script from the English translation. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 246 7. 8. Vocabulary Yamanotesen sén Omedetoo gozaimásu Dóozo yói otoshi o. Akemáshite omedetoo gozaimásu. Kánben shite kudasai. Okotoba ni amaete. Zéhi yorasete itadakimásu. See next page for Kanji table. the Yamanote (or Yamate) line (main loop-line for trains in Tokyo) line Congratulations I hope you have a Happy New Year. Happy New Year. Please bear with me, please excuse me. That’s very kind of you (literally, ‘I’m taking advantage of your kind words’). I’ll certainly be dropping in. 247 Kanji Tokyo 15 Jootatsu no hiketsu wa kore desu. The secret road to progress! In this unit you will learn how to: • • • • • Increase your comprehension skills Discuss current events Recite the list of 12 zodiac animals Increase your vocabulary with kanji compounds Recognise some common kanji signs and notices. You will also acquire: • 20 more kanji: Dialogue 1 1 After working your way through this course you decide to talk to a Japanese teacher about what you should do to progress further in your study of Japanese. This is primarily an exercise in vocabulary building. 249 250 IT Vocabulary sáigo sai– –tari –tari suru … kotó ni yotte kákuchi shuukyoo-árasoi shúukyoo arasói sonóta wadai ni noboru aitíi last most – (prefix. cf., saikoo highest, best; saisho first) to do such things as…and…, do frequently or alternately by –ing, through –ing everywhere, all places throughout… religious strife religion fight, struggle, strife and other, etc. become a topic of conversation I.T. 251 tsúmari joohoo tsuushin gíjutsu ki ga tooku náru that is, in short information communications technology faint away, feel dizzy Exercise 15.1 Translate the following sentences, based on Dialogue 1, into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Dialogue 2 1 What animal sign were you born under, Mary? There are people in Japan who believe a person’s personality is determined by the sign of the animal for the year in which he or she was born. Even those who don’t believe like to go along with the game. Don’t be surprised if you are asked what your animal sign is. After this unit you should know. Here is a conversation between Mary and her Japanese friend, Haruo. : : : : ? 252 : : : — : : : : : : : : ? … : : : : ... ? : : : 253 : : : : : 1982 Vocabulary nanidoshi eto what zodiac animal sign traditional Chinese calendrical system with 10 stems (arranged in five pairs) and 12 branches combining to produce a cycle of 60 years 12 branches; 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac to be equivalent to like, as; it seems that juuníshi … ni ataru mítai na The following chart shows the zodiac animals with below the Zodiac names and the normal conversational terms for these animals. 254 Zodiac name ne Zodiac character Common name (where different) nezumi Common character English Dates rat ushi tora ox tiger u usagi rabbit tatsu dragon mi hébi snake umá horse hitsuji sheep sáru monkey tori niwatori cock inú dog í inoshíshi boar 1924 1960 1996 1925 1961 1997 1926 1962 1998 1927 1963 1999 1928 1964 2000 1929 1965 2001 1930 1966 2002 1931 1967 2003 1932 1968 2004 1933 1969 2005 1934 1970 2006 1935 1971 2007 1936 1972 2008 1937 1973 2009 1938 1974 2010 1939 1975 2011 1940 1976 2012 1941 1977 2013 1942 1978 2014 1943 1979 2015 1944 1980 2016 1945 1981 2017 1946 1982 2018 1947 1983 2019 1948 1984 1949 1985 1950 1986 1951 1987 1952 1988 1953 1989 1954 1990 1955 1991 1956 1992 1957 1993 1958 1994 1959 1995 255 Kanji uchi ya muro (1336–1573) isó(gu) let’s hurry mono ichi íchiba, shijoo market michi ha(réru) máto ba(kéru) ná(i) táyo(ri) ki(ku) bénri na convenient rikoo na clever hidarikiki left-handed kinri interest rate 256 Exercise 15.2 1. Work out you own zodiac animal. 2. Explain in Japanese what the zodiac animal is for this year and next year. 3. Say in Japanese how many of these animals can be found outside zoos in your country? 4. Explain in Japanese why the dragon is included in the list. 5. Ask your Japanese friend (in Japanese, of course) what are the characteristics (tokuchoo) of people born under the sign of the tiger. More useful kanji Although the emphasis in this book has been on the spoken language, by the end of this unit you will have learnt the two syllabaries, hiragána and katakána, and about 200 kanji. Most of the kanji introduced in this unit have considerable generative force, combining with other kanji to form a large number of kanji compounds. In addition to those characters introduced specifically for writing and recognition, you have seen a large number of kanji with their readings given in furigana and you have kanji transcriptions for most of the vocabulary items in the glossaries. By now you have acquired a sound knowledge of how kanji characters are formed and how to write and count the strokes in each character correctly. When you feel you have mastered the 200 basic characters introduced for reading and writing, you can go back and tackle those characters that have been introduced with furigana annotation. Learn each character or character compound as it occurs and white out the furigana reading when you feel you have learnt it. Finally, you will have erased all the furigana in this text and you will be well on the way to reading Japanese. At this point, however, we feel you should learn at least to recognise these few extra characters often seen on signs in public places. hijóoguchi kaisatsúguchi madóguchi kiken chúui hinanjo annaijo kinshi (emergency) exit ticket gate, turnstile counter, window danger attention, be careful evacuation point information counter forbidden 257 chuusha-kinshi kin’en ippootsúukoo migigawatsúukoo koojichuu eigyoochuu teikyuubi keshooshitsu no parking no smoking one-way traffic keep right under construction; men at work open for business regular holiday (shop closed) powder room, toilet Exercise 15.3 1 Translate into English the following sentences which contain kanji introduced in Unit 15. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Vocabulary Tanoshími ni shite orimásu. Taihen kékoo na monó o itadaite … Tsumaránai monó desu ga, dóozo. Ohisashiburi désu né. Gobúsata shite orimásu. Mata ome ni kakarimashóo. I’m looking forward to it. Thank you for the lovely gift. It’s nothing much, but please … It’s been a long time, hasn’t it? Sorry I’ve been out of touch. Let’s meet again. Key to the Exercises Unit 1 Exercise 1.1 (from right to left) hamachi, úni, kazunoko, ika, kani Exercise 1.2 1 a yama no ue 2 j kawá to ta 3 h yama no shita 4 b kawa no náka 5 g yama no hón 6 i hón no yama 7 d yama no shita no kawá 8 e yama no ue no ta 9 c yamá to kawá 10 f kawa no ue no yamá Exercise 1.3 1 Ueda Sachie 2 Yamamoto Máchiko 4 Kawada Sátoko 5 Honda Chie 6 8 3 Shimoda Kánoko 7 Exercise 1.4 1 (Watashi wa) [your name] desu. Or, Watashi no namae wa [your name] desu. 2 Hajimemáshite (dóozo yoroshiku). 3 Dóo itashimashite. 4 Sayonara. Mata ashita. 5 Oyasumi nasái. 259 Exercise 1.5 1 Tanaka san desu ka. Hái, sóo desu. Tanaka désu. Are you Ms (Mr, Mrs, etc.) Tanaka? Yes, that’s right. I’m Tanaka. 2 Kawamoto san désu ka. Iie, chigaimásu. Yamamoto désu. Are you Mr Kawamoto? No, I’m not. (literally, ‘that’s not right’) I’m Yamamoto. 3 Yamá to kawá to tá. Mountains and rivers and rice fields. 4 Yama no náka no tá. The rice fields in the mountains. 5 Honda san to Táyama san. Mr Honda and Mr Tayama. Exercise 1.6 1c 2a 3d 4e 5b Exercise 1.7 Part A Comprehension Mr Ueda is a teacher, Ms Tanaka is a student, Honda is a doctor and Yamada is a civil servant. Part B Practice 1 Oshígoto wa nán desu ka. oshi na 2 Kaishain desu ka. sha 3 Shúfu desu ka. Shúfu 4 Súmisu san wa shachoo desu ne. shacho ne 5 Yamada san wa gakusei desu ka. kuse Exercise 1.8 1 Ohayoo gozaimásu. yo 2 Konnichi wa. 3 Konban wa. 4 Oyasumi nasái. ya mi na 5 Sayoonara yo nara 6 katagaki (credentials, details of company and rank on business card); nigori (voicing mark, which turns t– into d– etc.); izakaya ( pub); myóoji ( family name); ojígi (bow); itamae (sushi chef ) 260 Unit 2 Exercise 2.1 1 3 t 5 2 4 Exercise 2.2 Páku san to Ríi san wa Kankokujín desu. Kánkoku no Sóuru kara kimáshita. Íma, Amerika ni súnde imasu. Futaritomo Eigo ga yóku dekimásu. Nihongo mo sukóshi dekimásu. Páku san wa rókku to supóotsu ga sukí desu. Ríi san wa rokku-óngaku ga amari sukí dewa arimasén. Kurásshikku to dókusho ga sukí desu. Páku san to Ríi san wa íma, Rárii Míiazu san no uchi ni súnde imasu. Míiazu san wa Amerikájin desu. Arasuka ni súnde imasu. Íma, Nihongo o narátte imasu. Míiazu san no shúmi wa Amerikan-fúttobooru to aisuhókkee desu. Ténisu mo sukí desu. Mr Park and Mr Lee are Koreans. They came from Seoul in South Korea. Now they are living in America. Both of them speak English well. They also know a little Japanese. Mr Park likes rock music and sport. Mr Lee does not like rock music much. He likes classical music and reading. Mr Park and Mr Lee are now living in Larry Mears’s house. Mr Mears is an American. He lives in Alaska. Now he is learning Japanese. Mr Mears’s hobbies are American football and ice hockey. He also likes tennis. Exercise 2.3 1 Yamagawa san wa dóchira kara kimáshita ka. Watashi wa Nihón kara kimáshita. 2 Ari san wa dóchira kara kimáshita ka. Indo kara kimáshita. (Note: watashi can be omitted.) 3 Han san wa dóchira kara kimáshita ka. Kánkoku kara desu. 4 Míraa san wa dóchira kara désu ka. Watashi wa Eikoku kara kimáshita. 5 Méarii san wa dóchira kara kimáshita ka. Arasuka kara kimáshita. 6 Ríi san wa dóchira kara désu ka. Watashi wa Chúugoku kara desu. 261 Exercise 2.4 1 Kochira wa Wán san desu. Wán san wa Chuugokújin desu. Nihongo mo dekimásu. 2 Kochira wa Béeka san désu. Béekaa san wa Igirisújin (Eikokújin) desu. Furansugo mo dekimásu. 3 Kochira wa Buráun san désu. Buráun san wa Doitsújin desu. Chuugokugo mo dekimásu. 4 Kochira wa Ránii san désu. Ránii san wa Indójin desu. Taigo mo dekimásu. 5 Kochira wa Góodon san désu. Góodon san wa Amerikájin desu. Roshiago mo dekimásu. Exercise 2.5 1 Yamamoto san wa dóko (or ‘dóchira’ which is more polite) ni súnde imasu ka. Nágoya ni súnde imasu. 2 Kunimoto san wa dóchira ni súnde imasu ka. Sapporo ni súnde imasu. 3 Súmisu san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. Róndon ni súnde imasu. 4 Ríi san wa dóchira ni súnde imasu ka. Pékin ni súnde imasu. 5 Rukuréeru san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. Pár ni súnde imasu. 6 Káa san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. Shídonii ni súnde imasu. 7 Mekari san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. Róma ni súnde imasu. 8 Kímu san wa dóko ni súnde imasu ka. Sóuru ni súnde imasu. Exercise 2.6 Helena – Sweden, Eric – Germany, Peter – New Zealand, Mr Kim – Korea, Mary – America, Edwina – UK, Bob – Australia. Exercise 2.7 1 Máikeru san no shúmi wa sáafin to basukétto desu. 2 Robáato san no shúmi wa jooba to sákkaa desu. 3 An san no shúmi wa óngaku to háikingu desu. 4 Káaru san no shúmi wa dókusho to ryokoo désu. 5 Góodon san no shúmi wa suiei to yakyuu désu. 6 Anáta no shúmi wa kaimono (shóppingu) to ténisu desu. Exercise 2.8 1 China golf 2 No (In Thailand) 3 Chinese 4 No 5 Sport, especially 262 Unit 3 Exercise 3.1 1 taxi 2 Italy (manufacturer) 11 terebi 3 ice 4 pasta 5 bar 6 colour TV 7 maker 8 camera 9 lighter 10 ‘cooler’ (air-conditioner) pa 12 13 14 15 shi Exercise 3.2 1 (rokú) (6) 2 (gó) (5) 3 (juuhachí) (18) 4 (níjuunana) (27) 5 (rokujuuní) (62) 6 yón (4) 7 yónjuugo (45) 8 júuku (19) 9 nanájuuroku (76) 10 júusan (13) Exercise 3.3 1 2 (kyúu kyúu yón kyúu no níi zéro zéro nána) (yóji hán) 3 (sánbyaku rokujuuhachí) 4 (sán níi kyúu ichi no góo rokú zéro níi) 5 (gózen shichíji) 6 3461-2708 (sán yón rokú ichi no níi nána zéro hachí) 7 3594-7702 (sán góo kyúu yón no nána nána zéro níi) 8 3208 (sán níi zéro hachí) 9 (níi rokú no sán yón rokú góo no hachi nána kyúu ichi) 10 (zéro sán no kyúu nána hachí rokú no sán sán yón níi) Exercise 3.4 1 Chichí wa rokujuugósai desu. 2 Ane wa nijuukyúusai desu. 3 Háha wa yonjuuhássai desu. 4 Áni wa sanjuunísai desu. 5 Otootó wa nijuusánsai desu. 6 Sófu wa kyúujuunisai desu. 7 Sóbo wa hachijuunána desu. (Note that the suffix –sai is not essential in conversion when the context is clear.) 8 Imootó wa juunána (sai) desu. Dialogue 2 (transliteration) SÚMISU: TANAKA: Tanaka san, okosan wa nánnin irasshaimásu ka. Uchi wa sannin désu. Otokónoko futari to onnánoko hitóri imásu. Otaku wa? 263 SÚMISU: Uchi mo sannin désu. Onnánoko ga futari to otokónoko ga hitóri imásu. Ue no ko wa otokónoko de, shita to mannaka wa onnánoko desu. Tanaka san no ue no okosan wa dóchira desu ka. Ue wa onnánoko desu. Daigákusei desu. Mannaka no otokónoko wa kookóosei desu. Shita no ko wa máda chuugákusei desu. Uchi no kodomo wa máda chiisái desu. Ue no otokónoko wa shoogákusei desu. Futari no onnánoko wa máda yoochíen desu. Sore jáa, ókusan wa máinichi oisogashíi deshóo né. Soo desu. Watashi mo taihen désu. TANAKA: SÚMISU: TANAKA: SUMISU: Exercise 3.5 Uchi no kázoku wa sófu to sóbo, chichí to háha, áni to ane, imootó to otootó, sore ni watashi désu. Zénbu de kunin désu. Chichí wa koomúin de, háha wa shúfu desu. Áni wa kaisháin desu. Ryokoogáisha no sháin desu. Ane wa daigákusei desu. Kaimono ga sukí desu. Imootó wa chuugákusei desu. Otootó wa shoogákusei desu. Imootó mo otootó mo supóotsu ga sukí desu. HÁRII KURÁAKU: Takusán desu né. HONDA KAZUO: Ée. Kuráaku san wa kyóodai ga imásu ka. HÁRII KURÁAKU: Iie, imasén. Hitoríkko desu. 1 9 2 1 (Harry Clark is an only child) 3 sport 4 civil servant 5 in a travel company 6 shopping 7 home duties (she is a housewife) 8 primary school HONDA KAZUO: Exercise 3.6 1 Sóbo no shúmi wa ryokoo désu. 2 Chichi no shúmi wa kéndoo desu. 3 Háha no shúmi wa ténisu desu. 4 Áni no shúmi wa sákkaa desu. 5 Otootó no shúmi wa sáafin desu. 6 Ane no shúmi wa kaimono désu. 7 Sófu no shúmi wa dókusho desu. 8 Imooto no shúmi wa basukettobóoru desu. 264 Exercise 3.7 1 Ginkoo wa nánji kara nánji made desu ka. (Ginkoo wa) gózen júuji kara gógo yóji hán made desu. 2 Mise wa nánji kara nánji made desu ka. (Mise wa) gózen júuji hán kara gógo shichíji made desu. 3 Súupaa wa nánji kara nánji made desu ka. (Súupaa wa) gózen shichíji kara gógo hachíji made desu. 4 Depáato wa nánji kara nánji made desu ka. (Depáato wa) gózen júuji hán kara gógo kúji made desu. 5 Konbíni wa nánji kara nánji made desu ka. (Konbíni wa) gózen rokúji kara gógo juuichíji hán made desu. Exercise 3.8 1 2 3 4 5 Unit 4 Exercise 4.1 1 Kono hón wa tákaku nai desu. 2 Ano sukáafu wa kírei ja arimasen. 3 Kono monó wa yóku nai desu. 4 Sono hón wa watashi no dewa arimasén. 5 Háha wa génki ja arimasen. 6 Kono iro wa mezuráshiku nai desu. 7 Górufu wa sukí ja arimasén. 8 Ano kámera wa yásuku arimasén. 9 Ríi san wa Chuugokújin dewa arimasén. 10 Otooto no shúmi wa karaóke ja arimasen. Exercise 4.2 1 Ano kiiroi nékutai o mísete kudasai. 2 Kón no sebiro o mísete kudasai. 3 Ano akai sukáato o mísete kudasai. 4 Midori no booshi o mísete kudasai. 5 Sono chairo no zubón o mísete kudasai. 6 Ano aói waishatsu o mísete kudasai. 7 Haiiro no sebiro o mísete kudasai. 265 8 Shirói jíinzu o mísete kudasai. 9 Sono kírei na sukáafu o mísete kudasai. 10 Moo sukóshi yasúi no o mísete kudasai. Exercise 4.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 4.4 1 shoogákkoo: primary school 2 kookoo: high school 3 yasúi hón: an inexpensive book 4 Eigo no senséi: an English teacher 5 daigákusei: a university student Exercise 4.5 Tanaka san to Yamamoto san wa tomodachi désu. Futaritomo Nihonjín desu. Keredomo íma wa Pári ni súnde imasu. Tanaka san wa Pári no Nihonjin-gákkoo no senséi desu. Yamamoto san no goshújin wa Nihon no ginkoo no Pári shiténchoo desu. Tanaka san mo Yamamoto san mo kaimono ga dáisuki desu. Pári ni kírei na misé ga takusán arimásu. Takái misé mo yasúi misé mo arimásu. Kyóo wa Yamamoto san wa búutsu o kaimáshita. Totemo íi búutsu desu. Itaria no monó desu. Miss Tanaka and Mrs Yamamoto are friends. Both of them are Japanese. But they live in Paris. Mrs Tanaka is a teacher at the Japanese School in Paris. Mrs Yamamoto’s husband is the manager of the Paris branch of a Japanese bank. Both Miss Tanaka and Mrs Yamamoto love shopping. In Paris there are many beautiful shops. There are both expensive and inexpensive shops. Today Mrs Yamamoto bought some boots. They are very fine boots. They are Italian ones. 266 Exercise 4.6 1 g 2 d 3 n 4 l 5 a (tsuaa, tour) 6 b 7 o 8 e 9 k 10 m 11 s 12 c 13 p (bahha, Bach) 14 i 15 q 16 j 17 r 18 t (pan, bread) 19 f 20 h Unit 5 Exercise 5.1 1 Ashita Tanaka san ni aimásu. 2 Rainen Nihón ni ikimásu. 3 Mainichi góhan o tabemásu. 4 Sengetsu atarashíi kuruma o kaimáshita. 5 Kinóo wa mokuyóobi deshita or Kinóo wa suiyóobi deshita (depending on how you interpret the question). Exercise 5.2 1 Otótoshi Róndon kara kimáshita. 2 Sarainen Chúugoku ni ikimásu. 3 Asátte wa doyóobi desu. 4 Ototói wa kayóobi deshita. 5 Kyóo wa naniyóobi desu ka. Áa sóo desu. Mokuyóobi desu. Exercise 5.3 1 Íma kaerimashóo ka. Shall we go back (home) now? 2 Aói no o kaimashóo. Let’s buy the blue one. 3 Nánji ni aimashóo ka. What time shall we meet? 4 Hachíji ni tabemashóo. Let’s eat at eight o’clock. 5 Súgu ikimashóo ka. Shall we go straight away? Exercise 5.4 1 Imada senséi wa Nihon Dáigaku no Eigo no senséi desu. Professor Imada is an English teacher at Nihon University. 2 Raishuu no doyóobi hachíji hán ni kite kudasái. Please come next Saturday at half past eight. 3 Yamanaka san no shita no onnánoko wa kookoo sannénsei desu. Mr Yamanaka’s youngest girl is a third-year high 267 school student. 4 Maishuu gétsu, ká, súi ni Nihongo no kúrasu ga arimásu. Every week on Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays I have a Japanese class. 5 Mizu o kudasái. Please give me some water. 6 Kyóo wa okane ga arimasén. Today I don’t have any money. 7 Yasúi uísukii wa amari sukí ja arimasén. I don’t like cheap whisky very much. 8 Senshuu no mokuyóobi ni Kaneda san wa Shikóku kara kimáshita. Last Thursday Mr Kaneda came from Shikoku. Exercise 5.5 1 Today’s English class. 2 He is going skiing with his friends. 