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3 CHAPTER RISK AND RETURN
OVERVIEW
Risk is an important concept in financial analysis, especially in terms of how it affects security prices and rates of return. Investment risk is associated with the probability of low or negative future returns. The riskiness of an asset can be considered in two ways: (1) on a stand-alone basis, where the assets cash flows are analyzed all by themselves, or (2) in a portfolio context, where the cash flows from a number of assets are combined and then the consolidated cash flows are analyzed. In a portfolio context, an assets risk can be divided into two components: (1) a diversifiable risk component, which can be diversified away and hence is of little concern to diversified investors, and (2) a market risk component, which reflects the risk of a general stock market decline and which cannot be eliminated by diversification, hence does concern investors. Only market risk is relevant; diversifiable risk is irrelevant to most investors because it can be eliminated. An attempt has been made to quantify market risk with a measure called beta. Beta is a measurement of how a particular firms stock returns move relative to overall movements of stock market returns. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), using the concept of beta and investors aversion to risk, specifies the relationship between market risk and the required rate of return. This relationship can be visualized graphically with the Security Market Line (SML). The slope of the SML can change, or the line can shift upward or downward, in response to changes in risk or required rates of return.
OUTLINE
With most investments, an individual or business spends money today with the expectation of earning even more money in the future. The concept of return provides investors with a convenient way of expressing the financial performance of an investment. One way of expressing an investment return is in dollar terms. Dollar return = Amount received Amount invested.
Expressing returns in dollars is easy, but two problems arise.
RISK AND RETURN 3-2
To make a meaningful judgment about the adequacy of the return, you need to know the scale (size) of the investment. You also need to know the timing of the return.
The solution to the scale and timing problems of dollar returns is to express investment res ults as rates of return, or percentage returns. Rate of return =
Amount received Amount invested . Amount invested
The rate of return calculation normalizes the return by considering the return per unit of investment. Expressing rates of return on an annual basis solves the timing problem. Rate of return is the most common measure of investment performance. Risk refers to the chance that some unfavorable event will occur. Investment risk is related to the probability of actually earning less than the expected return; thus, the greater the chance of low or negative returns, the riskier the investment. An assets risk can be analyzed in two ways: (1) on a stand-alone basis, where the asset is considered in isolation, and (2) on a portfolio basis, where the asset is held as one of a number of assets in a portfolio. No investment will be undertaken unless the expected rate of return is high enough to com pensate the investor for the perceived risk of the investment. The probability distribution for an event is the listing of all the possible outcomes for the event, with mathematical probabilities assigned to each. An events probability is defined as the chance that the event will occur. The sum of the probabilities for a particular event must equal 1.0, or 100 percent.
RISK AND RETURN 3-3
The expected rate of return (r ) is the sum of the products of each possible outcome times its associated probabilityit is a weighted average of the various possible outcomes, with the weights being their probabilities of occurrence: Expected rate of return = r = Pi ri .
i =1 n
Where the number of possible outcomes is virtually unlimited, continuous probability distributions are used in determining the expected rate of return of the event. The tighter, or more peaked, the probability distribution, the more likely it is that the actual outcome will be close to the expected value, and, consequently, the less likely it is that the actual return will end up far below the expected return. Thus, the tighter the probability distribution, the lower the risk assigned to a stock.
One measure for determining the tightness of a distribution is the standard deviation, . Standard deviation = =
2 ( r i - r ) Pi . i =1 n
The standard deviation is a probability-weighted average deviation from the expected value, and it gives you an idea of how far above or below the expected value the actual value is likely to be.
Another useful measure of risk is the coefficient of variation (CV), which is the standard deviation divided by the expected return. It shows the risk per unit of return, and it provides a more meaningful basis for comparison when the expected returns on two alternatives are not the same: Coefficient of variation (CV) =
. r
Most investors are risk averse. This means that for two alternatives with the same expected rate of return, investors will choose the one with the lower risk. In a market dominated by risk-averse investors, riskier securities must have higher expected returns, as estimated by the marginal investor, than less risky securities, for if this situation does not hold, buying and selling in the market will force it to occur.
