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Science 9/14/2010 1. as a Way of Learning: A Guid Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Scientific Method" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Site: to the Natural World > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Scientific Method Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:05 AM (EDT) 0% Correct of 3 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 3 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. What is the first step in the scientific method? Your Answer: experimentation Correct Answer: observation Incorrect. Experimentation is the third step of the scientific method. 2. A general set of principles, supported by evidence, that explains some aspect of nature is a (an) ___________. Your Answer: Variable Correct Answer: Theory Incorrect. Review the definition of a variable. 3. A test of an experimental cancer drug finds that 65% of patients respond very w ell, w hile 35% of patients show either no improvement or a worsening of their condition. You repeat the study several times and obtain similar results. You should: Your Answer: end the experiment because some of the patients did not respond well Correct Answer: modify a single variable and repeat the experiment Incorrect. The experiment may be modified at this point. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Site: to the Natural World > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:04 AM (EDT) 22% Correct of 23 questions 5 corre ct: 18 incorre ct: 2 2% 7 8% More information about scoring 1. Scientists are worried about an increase in hurricane intensity in the future 1.1 How Does Science Impact the Everyday World?) because _______. ( Your Answer: global w arming w ill increase the temperature of Earth's oceans, thereby increasing hurricane intensity C orrect. Warmer ocean currents contribute to hurricanes of greater intensity. 2. Which of the follow ing is the most effective way to improve your scientific literacy? ( 1 .1 How Does Science Impact the Everyday World? ) Your Answer: tutoring an elementary school child in science Correct Answer: enrolling in a college science course Incorrect. You can increase your scientific literacy only by including relevant activities. See section 1.1 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing statements about scientific theories is most accurate? ( 1.2 What Is Science? ) Your Register to View Answerscientific theory is a proven fact. Correct Register to View Answerscientific theory is supported by many independent observations and experiments. Incorrect. Why is a scientific theory even more important than facts? See section 1.2 for more information. 4. Whenever you propose the possible solution to a problem, your proposal is said to be ________. ( 1 .2 What Is Science? ) Your Register to View Answerprinciple wps.aw.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid Correct Register to View Answerhypothesis Incorrect. The answ er here has to be a testable possible solution to a problem. See section 1.2 for more information. 5. For a hypothesis to be valid, it must ______. ( 1 .2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: be proven true by scientific experiments Correct Answer: be testable Incorrect. Think of a way to prove that a hypothesis is false. See section 1.2 for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing statements is true of a control group in a scientific 1 .2 What Is Science? ) experiment? ( Your Answer: It is used only if the hypothesis is proven to be false. Correct Answer: It is treated exactly like the experimental group, except for the one variable being tested. Incorrect. Remember that we are comparing the control group against another group. See section 1.2 for more information. 7. When designing an experiment on spontaneous generation, Pasteur would repeat 1 .2 What Is Science? ) the experiment many times. Why? ( Your Answer: to reduce the likelihood that his results happened by chance C orrect. Repeated trials w ere necessary to eliminate the possibility that his results occurred simply by chance. 8. A w ell-designed experiment w ith a control group will ______. ( Science? ) 1 .2 What Is Your Answer: have multiple variables that are investigated in every trial Correct Answer: have only one critical variable that is changed over several trials Incorrect. It is important to realize that the control group serves only one function in the experiment. See section 1.2 for more information. 9. An elementary school teacher wanted to show her students the effect of temperature on the grow th of bread mold. The class came up with several experimental designs. Which of the following w ould be best? ( 1 .2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: Get tw o slices of bread of different brands, moisten them both, and put them in separate plastic bags. Put them both in the refrigerator. Correct Answer: Get tw o slices of bread from the same loaf. Put one slice in a plastic bag in the refrigerator and one slice in a plastic bag in the drawer to see if refrigeration makes a difference. Incorrect. How many variables should a good experiment test at one time? See section 1.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid 10. A w ell-controlled experiment w ill _________. ( 1 .2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: maintain all variables of the experiment exactly the same in every trial Correct Answer: have only one critical variable that is changed over several trials Incorrect. How many variables should there be in a controlled experiment? See section 1.2 for more information. 