3 On Wednesday of next week. 4 At 7:30 p.m. 5 Pretty cheesed off, I should imagine. Exercise 5.6 1 ¥380 5 ¥830 2 apple pie and vanilla ice cream 3 whisky 4 ¥360 Unit 6 Exercise 6.1 1 Íma náni o shite imásu ka (question omitted below). Kuruma o aratte imásu. 2 Tegami o káite imasu. 3 Nihongo o benkyoo shite imásu. 4 Heyá o sooji shite imásu. 5 Térebi o míte imasu. 6 Tomodachi o mátte imasu. 7 Rájio o kiite imásu. 8 Shoosetsu o yónde imasu. 9 Koohíi o nónde imasu. 10 Kéeki o tsukútte imasu. Exercise 6.2 1b 2d 3e 4a 5c 268 Exercise 6.3 1 2 3 4 5 Roomáji de káite kudasai. Chotto mátte kudasai. Moo ichidó itte kudasái. Sánji ni denwa shite kudasái. Chízu o káite kudasai. Exercise 6.4 1 Q: Dóo yatte yuubínkyoku e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, hitotsume no shingoo o watatte kudasái. Yuubínkyoku wa migigawa de, shingoo no kádo kara súgu desu. 2 Q: Dóo yatte gakkoo e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, mittsume no shingoo o migi e magatte kudasái. Mata massúgu itte, tsugi no michi o watatte kudasái. Suru to, gakkoo wa súgu máe ni arimásu. 3 Q: Dóo yatte takushii-nóriba e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, yottsume no shingoo o migi e magatte súgu desu. Tákushii noriba wa éki no chuushajoo no máe ni arimásu. 4 Q: Dóo yatte kooen e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, futatsume no shingoo o hidari e magatte kudasai. Mata sono michi o massúgu itte kudasai. Kooen wa tsukiatari desu. 5 Q: Dóo yatte byooin e ikimásu ka. 269 A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, hitotsume no shingoo o migi e magatte kudasái. Tsugi no kádo made arúite, oodanhódoo o watatte kudasái. Suru to byooin wa súgu máe ni arimasu. 6 Q: Dóo yatte kusuriya e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi no hidarigawa o arúite, hitotsume no toorí o watatte súgu desu. 7 Q: Dóo yatte hanáya e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, futatsume no shingoo o migi e magatte kudasái. Tsugi no shingoo máde arúite, hidari e michi o watatte kudasái. Suru to, hanáya wa manmáe ni arimasu. 8 Q: Dóo yatte résutoran e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, futatsume no shingoo o migi e magatte kudasái. Tsugi no michi máde arúite, oodanhódoo o watatte kudasái. Résutoran wa sono kádo ni arimásu. 9 Q: Dóo yatte éki e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi o massúgu itte, tsukiatari máde arúite kudasái. Éki wa hirói toori no mukoogawa ni arimásu. 10 Q: Dóo yatte konbini e ikimásu ka. A: Kono michi no hidarigawa o massúgu, mittsume no shingoo máde itte kudasái. Mata sono michi o massúgu itte kudasái. Soko de wataru to konbini ga arimásu. 270 Exercise 6.5 1 OKYAKUSAN: TEN’IN: Oteárai wa dóko desu ka. Hái, josei no oteárai wa kono saki ni arimásu. Mázu, koko o massúgu itte kudasái. Soshite tsukiatari o hidari ni magatte kudasái Josei no oteárai wa migigawa ni arimásu. Dansei no wa? Ha!? Dansei no oteárai no máe de tomodachi ga mátte imasu kara. Where is the toilet? Yes. The women’s toilet is up this way. First, go straight along here. And turn left at the end of the aisle. Then you will find the women’s toilet on your right. What about the men’s? Uh!? A friend of mine is waiting in front of the men’s toilet. OKYAKUSAN: TEN’IN: OKYAKUSAN: CUSTOMER: SALES ASSISTANT: OKYAKUSAN: TEN’IN: OKYAKUSAN: 2 Koko o massúgu itte, tsukiatari o migi e magatte kudasái. Suru to dansei no oteárai wa hidarigawa ni arimásu. Exercise 6.6 1 Asako: Chuuka-ryóori ga tabetái desu. You: Já, issho ni tábe ni ikimashóo. 2 Asako: Éiga ga mitái desu. You: Já, issho ni mí ni ikimashóo. 3 Asako: Keitai-dénwa ga kaitai désu. You: Já, issho ni kai ni ikimashóo. 4 Asako: Róndon de Eigo o benkyoo shitai désu. You: Já, issho ni (Róndon e) benkyoo shi ni ikimashóo. 5 Asako: Rókku o kikitai désu. You: Já, issho ni kiki ni ikimashóo. 271 Exercise 6.7 1 all connected with music (clarinet, castanets, trombone, flute, Christmas carol) 2 food and drink (cocktail, nougat, celery, yoghurt, chocolate) 3 all connected with boats (canoe, kayak, yacht, oar, boat) 4 place names (Kenya, Senegal, Europe, Brazil, Rome) 5 not sure, perhaps because they are all enjoyable (Valentine’s Day, a sale, cake, roulette, present) Exercise 6.8 1 At the company cocktail party. 2 On Friday night last week. 3 Because he spent four years working in London. 4 He is a journalist working for the Yomiuri Shimbun. 5 They both used to work in Europe. 6 He is writing a book about cooking Italian pasta and desserts. Senshuu no kin’yóobi no ban ni, kaisha no kakuteru páatii de Takayama san to Yasuda san ni aimáshita. Takayama san wa kisha de, Yomiuri Shinbun ni tsutómete imasu. Yasuda san wa ginkoo-man de, watashi no uchi no chikáku ni súnde imasu. Futaritomo mukashi Yooróppa de shigoto o shite imashita. Takayama san wa yonenkan Rondon ni imashita. Eigo ga totemo joozu desu. Yasuda san wa nagaku Itaria no inaka ni súnde imashita. Itari ryóori ga daisuki de, jibun de yóku tsukurimasu. Ima Itaria no pasuta to dezáato ni tsuite hón o káite imasu. Unit 7 Exercise 7.1 1 d I’m turning in early because I’m tired. 2 b I’m hungry so I’m going to eat. 3 e I’m thirsty, so let’s have a beer. 4 c I’ve got no money so please lend me ¥1,000. 5 a I’ll take some medicine because I’ve got a stomach ache. Exercise 7.2 1 Kaisha e dekakéru máe ni chooshoku o tabemásu. (I’ll have breakfast before leaving for the company.) 2 Okane o irete kara botan o 272 oshimásu. (You press the button after putting in the money.) 3 Botan o oshite kara nomímono ga déte kimásu. (The drink comes out after you press the button.) 4 Denwa o suru máe ni denwabángoo o shirabemáshita. (I checked the phone number before ringing.) 5 Jogingu o shite kara sháwaa o abimásu. (I have a shower after I’ve been jogging.) 6 Neru máe ni sutóobu o keshite kudasái. (Please turn off the heater before you go to bed.) Exercise 7.3 1 Básu de keitai-dénwa o tsukatte mo íi desu. Eigakan de (keitaidénwa o) tsukatte wa damé desu. (You may use your mobile phone on the bus. You mustn’t use your mobile phone in the cinema.) 2 Pén de káite mo íi desu. Enpitsu de káite wa damé desu. (You may write in pen. You mustn’t write in pencil.) 3 Eigo de hanáshite mo íi desu. Nihongo de hanáshite wa damé desu. (You may speak in English. You mustn’t speak in Japanese.) 4 Dóru de harátte mo ii desu. Én de harátte wa damé desu. (You may pay in dollars. You must not pay in yen.) 5 Ása sháwaa o abite mo íi desu. Yóru sháwaa o abite wa damé desu. (You may have a shower in the morning. You mustn’t have a shower at night.) 6 Each of these pairs of sentences can be combined into a single sentence using ga ‘but’ e.g. Básu de keitai-dénwa o tsukatte mo íi desu ga, eigakan de (keitai-dénwa o) tsukatte wa damé desu. (You can use your mobile phone on the bus, but you can’t in the cinema.) 7 This exercise is self-explanatory. Make your own dialogues along the lines of the model in the book. Exercise 7.4 1 Térebi ga kowárete imasu. (The TV is broken.) 2 Róbii no misé ga íma aite imásu ka. (Are the shops in the hotel lobby open now?) 3 Iie, íma wa shimátte imasu. (No, they are closed now.) 4 Shokuji wa moo dékite imasu ka. (Is the meal ready yet?) 5 Iie, máda dékite imasen. (No, it’s not ready yet.) 6 Ja, jidoohanbáiki ga arimásu ka. (Is there an automatic vending machine, then?) 7 Hái, dansei no ofúro no máe ni arimásu. (Yes, there is one in front of the men’s bathroom.) Exercise 7.5 Tanaka san wa Tookyoo-umare de, kotoshi nijuugo ni narimásu. Se wa hikúkute futótte imasu. Daigaku de sumóobu ni háitte imashita. 273 Shúmi wa íma ténisu to górufu de, ténisu wa maishuu shimasu. Sannen máe ni Tookyoo-dáigaku o sotsugyoo shite. Mainichi Shinbun-sha ni hairimáshita. Íma wa Shikóku ni tsutómete ite, rainen kara Oosaka ni kawarimásu. 1 Tokyo 2 24 (he will be 25 this year) 3 He’s short and fat. 4 Sumo 5 Tokyo University 6 3 years ago 7 Every week 8 Mainichi Shinbun Company 9 Shikoku 10 He’s being transferred to Osaka. Exercise 7.6 1E 2F 3A 4D 5C 6B Exercise 7.7 1 Yamamoto san to Honda san wa máinichi juuníji júugofun ni kaisha no tonari no résutoran de átte, issho ni shokuji shimásu. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Honda meet in the restaurant next door to the company everyday at 12:15 and have lunch together. 2 Aro shirói supootsukáa wa Edowáado Vinsento no atarashíi kuruma désu. That white sports car is Edward Vincent’s new car. 3 Kyóo wa kuruma de kimáshita kara, arukooru o nónde wa damé desu. Today I came by car so I mustn’t drink any alcohol. 4 Aóyama san wa óoki na ginkoo n tsutómete imasu. Mr Aoyama works in a large bank. 5 Yásuka san wa kírei na té oshite imasu. Yasuko has beautiful hands. 6 Watashi wa konogoro máinichi Nihonshoku o tábete imasu. These days I’ve been eating Japanese food every day. 7 Kyóo wa dónna shokuji ni shitai désu ka. What kind of food do you want to eat today? 8 Koko de tabako o nónode wa damé desu. You must not smoke here. Unit 8 Exercise 8.1 1 Kinóo no shokuji wa totemo oíshikatta desu. 2 Senshuu no éiga wa amari omoshíroku nakatta desu. 3 Nihongo no shikén wa sengetsu muzukáshikatta desu. 4 Yuube no páatii wa tanóshikatta deshoo née. 5 Kinóo no okyakusan wa amari óoku nakatta desu. 274 Exercise 8.2 1 Ée, koko de mátta hoo ga íi desu yo. 2 Ée, móo hajimeta hoo ga íi desu yo. 3 Ée, háyaku ókita hoo ga íi desu. 4 Ée, takái no o katta hoo ga íi desu. 5 Ée, Nihongo de hanáshita hoo ga íi desu. Exercise 8.3 1 Anóhito wa senshuu Méari san no páatii de átta Suzuki san desu. 2 Kore wa ototoi depáato de katta booshi désu. 3 Íma yónde iru shinbun wa Asahi-shínbun desu. 4 Kore wa watashi ga Nihongo de káita tegami désu. Exercise 8.4 1 3 4 5 2 Exercise 8.5 APPLICANT: APPLICANT: APPLICANT: APPLICANT: APPLICANT: APPLICANT: APPLICANT: Hái, dekimásu. Jidóosha no ménkyo mo ootóbai no ménkyo mo mótte imasu. Hái, ryóori mo dekimásu. Máe ni wa Pári no hóteru de hataraita kotó ga arimásu. Itaria-ryóori ga dekimásu. Chuuka-ryóori to Tai-ryóori mo tsukúru kotó ga dekimásu. Iie, háha kara naraimáshita. Iie, Chuugokújin de wa arimasén. Nihonjín desu. Iie, hiragána to katakána dake desu. (Or) Iie, hiragána to katakána shika káku kotó ga dekimasén. Hai, konpyúuta mo tsukau kotó ga dekimásu. Exercise 8.6 1 Yamada san wa Nakagawa san yori se ga takái desu. 2 Yamamoto san wa Tanaka san yori futótte imasu. 3 Honda san wa 275 Maeda san yori toshiue désu. 4 Tákushii yori chikatetsu no hoo ga hayái desu. 5 Kóora wa bíiru yori yasúi desu. 6 Tenpura wa ráamen yori takái desu. 7 Kyóo wa kinóo yori atatakái desu. 8 Raishuu no hoo ga tsugoo ga íi desu. Exercise 8.7 1 New Zealand 2 1980 3 she came to Japan 4 at a small newspaper company in Tokyo 5 an English language newspaper for travellers 6 backpackers visiting Japan from America, Britain and Australia 7 to travel overseas 8 she is going to Beijing Jeen Róbaatsu san wa sén kyúuhyaku hachijúunen ni Nyuujíirando de umaremáshita. Daigaku de yonenkan Nihongo o benkyoo shimáshita. Daigaku o sotsugyoo shite súgu Nihón ni kimáshita. Íma wa Tokyo ni áru chíisa na shinbunkáisha ni tsutómete imasu. Ryokoosha no tame no eiji-shínbun desu. Ómo ni Amérika ya Igirisu ya Oosutorária nádo kara Nihón ni kúru wakái bakkupákkaa no hitotachi ga yomimásu. Jeen san mo rainen kaigai-ryókoo o shitai to itte imásu. Máda Chúugoku ni itta kotó ga nái kara, kúgatsu ni Pékin ni iku tsumori da sóo desu. Exercise 8.8 1 3 4 5 2 Unit 9 Exercise 9.1 1g 2h 3d 4e 5b 6a 7c 8f Exercise 9.2 1 If you leave straight away now you will be in time. 2 If I don’t have the car I’ll walk there. 3 If you want Japanese friends I’ll introduce 276 you (to some). 4 After ten o’clock the trains are empty (this is a euphemism for ‘not impossibly crowded’). 5 If you are cold put on an extra blanket. 6 If you exercise every day you’ll soon lose weight. Exercise 9.3 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 9.4 1 Enpitsu ga juuníhon irimásu. I need twelve pencils. 2 Tishupéepaa sánmai kudasai. Please give me three tissues. 3 Máinichi gyuunyuu o sanbai nomimásu. Every day I drink three glasses of milk. 4 Inú o níhiki kátte imasu. I have two dogs. 5 Doobutsúen de kirin ga nítoo umareta sóo desu. I hear two giraffes were born at the zoo. 6 Sakanaya de chíisa na sakana sánbiki kaimáshita. I bought three small fish at the fish shop. 7 Wáin ga nánbon nokótte imasu ka. How many bottles of wine are left? 8 Yuube tegami o santsuu kakimáshita. Last night I wrote three letters. 9 Kinóo kuruma nándai uremáshita ka. How many cars did you sell yesterday? 10 Kamí ga nánmai hoshíi desu ka. How many sheets of paper do you want? Exercise 9.5 1 3rd October, 1991 2 6th August, 1945 3 8th December, 1941 4 Sunday, 4th September, 1905 5 Children’s day is 5th May. Exercise 9.6 1 Koko wa furobá desu. Koko de ofúro ni háittari, sháwaa o abitari shimásu. 2 Koko wa oosetsuma désu. Koko de osháberi o shitári, 277 okyakusan o séttai shitári shimasu. 3 Koko wa daidokoro désu. Koko de tábetari, ryóori o shitári shimasu. 4 Koko wa toshóshitsu desu. Koko de shinbun o yóndari, benkyoo shitári shimasu. 5 Koko wa sentakuba désu. Koko de sentaku shitári, áiron o káketari shimasu. Exercise 9.7 1 Dáre mo takarákuji ni ataranakute gakkári shimashita. We were disappointed because nobody won anything in the lottery. 2 Uchi ni nánimo tabéru mono ga arimasén kara résutoran de shokuji shimashóo. Because there is nothing to eat at home let’s eat out at a restaurant. 3 Dáreka dóa o nókku shite imásu kara mí ni itte kudasái. Please go and have a look. There’s someone knocking at the door. 4 Dókoka shízuka na tokoro de ocha démo nomimashóo. Let’s have some tea or something in a quiet spot somewhere. 5 Ítsuka hima na toki ni uchi ni asobi ni kite kudasái. Some time when you are free please come around to my place. 6 Ano misé wa ítsumo kónde imasu. That shop is always crowded. 7 Nánika komátta kotó ga áttara ítsudemo itte kudasái. If you have anything worrying you please tell me any time at all. 8 Kóndo no shuumatsu wa dókoemo ikimasén. I’m not going anywhere this weekend. Exercise 9.8 1 Késa Yamanaka san wa Tookyoo ni tsúita sóo desu. I hear Mr Yamanaka arrived in Tokyo this morning. 2 Shirói kamí o sánmai kudasai. Please give me three sheets of white paper. 3 Ashita no ryokoo ni básu o nídai yoyaku shimáshita. I reserved two buses for tomorrow’s trip. 4 Eigo no senséi wa daigaku no món no máe de gakusei to hanáshite imashita. The English teacher was talking with a student in front of the university gate. 5 Ashita no gógo úmi e doráibu ni ikimashóo ka. Shall we go for a drive to the seaside tomorrow afternoon? 6 Ríi san, jikan ga áttara ítsuka Chúugoku no hanashí o shite kudasái. Mr Lee, when you have time please talk about China. 7 Nihón de wa ichínen ni juugonichi no kyuujitsu ga arimásu. In Japan there are fifteen public holidays a year. 8 Shóoto san wa kón no sebiro o kite kúru soo desu. Apparently Mr Short will come wearing a navy blue suit. 9 Ashita kaisha o yasumitái desu. I’d like to take a day off from the company tomorrow. 10 Mukoo ni tsúitara denwa o kudasái. When you get over there give me a ring. 278 Unit 10 Exercise 10.1 1 Haruo kun wa jáanarisuto ni náru tsumori désu. 2 Rie san wa Eigo no kyóoshi ni náru tsumori désu. 3 Jun kun wa isha ni náru tsumori désu. 4 Sachie san wa shéfu ni náru tsumori désu. 5 Tomoko san wa óngaku no sensei ni náru tsumori désu. Exercise 10.2 1 Shéfu ni naritákereba minarai ni itta hóo ga íi desu. 2 Okane ga takusán hoshíkereba, úmaku tooshi o shita hóo ga íi desu. 3 Jikan ga nákereba áto ni shitára dóo desu ka. 4 Jibun de dekinákereba hito ni tanóndara ikága desu ka. 5 Nedan ga tákakereba betsu no misé ni mo itta hóo ga íi deshoo. Exercise 10.3 1 3 4 5 2 Exercise 10.4 1 Q: Okyakusama no handobággu wa dónna iro desu ka. A: Kuró desu. 2 Q: Dónna katachi desu ka. A: Shikakú desu. 3 Q: Dónna mono ga háitte imashita ka. A: Hyaku póndo ga háitte iru saifu to kurejitto-káado to teikíken ga háitte imasu. Exercise 10.5 1 A: My throat hurts and I have a cough so I’d like to leave (literally, ‘go home’) early. Would that be all right? B: Yes. Perhaps it’s a cold. Take care. A: Thank you very much. 279 2 A: I slipped and fell over. See how swollen it is (literally, ‘it has swollen up this much’). B: Perhaps it’s a break. Let’s take an X-ray and have a look. 3 A: I need some medication for a headache in a hurry. Where would they sell it, I wonder? B: Hm, today’s a holiday, isn’t it. But perhaps they sell it at the convenience store. A: Then, I’ll just go and see. Exercise 10.6 1 Do you know young Yamaguchi’s mother and father? 2 No I don’t know them. Where do they live? 3 Can you go in from the side? No, that’s the exit. 4 The front entrance is not open. 5 In that case, there is nothing for it but to wait until the time when the front gate opens. 6 The ‘bun’ character in shinbun (newspaper) is a character in which ‘mon’ (gate) and ‘mimi’ (ear) are written together. 7 Yasuko’s small, white ears looked like flowers. 8 Open your mouth wide and stick out your tongue. Unit 11 Exercise 11.1 1 Amari átsuku nai kísetsu ni itta hóo ga íi desu. 2 Densha ga amari kónde inai toki ni notta hóo ga íi desu. 3 Amari amaku nái desáato ga sukí desu. 4 Jímu ni ikanai hi wa doyóobi to nichiyóobi desu. 5 Kónban kónai hito ga nanninka imásu. Exercise 11.2 2, 4, 5, 8 Exercise 11.3 1f 2d 3e 4b 5c 6a 280 Exercise 11.4 1 Tabako o suwanai kotó ni shimásu. 2 Amai mono no kawari ni kudámono o tabéru kotó ni shimásu. 3 Osake no ryóo o herasu kotó ni shimásu. 4 Máinichi undoo (o) suru kotó ni shimásu. 5 Mótto sakana ya yasai o tabéru kotó ni shimásu. Exercise 11.5 1 2 3 Exercise 11.6 1c 2a 3d 4e 5b Exercise 11.7 1 Miss Abe is looking for something a bit out of the ordinary. 2 She is worried about safety because she has never flown in a helicopter before. She also thinks a helicopter flight might be too expensive. 3 The concierge said the helicopter flight was (1) great fun, (2) safe and (3) the best way to see the scenery. 4 It was too expensive and she had not had the opportunity to fly in Japan. 5 Because it was half the price of a similar flight in Japan. Exercise 11.8 1 Let’s walk back (home) through the snow. 2 Southern Japan is hotter than the north. 3 Let’s decide not to go if the weather is bad. 4 I’m thinking of travelling through western Japan in the spring holidays. 