RISK AND RETURN 3-4
An asset held as part of a portfolio is less risky than the same asset held in isolation. This is important, because most financial assets are not held in isolation; rather, they are held as parts of portfolios. From the investors standpoint, what is important is the return on his or her portfolio, and the portfolios risknot the fact that a particular stock goes up or down. Thus, the risk and return of an individual security should be analyzed in terms of how it affects the risk and return of the portfolio in which it is held. The expected return on a portfolio, r p , is the weighted average of the expected returns on the individual assets in the portfo lio, with the weights being the fraction of the total portfolio invested in each asset: r p = wi r i .
i =1 n
The riskiness of a portfolio, p , is generally not a weighted average of the standard deviations of the individual assets in the portfolio; the portfolios risk will be smaller than the weighted average of the assets s. The riskiness of a portfolio depends not only on the standard deviations of the individual stocks, but also on the correlation between the stocks. The correlation coefficient, , measures the tendency of two variables to move together. With stocks, these variables are the individual stock returns. Diversification does nothing to reduce risk if the portfolio consists of perfectly positively correlated stocks. As a rule, the riskiness of a portfolio will decline as the number of stocks in the portfolio increases. However, in the real world, where the correlations among the individual stocks are generally positive but less than +1.0, some, but not all, risk can be eliminated. In the real world, it is impossible to form completely riskless stock portfolios. Diversification can reduce risk, but cannot eliminate it. While very large portfolios end up with a substantial amount of risk, it is not as much risk as if all the money were invested in only one stock. Almost half of the riskiness inherent in an average individual stock can be eliminated if the stock is held in a reasonably well-di versified portfolio, which is one containing 40 or more stocks. Diversifiable risk is that part of the risk of a stock which can be eliminated. It is caused by events that are unique to a particular firm. Market risk is that part of the risk which cannot be eliminated, and it stems from factors which systematically affect most firms, such as war, inflation, reces-
RISK AND RETURN 3-5
sions, and high interest rates. It can be measured by the degree to which a given stock tends to move up or down with the market. Thus, market risk is the relevant risk, which reflects a securitys contribution to the portfolios risk. The Capital Asset Pricing Model is an important tool for analyzing the relationship between risk and rates of return. The model is based on the proposition that any stocks required rate of return is equal to the risk-free rate of return plus a risk premium, which reflects only the risk remaining after diversification. Its primary conclusion is: The relevant riskiness of an individual stock is its contribution to the riskiness of a well-diversified portfolio. The tendency of a stock to move with the market is reflected in its beta coefficient, b, which is a measure of the stocks volatility relative to that of an average stock. An average-risk stock is defined as one that tends to move up and down in step with the gen eral market. By definition it has a beta of 1.0. A stock that is twice as volatile as the market will have a beta of 2.0, while a stock that is half as volatile as the market will have a beta coefficient of 0.5. Since a stocks beta measures its contribution to the riskiness of a portfolio, beta is the theor etically correct measure of the stocks riskiness. The beta coefficient of a portfolio of securities is the weighted average of the individual se curities betas: bp =
w b .