11. The primary value of a control group in experimental design is that it ______. ( 1.2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: helps to determine if the treatment variable is what is causing the difference in the results C orrect. The control group provides a comparison to the experimental group so that the effect of the variable can be determined. 12. A pharmaceutical company tested a new drug to relieve arthritis. Some of the subjects received a red and pink capsule containing the drug, w hile others received a red and pink capsule containing filler and no drug. Those receiving the drug are called the _______ group, w hereas the subjects receiving the placebo 1 .2 What Is Science? ) are called the ________ group. ( Your Answer: control, experimental Correct Answer: experimental, control Incorrect. Make sure you know how the treatment differs between the tw o major groups in a controlled experiment. See section 1.2. 13. People w ho are uninformed about evolution may state that it is "just a theory." What they often mean is that they believe it is simply a "hunch"-an unproven and little-supported notion about the nature of life on Earth. This statement is not 1 .2 What Is Science? ) accurate because ______. ( Your Answer: in science, a theory is a set of principles supported by a large body of evidence; therefore, evolution is more than just a hunch C orrect. A very large body of evidence supports a theory like evolution. 14. Why is a "pet rock" not really a valid pet? ( 1 .3 The Nature of Biology) Your Answer: because you buy it at the store Correct Answer: because it does not respond to its environment Incorrect. Which of the characteristics of life would a pet rock display? See section 1.3 for more information. 15. Your backyard contains trees, grass, ants, mushrooms, birds, mosquitoes, and 1 .3 The Nature of Biology) bacteria. This list describes ________. ( wps.aw.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid Y our Answer: an organism Correct Register to View Answercommunity Incorrect. The level of organization described here includes members of several species of organisms but no nonliving materials. See section 1.3 and Figure 1.6 for more information. 16. Sweating is an example of one w ay an organism maintains a ______. ( Nature of Biology) Your Answer: surface bacterial colony Correct Answer: constant internal environment Incorrect. Does sweating involve feedback mechanisms? See section 1.3. 1 .3 The 17. The magnificent plumage w e see in male birds, such as a peacock, is an example of 1 .4 Special Qualities of Biology) ___________. ( Your Answer: responsiveness Correct Answer: evolution Incorrect. What function does bright plumage have in the social life of the peacock? See section 1.4 and Figure 1.7. 18. In the early 1800s, scientists who studied living things w ere no longer called "naturalists" and became more like modern-day "biologists." What w as the major 1 .4 Special Qualities of Biology) factor that determined this change? ( Your Answer: Life scientists took a vote and decided to make this change. Correct Answer: Life scientists began to describe the rules of the living w orld instead of just describing the forms in the living world. Incorrect. What is the difference in formal training between a naturalist and a biologist? See section 1.4. 19. Which step in the scientific method results from verification of a hypothesis? ( 1.2 What Is Science? ) Your Register to View Answerscientific law Correct Register to View Answertheory Incorrect. If a hypothesis can be supported by experimental evidence, can the researcher make a more general statement than the hypothesis? See section 1.2. 20. A research pharmacist states that drug XYZ is more effective for curing a certain disease than drug ABC as he begins an experiment. That statement is an example of ___________. ( 1.2 What Is Science? ) Your Register to View Answerquestion Correct Register to View Answerhypothesis Incorrect. This statement requires evidence and fits neatly into the scientific method. See section 1.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid 21. A theory must ______________ if it is going to be accepted by the scientific community. ( 1 .2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: explain both natural and supernatural events Correct Answer: be falsifiable Incorrect. It is essential that any theory be open to question. See section 1.2 for more information. 22. A scientist w onders w hether the application of a certain fertilizer w ill increase the production of apples in an orchard. What is the variable to be tested in any experiment devised to answer this question? ( 1.2 What Is Science? ) Your Answer: the amount of w ater the trees receive Correct Answer: the amount of fertilizer applied Incorrect. Only by changing the presence or absence of one variable can the scientist tell if that is the factor causing the change in apple production. See section 1.2 for more information. 23. Which of the follow ing is the largest, most inclusive level or organization found in 1 .3 The Nature of Biology) living things? ( Your Answer: biosphere C orrect. The biosphere includes all living things on Earth. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guid Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Science as a Way of Site: Learning: A Guide to > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:52 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 0% Correct o f 5 que stions: 0 corre ct: 0 % 5 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 00% 1. Which of the follow ing statements best describes the nature of a scientific hypothesis? Y our Register to View Answerhypothesis must stand alone, and not be based on prior knowledge. Correct Register to View Answerhypothesis must be testable through experimentation, observation, or mathematical demonstration. 2. A theory, as used in scientific discourse, is Your Answer: An initial guess about how some aspect of nature w orks Correct Register to View Answerset of principles, supported by evidence, that explains some aspect of nature 3. Pasteur's experiments on spontaneous generation made correct use of a variable in that Pasteur Your Answer: observed the bacteria as they were growing in the flasks Correct Answer: held all conditions constant in each test except one 4. Evolution is a central, unifying theme in biology because Your Answer: Almost all biologists believe in it. Correct Answer: The enormously diverse forms of life on Earth have all been shaped by it. 5. Biologists generally define life in terms of a group of characteristics possessed by living things. Which of the following is n ot a characteristic of living things? Y our Answer: All livin g thin g s can maintain a relatively constant internal wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide e nvironment. Correct Answer: All living things are composed of tw o or more cells. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Science as a Way of Site: Learning: A Guide to > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:51 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 20 que stions: 2 corre ct: 18 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. Which of the follow ing is true of a control group in a scientific experiment? (level 1) Y our Answer: Results from the control group are never compared to those from the experimental group. Correct Answer: It is treated exactly like the experimental group, except for the one variable being tested. Incorrect. The control must be compared to the experimental group. 2. What is the main reason for including a control group in the design of an experiment? (level 1) Y our Answer: To demonstrate how the experiment was performed incorrectly. Correct Answer: To ensure that the results are due to a difference in only one variable. Incorrect. A control group is part of a correctly designed experiment. 3. Evolution is an underlying theme in biology. It ties all other themes in biology together because ... (level 2) Y our Answer: it explains the diversity of life on this planet. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. The key word is "diversity." How does it arise? 4. When designing his experiments on spontaneous generation, Pasteur repeated his experiments many times. He did this to ...(level 1). Y our Answer: ensure that he was able to p rove that his hyp othesis was wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide true. Correct Answer: reduce the likelihood that his results happened by chance. Incorrect. Can we ever "prove" w ith 100% certainty that a hypothesis is true? 5. Which of the follow ing is a definition of science according to a "scientist"? (level 1). Y our Answer: Science is a body of proven theories that explain natural phenomena. Correct Answer: Science is a method or way of learning about the natural world. Incorrect. Can we ever "prove" w ith 100% certainty that a hypothesis is true? 6. People who are uninformed about evolution may state that it is "just a theory." What they often mean is that it is simply a "hunch"; an unproven and littlesupported notion about the nature of life on Earth. This statement is not accurate because ...(level 1). Y our Answer: in science, theories are equated with facts. Therefore, evolution is a fact. Correct Answer: in science, a theory is a set of principles that is supported by a large body of evidence. Therefore, evolution is more than just a "hunch." Incorrect. How is a fact different from a theory? 7. Which of the follow ing sequences represents the structural organization of an organism? (level 1). Y our Answer: molecule - organelle - cell - organ - tissue - organism Correct Answer: organelle - cell - tissue - organ - organism Incorrect. Review Figure 1.7. Tissue is composed of cells, of w hich the subcellular components are called organelles. 8. Which of the follow ing is true of hypotheses? (level 1). Y our Answer: They should be falsifiable. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Is this all that is true of a hypothesis? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Which of the follow ing statements might Pasteur have made concerning his experiments on spontaneous generation? (level 2). Y our Answer: "After I perform my experiment once, I w ill have adequately supported the notion that living organisms only come from preexisting living organisms." Correct Answer: "My experiments support the notion that living organisms only come from preexisting living organisms." Incorrect. Can a scientist make such a definitive statement? 9. 10. Which hypothesis concerning Pasteur's w ork is stated correctly? (level 2) Y our Answer: Since living organisms only come from preexisting living organisms, living material will only grow in the flasks lacking the dust trap necks. Correct Answer: If living material fails to grow in the flasks w ith dust trap necks, then this supports the notion that living material w ill grow only in the flasks lacking the dust trap necks. Incorrect. This statement presupposes that the investigator already know s that living organisms come only from preexisting living organisms. This w as not known before Pasteur began his w ork. 11. Probability and statistics are important tools of science because ...