5 From the evening the wind became stronger and it started to rain. 6 It’s cold so you had better wear a slightly warmer sweater. 7 (Literally) Apparently in summer the people who come to the sea in this area are extremely numerous. 8 The high mountain opposite looks beautiful bathed in the sunlight of the setting sun in autumn. 9 As there wasn’t much snow this winter I didn’t go skiing. 10 About how many minutes does it take to walk from the southern entrance to Tokyo station to the northern entrance? 281 Unit 12 Exercise 12.1 1 agemáshita 2 kudasaimáshita 5 yarimáshita 3 itadaki 4 moraimáshita Exercise 12.2 1 from Hiroshi. 2 necklace. 3 me money. 4 flowers (from her boyfriend). 5 My mother made me a birthday cake. Kaya got some French perfume Akio gave Kaya a My parents gave She got some beautiful Yóoko san, Ogénki desu ka. Shídonii wa dandan haruméite kimashita. Niwa niwa iroiro na haná ga saite ite taihen kírei desu. Kyóo wa kúgatsu yokka de, watashi no nijússai no tanjóobi desu. Uchiwa sannin kyodai desu. Watashi wa mannaka de ue to shita ni ani to otooto ga arimasu. Ani no namae wa Hiroshi de, kotoshi nijuusan sai desu. Otooto wa juuku de, Akio to yuu namae desu. Tanjóobi ni kázoku kara iroiro na purézento o moraimáshita. Ryóoshin kara wa okane o moraimáshita. Áni wa Furansu no koosui o kuremáshita. Otootó no Akio wa nékkuresu o kuremashita. Watashi no boifuréndo wa kírei na haná o motte kite kuremáshita. Háha wa tanjoobi kéeki o tsukútte kuremashita. Watashi no sukí na chokoreeto-kéeki deshita. Yuru wa, kazoku to issho ni chuuka-ryoori o tabeni ikimashita. Totemo íi tanjóobi deshita. Ashita wa chichi no hi desu. Nihon nimo chichi no higa arimasuka? Watashi no chichi wa itsumo furui shatsu bakari kite iru node atarashii shatsu o katte agemashita. Ki ni itte kureru ka doo ka chotto shinpai shite imasu. Saizu wa tabun daijoobu da to omoimasu. Watashi no daigaku wa raishuu kara hajimarimásu. Sukóshi isogáshiku narisóo desu. Sore dé wa, mata tegami o kakimásu. Minásama ni yoroshiku. Kaya 282 Exercise 12.3 1 How did you respond when asked if you would like to go to Kyoto? 2 Have you ever eaten sashimi? 3 What work you said you would like to do in the future. 4 Would like to try some sake. 5 What kinds of things do you want to see in Japan? Exercise 12.4 1c 2e 3b 4a 5d Exercise 12.5 1 Iie, potetochíppusu wa móo katte arimásu. 2 Ée, tomatosóou wa máda katte arimasén kara katte oite kudasái. 3 Iie, kyúuri mo máda katte arimasén. 4 Arígatoo gozaimásu. Rémon wa katte arimasén kara motte kite kudasái. 5 Ée, sutéeki wa móo katte arimásu. Exercise 12.6 sagáshite iru (‘you are looking for’); oite oita (‘I left it on the table to use later’); itte kúru (‘I’ll go and get something’, literally ‘I’ll go and come back’); katte koyóo (‘shall I buy?’); to omótte (‘I think I will…’ sentence incomplete to give time for wife to respond); irete átta (‘had been put in’); nónde shimatta (‘we drank it all up’); shimátte iru (‘are closed’); utte iru (‘they sell’ – habitual state); itte míru (‘I’ll try going there’); katte kite (‘buy and bring back’); itte kúru (‘I’m going [and coming back]’); itterasshái (short for itte irasshái) ‘goodbye’ – literally, ‘please go and come back’. I make it fourteen –te forms. How many did you find? Exercise 12.7 1 hazu 2 béki 3 hazu 4 béki 5 hazu 6 béki Exercise 12.8 1 Today the weather is superb with not a single cloud in the blue sky. 2 The chief of the overseas division of Yamashita Electrical is now 283 travelling around Aomori and Akita. 3 As the sky suddenly clouded over and it looked as if it was going to rain we hurried home. 4 I think the name of the person standing behind Company President Morita is Kobayashi Yooko. 5 Although the sky is cloudy they say there is no fear of rain. 6 Professor Oobayashi looks well, doesn’t he? 7 Apparently this is a famous sake from Akita. 8 The foreign students in national universities have been increasing every year. Unit 13 Exercise 13.1 1 She hurt her neck and lower back. Kubi to koshi ga ítaku narimáshita. 2 She is attending a clinic for regular treatment. Chiryoo ni kayotte imásu. 3 No, she has put it in for repair. Iie, shúuri ni dashimáshita. 4 She thinks the other party will pay everything. Aite ga zenbu haráu to omótte imasu. 5 She says it is inconvenient not having the car for shopping. Kaimono no toki kuruma ga nái to fúben da to itte imásu. 6 She offers to give her a lift next time she goes shopping. Tsugí ni kaimono ni iku toki tsurete itte ageru to itte imásu. Exercise 13.2 1 e I was caught in the rain on my way to work. 2 d I was told by the doctor to take more exercise. 3 a Sake is made from rice. 4 b I was praised for my Japanese. 5 c I had my wallet stolen when I was abroad. Exercise 13.3 1 Jón san wa joodan o itte hito o warawasemásu. John tells jokes and makes people laugh. 2 Yuushoku no shitaku wa watashi ni sasete kudasái. Please let me prepare the evening meal. 3 Shinpai sasete sumimasén. I’m sorry I made you worry. 4 Tsugí wa boku ni harawásete kudasái. Next time please let me pay. 5 Kono konpyúuta o chótto tsukawasete kudasái. Please let me use this computer for a minute. 6 Háisha de ichijíkan íjoo matasaremáshita. I was kept waiting for more than an hour at the dentist’s. 7 Kodomo no toki ni múri ni tabesaseráreta no de, yasai ga kirai ná n’ desu. I don’t like vegetables because I was forced to eat them as a child. 8 Konogoro osoku máde shigoto o saseraremásu. Lately I’ve been made to work until late. 284 Exercise 13.4 1 Yumi and Yoshie are friends. They are looking at clothes together in the clothing department of a department store. YUMI: Would this coat suit me, I wonder? YOSHIE: Yes, it looks as if it would suit you. Why not just try it on? 2 Yumi and Yoshie are feeling hungry. They are discussing what to eat as they peruse the display window in the department store restaurant. YUMI: Let’s see, that looks good. I’ll have tenpura. YOSHIE: I’ll have eel. 3 Yumi is looking for an apartment. She is talking to Yoshie about the apartment she saw yesterday. YOSHIE: How was the apartment you saw yesterday? YUMI: It has its own bath and toilet and is conveniently located near the station. YOSHIE: That sounds good. Are you going to settle on that? YUMI: I think I’ll make up my mind after I’ve looked around a little more. 4 Yumi and Yoshie are choosing a present for their teacher. YUMI: How would this scarf be, I wonder? YOSHIE: Ah, that’s very tasteful. It looks like the sort of thing the professor would like. YUMI: A bit conservative, don’t you think? YOSHIE: Yes, perhaps a slightly brighter one would be better. YUMI: Oh! It looks like rain. Shall we head home in a minute? Exercise 13.5 He thought perhaps she had forgotten about the appointment. Takeo rang Akiko’s home. Nobody was home to answer the phone. They waited for over an hour. A: Chótto sumimasén. Kore no yarikata o oshiete kudasái. B: Ée, íi desu yo. Sukóshi fukuzatsu désu ga … 6 A: Chótto sumimasén. Éki e no ikikata o oshiete kudasái. B: Ée, íi desu yo. Sukóshi yayakoshíi desu ga … 7 A: Chótto sumimasén. Makizúshi no tsukurikata o oshiete kudasái. B: Ée, íi desu yo. Kotsu o oshiete agemásu. 8 A: Chótto sumimasén. Kippu no kaikata o oshiete kudasái. B: Ée, íi desu yo. Koko ni okane o irete, kono botan o osu dake désu. 1 2 3 4 5 285 Exercise 13.6 1 Mr Kimura’s desk is the second desk from the window over there. 2 She wants to discuss accommodation with someone at the centre. 3 Self-catering apartments are the most expensive. 4 Geshuku is a boarding house with shared bathroom facilities and two meals a day provided six days per week. 5 She asked him to take her to see the boarding house (geshuku). 6 She wanted to see what the accommodation was like inside. Exercise 13.7 1 False 8 True 2 True 3 False 4 True 5 False 6 False 7 True 1 Heyá ga chiisakátta no de, Méarii wa gakkári shimashita. 2 Méarii no heyá wa hirókute nagamé mo íi desu. 3 Dóoro no otó ga ki ni naramáshita. 4 Mádo kara kírei na niwa to kooen ga miemásu. 5 Shokudoo wa Méarii no heya no súgu ue ni arimásu. 6 Méarii no heya ni basutóire ga tsúite imasu. 7 Ofúro wa bekkan ni arimásu. 8 Mongén ga nái no de, hotte shita deshóo. Exercise 13.8 1 Which do you prefer, beef or pork? 2 I met my friend in front of the cinema. 3 A kind person brought (back) the wallet I dropped. 4 Near my friend’s house there is a shop which sells Japanese swords. 5 Please use the exits to your left and right. 6 When I made a trip abroad in the autumn I returned with all sorts of things I had bought. 7 Although she (he) is small she (he) is strong. 8 According to linguists there are many dialects in Japanese. Unit 14 Exercise 14.1 1 Mr Nakamura rings Professor Akimoto to seek information for a story he is writing on Sino-Japanese relations. 2 Because the professor is leaving for Vietnam on Friday. 3 Monday, 14th March. 4 He needs 286 to go away to check his appointment diary. 9:00 a.m. on Monday, 14 March. 5 The agree to meet at Exercise 14.2 1e 2c 3a 4b 5d Exercise 14.3 1 kimáshita (imáshita is also possible if we assume the sentence could mean, ‘When were you here?’) 2 ikimásu (kimásu is also possible if the sentence is taken as an invitation) 3 imásu is most likely (but given the right context ikimásu or kimásu are also possible) 4 désu 5 imásu 6 shite imásu Exercise 14.4 1 Ítsu goryokoo ni odekake désu ka. 2 Dónna (go)kenkyuu o shite irasshaimásu ka. 3 Dóchira ni osumai désu ka. 4 Okaban o omochi shimashóo ka. 5 Ítsu (goro) Amérika kara káette irasshaimásu ka. Exercise 14.5 1 densha hodo 2 osake hodo 3 osake gúrai jinkoo ga 5 chichí yori 4 Tookyoo hodo Exercise 14.6 1 Ashita kói to iwaremáshita. I was told to come tomorrow. 2 Róbii de máte to iimáshita. He said to wait in the lobby. 3 Senséi wa séito ni yóku benkyoo shiro to iimáshita. The teacher told the pupil to study hard. 4 Densha no náka de keitai-dénwa o tsukau na to yuu anaúnsu ga arimáshita. There was an announcement (saying) not to use mobile phones on the train. 5 Asoko de chuusha suru na to káite arimashita. There was a sign (literally, ‘it was written’) that you should not park there. Exercise 14.7 1 Two medium mugs of beer and two glasses of mineral water. 2 They all had vegetable soup. 3 Steamed lobster and boiled crab. 4 They 287 decided to share the lobster and crab between four. 5 They settled on a dry Australian white to go with the seafood because the waiter said it was highly regarded. Exercise 14.8 1 It was a long time ago when I studied western music at the University of the Arts in downtown Tokyo. 2 ‘How do you read the four character station name written on this piece of paper?’ ‘Oh, this is Takadanobaba. Takadanobaba is a station on the Tokyo Yamanote line and is the place where the famous Waseda University is.’ 3 How I’d love to be on a horse galloping over that broad field. 4 Write you parents’ names and address here please. (Note: in Japanese it is usual to put address before name.) 5 It is not easy working day and night in the factory. 6 The Atlantic Ocean is not as wide as the Pacific. 7 Although she is ill, in company she never shows the slightest sign of being depressed. (literally, ‘does not show people the slightest dark feeling’.) 8 In Aomori and Akita prefectures the winters are long and it snows for many months. Unit 15 Exercise 15.1 1 I can hold a simple conversation, but I still have not mastered the basic grammar. 2 To advance, the best thing to do is increase your vocabulary. 3 At the elementary level we introduced the kind of words you use in everyday conversation. 4 To move up to the advanced level it is important to put in sustained effort. 5 If you know the vocabulary pertaining to current world events, your topics of conversation become richer and more varied. Exercise 15.2 1 Watashi wa sarudoshi désu. (I was born under the sign of the monkey, how about you?) 2 Kotoshi wa umadoshi dé, rainen wa hitsujidoshi désu. 3 Tora to sáru to tatsu no hoka no doobutsu wa minna watashi no kuni ni imásu. 4 Mukashi no hitóbito wa tatsu ga hontóo ni sonzai suru doobutsu da to shínjite ita kara désu. 5 Toradoshi no hito no tokuchoo wa nán desu ka. 288 Exercise 15.3 1 You can also study fine art at the Tokyo University of the Arts. 2 I was surprised to find the cultural level of this town is quite high. 3 In summer I like drinking draft beer in Tokyo’s rooftop beer gardens. 4 These days I often travel both within Japan and abroad. 5 This morning the scholar of Ainu culture arrived safely from Hokkaido. 6 The temple in question (sono) was located in an extremely inconvenient (inaccessible) place. 7 Stories of geisha often appear in Japanese literature and poetry. 8 The vegetables from the market in front of the station are cheap and fresh. 9 The shop assistants in that shop are almost all young people doing part-time work. 10 If it clears up tomorrow, let’s try going to the next town. Grammar summary Summary of the verb, adjective and copula Verb: suffixes attached to the root 1 Suffix Accented consonantroot kák– ‘to write’ Unaccented consonantroot ka(w)2– ‘to buy’ kau ‘(I) buy’ Accented Unaccented vowel-root vowel-root tábe– ‘to eat’ tabéru ‘(I) eat’ tabéreba ‘if (I) eat’ tabeyóo ‘let’s eat’ ake– ‘to open’ Irregular verbs su–/shi– ‘to do’ kú–/kó– ‘to come’ INDECLINABLE3 káku –(r)u ‘(I) write’ present –(r)éba conditional –(y)óo propositive/ conjectural –e brusque imperative –ro/–yo imperative DECLINABLE4 –e– potential kákeba kaéba ‘if (I) write’ ‘if (I) buy’ kakóo kaóo ‘let’s write’ ‘let’s buy’ káke ‘Write!’ kaé ‘Buy!’ kúru ‘(I) come’ akeréba suréba kúréba ‘if (I) open ‘if (I) do’ ‘if (I) it’ come’ akeyóo shiyóo koyóo ‘let’s open ‘let’s do (it)’ ‘let’s it’ come’ akeru suru ‘(I is largely confined to speech-making. 2. This form is used where extremely polite language is called for. dé is usually sufficient. Particles The following phrase-final particles follow nouns. wa topic marker – ‘as for … ’, ‘speaking of … ’, ‘as far as … is concerned’ (written with hiragána ‘ha’) Kore wa hón desu. This is a book. ga subject marker (object marker with stative verbs and adjectives) Dóre ga Tanaka san no hón desu ka. Which is your book, Mr Tanaka? o object marker; shows path of action with motion verbs (written with hiragána ‘wo’) 294 Sono hón o mísete kudasái. Umibe o arúite imasu. Please show me that book. He is walking along the beach. no possessive marker; noun qualifier – ‘of ’ Kore wa watashi no hón desu. This is my book. ni indirect object; goal, locative with existential verbs – ‘to’, ‘in’ Tanaka san ni hón o agemáshita. I gave Mr Tanaka a book. de locative with action verbs; instrument – ‘at’, ‘in’; ‘with’, ‘by means of ’ Kono hón o Tookyoo de kaimáshita. mo ‘too’, ‘also’ Sore mo watashi no hón desu. démo ‘even’ Hón demo tákaku narimashita ne. to ‘and’ Hón to bóorupen o kaimáshita. I bought a book and a ball-point pen. Even books have become expensive, haven’t they? That’s my book too. I bought this book in Tokyo. ya ‘and’, ‘such things as …’. – links items in a logical category or series Hón ya zasshi o kaimáshita. nádo ‘and so on’, ‘etc.’ Enpitsu ya bóorupen nádo o kaimáshita. I bought pencils, ball-point pens, etc. I bought books and magazines. e direction marker – ‘to’, ‘towards’ (written with hiragána ‘he’) Tookyoo e ikimásu. I go to Tokyo. made destination marker; upper extent – ‘up to’, ‘as far as’, ‘until’; ‘even’ Kádo made issho ni arukimásu. kara departure marker – ‘from’ Básu wa dóko kara demásu ka. Where does the bus leave from? I’ll walk with you up to the corner. 295 yóri comparison marker – ‘than’ Tookyoo wa Róndon yori bukka ga takái desu. Táda yori takái mono wa arimasén. dake ‘extent’; ‘only’, ‘alone’ Sore dake de wa tarimasén. That alone is not enough (literally, ‘With that only it does not suffice’). Prices are more expensive in Tokyo than in London. There is nothing more expensive than what you receive (for) free. gurai ‘about’ Nikágetsu gúrai koko ni iru tsumori désu. I intend to be here for about two months. hodo ‘extent’; ‘only’, ‘(not) that much’ Kyóo wa kinoo hodo átsuku arimasén deshita. Today was not as hot as yesterday. bákari ‘to the extent of ’ , ‘as much as’, ‘as many as’, ‘only’, ‘just’ Sannen bákari Nyuuyóoku ni súnde imashita. I lived in New York for three years. The particle no combines with a number of nouns indicating location to give ‘postpositional phrases’ equivalent to English prepositions. no ue ni ‘on top of ’, ‘on’ Jísho wa tsukue no ue ni arimásu. no shitá ni ‘under’, ‘below’ Kagí o ishí no shita ni iremáshita. no máe ni ‘in front of ’ Ginkoo no máe ni imásu. no ushiro ni ‘behind’ Shashin no ushiro ni kakimáshita. no náka ni ‘inside’ Hikidashi no náka ni iremáshita. I put it into the drawer. I wrote it on the back of the photograph. He is in front of the bank. I put the key under the stone. The dictionary is on the table. 