i i i =1
n
Since a stocks beta coefficient determines how the stock affects the riskiness of a diversified portfolio, beta is the most relevant measure of any stocks risk. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) employs the concept of beta, which measures risk as the relationship between a particular stocks movements and the move ments of the overall stock market. The CAPM uses a stocks beta, in conjunction with the average investors degree of risk aversion, to calculate the return that investors require, rs, on that Required Rate particular stock. of Return (%) SML = ri = rRF + (rM - rRF)bi The Security Market Line (SML) shows the relationship between risk as measured by beta and the required rate of return for in-
rM rRF
Market risk premium
0.5
1.0
Risk, bi
RISK AND RETURN 3-6
dividual securities. The SML equation can be used to find the required rate of return on Stock i: SML: ri = rRF + (rM rRF)bi. Here rRF is the rate of interest on risk-free securities, bi is the ith stocks beta, and rM is the return on the market or, alternatively, on an average stock. The term rM rRF is the market risk premium, RPM. This is a measure of the additional return over the risk-free rate needed to compensate investors for assuming an average amount of risk. In the CAPM, the market risk premium, rM rRF, is multiplied by the stocks beta coefficient to determine the additional premium over the risk-free rate that is required to compensate investors for the risk inherent in a particular stock. This premium may be larger or smaller than the premium required on an average stock, depending on the riskiness of that stock in relation to the overall market as measured by the stocks beta. The risk premium calculated by (rM rRF)bi is added to the risk-free rate, rRF (the rate on Treasury securities), to determine the total rate of return required by investors on a particular stock, rs. The slope of the SML, (rM rRF), shows the increase in the required rate of return for a one unit increase in risk. It reflects the degree of risk aversion in the economy. The risk-free (also known as the nominal, or quoted) rate of interest consists of two elements: (1) a real inflation-free rate of return, r*, and (2) an inflation premium, IP, equal to the anticipated rate of inflation. The real rate on long-term Treasury bonds has historically ranged from 2 to 4 percent, with a mean of about 3 percent. As the expected rate of inflation increases, a higher premium must be added to the real risk-free rate to compensate for the loss of purchasing power that results from inflation. As risk aversion increases, so do the risk premium and, thus, the slope of the SML. The greater the average investors aversion to risk, then (1) the steeper the slope of the line, (2) the greater the risk premium for all stocks, and (3) the higher the required rate of re turn on all stocks. Many factors can affect a companys beta. When such changes occur, the required rate of return also changes. A firm can influence its market risk, hence its beta, through changes in the composition of its assets and also through its use of debt.
RISK AND RETURN 3-7
A companys beta can also change as a result of external factors such as increased competition in its industry, the expiration of basic patents, and the like.
For a management whose primary goal is stock price maximization, the overriding consideration is the riskiness of the firms stock, and the relevant risk of any physical asset must be measured in terms of its effect on the stocks risk as seen by investors. A number of recent studies have raised concerns about the validity of the CAPM. A recent study by Fama and French found no historical relationship between stocks returns and their market betas. They found two variables which are consistently related to stock returns: (1) a firms size and (2) its market/book ratio. After adjusting for other factors, they found that smaller firms have provided relatively high returns, and that returns are higher on stocks with low market/book ratios. By contrast, after controlling for firm size and market/book ratios, they found no relationship between a stocks beta and its return. As an alternative to the traditional CAPM, researchers and practitioners have begun to look to more general multi-beta models that encompass the CAPM and address its shortcom ings. In the multi-beta model, market risk is measured relative to a set of factors that determine the behavior of asset returns, whereas the CAPM gauges risk only relative to the market return. The risk factors in the multi-beta model are all nondiversifiable sources of risk. Earnings volatility does not necessarily imply investment risk. You have to think about the causes of the volatility before reaching any conclusions as to whether earnings volatility in dicates risk. However, stock price volatility does signify risk (except for stocks that are negatively correlated with the market, which are few and far between, if they exist at all).
SELF-TEST QUESTIONS
Definitional 1. Investment risk is associated with the _____________ of low or negative returns; the greater the chance of loss, the riskier the investment.
RISK AND RETURN 3-8
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
A listing of all possible __________, with a probability assigned to each, is known as a probability ______________. Weighting each possible outcome of a distribution by its _____________ of occurrence and summing the results give the expected ________ of the distribution. One measure of the tightness of a probability distribution is the __________ ___________, a probability-weighted average deviation from the expected value. Investors who prefer outcomes with a high degree of certainty to those that are less cer tain are described as being ______ ________. Owning a portfolio of securities enables investors to benefit from _________________. Diversification of a portfolio can result in lower ______ for the same level of return. Diversification of a portfolio is achieved by selecting securities that are not perfectly ____________ correlated with each other. That part of a stocks risk that can be eliminated is known as _______________ risk, while the portion that cannot be eliminated is called ________ risk. The ______ coefficient measures a stocks relative volatility as compared with a stock market index. 11. A stock that is twice as volatile as the market would have a beta coefficient of _____, while a stock with a beta of 0.5 would be only ______ as volatile as the market.
12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
The beta coefficient of a portfolio is the __________ _________ of the betas of the indi vidual stocks. The minimum expected return that will induce investors to buy a particular security is the __________ rate of return. The security used to measure the ______-______ rate is the return available on U. S. Treasury securities. The risk premium for a particular stock may be calculated by multiplying the market risk premium times the stocks ______ _____________. A stocks required rate of return is equal to the ______-______ rate plus the stocks ______ _________.