(level 1). Y our Answer: they help scientists choose betw een scientific theories that are correct and those that are incorrect. Correct Answer: they help scientists distinguish between events that occur by chance versus those that have a definite cause. Incorrect. A scientific theory has already been supported by a multitude of independent experiments. Review the definition of a theory. 12. Which of these statements about scientific theories is most accurate? (level 1) Y our Answer: All scientists accept scientific theories to be true. Correct Register to View Answerscientific theory is supported by many independent observations and experiments. Incorrect. Although most scientists accept theories to be true, it is likely that some scientists w ill disagree. 13. Which of these levels of organization WOULD NOT be found in all living things? (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide Y our Answer: organism Correct Answer: tissue Incorrect. Every living thing is an organism. 14. The term homeostasis refers to ...(level 1) Y our Answer: the assimilation and use of energy. Correct Answer: the maintenance of a relatively constant body environment. Incorrect. All living things must assimilate and consume energy to survive, but this is not w hat homeostasis refers to. 15. A w ell-controlled experiment w ill ...(level 2). Your Answer: have only one critical variable that is changed over several trials. C orrect. By having only one changing variable, the scientist can discover the cause of certain events. 16. In order for a hypothesis to be valid, it must ...(level 2). Your Answer: be falsifiable (open to negation by scientific experiments). C orrect. A hypothesis that cannot be tested to see if it is incorrect cannot be supported or discredited. Therefore, it stands outside of the realm of science. 17. Why is a "pet rock"--not really a valid pet? (level 2) Y our Answer: because you buy it at the store. Correct Answer: because it does not respond to its environment. Incorrect. Some living things are composed of only one cell; therefore, they cannot have tissues. 18. Every person should become more scientifically literate because ... (level 2). Y our Answer: science and technology help us understand our w orld. Correct Answer: All of these choices are correct. Incorrect. This is true , b ut is this the only b enefit to becomin g more scientifically wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 literate? Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide 19. In the early 1800s, scientists who studied living things changed from being "naturalists," and became more like modern-day "biologists." What was the major factor that determined this change? (level 2). Y our Answer: Life scientists began cataloging the different varieties of living organisms in the w orld. Correct Answer: Life scientists began to describe the rules of the living world, instead of just describing the forms in the living w orld. Incorrect. This is the job of a naturalist, but not necessarily a biologist. 20. Staring out the window one day, you notice a line of ants crawling across the sidewalk. The line leads to a w et spot on the sidew alk and then back to the anthill in the ground. You start to w onder w hat the ants find so attractive about that w et spot. If you w ere following the scientific method of investigation, your next step w ould be to ... (level 1) Y our Answer: run a series of controlled experiments to analyze the chemicals in the wet spot. Correct Answer: form several possible hypotheses to explain w hat attracts the ants. Incorrect. Without first formulating some hypotheses, how w ould you know w hat to control for in your experiments? E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Sex and human reproduction" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Site: Meiosis > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Sex and human reproduction Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:11 PM (EDT) 33% Correct of 3 questions 1 corre ct: 2 incorre ct: 3 3% 6 7% More information about scoring 1. An autosome is: Your Answer: the Y chromosome Correct Answer: all chromosomes other than the X and Y Incorrect. The sex chromosomes are not autosomes. 2. An allele on the Y chromosome controls the development of a rare genetic disease. A man w ith this rare disease has three children. The first tw o are daughters without the disease. What is the probability that the third child, a son, will have the disease? Your Answer: 100% C orrect. Boys receive their Y chromosome from their father. 3. A couple has just had their fourth son. The father can't understand w hy his w ife can't produce a daughter. Explain to the father why the problem is not with his wife. Your Answer: all sperm contain an X chromosome that does not contribute to sex determination Correct Answer: all eggs contain an X chromosome that does not contribute to sex determination Incorrect. Do all sperm contain X chromosomes? wps.aw.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Site: Meiosis > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:11 PM (EDT) 24% Correct of 41 questions 10 correct: 31 incorrect: 2 4% 7 6% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing statements about gametes is false? ( Meiosis ) 1 0.1 An Overview of Your Answer: Gametes are produced after the second meiotic division. Correct Answer: Gametes are diploid. Incorrect. The purpose of meiosis is to produce haploid gametes. See section 10.1 for more information. 