296 no sóto ni ‘outside’ Pósuto wa yuubínkyoku no sóto ni arimásu. no aida ni ‘between’ Kánojo wa futari no otokonohitó no aida ni suwatte imáshita. She was sitting between two men. The post-box is outside the post office. no migigawa ni ‘on the right-hand side of ’, ‘to the right of ’ Chuuka-ryooríya no migigawa ni arimásu. no chikaku ni ‘near’ Daigaku no chikáku ni hón’ya ga takusán arimasu. There are many bookshops near the university. It’s on the right-hand side of the Chinese restaurant. Clause particles (conjunctions) to ‘when’, ‘whenever’, ‘if ’ Tegami o kaku to te ga ítaku narimásu. When (I) write letters my hand gets sore. toki ‘when’, ‘time when’ (‘when’ clauses ending in toki are actually adjectival clauses with the verb qualifying the noun toki, ‘time’). Tegami o káku toki kono pen o tsukaimásu. máe ni ‘before’ Irassháru máe ni denwa o kudasái. no de ‘because’, ‘since’ Tegami o kaku no de pen o kashite kudasai. mono no ‘although’ (written) Tegami o káita mono no, shoochi shinákatta. Although I wrote a letter he did not agree (to what I asked). Please lend me a pen because I’m going to write a letter. Before you come please give me a ring. When I write letters I use this pen. 297 no ni ‘although’ Tegami o káita no ni hénji o shite kuremasén deshita. Although I wrote a letter he did not give me a reply. áto de ‘after’ (follows the plain past form of the verb) Tegami o káita áto de shinbun o yomimáshita. nára ‘if ’ Tegami o káku nára kyóo káita hoo ga íi desu. If you are writing a letter you’d better write it today. After writing the letter I read the newspaper. Verbal suffixes in subordinate clauses –te ‘and’ (gerund). See the section on verbs below for other uses of the –te form. Tegami o káite dashimáshita. –te wa (ikemasen) ‘must not’ Koko de tabako o sutté wa ikemasen. –te mo íi desu ‘may’ Koko de tabako o sutté mo íi desu ka. –te kara ‘after’ Tegami o káite kara dekakemáshita. –tara ‘when’, ‘if ’ (conditional) Tegami o káitara yorokóbu deshoo. If (you) write a letter (he) will be pleased. (I) went out after writing a letter. May I smoke here? You can’t smoke here. (I) wrote a letter and posted it. –tari ‘doing … over and over’, ‘doing A then doing B’ (frequentative/ alternative) Tegami o káitari hón o yóndari shimáshita. –(r)eba ‘if ’ (conditional) Tegami o kákeba wakátta deshoo. If (I) had written a letter (she) would have understood. (I) wrote letters and read books and so on. 298 –nagara ‘doing A while also doing B’ (simultaneous action) Tegami o kakinágara rajio o kiite imáshita. While writing the letter I was listening to the radio. Verb plus noun plus désu A number of nouns combine with désu (and its related forms) in final predicates to give an added nuance to the main verb. tsumori desu ‘intend to… ’ Háyaku neru tsumori désu. yotei désu ‘plan to… ’ Sánji ni tátsu yotei désu. I plan to leave at 3 o’clock. I intend to go to bed early. no désu or n’ désu ‘the fact is … ,’ (makes a link with the previous sentence) Dóoshite kuruma o urú n’ desu ka. Why are you selling your car then? wáke desu ‘that is to say … ’ (adds explanation) Okane ga tarinái wáke desu né. házu desu ‘the expectation is that … ’ Móo Amerika ni itta házu desu. sóo desu ‘it is said that’ Ashita kúru sóo desu. yóo desu ‘it looks as if ’ Ano ie ni dáremo súnde inai yóo desu. It looks as if there is nobody living in that house. I hear he is coming tomorrow. I expect he’s already gone to America. That is to say we don’t have enough money, do we? hóo ga íi desu ‘it is/would be better to … ’ (usually follows a verb in the past tense) Ashita háyaku ókita hóo ga íi desu. You had better get up early tomorrow. 299 Pronouns Japanese has a rich array of pronouns which vary according to the degree of formality of the occasion, the relative status of speaker and listener, and the sex of the speaker. Person 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 2nd 2nd 2nd 3rd 3rd 3rd Singular watakushi watashi atashi boku ore anáta kimi omáe anóhito káre kánojo I I I I I you you you he, she he she Plural watakushidómo watashitachi atashitachi bókutachi bókura orétachi anatagáta kimitachi omáetachi omáera anóhitotachi káretachi kárera kánojotachi we we we we we you you you Notes formal form polite style casual (female ) casual (male) vulgar (male) general polite casual (male) vulgar (male) they = that person they (m) casual (used by both sexes) they (f) casual (used by both sexes) Question words There is a group of nouns which cannot be followed by the topic particle wa. They are the interrogatives náni ‘what’, dáre ‘who?’, dónata ‘who?’ (honorific), dóko ‘where?’, íkutsu ‘how many?’, íkura ‘how much?’, etc. Náni ga muzukashíi desu ka. ‘What is difficult?’ Dáre ga kimásu ka. ‘Who is coming?’ Note that these question words all have high pitch on the first syllable. Indefinite pronouns In addition to the personal pronouns listed above, Japanese has a group of indefinite pronouns and negative pronouns formed from the interrogatives by the addition of the particles, ka, mo and demo. 300 Interrogative náni what dáre who dónata who (honorific) dóko where íkutsu how many Indefinite nánika something dáreka someone dónataka someone (honorific) dókoka somewhere íkutsuka several Definite nánimo nothing dáremo no-one/everyone dónatamo no-one/everyone (honorific) dókomo (not) anywhere íkutsumo (not) many Emphatic nándemo anything at all nothing at all dáredemo anyone/no-one at all dónatademo anyone/no-one at all (honorific) dókodemo (not) anywhere at all íkutsudemo any number at all Demonstratives Japanese distinguishes ‘this’, near the speaker, ‘that’, near the addressee and ‘that’ (over there), away from both the speaker and addressee. Close kore koko this there Intermediate sore soko that there are Distant Interrogative which where asoko asuko kotchí/ this one sotchí/ that one atchí/ kochira (of two)/ sochira (of two)/ achira this way that way that over dóre there over there dóko that one dótchi/ which (of two)/ dóchira (of two)/ that way where In addition to these demonstrative pronouns there is a corresponding set of demonstrative adjectives and adverbs. Pronoun kore this sore that Place koko here soko there Adjective1 kono this sono that Adjective 2 konna this kind of sonna that kind of Adverb koo like this soo like that 301 are that (over there) dóre which asoko (over) there dóko where ano that dóno which anna that kind of dónna what kind of aa like that doo how Respect and politeness Every final verb in Japanese tells us something about the degree of respect the speaker shows towards the person being referred to (the referent), usually the subject (or indirect object) of the main verb, and the degree of politeness shown to the person spoken to (the addressee). The system as a whole is known as honorific language, or keigo in Japanese. There are three speech styles, plain, polite and formal, which indicate the degree of politeness to the addressee and a number of levels of respect languages shown to the referent. For our purposes, however, it is sufficient to distinguish simply neutral and honorific verb forms and to make a further distinction according to whether the respected referent is the subject or indirect object of the verb. Respect and politeness in the Japanese verb can be expressed in terms of two intersecting axes, as can be seen in the verb ‘to write’ in the following table. Respect/politeness neutral subject honorific subject honorific (alternative presentcontinuous form) object honorific* Plain káku okaki ni naru – okaki suru Polite kakimásu okaki ni narimásu okaki desu Formal kaku n’ de gozaimásu – – okaki shimasu – Note: * The object honorific generally has the meaning of ‘(I) do something for a respected referent.’ The same distinctions can be seen in the copula. Respect/politeness neutral subject honorific Plain da (spoken) de áru (written) de irassháru Polite désu de irasshaimásu Formal de gozaimásu – 302 In addition to the regular forms of verbs there are a number of separate euphemistic verbs used in honorific expressions in Japanese. Some of the more common honorific verbs are given below with their neutral counterparts. In the list below they are given in the plain form, though as main verbs they would most often occur in the polite style. Neutral iu suru iku kúru iru tabéru nómu míru neru kiru Honorific ossháru nasáru irassháru irassháru irassháru meshiagáru meshiagáru goran ni náru oyasumi ni náru omeshi ni náru Meaning to say to do to go to come to be, to exist to eat to drink to see to sleep to wear Numbers and Numeral classifiers 12 –bai times as much –ban number, ordinals –ban nights –bun part, fraction –byoo seconds –chakú suits, outfits –dáasu dozens –dai ichibai nibai ichíban níban hitóban futában ichibun nibun ichíbyoo níbyoo itchakú nichakú 34 sanbai yonbai sanban yonban míban yóban sanbun yonbun sánbyoo yónbyoo sanchakú yonchakú 56 gobai rokubai goban rokuban – gobun rokubun góbyoo rokúbyoo gochakú rokuchakú godáasu rokudáasu gódai 78 nanabai hachibai nanában hachíban – nanabun hachibun nanábyoo hachíbyoo nanachakú hatchakú nanadáasu hachidáasu nanadai 9 10 kyuubai juubai kyúuban júuban – kubun juubun kúbyoo júubyoo 100 ? hyakubai nanbai hyakúban nánban – hyakubun nanbun hyakubyoo nánbyoo kyuuchakú hyakuchakú jutchakú nanchakú kyuudáasu haykudáasu juudáasu nandáasu kyúudai hyakúdai ichidáasu sandáasu nidáasu yondáasu ichidai sámdai 303 vehicles, machines –dan grades steps –dó times –do degrees –en yen –fun minutes –gatsú names of months nidai ichídan nídan ichidó nidó ichído nído ichien nien íppun nífun ichigatsú nigatsú yóndai sandan yondan sandó yondó sándo yóndo san’en yon’en sánpun yónpun sangatsú shigatsú rokudai godan rokúdan godó rokudó gódo rokúdo goen rokuen gófun róppun gogatsú rokugatsú hachidai shichídan hachídan nanadó hachidó nanádo hachído nanaen hachien nanáfun háppun shichigatsú hachigatsú juudai kyúudan júudan kudó juudó kúdo júudo kyuuen juuen kyúufun júppun kugatsú juugatsú nandai hyakúdan nándan hyakudó nandó hyakúdo nándo hyakuen nan’en hyáppun nánpun – nangatsú –gúramu ichigúramu sangúramu gogúramu nanagúramu kugúramu hyakugúramu nigúramu yongúramu rokugúramu hachigúramu juugúramu nangúramu grams –hai cupfuls, glasses ippai nihai sánbai yónhai sanbén yonhén sánbiki yónhiki sánbon yónhon sánbyaku yónhyaku sánji yóji sánjuu yónjuu sánka yónka mikka yokka sankái yonkái góhai róppai gohén roppén góhiki roppikí gohon róppon gohyakú roppyakú góji rokúji gojúu rokujúu góka rókka itsuka muika gokái rokkái nanáhai háppai nanahén happén nanáhiki happikí nanáhon háppon nanáhyaku happyakú shichíji hachíji nanájuu hachijúu nanáka hákka nanoka yooka nanakái hakkái kyúuhai júppai kyuuhén juppén kyúuhiki juppikí kyúuhon júppon hyáppai nánbai hyappén nanbén hyappikí nánbiki hyáppon nánbon ippén –hen number of nihén times –hiki animals ippikí níhiki íppon –hon cylindrical níhon objects –hyakú hundreds –ji o’clock –juu tens –ka lessons –ka/ –nichi days –kái number of times hyakú nihyakú ichíji níji júu níjuu íkka níka ichinichi futsuka ikkái nikái kyúuhyaku – – nánbyaku kúji júuji kyúujuu – kyúuka júkka – nánji – nánjuu hyákka nánka kokonoka hyakunichi tooka nannichi kyuukái jukkái hyakkái nankái 304 12 –kai storeys, floors –ken buildings –ki aeroplanes –kiro kilogram/ metre –ko ‘a piece’, boxes, fruit, furniture, etc., round or square objects –mai ‘sheets’, flat objects, paper, plates, shirts, ties, etc. –man tenthousands –nen years –nin/–ri people –sai years of age –satsu ‘volume’, books –seki ships –sen thousands ikkai nikai íkken níken ikki niki 34 sangai yonkai sánken yónken sánki yónki 56 gokai rokkai góken rókken góki rókki 78 nanakai hakkai nanáken hákken nanáki hákki 9 10 kyuukai jukkai kyúuken júkken kyúuki júkki 100 ? hyakkai nangai hyákken nánken hyákki nánki ichíkiro sánkiro gókiro níkiro yónkiro rókkiro ikko níko sanko yónko góko rókko nanákiro kyúukiro hyákkiro hachíkiro júkkiro nánkiro nanáko hákko kyúuko júkko hyákko nánko ichímai sánmai nímai yónmai gomai nanámai rokumai hachímai kyuumai júumai hyakúmai nánmai ichimán sanmán gomán nanamán kyuumán hyakumán nimán yonmán rokumán hachimán juumán nanmán ichínen nínen hitóri futarí issai nisai issatsú nísatsu issekí níseki sén nisén sannen yonen sannin yonin sánsai yónsai gonen rokunen gonin rokúnin gósai rokusai shichinen hachinen shichinin hachinin nanasai hassai kunen júunen kunin juunin kyuusai jússai hyakúnen nánnen hyakunin nánnin hyakusai nánsai sánsatsu gósatsu nanásatsu kyúusatsu hyakusatsu yónsatsu rokúsatsu hassatsú jussatsú nánsatsu sánseki yónseki sanzén yonsén góseki rokúseki gosén rokusén nanáseki hasseki nanasen hassén kyúuseki hyakusekí jussekí nánseki kyuusén – – nanzén 305 –soku ‘pair’, shoes, socks –soo vessels, boats –tén points, marks –too ‘head’, large animals –tsu miscellaneous objects, years of age –tsuu letters –wa birds issokú nísoku íssoo nísoo ittén nitén íttoo nítoo sánzoku gósok nanások yónsoku rokúsoku hássoku sánsoo yónsoo santén yontén sántoo yóntoo gósoo rokúsoo gotén rokutén gotoo rokútoo nanásoo hássoo nanatén hattén nanátoo háttoo kyúusok hyakúsoku jússoku nánzoku kyúusoo jússoo kyuutén juttén kyúutoo júttoo hyakúsoo nánsoo hyakutén nantén hyakutoo nántoo hitótsu futatsú mittsú yottsú itsútsu muttsú nanátsu yattsú kokónotsu – tóo íkutsu ittsuu nitsuu ichíwa níwa santsuu yontsuu sánba yónwa gotsuu rokutsuu gówa róppa nanatsuu hattsuu nanáwa hachíwa kyuutsuu juttsuu kyúuwa júppa hyakutsuu nántsuu hyáppa nánwa Notes: 1. In the above table yón– and nána– have been used for 4 and 7 where possible, though in most cases shi– and shichí – can be used instead. With 9 the form which first sprang to mind has been chosen. Kú– and kyúu– are often not interchangeable, so use the form given here, but be prepared to hear the other as well. In the interrogative expressions it is always possible to place an accent on the first syllable instead of using the accent shown here. For 8 it is usually possible to use the full form hachi– instead of the forms with a double consonant. 2. –jíkan, ‘hours duration’; –jóo –tatami, ‘mats, unit of room size’; –meetoru, ‘metres’; –paasénto, ‘per cent’; –péeji, ‘pages’; –póndo, ‘pounds’ undergo no sound changes or shift of accent; –kágetsu, ‘months duration’, retains its accent, but has double consonants in combination with 1, 6, 8, 10 and 100; –sénchi, ‘centimetres’ and –shúukan, ‘weeks duration’, retain their original accent, but double the consonant in 1, 8 and 10; –doru, ‘dollars’, is unaccented and follows the pattern of –dai. Appendix Hiragána, katakána and kanji Hiragána a ka ga sa za ta da na ha ba pa ma ra wa i ki gi shi ji chi () ji ni hi bi pi mi ri u ku gu su zu tsu () zu nu fu bu pu mu ru e ke ge se ze te de ne he be pe me re o ko go so zo to ( do no ho bo po mo ro o n ja na hya bya pya mya rya ya kya gya sha ja cha ) ( ju nu hyu byu pyu myu ryu yu kyu gyu shu ju chu ) ( jo no hyo byo pyo myo ryo yo kyo gyo sho jo cho ) 307 Katakána (basic syllables only) a ka sa ta na ha ma ya ra wa i ki shi chi ni hi mi u ku su tsu nu fu mu yu e ke se te ne he me o ko so to no ho mo yo ri ru re ro o n Kanji The following lists the kanji introduced for acquisition throughout this course, arranged in ascending order of the number of strokes. The digits before the decimal point refer to the Unit in which the kanji was introduced. The three digit code after the decimal point is the order of introduction of the character. This chart provides a running tally of the number of kanji acquired by any particular point in the course. This is followed by a finder list of Chinese-style on readings (in small caps) and native Japanese kun readings in lower case with the parts usually written in hiragána included in parentheses. 308 1 stroke 3.013 2 strokes 2.010 3.014 3.018 3.019 3.020 3.021 10.097 13.152 13.153 3 strokes 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 3.015 3.023 3.024 3.025 3.026 4.033 4.034 5.051 10.092 11.110 14.179 4 strokes 1.003 2.008 3.017 3.017 3.030 4.035 5.042 5.047 5.048 5.049 7.066 7.070 8.079 10.095 11.103 11.111 11.113 11.113 11.116 12.124 12.136 13.145 13.154 13.156 14.171 15.183 15.195 15.199 15.200 5 strokes 1.001 1.002 3.016 3.031 4.041 7.068 8.077 9.091 10.096 10.098 11.109 12.123 12.141 13.157 13.158 14.172 14.180 15.191 6 strokes 3.027 4.032 4.037 4.040 5.044 5.046 6.052 6.053 7.067 9.088 10.093 10.094 11.105 11.112 11.117 12.135 13.143 13.146 13.159 14.173 15.201 7 strokes 3.022 3.029 5.043 6.055 6.058 7.065 7.071 8.076 8.078 10.099 13.160 13.161 14.169 15.188 15.198 8 strokes 2.009 2.012 4.038 5.050 7.063 7.069 8.072 8.073 9.084 9.087 9.090 10.100 11.115 11.118 12.134 12.137 12.140 13.144 13.148 13.150 14.177 15.189 15.194 9 strokes 7.062 8.080 8.081 9.086 11.104 11.106 11.108 11.120 12.125 12.126 12.129 12.138 13.147 13.151 14.163 14.166 14.170 14.174 15.184 15.185 15.186 15.197 10 strokes 3.028 4.036 4.039 6.059 9.089 309 11.107 11.114 12.127 12.128 13.162 14.167 14.176 14.181 15.190 11 strokes 5.045 8.074 11.119 12.132 14.168 15.187 12 strokes 6.054 7.064 8.075 9.082 9.082 9.085 10.101 11.121 11.122 12.139 12.142 14.175 14.178 15.192 15.193 15.196 13 strokes 6.061 9.083 12.131 14.164 14.164 14.165 15.202 14 strokes 2.011 6.056 6.057 6.060 12.130 14.182 16 strokes 12.133 13.149 13.155 Kanji on-kun finder list a(keru) 10.101 á(ru) 13.159 á(u) 6.053 aida 8.075 aka(rui) 9.084 áki 11.108 ame 11.118 AN 4.037 AN 14.165 aó(i) 7.069 arú(ku) 11.115 ása 9.085 atara(shíi) 6.061 áto 8.081 atsú(i) 11.122 ba 14.178 BA 14.181 ba(kéru) 15.195 BAI 6.055 BAI 6.054 BAN 14.175 BEN 15.197 BEN 14.176 BI 15.186 BO 10.096 BOKU 5.049 BU 12.132 BUN 7.066 BUN 15.200 BUN 6.060 BUTSU DAI DAI DAN 9.091 3.025 3.022 GAKU GAKU 4.038 13.144 BYOO 14.167 CHAKU 9.082 10.100 chichí 10.095 chii(sái) 3.026 chiká(i) 13.161 chikará 13.152 CHOO 9.085 CHI CHOO 14.169 CHOO 12.134 CHUU CHUU 1.003 14.174 dá(su) 10.098 dé(ru) 10.098 DEN 1.001 DEN 12.131 DO 5.051 DOKU 6.056 DON 12.133 DOO 15.192 EI 13.147 EI 2.012 EKI 14.182 EN 4.035 FU 15.199 FU 10.095 fú(ru) 12.138 fúmi 15.200 FUN 7.066 futa(tsú) 3.014 futó(i) 14.171 FUU 11.120 fuyú 11.109 GA 13.148 GAI 12.123 14.164 –gatá 11.111 GATSU 3.030 GEI 15.188 GEN 12.136 GEN 13.160 GETSU 3.030 GIN 6.057 GO 3.017 GO 8.079 GO 2.011 GYOO 6.052 GYUU 13.145 ha(réru) 15.193 3.019 háha 10.096 HAI 12.128 hái(ru) 10.097 HAKU 7.068 HAN 3.031 haná 8.076 haná(su) 9.083 háru 11.106 HACHI 310 hayá(i) 7.067 hayashi 12.137 HEI 14.172 hi 2.008 hí 5.047 hidari 13.158 higashi 8.072 hiró(i) 14.180 hirú 14.174 hito 2.010 hitó(tsu) 3.013 HO 11.115 hoka 12.123 HOKU 15.187 1.003 1.003 10.099 3.021 3.029 15.195 11.107 13.162 5.047 8.076 ká(ku) 6.059 ka(u) 6.054 KA, GE 1.007 KAI 6.053 KAI 9.086 KAI 10.101 JUU JUU JUU JUU KA KA KA KA KA KA KAKU 11.103 HON HOO HYAKU 1.002 11.111 4.032 i(ku) 6.052 ICHI 3.013 ichi 15.191 ié 13.162 íma 5.042 IN 15.190 IN 7.064 iró 13.143 isó(gu) 12.126 itsú(tsu) 3.017 JI 7.063 JI 10.094 JI 15.201 JI 14.166 JI 3.028 JI 10.093 JIN 2.010 JITSU 2.008 JO 3.023 JOO 1.006 JOO 14.178 JUTSU 13.148 kami 9.089 KAN 11.121 KAN 13.149 KAN, KEN 8.075 kane 5.050 katá 11.111 kataná 13.153 kawá 1.004 kaze 11.120 KEN 14.170 KEN 8.078 kí 5.049 KI 11.117 ki(ku) 15.198 ki(ku) 6.060 kí(ru) 13.154 ki(ru) 9.082 KIN 13.161 KIN 5.050 kita 11.103 ko 3.024 kokóno(tsu) 3.020 kokóro 12.124 KOKU 2.009 5.042 10.092 3.027 14.179 14.180 8.081 4.039 6.052 12.138 4.036 kotó 7.063 KU 3.020 kú(ru) 5.043 kubá(ru) 12.128 kuchi 10.092 kúmo 12.142 kumó(ru) 12.133 kuni 2.009 kurá(i) 14.165 kuruma 7.065 KUU 12.140 KON KOO KOO KOO KOO KOO KOO