RISK AND RETURN 3-9
17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
The risk-free rate on a short-term Treasury security is made up of two parts: the ______ ______-______ rate plus a(n) ___________ premium. Changes in investors risk aversion alter the _______ of the Security Market Line. The concept of ________ provides investors with convenient a way of expressing the fin ancial performance of an investment. An events _____________ is defined as the chance that the event will occur. Investment returns can be expressed in ________ terms or as _______ ____ ________, or percentage returns. The _____________ ____ ___________ shows the risk per unit of return, and it provides a more meaningful basis for comparison when the expected returns on two alternatives are not the same.
Conceptual 23. The Y-axis intercept of the Security Market Line (SML) indicates the required rate of re turn on an individual stock with a beta of 1.0. a. True 24. b. False
If a stock has a beta of zero, it will be riskless when held in isolation. a. True b. False
25.
A group of 200 stocks each has a beta of 1.0. We can be certain that each of the stocks was positively correlated with the market. a. True b. False
26.
Refer to Self-Test Question 25. If we combined these same 200 stocks into a portfolio, market risk would be reduced below the average market risk of the stocks in the portfolio. a. True b. False
27.
Refer to Self-Test Question 26. The standard deviation of the portfolio of these 200 stocks would be lower than the standard deviations of the individual stocks.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 10
a. True 28.
b. False
Suppose rRF = 7% and rM = 12%. If investors became more risk averse, rM would be likely to decrease. a. True b. False
29.
Refer to Self-Test Question 28. The required rate of return for a stock with b = 0.5 would increase more than for a stock with b = 2.0. a. True b. False
30.
Refer to Self-Test Questions 28 and 29. If the expected rate of inflation increased, the re quired rate of return on a b = 2.0 stock would rise by more than that of a b = 0.5 stock. a. True b. False
31.
Which is the best measure of risk for an asset held in a well-diversified portfolio? a. Variance b. Standard deviation c. Beta d. Semi-variance e. Expected value
32.
In a portfolio of three different stocks, which of the following could not be true? a. b. c. d. The riskiness of the portfolio is less than the riskiness of each stock held in isolation. The riskiness of the portfolio is greater than the riskiness of one or two of the stocks. The beta of the portfolio is less than the beta of each of the individual stocks. The beta of the portfolio is greater than the beta of one or two of the individual stocks. e. The beta of the portfolio is equal to the beta of one of the individual stocks.
33.
If investors expected inflation to increase in the future, and they also became more risk averse, what could be said about the change in the Security Market Line (SML)? a. b. c. d. e. The SML would shift up and the slope would increase. The SML would shift up and the slope would decrease. The SML would shift down and the slope would increase. The SML would shift down and the slope would decrease. The SML would remain unchanged.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 11
34.
Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The SML relates required returns to firms market risk. The slope and intercept of this line cannot be controlled by the financial manager. b. The slope of the SML is determined by the value of beta. c. If you plotted the returns of a given stock against those of the market, and if you found that the slope of the regression line was negative, then the CAPM would indicate that the required rate of return on the stock should be less than the risk-free rate for a well-diversified investor, assuming that the observed relationship is expected to continue on into the future. d. If investors become less risk averse, the slope of the Security Market Line will increase. e. Statements a and c are both true.
35.
Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Normally, the Security Market Line has an upward slope. However, at one of those unusual times when the yield curve on bonds is downward sloping, the SML will also have a downward slope. b. The market risk premium, as it is used in the CAPM theory, is equal to the required rate of return on an average stock minus the required rate of return on an average companys bonds. c. If the marginal investors aversion to risk decreases, then the slope of the yield curve would, other things held constant, tend to increase. If expectations for inflation also increased at the same time risk aversion was decreasingsay the expected inflation rate rose from 5 percent to 8 percentthe net effect could possibly result in a parallel upward shift in the SML. d. According to the text, it is theoretically possible to combine two stocks, each of which would be quite risky if held as your only asset, and to form a 2-stock portfolio that is riskless. However, the stocks would have to have a correlation coefficient of expected future returns of -1.0, and it is hard to find such stocks in the real world. e. Each of the above statements is false.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 12
36.
Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The expected future rate of return, r , is always above the past realized rate of return, r , except for highly risk-averse investors. b. The expected future rate of return, r , is always below the past realized rate of return, r , except for highly risk-averse investors. c. The expected future rate of return, r , is always below the required rate of return, r, except for highly risk-averse investors. d. There is no logical reason to think that any relationship exists between the expected future rate of return, r , on a security and the securitys required rate of return, r. e. Each of the above statements is false.
37.
Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Someone who is highly averse to risk should invest in stocks with high betas (above +1.0), other things held constant. b. The returns on a stock might be highly uncertain in the sense that they could actually turn out to be much higher or much lower than the expected rate of return (that is, the stock has a high standard deviation of returns), yet the stock might still be regarded by most investors as being less risky than some other stock whose returns are less variable. c. The standard deviation is a better measure of risk when comparing securities than the coefficient of variation. This is true because the standard deviation standardizes risk by dividing each securitys variance by its expected rate of return. d. Market risk can be reduced by holding a large portfolio of stocks, and if a portfolio consists of all traded stocks, market risk will be completely eliminated. e. The market risk in a portfolio declines as more stocks are added to the portfolio, and the risk decline is linear, that is, each additional stock reduces the portfolios risk by the same amount.
SELF-TEST PROBLEMS
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 13
1.
Stock A has the following probability distribution of expected returns: Probability 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 Rate of Return -15% 0 5 10 25
What is Stock As expected rate of return and standard deviation? a. 8.0%; 9.5% b. 8.0%; 6.5% c. 5.0%; 3.5% 2. d. 5.0%; 6.5% e. 5.0%; 9.5%
If rRF = 5%, rM = 11%, and b = 1.3 for Stock X, what is rX, the required rate of return for Stock X? a. 18.7% b. 16.7% c. 14.8% d. 12.8% e. 11.9%
3.
Refer to Self-Test Problem 2. What would rX be if investors expected the inflation rate to increase by 2 percentage points? a. 18.7% b. 16.7% c. 14.8% d. 12.8% e. 11.9%
4.
Refer to Self-Test Problem 2. What would rX be if an increase in investors risk aversion caused the market risk premium to increase by 3 percentage points? rRF remains at 5 percent. a. 18.7% b. 16.7% c. 14.8% d. 12.8% e. 11.9%
5.
Refer to Self-Test Problem 2. What would kX be if investors expected the inflation rate to increase by 2 percentage points and their risk aversion increased by 3 percentage points? a. 18.7% b. 16.7% c. 14.8% d. 12.8% e. 11.9%
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 14
6.
Jan Middleton owns a 3-stock portfolio with a total investment value equal to $300,000. Stock A B C Total Investment $100,000 100,000 100,000 $300,000 Beta 0.5 1.0 1.5
What is the weighted average beta of Jans 3-stock portfolio? a. 0.9 7. b. 1.3 c. 1.0 d. 0.4 e. 1.2
The Apple Investment Fund has a total investment of $450 million in five stocks. Stock 1 2 3 4 5 Total Investment (Millions) $130 110 70 90 50 $450 Beta 0.4 1.5 3.0 2.0 1.0
What is the funds overall, or weighted average, beta? a. 1.14 8. b. 1.22 c. 1.35 d. 1.46 e. 1.53
Refer to Self-Test Problem 7. If the risk-free rate is 12 percent and the market risk premium is 6 percent, what is the required rate of return on the Apple Fund? a. 20.76% b. 19.92% c. 18.81% d. 17.62% e. 15.77%
9.
Stock A has a beta of 1.2, Stock B has a beta of 0.6, the expected rate of return on an average stock is 12 percent, and the risk-free rate of return is 7 percent. By how much does the required return on the riskier stock exceed the required return on the less risky stock? a. 4.00% b. 3.25% c. 3.00% d. 2.50% e. 3.75%
10.