KOO KOO KOO KYOO 15.192 migi 13.157 mimí 10.093 minami 11.104 misé 13.150 mit(tsú) 3.015 miyako 8.074 mizu 5.048 mó(tsu) 14.166 MOKU 5.049 MOKU 8.077 MON 9.087 monó 13.144 monó 15.189 mori 12.139 motó 12.136 moto 1.002 MOTSU 14.168 KYOO, KEI 8.073 KYUU KYUU KYUU 3.020 9.088 12.126 má(tsu) 13.151 machi 14.169 mae 8.080 MAI 9.090 MAI 5.044 MAN 4.034 máto 15.194 mé 8.077 MEI 9.084 MEI 12.135 mí(ru) 8.078 michi 13.144 15.196 muró 15.185 mut(tsú) 3.017 MYOO 9.084 na 12.135 ná(i) 15.196 nagá(i) 12.134 NAI 15.183 náka 1.003 nán 3.029 NAN 11.104 NAN 3.022 nána 3.018 naná(tsu) 3.018 náni 3.029 natsú 11.107 NEN 5.046 NI 3.014 NICHI 2.008 MU 311 13.146 2.010 2.010 nishi 11.105 nó(mu) 7.064 nochi 8.081 NYO 3.023 NYUU 10.097 o(ríru) 12.138 OKU 15.184 omó(u) 12.125 ON 14.163 onná 3.023 óo(i) 11.112 oo(kíi) 3.025 otó 14.163 otokó 3.022 oyá 13.155 RAI 5.043 NIKU NIN NIN RAKU SEN SEN SEN SETSU SETSU SHA SHA SHA SHI SHI SHI SHI SHI SHI SHI 4.040 4.033 1.004 13.154 11.119 6.058 15.189 7.065 3.016 3.024 15.191 12.125 7.071 9.089 15.202 shi(ru) 10.100 3.018 SHIKI SHIN SHIN SHIN SHIN SHICHI 14.164 RI 15.198 RIN 12.137 RITSU 13.143 12.124 6.061 12.139 13.155 12.141 ROKU RYO RYOKU shiró(i) 7.068 shita 1.007 SHITSU SHO SHO SHO SHOKU 3.017 11.114 13.152 RYOO 14.173 SA 13.158 SAI 13.154 SAI 11.105 15.185 14.177 11.122 6.059 7.062 3.026 11.113 4.041 7.070 12.127 sake 12.127 saki 4.040 sama 12.130 samú(i) 11.121 SAN 3.015 SAN 1.005 SEI 15.193 SEI 4.041 SEI 11.105 SEI 7.069 SEKI 11.110 SHOO SHOO SHOO SHU SHU SHUN 11.106 SHUTSU 10.098 SHUU SHUU SOO sóra sóto 11.108 5.045 7.067 12.140 12.123 su(kí na) 3.027 sú(mu) 10.099 SUI 5.048 sukó(shi) 11.113 sukun(ái) 11.113 SYA 6.058 TA 11.112 tá 1.001 ta(béru) 7.062 tá(tsu) 12.141 tabi 11.114 TAI 9.091 TAI 3.025 TAI 3.025 TAI 14.171 TAI 13.151 taira 14.172 taká(i) 4.036 tano(shíi) 14.164 táyori 15.197 té 7.070 TEKI 15.194 TEN 11.116 TEN 13.150 tera 15.201 TO 8.074 toki 3.028 tokoro 14.177 TOKU 6.056 tómo 13.156 TOO 11.109 TOO 13.153 tóo 3.021 TOO 8.072 toshí 5.046 tsu(ku) 9.082 tsuchí 5.051 tsukí 3.030 tsuyó(i) 14.168 U 13.157 U 11.118 u(mareru) 4.041 u(mu) 4.041 u(ru) 6.055 uchi 15.183 ue 1.006 umá 14.181 úmi 9.086 UN 12.142 ushi 13.145 ushi(ro) 8.081 utsú(ru) 13.147 utsuku(shíi) 15.186 WA 9.083 wa(kéru) 7.066 watakushi 7.071 watashi 7.071 ya 15.184 yamá 1.005 yámai 14.167 yasú(i) 4.037 yasú(mu) 9.088 yat(tsú) 3.019 yó(mu) 6.056 yón 3.016 YOO 12.130 YOO 12.129 yot(tsú) 3.016 yu(u) 13.160 yuki 11.119 YUU 13.156 yuu 11.110 YUU 13.159 ZEN 8.080 Japanese–English glossary A áa abiru abunai achira Afurika agaru agemásu ageru agó ái suru aida aikawarazu aimásu áinu áiron Áirurando áisatsu aité aite iru aitíi aiyoo suru aizuchi Ah! (exclamation) to shower, bathe dangerous, watch out! over there, that way Africa to go up, rise, enter see ageru to give, raise up chin to love between, interval, gap as usual see áu Ainu (the aboriginal people of Hokkaido) iron (clothes) Ireland greeting, formal conversational routines the other party, partner, opponent to be vacant; to be open I.T., information technology to enjoy using regularly chiming in 313 aji Ájia ajisai ákachan akai akanboo akarui akemáshite omedetoo gozaimásu akeru áki akimásu akiraméru akisu Ákita aku aku amai amari/anmari amasugíru áme ame Amérika Amerikájin Amerikasei –(a)nai –(a)naide –(a)nakerba narimasen –(a)nakute anáta anaúnsu ane áni ánki anmari anna annai suru annaijo ano anóhito taste Asia hydrangea baby red baby light, bright Happy New Year! to open (transitive) autumn see aku to give up, abandon, resign oneself to sneak thief place name to come open, open to become vacant, be free sweet very, a lot; not very too sweet rain sweet, candy America American made in America negative suffix without (negative suffix) must…, have to… negative suffix you announcement elder sister elder brother learning by heart see amari that kind of to guide, show around information counter that over there he 314 anóhitotachi anokatá anokatagata anóko anoo anshin suru anzen na anzen-kámisori aói Aómori aozóra apáato arasói Arashiyama arau are ari arigatái arígatoo arimásu áru teido áru áru arubáito arúiwa arukitsuzukéru arukimásu arúku ása asa-góhan ásahi Asahishínbun asanéboo o suru asátte –(a)seru ashí ashita asobu asoko asu ataeru atamá they he (honorific) they (honorific) he (child) um, er (hesitation form) be free from worry safe, secure safety razor blue, green place name blue sky rented flat fight, struggle, strife place name wash that over there ant grateful thank you see áru to a certain extent a certain to be located somewhere; to have part-time work or to keep on walking see arúku to walk morning breakfast morning sun a major daily paper … sleep in late in the morning the day after tomorrow see –(s)aseru leg, foot tomorrow to play, have free time over there tomorrow to give head 315 atamá ga íi atarashíi ataru … ni —— atashi atatakai atchí áto áto de atsugáru atsui atsúi astumáru astuméru atsuryoku attakái áu awaséru –(a)zu intelligent new be equivalent to I (feminine) warm that way, over there remains later, afterward; after to feel the heat, be hot thick hot to collect, gather (intransitive) to collect, gather (transitive) pressure warm to meet, come together, fit to bring together negative suffix = –(a)nai B báa báabekyuu báai báka bakageta kotó bakarashíi bákari bakkupákkaa ban ban bánana ban-góhan bangoo bangumí bánsen banzái bara báree basho bar barbecue occasion, time, if, when fool, bloody idiot (very abusive) stupid thing, ridiculous thing foolish, stupid only, to the extent of back-packer night, evening number banana dinner, evening meal number radio, TV programme track number hooray, long live (literally, ‘ten thousand years’) rose ballet; volley (ball) place 316 bassai básu basu-nóriba basuketto(bóoru) basútei basutoire-tsuki báta/bátaa batta béiju bekkan bengóshi benjó benkyoo suru benkyooka bénri na bentóo béruto Bétonamu betsu na/no betsu ni bétto (béddo) bidánshi bíiru bíjin bíjutsu bijútsukan bíka bín bíru biyagáaden bodii-súutsu boku (or bóku) booeki booeki-gáisha booifuréndo booringu booru bóorupen booshi bótan –bu felling, cutting down bus bus terminus/depot, bus station basketball bus stop with bath and toilet butter grasshopper beige annex, separate building lawyer, solicitor toilet, lavatory to study a hard worker, a studious type convenient, useful lunch box belt Vietnam separate, different, another in particular bed handsome man beer a beauty, beautiful woman art, the fine arts art gallery beautification bottle building beer garden body suit I trade trading company boyfriend bowling (ten pin) ball; bowl ball-point pen hat, cap button copy of document (numeral classifier) 317 –bu búbun buchoo búdoo budoo búji na bukka búkkyoo bunbóoguya búngaku bunka bunkateki na bunkei bunpoo búnshoo Burajiru buróochi buta butsurígaku búutsu byóo byooin byooki no byooki byoonin byooshitsu division of company, etc. part division head martial arts grapes safe prices Buddhism stationer/’s literature culture cultural sentence pattern grammar sentence; writing Brazil brooch pig physics boots second (numeral classifier) hospital, clinic sick, ill illness, disease sick person sickroom C cha chairo –chaku chanto –chau chawan chekkuín chi chichí chichioya chigau tea (see ocha) brown suit, outfit (numeral classifier); arrival properly see –te shimau rice bowl, tea-cup check in blood father father to differ, to be wrong, no 318 chíisa na chiisái chíizu chika chikái chikáku Chikámatsu chikámichi chikará chikatetsu chikazúku chikyuu –chimau chíri chirí chiru chiteki chittómo chiryoo chishiki chízu chokoréeto –choo chóochoo choodai choodó chóohoo na choohookei choonán Choosen chooshi ga ii chooshoku chótto –chuu chuugákusei Chúugoku Chuugokugo Chuugokújin chúui chuujókki chúuka small small cheese underground near vicinity, near Chikamatsu, Japan’s greatest playwright (1653–1724) short cut strength underground railway to approach earth, globe see –te shimau geography dust, dirt to scatter, fall (blossoms, etc.) intellectual in the least (not) at all medical treatment knowledge map chocolate head, chief (suffix) town mayor please, give me exactly, just useful, precious rectangular eldest son (North) Korea to run well, go smoothly breakfast a little in the course of junior high-school student China Chinese (language) Chinese (person) attention, be careful medium-sized tankard Chinese (food) 319 chuukaryóori chuukyuu chuumon chuunen chuuoo chuusha suru chuushajoo chuusha-kinshi chuushi suru chuushoku Chinese cuisine intermediate to order middle age central to park (a car, etc.) car park no parking to call off, stop doing lunch D dáburu daenkei dái daibu daibutsu daidokoro Daiei-hakubutsukan daigaku daigákusei daihyoo dáiichi daijóobu dáiku dairiten dáisuki na daitai daitóoryoo daiyokujoo dákara daké dakuten damé dandan dansei dánshi dánsu dantairyókoo double (room) oval, elliptical stand, dais considerably, very many times great Buddha (image) kitchen British Museum university university student representative first, number one all right, OK carpenter agency, agent to love, be very fond of approximately, generally, for the most part President large bath so, therefore only, extent voicing marks no good; stop it! gradually male, man man, male (dánshi no men’s …) dance group travel, tour 320 dáre dáredemo dáreka dáremo darusóo dashimásu dasu dayígai de áru de gozaimásu de irassháru de de déguchi dekakeru dekimásu dekiru dake … dekíru demásu démo dengon dénki densha denshi-méeru denwa denwa-bángoo depáato déru deshóo désu dezáato –do –do dóa dóchira dóchiramo dóchirasama Dóitsu who? anyone at all someone no one listless looking, tired looking see dásu take out, put out besides, outside is, are, etc. (written-style copula) is (formal) is (honorific) ‘agent’, by means of, with in, at exit to go out see dekíru as much as possible, as … as possible to be done, be ready, be made; be able to, can see déru even message electricity, light train (electric) electronic mail telephone telephone number department store to go out, come out, appear probably is is, are, am (copula) dessert degrees (measure of alcohol content) times (numeral classifier) door which one, where (honorific) both, either who (honorific) Germany 321 dóko dokú (o-ki no——) dokú dokushin dókusho dónata dónatasama dóndon dónna dónna kanji desu ka dono kurai/gurai dóno dóo dóo itashimashite dóo shimashita ka doo shiyoo mo nai dóo yuu dóo yuu fuu na dóo yuufuu ni dooaku doobutsu doobutsuen dóomo doomoo doonyuu suru dóoro dooro-hyóoshiki dóose dóoshite dooshitémo dóozo yoroshiku dóozo doráiibu doráiibu suru doragon dóre where what a shame, I’m sorry to hear that poison unmarried man or woman, bachelor reading who (honorific) who (honorific) rapidly, quickly what kind of what’s it (he, she, etc.) like? how long, how far, how much? which? how? don’t mention it, not at all What happened? What’s the matter? hopeless, impossible what kind of? what kind of? how?, in what way? fierce, wild (literary word) animal zoo Thanks! Sorry! very fierce, wild, savage introduce, bring in road road sign anyway why, how no matter what, without fail how do you do? Please do what you can for me please drive to drive dragon which one? 322 doroboo dóryoku suru dótchi doyóobi robber, thief make an effort, endeavour, take pains which one? Saturday E –e e é –eba ebi Edomae ée eetto eibun éiga eigákan eigakantoku eigo eigyoochuu eiji Eikoku Eikokújin eikyoo éki ekibíru ekimáe ekimei én enpitsu enryo erábu erái erebéetaa –eru éru esá brusque imperative suffix to, toward picture see –(r)eba prawn, shrimp fresh from the sea in front of Edo (Tokyo) yes let me see (hesitation form) English (written) film, movie cinema film director English open for business English language (newspaper) England, Britain Englishman, Briton influence station station building in front of the station station name yen pencil reserve, holding back to choose great, praiseworthy, well done! lift, elevator potential suffix to get, gain feed, bait 323 esukaréetaa eto escalator traditional Chinese calendar system F fákkusu fóoku fuan na fúben na fuchúui fude fuéru –fújin – fujin Fújisan fújiyuu fuku fuku fukú fukuméru fukúshi fukuúriba fukuzatsu na –fun funabin fúne funka Furansu furidasu furó furobá fúru furúi furúsato futarí futatsú futói futorimásu futorisugi fax, facsimile fork uneasy, worried inconvenient carelessness writing brush to increase Mrs … lady, woman Mt Fuji disabled, inconvenienced, handicapped to blow to wipe clothes to include welfare clothing department complicated minutes sea mail ship, boat eruption France to start raining bath bathroom to fall (rain and snow) old hometown, native place two people two fat, thick see futóru too fat, overweight 324 futóru futsuka futsukayoi futsuu futtobóoru fúudo fúukei fuyásu fuyu to get fat two days, 2nd of the month hangover usual football hood scene, scenery increase (transitive) winter G ga ga ga gáado gáido gaijin gaikoku gaikokújin gaishoku gaka gakkári suru gaku gakusei gakuse’iryoo gakusha ganbáru ganbátte kudasai garasu –gáru gasorin gasorinsutándo gásu –gata géi an geijutsu geisha but (clause-final particle) subject particle sorry to bother you, but … railway arch guide foreigner, westerner (colloquial) foreign country, abroad foreigner eating out artist to be disappointed a frame student student dormitory scholar to persevere, stick to a task keep at it, give it all you’ve got! glass to act in a … way (suffix forms verb from adjective) gasoline petrol station gas; cooker; petrol (colloquial) plural suffix (honorific) an art, accomplishment; trick art, artistic performance geisha, traditional professional entertainer 325 gekijoo gen’in géndai gendáibyoo gengo gengogakusha genjoo genjúumin génkan génki na geshuku génzai getsuyóobi gíjutsu gín ginkoo Gírisha gítaa go –go go…desu … gobusata shite imásu gochisoosama déshita goenryo kudasai goenryo naku goenryo nasaránaide kudasai gógatsu gógo góhan gói goissho gokenson gokúroosama deshita gokyoodai gomeiwaku desu theatre cause modern, present times, current diseases of the modern lifestyle language linguist conditions, state of affairs aborigine, original inhabitant entrance porch, vestibule healthy, fit, well boarding, lodging now, at present Monday technology, skill silver bank Greece guitar five language (suffix) is … (subject honorific construction) I have not been in touch, I have been neglectful thank you for the wonderful meal please refrain from … please don’t stand on ceremony, don’t just be polite don’t stand on ceremony, don’t just be polite May afternoon cooked rice, a meal vocabulary together, with you (honorific) modest (honorific) thanks for your help brothers and sisters (honorific) it’s an imposition (on…) 326 gomen kudasái gomen nasái gomi gomibáko gookaku Góoshuu gootoo goran kudasái/nasái goran ni ireru goran ni náru gorippa goriyoo kudasái góro górufu goryooshin goshinpai náku goshinsetsu ni goshoochi no yóo ni goshookai shimásu goshújin goshúmi goyóo goyukkúri gozaimásu gózen gozenchuu gozónji desu ka gozónji gurai gúramu gurée guuzen gyuuniku gyuunyuu excuse me, anyone home?; goodbye (on telephone) I’m sorry rubbish rubbish bin, dustbin passing (exam), making the grade Australia robbery please look (honorific) to show to a respected person – object (honorific) to look, see (honorific) splendid (honorific) please use about, around golf (your) parents (honorific) please don’t worry thank you for your kindness as you know let me introduce … husband (honorific), your husband hobby (honorific), your hobby (shúmi) business, something to do (honorific) at leisure, slowly (honorific) is, are (formal) morning, a.m. all morning, throughout the morning do you know? know (honorific) about, as … as gram weight grey by chance beef milk 327 H ha haba haba ga hirói haba ga semái hachi hachi hadashi hadé háha hái hai haiiro haiken shite mo yoroshíi desu ka haiken suru háikingu hairimásu háiru háisha haishaku suru haitatsu suru haiyuu hajimaru hajime hajime … o —— …mo … … hajimemáshite hajimemásu hajimeru hajímete hákase hakken hakkíri hako hakobu haku hakubútsukan tooth width wide narrow eight bee bare-footed, bare feet bright, loud, showy mother yes cupfuls, glassful grey may I have a look? to look at object (honorific) hiking see háiru to enter, go in, fit dentist to borrow from a respected person (honorific) to deliver actor to start, begin (intransitive) first, beginning not only but … , from … to … how do you do? see hajimeru to begin for the first time doctor, PhD discovery clearly box transport, carry (transitive) to wear shoes, socks, skirt, trousers, etc. museum 328 hamachi hameru hán haná hana hanamí hanaréru hanashí hanashimásu hanasu hanásu hanátaba hanáyome hanbai-búchoo hanbáiki hanbún handobággu hanga hangaku hánsamu na hansei suru hantai hanzai hanzúbon happa hará haráu hare haremásu hareru haréru háru haruméku haru-yásumi hashí háshi hashirimásu hashíru hatá hátachi kingfish, yellowtail to wear/put on (gloves, ring, etc.); insert half past, – and a half flower nose cherry-blossom viewing separate from, move away from story, talking see hanásu to let go to speak bunch of flowers new bride sales manager, head of the sales section vending machine half handbag woodblock-print half price handsome reflect, think over, reconsider opposite, against crime shorts, short pants leaf belly to pay fine weather see haréru to swell to fine up spring become like spring spring holiday bridge chopsticks see hashíru to run flag twenty years old 329 hatarakimásu hataraku –hatsu hatsuka hatsuon hayái hayamé ni hayashi hayásu hazu hazukashigáru hazukashíi hébi heisei heitai heiwa hén na hen hénji herasu herikóputa hetá na heyá hi hiatari hiatari ga íi hidari hidarigawa hidarikiki hidói hidói me ni áu higashí hige o sóru hige hijoo ni hijóoguchi hiketsu hiki hikidashi hikóoki hiku see hataraku to work leaving at/from (suffix) twenty days pronunciation fast, quick, early early, on the early side forest to grow (beard, etc.) should be, is expected to be to act shyly, be shy ashamed, shy, embarrassed snake year period, 1989– soldier peace strange, peculiar place, area answer, reply reduce, decrease (transitive) helicopter poor at, weak at room day; sun exposure to the sun to be sunny left left-hand side left-handed cruel, severe have a terrible experience east to shave beard, moustache extremely, very (emergency) exit secret (method) counter for animals drawer aeroplane to catch a cold; to pull; look up in a dictionary 330 hiku hikúi hima hinanjo hiragána hirói hirú hirugóhan hirumá hisashiburi hísho hitó hitobanjuu hitogomi hitóri hitóri de hitori mo + negative hitoríkko hitótsu hitsuji hitsuji hitsuyoo na híyoo hodo hoka hoken hokengáisha Hokkáidoo hókkee homéru –hón hón hóndana hontóo/hontó hón’ya hóo ga íi hóo hóofu na hoogén hookokusho to play piano, guitar, etc. low, short spare time evacuation point hiragána syllabary broad, wide, vast midday, lunchtime lunch daytime after a long time secretary person, someone else all night crowd of people one person alone, by oneself no one, nobody only child one sheep (calendar sign) sheep; necessary cost extent; (not) as … as other, another insurance insurance company most northerly of Japan’s four main islands hockey to praise (numeral classifier) for cylindrical objects book bookshelf true book shop be better to … direction, side rich, abundant dialect report 331 hóomu hooritsu hoosoo suru hoshi hoshigáru hoshíi hosói hóteru hotóndo hotto suru hyakkáten hyakú hyakubun hyoogen railway platform law to broadcast star to want, appear to want to want thin, fine, narrow hotel almost all, nearly to be relieved department store hundred hearing one hundred times expression (in speech or writing) I í ichi íchiba ichíban ichíbu ichído ichidó wa ichigatsú ichigo ichinichijuu ichioo ié igai to iidásu Igirisu Igirisújin íi iie iimásu íimeeru E ijime íjoo ika íka boar (calendar sign) one market first, no. 1, most one part; one copy once, sometime once, just once, at least once January strawberry all tentatively, as a start, somehow house, household; family unexpectedly, surprisingly begin to say; come out with England, Britain Englishman, Briton good no see yuu E-mail bullying all, above, up to here squid, cuttlefish less than, from … down 332 ikága ikága desu ka ikébana ikemasén ikimásu ikken íkoo iku íkutsu íkura íma imada imásu ími imootó inaka Índo Indonéshia inemúri infure inku/inki inóru inoshíshi inshoo inshooteki inú inú ippai íppai ippen ni íppo ippootsúukoo irasshái irasshaimáse irasshaimásu irassháru iremásu ireru iriguchi irimásu iró how? (honorific) how are you? ikebana, flower arrangement won’t do; Don’t do that! see iku one look after, since, from … onwards to go how many how much now still see iru meaning younger sister countryside India Indonesia dozing off; falling asleep (at the wheel) inflation ink to pray wild boar impression impressive, striking, moving dog (calendar sign) dog full one glassful, cupful at once, at a time one step one-way traffic welcome! welcome (honorific) see irassháru to come, go, be (honorific) see ireru to put in entrance see ir-u colour 333 iroiro na iru íru ir-u iséebi isha ishí isogashíi isogimásu isógu issho ísshoo isshookénmei isshu isshuu suru isu itadaku itái itamae Itaria, Itarii itásu itóko ítsu itsudémo ítsuka itsuka ítsumo itsútsu ittai iu iya iyá na iyagáru izakaya various to be see háiru need lobster doctor stone busy see isógu to hurry together life, throughout one’s life for all one is worth, desperately a kind of to do a circuit of, to go around chair to receive (object (honorific)), to eat (formal) painful, to hurt cook, chef (Japanese food) Italy to do (object (honorific)) cousin when any time at all sometime, one day five days; 5th of the month always five (what) on earth! see yuu no (when contradicting) unpleasant, disagreeable to dislike, find repugnant, be unwilling to tavern, pub (Japanese style) J já/jáa jaanarísuto well then, in that case journalist 334 jama jí ji jibikí jibun de jidóosha jigi jíinzu jijoo jikan jíken jíko jíko jikogénba jíkoku jikoshóokai jímen jimí jímu jimúsho –jin jinja jinkoo jisatsu jishin jishin jísho jissai ni jisui jiténsha jitsú ni jitsú wa jiyúu jizake jógingu jójo ni jókki –joo jooba suru joodan jooei F joohoo hindrance, nuisance (see ojama) character, letter o’clock (suffix) dictionary by oneself car see ojigi jeans circumstances, the state of things time; hour incident, case, affair accident self scene of an accident time self-introduction ground subdued, conservative, plain gym office person; suffix of nationality shrine (Shinto) population suicide confidence earthquake dictionary really, actually, in reality cooking for oneself bicycle really, honestly actually, in fact freedom; –na free local sake jogging gradually jug, mug, tankard tablet (numeral classifier) to ride a horse joke showing (a film), screening information 335 jookyuu jooshoo jootatsu joozú na josei jóshi joshigákusei júnbi júnjo –juu júu juubún júudoo juugatsú juuichigatsú juunigatsú juuníshi júusho júusu juuyokka advanced class/level increase, rise progression, advancement to be skilful; to be good at woman woman; women’s (sporting event) female student preparations order all through (suffix) ten sufficient, enough, plenty judo October November December 12 branches; 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac address orange juice 14th day of the month K ka káado kaban kabe kabin kabu kabuki kabúru kachimásu kachoo kádo kaeri kaerimásu káeru kaeru káesu interrogative particle; or card bag, briefcase wall vase (stocks and) shares Kabuki traditional theatre to wear a hat; put on the head see kátsu head of a section or department corner the way home; going home see káeru to return home, go back frog to return, give back 336 kágaku kágaku kagamí kage –kágetsu kagí kago kagu kágu kai ’in kaidan kaigai-ryókoo kaigan kaigí kaigichuu kaigíshitsu kaiin kaijoo kaimásu kaimono kaisatsúguchi kaisha kaishain kaiwa káji kakarimásu kakaríchoo kakáru kakáru chemistry science mirror shade, shadow months (numeral classifier) key basket; cage to smell furniture member stairs, steps overseas trip coast, seaside conference; also káigi in conference conference room member conference room see kau shopping ticket gate company company employee conversation fire see kakáru chief clerk, project manager to cost to take time, cost; be hanging; denwa ga kakáru to be rung up to hang, attach to run, gallop persimmon oyster see káku to finish writing form, shape, appearance to write everywhere, all places throughout… imaginary, fictitious kakéru kakéru kaki káki kakimásu kakiowáru kakkoo káku kákuchi kakuu no 337 kamá kamaimásén kámera kami kaminári kaminóke kámo shiremasen kamoku –kan kanaboo Kánada kánai kanarazu kánari kanashii kanban kánben shite kudasái kane kanemochí kangaekatá kangáeru kangei suru kangei kangófu kani kanja kanji kanji kanjiru kanjóo kankei Kánkoku Kankokugo Kankokujín kankoo kankyoo kánojo kanpai kanreki kannrinin kiln it doesn’t matter camera paper thunder hair perhaps subject, course suffix indicating duration metal rod, iron rod Canada wife; my wife certainly, surely, without fail fairly sad signboard, sign please forgive me; please excuse me metal, see okane rich person way of thinking to think, consider to welcome welcome nurse crab patient feeling Chinese characters feel bill, account relations, connection South Korea Korean (language) Korean (person) tourism environment she a toast, cheers sixtieth birthday caretaker, janitor 338 kánsuru kantan na kao kaoiro kaori kara kara kara kará kara, –te—— karada o kowásu karada karakuchi karaoke about, concerning simple, easy, brief face complexion smell, fragrance because (clause final particle) from (phrase final particle) now, from now on empty see –te kara to harm one’s health body; health dry (of wine, etc.) karaoke, singing to musical accompaniment (literally, ‘empty orchestra’) karate (a martial art) the way of karate, teachings of karate he see karu and kariru to borrow to mow, cut light; not heavy umbrella clever certainly sir/madam (object honorific) see kasu I wonder if … (feminine sentence-final particle) to lend person (honorific) shoulder shape, form credentials, title (writing beside the name on a business card) hard a Japanese syllabary stiffness in the shoulders sword to tidy up, put away karate karatédoo káre karimásu kariru karu karui kása kashikói kashikomarimáshita kashimásu káshira kasu kata káta katachi katagaki katai katakána katákori katana katazukéru 339 kátsu káu kau kawá kawaíi kawaku kawari ni kawaru kawasu kawatta kayóobi kayou kayui kázan kaze kaze kazoeru kázoku kázu kazunoko ke kedo kegá keiba keigo keijiban keikaku keiken keikoo keimusho keisatsu keitai-dénwa keiyaku kéizai keizaiséichoo kekkon suru kekkón-shiki kékkoo desu kékkoo na to win to keep (an animal); have (a pet) to buy river cute, appealing; precious, beloved to dry up instead of to change exchange (conversations) strange, peculiar; weird Tuesday to attend; go regularly between, ply itchy volcano wind a cold to count family number salted herring roe hair, fur but (casual speech) injury horse-racing; race-horse respect language notice board plan experience tendency prison, gaol the police mobile phone, cell phone contract economy, economics economic growth to marry wedding ceremony it’s fine; it’s all right; no thank you; I’ve had enough fine, wonderful 340 kemuri kén ken –ken kenbutsu kenchikka kenchiku kéndoo kenka kenkoo na kenkoo kenkyuu kenkyúushitsu kenson na kentóo ga tsukánai keredomo késa keshiki kesshite kesu ki ga suru ki ga tooku náru ki ga tsuku ki ni iru ki ni náru ki ni suru ki o tsukéru kí ki kieru kíga kíji kikai kikái kikaseru kiken kiken na kikimásu kikoeru kikoeru smoke ticket prefecture (numeral classifier for buildings) sightseeing architect architecture Japanese fencing argument healthy health research, study office (of a university academic) modest, humble have no idea, be unable to guess but, however this morning scenery (definitely) not; never to put out, extinguish to feel, think faint away, feel dizzy to notice, realize to like, be pleased to be a worry, weigh on one’s mind to worry to be careful tree; wood mind, spirit, energy to go out, disappear famine article (newspaper, etc.) opportunity machine to tell, relate danger dangerous see kiku to be able to hear, be audible to be audible; can hear 341 kiku kiku kiku kimaru kimásu kimeru kimi kimochi kimono kín kinchoo suru kindókei kin’en kinen kíngyo kínjo kinmédaru kinóo kinshi kin’yóobi kin’yuu kiósuku kippu kirai na kírei na kirimásu kirin kiro kíru kiru kísetsu kisha kisó kisobúnpoo kisóku kisoku-tadashíi kissáten kitá kitai kitanai kitte to work, be effective, function to hear, listen; ask chrysanthemum to be decided see kúru to decide, fix, settle you (familiar) feeling; mood kimono, garment gold to be tense, to be strained gold watch no smoking (in) commemoration, souvenir, keepsake goldfish neighbourhood, nearby gold medal yesterday forbidden Friday finance kiosk ticket to dislike beautiful; clean see kír-u giraffe kilometre, kilogram to cut to wear season train basis, foundation basic grammar rule, regulation regular, regulated tea shop, coffee shop north expectation, hopes, anticipation dirty, filthy postage stamp 342 kitto kke ko ko kochira kóso kochira kódai kodomo kóe kóe ga suru kokki koko kokonoká kokónotsu kokóro kokuritsu kokuritsu-dáigaku kokusai kokusaikóoryuu kokusaiteki komáasharu komáru kome koméya kómu kón kónban konban wa konbíni kondákutaa kóndo kóngetsu konna konnichi wa kono kono aida/konaida konogoro konpyúuta konshéruje konshuu surely, certainly retrospective question particle (numeral classifier) for miscellaneous objects child me too; the pleasure is mine this one, this way ancient period; ancient child voice to hear a voice national flag here nine days; 9th of the month nine heart; feelings; mind national a national university international (as prefix) international exchange international (adjective) commercial, advertisement to be in trouble; become distressed; be at a loss rice (uncooked) rice merchant; rice shop to get crowded navy blue this evening good evening convenience store (tour) conductor this time; next time this month this kind of hello!; good day this recently, the other day these days computer concierge (in a hotel) this week 343 koo koo yuu koo yuu fuu na koo yuu fuu ni kooban Koochíken koodai na kooen koofun koogai koohai koohíi koohyoo koojichuu koojoo kookan kookan-ryúugakusei kookoku kookoo kookóosei kookúuken kóokyo koomúin koonétsuhi koori kooryuu koosoku koosoku-básu koosoku-dóoro kóosu koosui kóoto kootoogákkoo kootsuu kootsuu-jíko kooyoo koozui koppu kore koro like this this kind of this kind of like this police-box Kochi Prefecture vast, immense park excitement pollution; public nuisance junior (student, etc.) coffee popular, well received, highly praised under construction; men at work factory exchange overseas exchange student advertisement; announcement high school (abbr.) high-school student airline ticket the imperial palace civil servant, government employee heating and lighting costs ice cultural exchange high speed highway bus highway, motorway course perfume coat high school traffic traffic accident autumn leaves flood a glass this time; about when; about 344 korobu korosu koshi koshiraeru koshoo suru koshóo kóso kossetsu kotáeru kotchí koten-óngaku kotó kotó ga aru kotó ga dekiru kotó ni suru kotó ni yotte kotobá kotoshi kotsu kowagáru kowái kowareru kowásu kozutsumi –ku kú –ku nai kubáru kubi kuchi kuchihige kudámono kudasái kudasáru kugatsú kúmo kumóru kumorí kun kuni to fall over to kill hips, lower back to make; manufacture to break down, malfunction pepper the very one (emphatic particle) broken bone to answer here; this way; this one classical music thing; fact to have done; to have experienced to be able to decide to by … ing, through … ing words; language this year knack, trick to be frightened to be frightened; frightening to get broken to break parcel adverb suffix nine negative suffix to distribute neck mouth moustache fruit please give me to give September cloud to cloud over; become cloudy cloudy weather familiar form of address for men and boys country; one’s native place 345 kurai kurasu kurejittokáado kureru kuríininguya kurísumasu kurói kúru kuruma kusá kusái kusáru kusuri kusuriya kutabiréru kutsú kutsu-úriba kúu kúuki kuukoo kuwáete kyaku kyónen kyóo kyóoshi kyóodai kyoodoo kyoogijoo kyooiku kyóoju kyóoka kyóomi kyóomi o mótsu kyóoshi kyóri kyúu kyuujitsu kyúuri kyúuryoo Kyúushuu dark to live credit card to give dry cleaner’s Christmas black to come cart; car grass smelly to rot; go bad medicine; medication chemist’s to get tired; exhausted shoes shoe department/counter eat (vulgar) air airport in addition guest; customer last year today teacher brothers and sisters in common, shared stadium, sports ground education professor strengthening interest to be interested (in = ni) teacher distance nine (public) holiday cucumber salary Kyushu (southernmost of Japan’s four main islands) 346 M ma ni áu máa máa máajan machí machiawaséru machigaeru machigai machigatte machigau machimásu máda máde máde ni mádo madóguchi máe máfuraa magaru máhi –mai maimáiasa maigetsu mainen máinichi máiru maitoshi maitsuki makikomaréru makizushi mama mamóru mángaichi mannaka mánshon to be in time (for = ni); to be enough so so; not bad mahjong town; district to meet, arrange to meet to mistake (transitive) mistake, error by mistake to be wrong; make a mistake see mátsu still, not yet as far as, until by, before window counter, window front; —— no máe ni in front of muffler to turn; go around paralysis (numeral classifier for flat objects) each, every (prefix) every morning every month every year every day to go, come (formal) every year every month to be caught up in, be swept along with sushi roll way, fashion, as it is (see sono mama) to protect; observe (rules, etc.) just in case right in the middle flat; apartment 347 mánzoku suru marude marui másaka –masén –masén deshita –máshita –mashóo massúgu mata dóozo mátchi mata mátsu mátsu matsuri mattaku mawari mayaku mázu mé –me méeru méetoru mégane –mei Méiji Meijijínguu meirei suru méin meishi meishu meetoru méiwaku mekata Mekíshiko mémo ménbaa mendóo na ménkyo ményuu menzéiten to be satisfied just like, just as if round surely not, nonsense! polite negative ending polite past negative ending polite past ending polite hortative ending, let’s… straight ahead please come again matches again; further to wait pine festival completely, absolutely surrounding area, around narcotic drugs first (adverb) eye ordinal suffix mail (E-mail) metre spectacles, glasses numeral classifier for people year period (1868–1912) shrine in Tokyo commemorating the Emperor Meiji to order main meal, main dish business card, name card fine sake metre trouble, nuisance weight Mexico memo; memo pad member bothersome; difficult licence (qualification) menu tax-free store 348 meshiagaru meshita meue mezurashíi mi ni tsuku mi miai michi mídori miéru miéru migaku migi migigawa migigawatsúukoo mígoto na mijikái míkan mikka mimai mimásu mimí miná minami minamimuki minásama minásan minato mineraru-wóotaa minna minshuku minshushúgi min’yoo mínzoku miokuru míru to eat (honorific) socially inferior (i.e. below oneself in age, position or status) socially superior (i.e. above oneself in age, position or status) rare; unusual to absorb, acquire, learn (intransitive) snake (calendar sign) marriage meeting road green to come on a visit (honorific) to be able to see; be visible to polish; shine; clean right right-hand side keep right splendid short mandarin orange, satsuma three days; 3rd of the month visit to the sick, get-well visit see míru ear all, everyone south facing south everyone; all of you; ladies and gentlemen (honorific) everyone; all of you; ladies and gentlemen (honorific) harbour, port mineral water all, everyone bed and breakfast, guesthouse democracy folk song ethnic group, people to see off; send off to see, look, watch 349 míruku misé misemásu miséru mítai na míte morau mitsukaru mitsurin mittsú miyage miyako mizu mizuúmi mo mo…mo … mochiagéru mochíron modan na modóru modósu mokuyóobi momo momoiro món Monbúshoo mondai mongén monó monó móo moo mooshiagéru mooshiwake arimasén móosu morau mori móshi(ka) móshimoshi motoméru milk (condensed) shop see miséru to show like, as to have oneself examined (by a doctor) to be found; be able to find jungle three souvenir; gift capital water lake also, too; even both … and to lift up of course modern to return (intransitive) to put back; bring up, vomit (transitive) Thursday peach pink gate Ministry of Education problem, question curfew, closing time thing person (formal) already more to say (object honorific) I’m terribly sorry; there’s no excuse to say; be called (formal) to receive, be given wood; grove if hello (telephone) to seek; to buy (honorific) ( ) 350 mótsu motte iku motte kúru mótto móttomo moyori no muchiuchishoo muda na múgamuchuu muiká mukaeru mukashi mukau mukoo muku mumei murá murásaki múri na muró Muromachi-jídai mushi mushiatsúi músu musubu musuko musumé muttsú muzukashíi myóo na myóoban myóoji myóonichi to have; hold to take to bring more most nearest whiplash injury useless; a waste frantically; like mad six days, 6th of the month to meet, welcome the past; long ago; formerly to face; go towards opposite; over there; abroad face (intransitive), turn towards; suit unknown village purple unreasonable, fruitless, useless room Muromachi period (1336–1573) insect, worm, bug humid, sultry to steam tie, link, join son daughter six difficult odd, strange, peculiar tomorrow night (formal) family name, surname tomorrow (formal) N ’n desu na no de na no ni the fact is because it is although it is 351 ná na náa nadakái nádo nagái nagamé –nágara nagareru nagasu –nai nái –naide náifu náigai náikaku náka nakanáka nakámi nakidásu nakigóe naku nakunaru nakusu náma namabíiru namae namatámago nán nána nanátsu nándaka nandémo nandomo náni nanidoshi nánika nánimo nankai mo …, isn’t it? etc. (sentence-final particle) negative imperative particle same as ná above famous et cetera, and so on long view, outlook while … ing (verbal suffix) flow to wash away; play (music) see –(a)nai to be not; to have not see –(a)naide knife internal and external; home and abroad cabinet, ministry inside, middle very, considerably contents burst out crying cry; song of bird, etc. cry to die, pass away to lose raw; live entertainment draft beer name raw egg what seven seven somehow anything at all; somehow, anyhow any number of times; very often what what zodiac animal sign something nothing any number of times; very often 352 nánmeisama desu ka nanoka nánte nántoka naóru naósu –naósu nára naraihajimeru naráu naréru narimásu náru –nasái nasáru natsú natsukashigáru natsukashíi natsuyásumi náze né ne nedan née néesan negáu nékkuresu néko nékutai nemuru –nen nénjuu-mukyuu nenrei neru netsú nezumi ni kánshite ni kánsuru how many people, Sir/Madam seven days, 7th of the month and the like, the likes of … , what (exclamation) somehow or other be cured; get better; be fixed mend; cure re- … if begin to learn learn become accustomed (to = ni) see náru become imperative ending do (honorific) summer to feel nostalgic about nostalgic summer vacation why isn’t it?, etc. (sentence-final particle) rat (calendar sign) price isn’t it?, etc. (sentence-final particle) see onéesan to request, see onegái necklace cat tie sleep years open all year round age go to bed; lie down; sleep heat; temperature; fever rat, mouse about, concerning (adverb) concerning, about (adjective) 353 ni tótte ni tsúite no ni yoru to ni yotte for about, concerning according to by (agent of passive); in accordance with (see also kotó ni yotte) indirect object particle two suit, become -days (numeral classifier) Japan and Britain Sunday bitter February voicing marks; muddiness Japan Japanese language Japanese person Japanese manufacture, made in Japan Japanese rice wine, sake Japanese sword meat be difficult to … (suffix) beef and potato stew butcher, butcher’s shop luggage; parcels human being; person doll ninja, a feudal-period spy-commando popularity Japan (formal pronunciation), see Nihón take after; come to resemble west western gate, western exit Japan and China resemble, look like garden cock, hen, chicken ’s of … (possessive particle) ni ni niáu –nichi Nichiei nichiyóobi nigái nigatsú nigorí Nihón Nihongo Nihonjín Nihonsei Nihonshu Nihontoo nikú –nikúi nikujága nikúya nímotsu ningen ningyoo ninja ninki Nippón niru nishi nishiguchi Nitchuu– nite iru niwa niwatori no 354 no no de no désu no ni noboru nochihodo nódo nódo ga kawakimáshita nokóru nomimásu nomímono nomisugiru nómu noo nóoto noriba norikaeru norimásu norimono noriokuréru noru the fact; the one (nominalizing particle) because see ’n désu although climb, go up, come up in (conversation) later, afterwards (formal) throat I’m thirsty remain see nómu drink, beverage drink too much drink the Noh theatre exercise book, notebook boarding place; taxi rank; bus station change trains, buses, etc. see noru transport miss (bus, etc.), be late for… get on; ride, ni after object; appear in newspaper, etc. put on, place on; give a ride to to peep at, glance at, look at to exclude excluding take off (clothes) get wet steal entrance examination go to hospital New Zealand entrance examination (abbr.) news noseru nozoku nozoku nozoite núgu nureru nusúmu nyuugaku-shikén nyuuin suru Nyuujíirando nyúushi nyúusu 355 O o o– object particle; along, through, etc. honorific prefix (if a word is not listed here look it up without the initial o–) (honorific) verb please come in; please eat have you got … ? aunt grandmother, old woman (honorific) aunt (honorific) sash, belt (judo, etc.) see obóeru to remember; learn Buddhist priest tea tea to make tea to fall; fail examination to settle down; be calm take care of yourself are you going out? Oh! You frightened me! (exclamation of surprise) to be surprised to dance bath How are you? Are you well? chopsticks good morning spare time (honorific) midday; lunch to come; go (honorific) how old? How many? (honorific) doctor (honorific) delicious, tasty busy (honorific) goodbye; sorry to have bothered you o … ni náru … oagari kudasai oari désu ka oba obáasan obasan óbi oboemásu obóeru oboosan ocha ocha no yu ocha o ireru ochíru ochitsuku odaiji ni odekake désu ka odoróita odoróku odoru ofúro ogénki desu ka oháshi ohayoo gozaimásu ohima ohíru oide ni náru oikutsu oishasan oishii oisogashíi ojama shimáshita 356 ojama shimásu oji ojigi suru ojíisan ojisan ojóosan oka okáasan okaeri désu ka okaeri nasái okagesama de okake kudasái okane okanemochí okáshi okanjoo okáshi okashíi okáwari wa ikága desu ka okazu –oki oki ni iru oki ni meshimáshita ka oki ni mésu oki no doku désu okiki shimásu okimásu Okinawa okíru okóru okóru okosan okósu hello; may I come in? Sorry to bother you uncle to bow grandfather, old man (honorific) uncle; middle-aged man (honorific) miss; young lady; daughter (honorific) hill mother (honorific) are you leaving, are you going home? welcome back; hello yes, thank you; fortunately; thanks to you please sit down money rich person cakes bill (also kanjóo) cakes, sweets funny, strange would you like another helping? side dishes eaten with rice at intervals of (numeral suffix) to like, be pleased (honorific) did you like it? Were you satisfied? to like, be pleased (honorific) what a pity, I am sorry to hear that excuse my asking; would you mind telling me see óku and okíru Okinawa, Japan’s southernmost prefecture to get up to get angry, be offended to happen child (honorific), your child to cause; suffer (heart attack) 357 óku oku okuchi ni awánai deshoo ga okujoo okureru okurimásu okurimono okuru ókusan okyakusama okyakusan omachidoosama déshita omae omatase shimáshita omáwarisan ome ni kakáru omiai omimai omiyage ómo na ómo ni omócha omochi désu ka omochi shimashóo ka omói omoidásu omoshirogáru omoshirói omote omóu omówazu onaji onaka onaka ga sukimásu onamae one hundred million to place, put I hope you like it (of food), it might not be to your liking rooftop to be late (for = ni) see okuru present to send wife (honorific), your wife guest, customer, audience (honorific) guest; customer, audience sorry to have kept you waiting you (very familiar; used by men only) sorry to keep you waiting policeman to meet object (honorific) marriage meeting visit to a sick person (honorific) souvenir; gift main mainly toy have you got … ? shall I carry it for you? heavy to recall, remember to find interesting or amusing interesting; amusing front, outside think unintentionally, spontaneously same stomach, abdomen get hungry name (honorific) 358 onamae wa nán to osshaimásu ka ondanka onéesan onegai shimásu óngaku ongakka oníisan onnanohitó onnánoko onnarashíi onsen óoame óoba óoi ookíi óoki na ookisa Oosaka oosetsuma Oosutoráriya oosugíru ootóbai óoyasan ópera ópushonaru tsúaa Oranda orénji orenjiíro orígami orinpíkku oríru óru óru osage shimásu osake osaki osára osátoo what is your name? (honorific) warming elder sister (honorific) please; I’d be obliged if you would do it for me music musician elder brother (honorific) woman girl feminine hot spring heavy rain overcoat many, numerous big, large big, large size Osaka sitting room, lounge room Australia to be too many, too numerous motorbike, motorcycle landlord opera optional tour the Netherlands, Holland, orange (fruit) orange (colour) paper folding the Olympic Games to get off; go down; come down to be (formal) to bend; to fold; to break; to weave I’ll clear the table rice wine, sake in front; first (honorific) plate, saucer see satóo 359 osawagase shimáshita osen oséwa ni náru oséwa suru osewasamá deshita osháberi o suru osháre oshiemásu oshiéru oshoku osoi osoku osómatsusama deshita osóre irimasu osowaru ossháru ossháru tóori desu osu osumai wa dóchira desu ka otaku otéarai otésuu desu ga otera otétsudai san otétsudai shimashóo ka otó otokonohitó otokónoko otómo shite mo yoroshii désu ka otonashíi otóosan otootó otoshi otósu ototói otótoshi sorry to have caused so much bother/fuss pollution to be looked after to take care of thank you for your help to chatter, talk, gossip, chat fashionable; smart dresser see oshiéru to teach corruption late, slow (adjective) late (adverb) sorry it was such a simple meal excuse me, I’m sorry to learn, be taught to speak, say (honorific) it is as you say to push, press where do you live? house (honorific); you lavatory, toilet sorry to trouble you, but … a temple maid, household help shall I help you sound, noise man boy may I accompany you? gentle; mild; meek; obedient father (honorific) younger brother age (honorific) to drop, let fall the day before yesterday the year before last 360 otsukarésama deshita otsuri ouchi owakari désu ka owaru oyá oyasumi oyasumi nasái oyasumi ni náru oyogimásu oyógu oyu you must be tired, thanks for your efforts change house (honorific) do you understand? to finish parent holiday; rest (honorific) good night! to go to bed, sleep (honorific) see oyógu to swim hot water P páatii paináppuru pán pánfuretto pánya Pári pasupóoto péeji Pékin pén pénki pianísuto piano pínku pósuto potetochíppu puréeyaa purézento party pineapple bread pamphlet baker, bakery Paris passport page Peking, Beijing pen paint pianist piano pink post-box potato chip player CD/record, etc. present R rágubii rai– – ráigetsu rainen rugby next-, coming- (prefix) next month next year 361 rainichi raishuu rájio rakú na ran’yoo –(r)areru –rashíi rárii –(r)éba –(r)eba… –(r)u hodo… réberu réesu réi réi reikin reizóoko rekóodo rémon renraku suru renshuu suru resépushon resépushon ressha résutoran rikon rikónritsu ringo rippa na –rítsu riyoo suru –ro róbii rokkotsu roku rokugatsú rókku romanchíkku Róoma rón Róndon coming to Japan next week radio easy, comfortable abuse passive ending -like rally (car) conditional suffix the more … the more … level race; lace zero bow, salutation; courtesy key money, non-refundable deposit refrigerator record lemon to contact to practise reception reception (party) locomotive, train restaurant divorce divorce rate apple splendid, fine rate (cf., shibóoritsu death rate, shusshóoritsu birth rate) use, make use of, utilise imperative suffix lobby, foyer rib six June rock (music) romantic Rome argument, debate London 362 roojin roojinmóndai Róshia Roshiago ryáku suru ryokan ryokoo suru ryokoogáisha ryokóosha ryokóosha –ryoku ryóo ryóo ryóo– ryooashi ryoogae ryoohóo ryoohóotomo ryóokin ryóori suru ryóori ryóoshin ryúuchoo na ryuugaku ryuugákusei old person problems associated with the aged Russia Russian language to abbreviate Japanese inn to travel travel company travel company traveller strength (in compounds) dormitory, hall of residence quantity, volume both (prefix) both legs money exchange both both fees, charges to cook cooking; food parents fluent studying abroad overseas student S –sa – sa sáabisu sáafin sáe… –(r)eba sáe sagasu sagéru –sai saifu sáigo -ness, forms abstract nouns from adjectives sentence-final particle service; complimentary gift surfing if only even to look for to lower, carry; clear away (dishes, etc.) years (numeral classifier for age) wallet, purse last … 363 saikai suru saikin saikoo sáin suru saisho sáji sakana sakanaya sakaya sake sakéru sakérui saki sakíhodo sákkaa sákki sakkyoku suru saku sakújitsu sakura sakusen samúi samurai –san san sánkaku sánpaku sanpo suru sappari sara sarainen saraishuu sáru –saseru –sasete itadaku sasetsu sashiagéru sashimi sasou sassoku sásu to meet again recently best, most, supreme, wonderful to sign first, beginning spoon fish fish shop, fishmonger sake merchant, liquor shop sake, rice wine to avoid alcoholic beverages, liquor first, beforehand just now; a while ago soccer just now, a while ago to compose (music) to bloom yesterday (formal) cherry blossom strategy cold warrior form of address, Mr, Mrs, Miss, etc. three triangle three nights’ stay to go for a walk completely; refreshing; (not) at all plate, saucer the year after next the week after next monkey (calendar sign) causative ending formal verb ending left-hand turn to give (object honorific) raw fish to invite at once, quickly, immediately to sting, poke; indicate 364 satóo –satsu satsujin sawaru sayonará/sayoonara sé sé ga hikúi sé ga takái sebiro séeru séetaa séi séi seichoo suru séifu seigén seihin seiji seikatsu seikoo seiri suru seisaku seiseki seiten séito seiyoo sékai sekí séki sekinin sekkaku semái semi sén sénchi séngetsu senjitsu senmenjo senpai senséi sugar volume (numeral classifier) murder to touch (ni after object) goodbye stature, height to be short to be tall suit sale sweater, pullover family name, surname sex, gender to grow government limit product politics life, lifestyle success to put in order, tidy up policy results fine weather pupil, student the West, the Occident world cough seat responsibility having gone to all this trouble, at great pains narrow, cramped cicada thousand centimetre last month the other day washroom, wash basin senior (student, etc.) teacher; term of address, Mr, Mrs, Dr, etc. ( ) 365 sénshu senshuu sensoo sentaku seppuku –seru setsumei suru shabéru shachoo shákai sháko sharete iru shashin sháwaa shéfu shi shi shi shiai shibafu shibai shibáraku desu né shibáraku shibóoritsu shibúi shichi shichigatsú shigatsú shigéru shigoto suru shigoto shihajiméru shíifuudo shíjin shijoo shíjuu shika shika competitor, athlete, sportsman or sportswoman last week war washing harakiri, ritual suicide see –(s)aseru to explain to talk, chat company director, president society garage stylish, fashionable photograph shower chef and what is more (clause-final particle) four poetry; poem match, bout, game lawn play, performance it’s been a long time, hasn’t it? for a while death rate astringent; sober, in good taste seven July April to grow thickly to work, do a job work to start to do sea food poet market (stock market, market trends, etc.) all the time, from start to finish only (with negative verb), (nothing) but deer 366 shikaku shikámo shikáru shikáshi shikata shikata ga nái shiken shiki shikikin Shikóku shimá shimáru shimásu shimátta! shimau shiméru shimi shimiíru shínai shinamono shínboru shinbun shinbúnsha shingoo shinimásu shinjíru shinkan Shinkánsen shinpai suru shínpo suru shinseki shinsen na shínsetsu na shínshi shinshitsu shintai-kénsa shíntoo shinu shin’yoojoo square moreover, what is more to scold but way of doing it can’t be helped, there’s no other way examination ceremony deposit (for flat, etc.), surety Shikoku (smallest of Japan’s four main islands) island to close, shut (intransitive) see suru damn! blast! to put away, finish (see –te shimau) to close, shut (transitive) stain soak into, sink into in the city, within city limits goods, article symbol newspaper newspaper company signal see shinu to believe new building, new block Shinkansen, bullet train lines to worry progress, advance relation, relative fresh kind gentleman bedroom medical examination Shintoism (native Japanese religion) to die letter of credit 367 shió shiokara shirabéru shiriai shirimásu shiro shirói shiru shíryoo shísetsu shita shitá shitagau shitaku shitamachi shiteki shiteki shiten shiténchoo shitsu shitsumon shitsúnai shitsúrei na shitsúrei shimasu shiyákusho shiyoo ga nái shiyoo shizen shízuka na shizukésa sho– shokudoo shokugo shokuji suru shokuryóohin shokúyoku shokuzen shokyuu shomóndai shóo shoochi salt salted squid guts to investigate, check, look up acquaintance see shiru castle white to get to know materials, records facilities bottom, base, below, under tongue follow, obey, observe preparation (of meal, etc.) down town private poetic branch (shop or office) branch manager quality question interior rude goodbye, I must be going town hall, city office it’s no good, it can’t be helped way of doing nature, natural quiet, peaceful stillness, quiet, calm all, the various (plural prefix) cafeteria, dining room after meals to have a meal foodstuffs, provisions appetite before meals elementary class all the problems, various problems small (noun) see goshoochi ~ 368 shoochi suru shoodan shoogakukin shoogákusei shóohin shoojíki na shookai suru shookéesu shooko shóorai shoosetsu shóoshoo Shóowa shorui shosei shótchuu shúfu shújin shújitsu shukudai shukuhaku shúmi shuppatsu suru shuppatsu shúrui