You are managing a portfolio of 10 stocks which are held in equal dollar amounts. The current beta of the portfolio is 1.8, and the beta of Stock A is 2.0. If Stock A is sold and the proceeds are used to purchase a replacement stock, what does the beta of the replacement stock have to be to lower the portfolio beta to 1.7? a. 1.4 b. 1.3 c. 1.2 d. 1.1 e. 1.0
11.
Consider the following information for the Alachua Retirement Fund, with a total invest-
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 15
ment of $4 million. Stock A B C D Total Investment $ 400,000 600,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 $4,000,000 Beta 1.2 -0.4 1.5 0.8
The market required rate of return is 12 percent, and the risk-free rate is 6 percent. What is its required rate of return? a. 9.98% 12. b. 10.45% c. 11.01% d. 11.50% e. 12.56%
You are given the following distribution of returns: Probability 0.4 0.5 0.1 Return $30 25 -20
What is the coefficient of variation of the expected dollar returns? a. 206.2500 13. b. 0.6383 c. 14.3614 d. 0.7500 e. 1.2500
If the risk-free rate is 8 percent, the expected return on the market is 13 percent, and the expected return on Security J is 15 percent, then what is the beta of Security J? a. 1.40 b. 0.90 c. 1.20 d. 1.50 e. 0.75
ANSWERS TO SELF-TEST QUESTIONS
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 16
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 23. 24.
probability outcomes; distribution probability; return standard deviation risk averse diversification risk positively diversifiable; market beta 11. 2.0; half
13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
12. weighted average required risk-free beta coefficient risk-free; risk premium real risk-free; inflation slope return probability dollar; rates of return coefficient of variation
b. The Y-axis intercept of the SML is rRF, which is the required rate of return on a security with a beta of zero. b. A zero beta stock could be made riskless if it were combined with enough other zero beta stocks, but it would still have company-specific risk and be risky when held in isolation. a. By definition, if a stock has a beta of 1.0 it moves exactly with the market. In other words, if the market moves up by 7 percent, the stock will also move up by 7 percent, while if the market falls by 7 percent, the stock will fall by 7 percent. b. Market risk is measured by the beta coefficient. The beta for the portfolio would be a weighted average of the betas of the stocks, so bp would also be 1.0. Thus, the market risk for the portfolio would be the same as the market risk of the stocks in the portfo lio. a. Note that with a 200-stock portfolio, the actual returns would all be on or close to the regression line. However, when the portfolio (and the market) returns are quite high, some individual stocks would have higher returns than the portfolio, and some would have much lower returns. Thus, the range of returns, and the standard deviation, would be higher for the individual stocks. b. RPM, which is equal to rM rRF, would rise, leading to an increase in rM. b. The required rate of return for a stock with b = 0.5 would increase less than the return on a stock with b = 2.0.
25.
26.
27.
28. 29.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 17
30.
b. If the expected rate of inflation increased, the SML would shift parallel due to an in crease in rRF. Thus, the effect on the required rates of return for both the b = 0.5 and b = 2.0 stocks would be the same. c. The best measure of risk is the beta coefficient, which is a measure of the extent to which the returns on a given stock move with the stock market. c. The beta of the portfolio is a weighted average of the individual securities betas, so it could not be less than the betas of all of the stocks. (See Self-Test Problem 6.) a. The increase in inflation would cause the SML to shift up, and investors becoming more risk averse would cause the slope to increase. (This can be demonstrated by graphing the SML lines on the same graph in Self-Test Problems 2 through 5.) e. Statement b is false because the slope of the SML is rM rRF. Statement d is false because as investors become less risk averse the slope of the SML decreases. Statement a is correct because the financial manager has no control over rM or rRF. (rM rRF = slope and rRF = intercept of the SML.) Statement c is correct because the slope of the regression line is beta and beta would be negative; thus, the required return would be less than the risk-free rate. d. Statement a is false. The yield curve determines the value of rRF; however, SML = rRF + (rM rRF)b. The average return on the market will always be greater than the riskfree rate; thus, the SML will always be upward sloping. Statement b is false because RPM is equal to rM rRF. rRF is equal to the risk-free rate, not the rate on an average companys bonds. Statement c is false. A decrease in an investors aversion to risk would indicate a downward sloping yield curve. A decrease in risk aversion and an increase in inflation would cause the SML slope to decrease and to shift upward simultaneously. e. All the statements are false. For equilibrium to exist, the expected return must equal the required return. b. Statement b is correct because the stock with the higher standard deviation might not be highly correlated with most other stocks, hence have a relatively low beta, and thus not be very risky if held in a well-diversified portfolio. The other statements are simply false.