shushoo shusseki suru shusseki shusshin shusshóoritsu shutchoo shúukyoo shuukyoo-árasoi shuumatsu shúuri shuushoku shuutome shuuwai shúzoku to consent, agree to business discussions scholarship primary school pupil goods, merchandise, product honest to introduce display window (for wax models of food, etc.) proof future novel a little year period (1926–1989) documents, papers student; houseboy often, all the time housewife husband surgical operation homework accommodation, board hobby, pastime, interest to depart, leave departure type, kind prime minister, premier to attend attendance coming from, graduating from, born in birth rate business trip religion religious strife weekend repair finding a job, entering employment mother-in-law taking bribes tribe 369 sóba sóba sóbo sochira sodatéru sófu soko soko sokutatsu sonkei suru sonna sono sono mama sono uchi sonóta sonzai suru –soo sóo sóo da sóo desu ka soo’on soodan suru sooji suru sóosu sootoo na sóra sore déwa sore jáa sore kara sore sórosoro sóru sóshite sotchí sóto sotsugyoo suru subarashíi subéru súbete súde ni buckwheat noodles near, beside grandmother that one, that way; you to raise, bring up grandfather there (by you) bottom, base, depths express delivery to respect that kind of that (adjective) as it is, like that, unchanged meanwhile and other, etc. to exist it looks as if it will … (suffix on verb stem) that way, so they say, apparently (after verb) is that so, really? noise to discuss to clean sauce considerable, fit, proper sky then, in that case then, in that case after that, next that (demonstrative pronoun) gradually, quietly, soon, about now to shave and that one, that way outside to graduate wonderful to slip all, everything already 370 sue Suéeden súgata sugí sugíru sugói sugóku súgu suidoo suiei suigyuu suijun Súisu suiyóobi suizókukan sukáafu sukáato sukéeto sukí na sukí na dake sukíi sukimásu sukiyaki sukóshi suku sukunái sumai sumáu sumimásu sumimasén sumoo sumóobu súmu suna sunahama supagéttii Supéin supíichi supíido supóotsu supúun suru end Sweden figure, form, appearance past (the hour) surpass, exceed, be too… terrific, great; tremendous terribly, awfully immediately water service, water supply swimming water buffalo level, standard Switzerland Wednesday aquarium scarf skirt skate, skating to like as much as you like ski see suku beef and vegetable dish a little to become empty few, not many see osumai to live, dwell (formal) see súmu I’m sorry sumo wrestling the sumo club to live sand (sand) beach spaghetti Spain speech speed sport spoon to do 371 súru sushí (also súshi) susumeru susumu sutándo sutéeki suteki na sutéru sutóobu sutorésu sutoresu-káishoo suu suuji súupaa súupu súutsu suutsukéesu suwarikómu suwaru Suwéeden suzushíi to pick pockets raw fish on vinegared rice to recommend advance, progress lamp; (petrol) station steak lovely, charming to throw away, discard stove, heater stress relief from stress to suck; smoke numbers, numerals supermarket soup suit suitcase to sit down to sit down (on the ground) Sweden cool T tá –ta –ta bákari desu – –ta hóo ga íi – tabako tabemásu tabemonó tabéru tabesugi tabí tábun –tachi tachiiri-kinshi tachippanashi táda tadáima tadashíi rice field past-tense suffix to have just … it would be better to… cigarette see tabéru food to eat over-eating journey, trip probably plural suffix no entry standing all the time/way only; free; just I’m back! just now correct, right 372 tade –tagáru – Tái –tái tai’in suru taifúu Taihéiyoo taihen na taikiósen taira na Taiséiyoo taisetsu na táishi taishíkan táishita Taishoo taitei táiyoo takái tákaku tsuku tákasa takasugíru take takkyuu táko táko taku takusán tákushii takushii-nóriba tama ni tamágo tamatama tamé tango tanjóobi tanómu tanoshíi tanoshimí ni suru nettles to want to … (third person) Thailand to want to to leave hospital typhoon Pacific Ocean very, extreme(ly); terrible; very difficult atmospheric pollution flat, level Atlantic Ocean important ambassador embassy great, important, serious year period (1912–1926) generally, as a rule, for the most part sun high; expensive to cost a lot, work out expensive height to be too expensive, too high bamboo table tennis kite octopus household, residence (see otaku) a lot taxi taxi rank occasionally, from time to time egg by chance for, for the sake of; because word birthday to ask, request fun, enjoyable to look forward to 373 tantoo –tara –tari …–tari suru tariru táshika ni tassuru tasu tasukáru tasukéru tatakau tatami tatémono tatóeba tátsu tátsu tátsu (yakú ni ––––) tatsu tatta té té ga hanasenái –te –te agemásu –te ageru –te arimásu –te áru –te hoshíi –te iku –te imásu –te iru – –te itadakemasén ka – –te itadaku – –te kara – –te kudasái – –te kudasáru – –te kúru – (person) in charge if, when to do such things as … and …, do frequently or alternately be enough, suffice certainly, no doubt reach, achieve to add to be saved; to be a help to help; save, rescue to fight mat, rush mat, tatami (1.6 m2) building for example to leave to stand to be useful dragon, (calendar sign) only hand to be occupied and (‘the –te form’ ending – joins clauses) see –te ageru to give (see –te áru) to have been … to want something done to go on getting more … see –te iru is/are … ing (present continuous tense or completed state) would you mind … ing for me? to have something done by a respected person after please (request form) a respected person does something for someone to go and …, to start to …, become more and more … 374 –te míru – –te mo íi desu ka – –te morau – té ni háiru té ni ireru té ni tóru yóo ni –te oku – –te wa damé desu – –te wa ikemasén – teárai téate tebúkuro techoo téeburu tegami teido teikíken teikyúubi téinei na teiryuujo teishoku tekitoo na temíyage téngoku ten’in ténisu ténki tenki-yóhoo tenkoo tenpura tensai terá térebi tetsudái to try … ing; do and see Is it all right?, may I?, etc. to have someone do something for one to be obtained, get, come by (intransitive) to get, obtain (transitive) clearly (literally, ‘as if you took into your hands’) to leave done; do in preparation; do and set aside must not must not … lavatory allowance; medical treatment gloves notebook, pocket-book, appointment diary table letter extent season ticket regular holiday (shop closed) polite bus stop set meal, fixed lunch or dinner, table d’hôte suitable a present (from visitor to host) heaven shop assistant tennis weather weather report; forecast climate, weather fish and vegetables in batter natural calamity temple television help; helper 375 tetsudau tíishatsu tishupéepaa to to shite tobimásu tobu tochuu de todokéru todóku tóire tokei tokí tokoro tokoróde tokoróga tóku ni tomaru tomaru tómato tomodachi tonari tonneru tonto tóo toodai tooi tooká tooku ni Tookyoo Tookyoodáigaku Tookyoo-dézuniirando toorí tóoru tooshi tora torákku tori tori toriáezu to help T-shirt tissue paper with; and; that, thus (quotative particle) as see tobu to fly on the way to report; deliver to reach; be delivered toilet, lavatory watch, clock time; when place by the way however especially, particularly to stop; stay to stay (overnight) tomato friend next door; neighbouring tunnel entirely, quite; at all, in the least ten Tokyo University (abbreviation) distant; far ten days, 10th of the month in the distance Tokyo Tokyo University Tokyo Disneyland way; road; yuu tóori as one says to pass; go through investment (calendar sign) tiger, truck; track bird; chicken (meat) cock (calendar sign) for the time being, first, for a start 376 torihiki torikáeru torikakomu tóru toshí toshiue toshiyóri toshókan toshoshitsu totemo, tottemo totsuzen tsúaa tsuchí tsugí tsugí kara tsugí e tsugoo tsuide ni tsuika suru tsúin tsuitachí tsukaremásu tsukaréru tsukau tsukéru tsukí tsukimásu tsúku tsukue tsukurikatá tsukúru tsumaránai tsúmari tsumetai tsumori tsunagaru tsunami tsurete iku tsuri tsúru tsuushin dealings, business transactions to change, exchange surround, include to take year; age older person, one’s elders old person library reading room very suddenly tour ground, earth next, following one after the other circumstances, convenience on the way, taking the opportunity to … to add, supplement twin (room) first day of the month see tsukaréru to get tired to use to put on, attach moon, month see tsuku to arrive; to stick, to be attached desk way of making to make uninteresting; trifling that is to say, in short cold intention to be linked to, to be tied to tidal wave to take a person fishing crane (bird) correspondence, communication 377 tsutoméru -tsuu tsúuro tsuwamono tsuyói tsuzukeru tsuzukete tte to work (for = ni), to strive numerical classifier for letters passageway soldier, warrior strong to keep on … ing; to continue to continuously quotative particle U u uchi uchi uchi no úchuu uchuuhikóoshi ue uísukii ukagaimásu ukagau ukéru uketoru uketsuke umá umá umái umare umareru ume umeboshi úmi umíkaze ún unagi undoo suru undoobúsoku úni unten suru unténshu rabbit (calendar sign) while; inside house; family our, my space astronaut top; up; above whisky see ukagau to ask; visit (object honorific) to receive to receive a letter, etc. reception desk, reception horse horse (calendar sign) to be good at; skilful; tasty born in (year or place) to be born plum salted plum sea sea breeze yes eel to exercise lack of exercise sea urchin to drive driver 378 ureshíi uriba uru urusái usagi usetsu ushi ushi ushinau ushiro úso úso o tsuku uta utagawashíi utau úten útsu utsukushíi utsúru utsúsu happy sales counter to sell noisy, bothersome rabbit right-hand turn ox, cow, bull ox (calendar sign) to lose back; behind lie to tell a lie song, poem doubtful to sing rainy weather to hit; send a telegram beautiful to reflect, show, appear (in a photograph) pass on (a cold, etc.) W wa wa wadai wainrísuto waishatsu wakái wakamono wakarimásu wakáru wakéru waraidásu warau wareru wareware warúi wasureru topic particle feminine sentence-final particle topic of conversation wine list shirt young young person see wakáru to understand to divide, share to burst out laughing to laugh, to smile to break we, us bad to forget 379 watakushi wataru watashi wázawaza wéitaa Wíin I (formal) to cross I deliberately, expressly waiter Vienna Y –(y)óo ka to omóu ya –ya yáa yáchin yahári yukata yakei yakkyoku yaku ni tátsu yakusoku yakusoku suru yakyuu yamá yamádera yámai yameru yamu yáne yappári yarimásu yarinaósu yaru yasai yasashíi yasemásu yaseru yasúi –yasúi I think I’ll … and shop; shopkeeper (suffix) oh! hey! hi! rent as expected, to be sure cotton summer kimono view at night, night scenery pharmacy, chemist shop to be useful promise, appointment to promise baseball mountain mountain temple illness, disease to give up; stop; retire; abandon to stop roof too, still, all the same, as expected (emphatic yahári) see yaru to redo to do; give to an inferior; send on an errand vegetable kind, gentle, considerate see yaseru to get thin cheap to be easy to 380 yasumí yasumimásu yasúmu yatto yattsú yayakoshíi yo –yo yoaké yói yóji yókatta yokka yoko yóku yokujoo yomihajiméru yomimásu Yomiurishínbun yómu yón yóo na ki ga suru yóo na yóo ni yóo ni suru –(y)óo to suru yoochíen yoofuku yóoi yóoi suru yooji yooka yookan yóokoso yooma yooróppa yooshoku yori yorokobásu yorokobi yorokóbu holiday; rest, break see yasúmu to rest; to go to bed, sleep (euphemistic honorific) at last, finally eight complicated, intricate, confusing sentence-final particle; emphatic imperative suffix dawn, daybreak see íi four o’clock it was good, good; I’m glad four days, 4th of the month side; beside well; often bath, bath-house to start to read see yómu the Yomiuri (a major daily) to read four feel as if … like, as so that (indirect command) arrange to …, make sure that to try to (suffix) kindergarten western clothes preparation, provision provide, prepare, get ready business, things to do eight days, 8th of the month a western-style house/building welcome western-style room Europe western food/meal than to delight, make happy joy to be pleased 381 yorokónde yoroshii yoroshii désu ka yoroshiku yoru yóru yoru yoru, ni yoru to yósa yósan yotei yotte, ni —— yótto yottsú you yowai yoyaku yozákura yu yubi yubi (o) sásu ( yubiwa yudéru yude-támago yuka –yuki yuki yukkúri yumé yumé o miru yuu yuube yuubínkyoku yuugata yuugóhan yuuhi yuujin yuumei na yuushoku yuzuru with pleasure good (honorific) is it all right? Do you mind? well, suitably; give my regards; please do what you can for me to call at, drop in (at = ni) night; at night to depend according to value, worth, goodness budget plan by (agent of passive) yacht four to get drunk weak reservation, booking cherry blossoms at night hot water, see oyu finger to point ring to boil boiled egg floor bound for …, to … snow slowly dream to dream to say (most forms based on iu) last night post office evening dinner, evening meal setting sun, evening sun friend famous dinner, evening meal to hand over, give up, bequeath ) 382 Z zannen na zasshi ze zéhi zénbu zensai zenzen zéro zo zonjimasén zonjíru –zu zubón zúibun zútsu zutsuu zutto unfortunate magazine emphatic sentence-final particle certainly, without fail all entrée, hors d’oeuvre not at all zero emphatic sentence-final particle I don’t know (object honorific) to know (object honorific) negative suffix, see –(a)zu trousers extremely; quite, very each headache all the way, all the time Index of grammar and language functions –(a)nákereba narimasen 181–2 –(a)nákute wa narimasen 182 ‘about’, ‘about to’ ‘to be’ 166 abstract nouns with –sa 238 ‘according to’ –te form 220 action in progress 96–8 adjectival clauses 135–6 adjectives 61, 78 adverbial form –ku 62 adversative passive indirect passive 214 ‘after … –ing’ 118 aizuchi 94 ‘along’, ‘through’, ‘over’ 83, 100 ‘although’ 208 ‘and what is more’ 172–3 apologies 11–27 ‘as … as’ 138–40 ‘because’ 115 ‘before’ 118 boku male pronoun 206 bowing (ojígi) 15 business cards (meishi) 11–13 ‘but’ (see ga) ‘can’ 136–8 casual conversation plain style 117, 182 causative 215–17 causative suffix 215–17 chiming in 94–5 ‘coming’ or ‘going to do something’ 107 comparisons 138–40 completed state 78, 96 compound verbs 240–1 conditional clauses 148–9 conditions and consequences 148–9 copula 62–3, 67, 77 counting days 154–5 countries 28–40 dates 48–9, 155 days of the week 85 de ‘by means of’ 55 place of action 84 degrees of probability 220 dekíru 136–7 demonstratives adjectives 61–9, 171 adverbs 171 pronouns 41–57, 63 describing people 111–29 384 descriptive nouns 61–9 deshóo 117–18 désu (see copula) ‘difficult to’ 221–2 e direction marker 107 expectation hazu 207–8 explanations 170–1 expressing wishes and desires 106–7 extent 239 families 41–4, 51–7 female speech 205 feminine final particles formal style 235–6 frequentative 156 ga as object marker 33–4, 67 ‘but’ 114, 123–4 giving advice 134, 166–7 giving and receiving 195–9 giving reasons 115, 187–8 go– 97 greetings 11–27 hesitation forms 94–5 hodo 239 honorific prefix 232–5 honorific prefixes o–, go– 232–5 honorific verbs 53–4, 232–4 hoo ‘side’, ‘direction’ 134, 139, 239 hoo ga íi 134 hortative 165 imperative 241–2 indefinite pronouns 157–8 indirect imperative 242 indirect or reported speech 119–20 indirect passive 214 indirect questions 120–1 intention 164–5 introductions 11–27 ka 13, 32, 82 –kan 86 kotó 130–44 kotó ga áru 130–44 –ku form of adjectives 62 likes and dislikes 38–40 listing reasons 172–3 205–6 máe 118–19 –mashóo 81–2 –meku ‘to seem like’ 200 men’s language 206 ‘must not’ 171, 183 n’ desu 170–1 na adjectives 61–4 –nagara 151 names 14 girls’ given names 20 nára, ‘if ’ 187 nationality 28–40 native Japanese numerals 105 negative forms 62, 179–82 negative requests 99, 185 ni yoru to 220 ni yotte 220 nigori, voicing mark 16 –nikúi ‘difficult to’ 222 no de, ‘because’ 187, 208 no ni ‘although’ 208 no ‘the one’ 13, 46, 63 numbers 46–57, 70–1 numeral classifiers 47–57, 67–9, 152–3 385 o with verbs of motion 100 object honorific 216, 233 objective judgment 219 obligation beki 207–8 occupations 26–7 particles clause final 187 direction particles e and ni 107 quotative particle to 25 passive 213–15, 216–17, 237–8 past tense of adjectives 132–3 of verbs 97, 116–18 permission 90–110, 122–5 plain form formation of 116 past tense 117 uses of 117 ‘please don’t’, negative requests 185 ‘polite request’ –te itadakemasén ka (see ‘requests’) polite style 235–6 possession 126 possibility 169–70 potential verbs 168 with –rareru 168–9 prefixes in time expressions 85–6 probability 117–18 prohibition 122–4, 183 pronunciation 1–7 devoicing of vowels 2–3 double consonants 4 long vowels 2 pitch 4–5 reasons –r(éba) 149 reference and address rendaku 14 ‘reply to thanks’ 20, 24–7 ‘requests’ 58–70, 98–102 ‘respect language’ 231–4 passive as an honorific 234–5 –(s)asete itadakimásu 216 script furigana 9–10 hiragána 8–10 historical spelling 7–8, 83 kanji 7–10 kanji repetition sign 9–10 katakána 8–9 kun reading 32, 85 on reading 32, 48–9, 86 romanisation 1–2 writing kanji 8 sequences of events 122 sequential voicing 14 shi 31 ‘should’ 202, 207–8 –sóo 200, 218 sóo desu 120, 219 sports 34, 56 stroke order 8 subject honorifics 232 supposition 118 syllables with b and p 45 –tai 106 talking about plans 107 –tára 148–9 –tári 156 –te form 95 formation 95–7 –te áru 202–3 –te iku 203–4 –te kara 118–19 –te kúru 203 –te míru 201–2 –te shimau 202 232 386 telephone numbers 49–50 tentative, hortative 201–2 the one (see no) ‘this’ and ‘that’ 41–57 time clauses of 49, 57, 79–89, 122 duration 86–7 to quotative particle 14 to ‘when’ 121 to, ‘with’ or ‘and’ 121–2, 25 toki 122 tone, pronunciation pitch 4–7 tsumori 164–5 verb plus noun plus désu 62 verbs conjugations 116 giving and receiving 195–9 intransitive verbs 83, 96, 169, 214 linear motion verbs 83 noun plus verb ‘to do’ 78 plain form 97, 116–17, 235 transitive verbs 83, 96, 202–3 verb ‘to be’ 66–8, 126 verb from noun plus ‘to do’ 156 verbs for wearing clothes 126 voicing mark (see nigori) wa 14 feminine particle 205–6 ‘when’ or ‘whenever’ 121–2 ‘while’ 151 ‘without doing’ 188 yóo desu 120 –(y)óo to omou 165 –(y)oo to suru 166 yóri 138–40 ... 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