31. 32. 33.
34.
35.
36. 37.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 18
SOLUTIONS TO SELF-TEST PROBLEMS
1. e. r A = 0.1 (-15%) + 0.2(0%) + 0.4(5%) + 0.2(10%) + 0.1(25) = 5.0%. Variance = 0.1(-0.15 0.05)2 + 0.2(0.0 0.05)2 + 0.4(0.05 0.05)2 + 0.2(0.10 0.05)2 + 0.1(0.25 0.05)2 = 0.009. Standard deviation = 2. 3. 0.009 = 0.0949 = 9.5%.
d. rX = rRF + (rM rRF)bX = 5% + (11% 5%)1.3 = 12.8%. c. rX = rRF + (rM rRF)bX = 7% + (13% 7%)1.3 = 14.8%. A change in the inflation premium does not change the market risk premium (rM rRF) since both rM and rRF are affected.
4. 5. 6.
b. rX = rRF + (rM rRF)bX = 5% + (14% 5%)1.3 = 16.7%. a. rX = rRF + (rM rRF)bX = 7% + (16% 7%)1.3 = 18.7%. c. The calculation of the portfolios beta is as follows: bp = (1/3)(0.5) + (1/3)(1.0) + (1/3)(1.5) = 1.0.
5
7.
d.
b p = w i bi
i =1
=
$130 $110 $70 $90 $50 (0.4) + (1.5) + (3.0) + (2.0) + (1.0) = 1.46. $450 $450 $450 $450 $450
8.
a. rp = rRF + (rM rRF)bp = 12% + (6%)1.46 = 20.76%.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 19
9.
c. We know bA = 1.20, bB = 0.60; rM = 12%, and rRF = 7%. ri = rRF + (rM rRF)bi = 7% + (12% 7%)bi. rA = 7% + 5%(1.20) = 13.0%. rB = 7% + 5%(0.60) = 10.0%. rA rB = 13% 10% = 3%.
10.
e. First find the beta of the remaining 9 stocks: 1.8 = 0.9(bR) + 0.1(bA) 1.8 = 0.9(bR) + 0.1(2.0) 1.8 = 0.9(bR) + 0.2 1.6 = 0.9(bR) bR = 1.78. Now find the beta of the new stock that produces bp = 1.7. 1.7 = 0.9(1.78) + 0.1(bN) 1.7 = 1.6 + 0.1(bN) 0.1 = 0.1(bN) bN = 1.0.
11.
c. Determine the weight each stock represents in the portfolio: Investment 400,000 600,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 x Beta. . .. .. .. bp = 0.8350 = Portfolio beta
Write out the SML equation, and substitute known values including the portfolio beta. Solve for the required portfolio return. rp = rRF + (rM rRF)bp = 6% + (12% 6%)0.8350 = 6% + 5.01% = 11.01%.
RISK AND RETURN 3 - 20
12.
b. Use the given probability distribution of returns to calculate the expected value, vari ance, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. Pi 0.4 0.5 0.1 ri x $30 x 25 x -20 r
Pi ri = $12.0 = 12.5 = -2.0 = $22.5
ri
r
(ri r ) = = = $ 7.5 2.5 -42.5
(ri r ) 2 $
P (ri r ) 2
$30 - $22.5 25 - 22.5 -20 - 22.5
56.25 $ 22.500 6.25 3.125 1,806.25 180.625 2 = Variance = $206.250
The standard deviation () of r is $206.25 = $14.3614 . Use the standard deviation and the expected return to calculate the coefficient of variation: $14.3614/$22.5 = 0.6383.
13.
a. Use the SML equation, substitute in the known values, and solve for beta. rRF = 8%; rM = 13%; rJ = 15%. rJ 15% 7% bJ = rRF + (rM rRF)bJ = 8% + (13% 8%)bJ = (5%)bJ = 1.4.

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