2. Which of the follow ing statements about meiosis is true? ( Meiosis ) 1 0.2 The Steps in Your Answer: Meiosis produces haploid cells only after the meiosis II process has been completed. Correct Answer: Meiosis shuffles alleles and creates chromosomes that are genetically different from the parent's chromosomes. Incorrect. The purpose of meiosis is to produce haploid gametes w ith single copies of each chromosome. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing statements concerning human oogenesis is false? ( Gamete Formation in Humans ) 10.5 Your Answer: The complete meiotic division that produces an ovum does not finish until after fertilization. Correct Answer: Oogonia can reproduce mitotically w ithin an adult female's ovary to produce more oogonia. Incorrect. Recall that oogenesis in women does not allow for the production of an unlimited number of egg cells. See section 10.5 for more information. 4. Durin g w hich typ e (s ) o f cell division does a rin g o f contractile microfilaments form a wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 4. 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: cleavage furrow around the equator of the cell? ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: meiosis I only Correct Answer: mitosis and meiosis I and II Incorrect. During cytokinesis, two daughter cells are formed. See Chapter 9 and section 10.2 for more information. 9 .4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis ) ( 5. During which type(s) of cell division can chromosomes be composed of two chromatids, and each chromosome is lined up on the equatorial plane of the cell? ( 9 .4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis ) ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Correct Answer: meiosis II and mitosis only Incorrect. Chromosomes line up singly along the equatorial plane during mitosis and meiosis II. See Chapter 9 and section 10.2 for more information. 6. Which type(s) of cell division are immediately preceded by replication of DNA? ( 9.4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis ) ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: mitosis and meiosis I and II Correct Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Incorrect. All cells need to replicate their DNA before cell division. See Chapter 9 and section 10.2 for more information. 7. During which type(s) of cell division do chromosomes that w ere composed of two chromatids become chromosomes composed of a single chromatid? ( 9 .4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis ) ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Correct Answer: meiosis II and mitosis only Incorrect. In meiosis I, homologous pairs are separated from each other. See Chapter 9 and section 10.2 for more information. 8. The important process of crossing over occurs during which stage of meiosis? ( 10.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: prophase I C orrect. Crossing over must occur before the homologous pairs become separated. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 9. If a cell has a diploid number of 10 (2n = 10), how many chromosomes will be present in each daughter cell at the end of meiosis? ( 1 0.1 An Overview of Meiosis ) Your Answer: 10 Correct Answer: 5 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Incorrect. Recall that meiosis produces haploid gametes. See section 10.1 for more information. 10. The Y chromosome can be used to trace a person's lineage many generations into 1 0.5 the past. What characteristic of the Y chromosome makes that possible? ( Gamete Formation in Humans ) Your Answer: The Y chromosome is carried exclusively in females. Correct Answer: The Y chromosome engages in only a tiny bit of crossing over. Incorrect. Remember that the Y chromosome is not paired with another Y chromosome. See section 10.5 for more information. 11. When you examine a cell under a microscope, you see that the nucleus is not present and that the chromosomes are condensed and lined up singly in the 9 .4 Mitosis and center of the cell. In w hat stages of division might this cell be? ( Cytokinesis ) ( 10.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: metaphase of meiosis I Correct Answer: metaphase of mitosis or meiosis II Incorrect. Remember that chromosomes align in homologous pairs in meiosis I. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more details. 12. One of the critical functions of meiosis is the formation of new combinations of genetic material. This is important for producing variety in the offspring. In w hat two phases of meiosis does this formation of new combinations take place? ( 10.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: prophase II and metaphase II Correct Answer: prophase I and metaphase I Incorrect. The new combinations of genetic material have to occur w hen the homologous pairs still exist in the cell. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 13. The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that leads to 1 0.3 new combinations of genetic material during meiosis is called ________. ( What Is the Significance of Meiosis?) Your Answer: crossing over C orrect. Crossing over describes genetic exchange between homologues. 14. Which of the follow ing processes leads to genetic diversity? ( Meiosis ) ( 1 0.3 What Is the Significance of Meiosis? ) Your Answer: crossing over 1 0.2 The Steps in C orrect. Crossing over is responsible for creating genetic diversity. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: An autosome is ____________. ( 10.4 Meiosis and Sex Outcome ) 15. Your Answer: the sex chromosomes Correct Answer: all chromosomes other than the X and Y Incorrect. Autosomes do not include the sex chromosomes. See section 10.4 for more information. 16. A couple has just had their fourth son. The father cannot understand why his wife cannot produce a daughter. Explain to the father w hy the problem is not with his 1 0.4 Meiosis and Sex Outcome ) wife. ( Your Answer: All sperm contain a Y chromosome. Correct Answer: All eggs contain an X chromosome that does not contribute to sex determination. Incorrect. Recall that the genotype of women is XX and the genotype of men is XY. See section 10.4 for more information. 17. Which of the follow ing statements concerning human spermatogenesis is correct? ( 1 0.5 Gamete Formation in Humans ) Your Answer: Spermatids are the only cells in the human body that possess flagella. C orrect. 18. Why is it not necessary for polar bodies to form in spermatogenesis? ( Gamete Formation in Humans ) 1 0.5 Your Answer: because it is the egg that carries the nutrients for the developing embryo C orrect. The remaining egg has extra nutrients for the embryo. 19. Which of the follow ing is a type of sexual reproduction? ( Humans and Other Organisms ) Your Answer: regeneration Correct Answer: self-fertilizing flowers 1 0.6 Life Cycles: Incorrect. Remember that sexual reproduction involves gamete production. See section 10.6 for more information. 20. If a sperm cell contains 16 chromosomes, the original parent cell that started 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) ( meiosis must have contained ____ chromosomes. ( 1 0.5 Gamete Formation in Humans ) Your Answer: 4 Correct Answer: 32 Incorrect. Remember that sperm cells are haploid cells. See sections 10.2 and 10.5 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: 21. Crossing over occurs during ___________, and it is important because it 1 0.3 What Is the Significance of Meiosis? ) ___________. ( Your Answer: telophase II; creates daughter cells Correct Answer: prophase I; generates diversity Incorrect. Recall that crossing over is critical for the production of genetic diversity. See section 10.3 for more information. 22. A gene that codes for the development of hairy ears is located on the Y chromosome in humans. A man with hairy ears has a son. What are the chances 1 0.4 Meiosis and Sex Outcome ) that the son w ill have hairy ears? ( Your Answer: 25% Correct Answer: 100% Incorrect. From w hich parent does a male receive his Y chromosome? See section 10.4 for more information. 23. A certain allele for a genetic disease is located on the X chromosome. Two parents have a son. The father carries the allele for the trait on his X chromosome but the mother does not. What are the chances that the son will inherit the disease? ( 10.4 Meiosis and Sex Outcome ) Your Answer: 25% Correct Answer: 0% Incorrect. From w hich parent does a male get his X chromosome? Review Section 10.4 for more information. 24. If a daughter cell contains 14 chromosomes at the end of meiosis I, how many 1 0.2 The chromosomes w ill each daughter cell contain at the end of meiosis II? ( Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: 46 Correct Answer: 14 Incorrect. Recall that at the end of meiosis I, the chromosome number has been halved. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 25. Which of these events occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? ( Cytokinesis ) ( 10.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) 9 .4 Mitosis and Your Answer: alignment of chromosomes in the middle of the cell Correct Answer: synapsis and crossing over Incorrect. The goal of meiosis is to create genetically diverse, haploid gametes. See section 10.2 for more information. 26. A mistake occurred in meiosis such that one of the g ametes p roduced received an wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 26. 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: extra sex chromosome. Assume this gamete was fertilized by a normal gamete and the resulting embryo contained the sex chromosomes XYY. Can you determine 1 0.4 Meiosis and which parent's gamete contained the extra sex chromosome? ( Sex Outcome ) Your Answer: Yes, the extra chromosome came from the father. C orrect. In this case, the embryo contains an extra Y chromosome, w hich could have only been provided by the male parent. 27. What features are associated w ith mature sperm? ( Humans ) 1 0.5 Gamete Formation in Your Register to View Answerdiploid set of chromosomes in a nucleus, mitochondria, flagellum Correct Register to View Answernucleus with 22 autosomes and an X or Y chromosome, mitochondria, flagellum Incorrect. Remember that sperm are designed to be mobile haploid cells. See section 10.5 for more information. 28. If a single human cell fails to undergo cytokinesis in telophase II of meiosis, how 1 0.2 The Steps in many chromosomes would be present in the resulting cell? ( Meiosis ) Your Answer: 23 Correct Answer: 46 Incorrect. How many chromosomes should be in each daughter cell at the end of meiosis II? See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 29. When you examine a cell under a microscope, you see that the nucleus is not present and the chromosomes are condensed and lined up in pairs in the center of the cell. In what stages of division might this cell be? ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: metaphase of meiosis II Correct Answer: metaphase of meiosis I Incorrect. Remember that chromosomes align in pairs during the first round of meiosis. See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 30. An example of sexual reproduction is _________. ( and Other Organisms ) Your Answer: binary fission in bacteria Correct Answer: plants self-pollinating 10.6 Life Cycles: Humans Incorrect. Sexual reproduction requires the joining of two gametes. See section 10.6 for more information. 31. Which of the follow ing statements about spermatogenesis and oogenesis is not correct? ( 10.5 Gamete Formation in Humans ) wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Y our Answer: Spermatogenesis and oogenesis begin at different points in an individual's life. Correct Answer: Spermatogenesis takes longer to complete than oogenesis. Incorrect. Make sure you consider the resulting products of meiosis in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. See section 10.5 for more information. 32. Where do all the first organelles come from in a new zygote? ( Formation in Humans ) 1 0.5 Gamete Your Answer: from the zygote, which builds them after fertilization Correct Answer: from the egg Incorrect. Make sure to consider the resulting products of meiosis in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. See section 10.5 for more information. 33. Which of the follow ing statements about the products of a single cell that has gone 10.1 An Overview of Meiosis ) through meiosis is true? ( Your Answer: The daughter cells are genetically identical. Correct Answer: The daughter cells are haploid. Incorrect. Recall that the purpose of meiosis is to produce genetically diverse gametes w ith half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. See section 10.1 for more information. 34. A human cell fails to undergo cytokinesis w hile performing meiosis I so that the daughter cells do not form. How many chromosomes w ill be in each resulting cell? ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: 46 C orrect. Each daughter cell should have 23 chromosomes. If cytokinesis fails to happen properly, the cell w ill contain 46 chromosomes. 35. A cell contains 16 chromosomes at the end of prophase I. How many chromosomes 1 0.2 The Steps in will be in each daughter cell at the end of prophase II? ( Meiosis ) Your Answer: 8 C orrect. If the starting diploid number is 16, the cells at the end of meiosis I will have half that number. 36. You are looking at diagrams of cells in the process of division but are uncertain as to what process you are view ing. You determine that the cells you are looking at have three chromosomes (an odd number). You can confidently assume that these cells are in which phase based on that chromosome number? ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: metaphase (mitosis) Correct Answer: metaphase II Incorrect. In which p rocesses w ould the chromosomes not be p aired? See section wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: 1 0.2 and Figure 10.2 and Review mitosis. 37. If starting with a cell that has a haploid number of 5, during mitosis there will be _____ chromosomes at metaphase, _______ chromosomes at anaphase, and 1 0.2 The Steps in _______ chromosomes per daughter cell at telophase. ( Meiosis ) ( 9 .4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis ) Your Answer: 10; 20; 10 C orrect. The diploid number is 10, and that number temporarily doubles in anaphase. 38. A gamete from a human female contains _______. ( Outcome ) 1 0.4 Meiosis and Sex Your Answer: 23 autosomes and either an X or a Y chromosome Correct Answer: 22 autosomes and an X chromosome Incorrect. What chromosomes contribute to the female genotype? See section 10.4 for more information. 39. What is the purpose of recombination (crossing over)? ( Significance of Meiosis? ) Y our Answer: to complete DNA replication 10.3 What Is the Correct Answer: to create chromosomes that are a new combination of paternal and maternal material Incorrect. Remember that genetic material is exchanged during crossing over. See section 10.3 for more information. 40. The cells at the end of meiosis I are not ready to function as gametes. Why not? ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: The chromosomes have divided, but cytokinesis has not occurred. Correct Answer: They are haploid, but the chromosomes are still in duplicated form. Incorrect. How are the chromosomes structured at the end of meiosis I? See section 10.2 and Figure 10.2 for more information. 41. Horses have a diploid number of 64, and donkeys have a haploid number of 62. A mule is the result of fertilization betw een a horse gamete and a donkey gamete. 10.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) The mule's chromosome number is _____________. ( Your Answer: 63 C orrect. A horse gamete contains 32 chromosomes, and a donkey gamete contains 31 chromosomes. The mule has 63 chromosomes. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Preparing for Sexual Site: Reproduction: Meios > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:02 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 50% Correct o f 10 que stions: 5 corre ct: 5 incorre ct: 5 0% 5 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. In reference to chromosomes, meiosis involves Your Answer: 1 duplication, 2 reductions 2. Imagine, at prophase of meiosis I, that a diploid (2n) cell that is precursor to the gamete has eight chromosomes. How many chromatids are in the cell? Your Answer: 16 3. Independent assortment occurs during Y our Answer: prophase I Correct Answer: metaphase I 4. Which of the follow ing statements is not true regarding egg formation in humans? Your Answer: Oogonia are not produced until the eleventh or tw elfth year. 5. What are the two sources of genetic diversity in meiosis? Your Answer: crossing over and independent assortment 6. Meiosis and sexual reproduction have fostered diversity in the natural w orld because they Your Answer: are nearly certain to produce differences among offspring wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei 7. Eggs are relatively large because they _____; sperm are relatively small because they _____. Y our Answer: must contain spare sets of chromosomes function through mobility Correct Answer: must contain nutrients for the zygote function through mobility 8. In prophase I of meiosis, Y our Answer: Maternal chromosome 1 joins with maternal chromosome 2. Correct Answer: Homologous chromosomes join. 9. At the completion of meiosis I, each human cell contains Y our Answer: 46 chromosomes, 46 chromatids Correct Answer: 23 chromosomes, 46 chromatids 10. Asexual reproduction is _____ and alw ays results in _____. Y our Answer: found in only a few mammals and birds offspring that are different from parents Correct Answer: found more commonly in simple organisms than in complex ones offspring that are genetically identical to parents E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Preparing for Sexual Site: Reproduction: Meios > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:02 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. How are meiosis and mitosis similar? (level 2). Y our Answer: Both occur in all living organisms. Correct Answer: Both are preceded by duplication of DNA. Incorrect: Bacteria and other asexual organisms do not undergo meiosis. 2. During w hich type(s) of cell division does a ring of contractile microfilaments form a cleavage furrow around the equator of the cell? (level 1). Y our Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Correct Answer: mitosis and meiosis I and II Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 3. During w hich type(s) of cell division does the DNA begin to condense into visible chromosomes, the nuclear membrane breaks apart into small vesicles, nucleoli disappear, and chromosomes are composed of tw o chromatids? (level 1). Y our Answer: mitosis and meiosis I and II Correct Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 4. During w hich type(s) of cell division can chromosomes be composed of tw o chromatids, and each chromosome is lined up on the equatorial plane of the cell? (level 2). Y our Answer: meiosis I only Correct Answer: meiosis II and mitosis only wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 5. Which of the follow ing is a type of sexual reproduction rather than asexual reproduction? (level 2). Y our Answer: vegetative reproduction Correct Answer: self-fertilizing flow ers Incorrect: This type of asexual reproduction is seen w hen a plant clipping is transplanted and it continues to grow , developing into a w hole new organism. 6. Which of the follow ing is the primary reason why polar bodies are produced in the cytokinetic process of egg formation? (level 2). Y our Answer: to reject chromosomes that have mutations on them by not allowing them to be placed into the egg Correct Answer: to preserve as much of the cytoplasmic nutrients as possible for the egg and any potential zygotes Incorrect: Unfortunately, many mutated chromosomes are included in the egg. 7. During w hich type(s) of cell division do chromosomes that w ere composed of two chromatids become chromosomes composed of a single chromatid? (level 2). Y our Answer: mitosis and meiosis I and II Correct Answer: meiosis II and mitosis only Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 8. During w hich type(s) of cell division do tetrads form and crossing over occur? (level 1). Y our Answer: meiosis II and mitosis only Correct Answer: meiosis I only Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 9. Which type(s) of cell division are immediately preceded by replication of DNA? (level 2). Y our Answer: meiosis II only wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei Correct Answer: meiosis I and mitosis only Incorrect: Review Figure 9.10 and Section 10.2, "The Steps of Meiosis." 10. Which of the follow ing statements about meiosis is true? (level 1). Y our Answer: Meiosis produces haploid cells only after the meiosis II process has been completed. Correct Answer: Meiosis shuffles alleles and creates chromosomes that are genetically different from the parent's chromosomes. Incorrect: Haploid cells are those that do not contain both homologous chromosomes. This is achieved at the end of the first meiotic division. 11. Which of the follow ing statements concerning gametes is NOT correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Gametes are produced after the second meiotic division. Correct Answer: Gametes are diploid. Incorrect: Although the cells produced after the first meiotic division are haploid, they are not gametes. 12. The important process of crossing over occurs during w hich stage of meiosis? (level 1). Y our Answer: anaphase I Correct Answer: prophase I Incorrect: This is when homologous chromosomes become separated. It is to late for crossing over to occur. 13. A couple has had three children, and all of them are boys. When they get pregnant a fourth time, they are hopeful that this one is a girl. What is the chance that this child w ill be a girl? (level 2). Y our Answer: 1/1 (a sure thing) Correct Answer: 1/2 Incorrect: Sex is determined by the male gamete, w hich can be carrying either an X or Y chromosome. Thus, there is a 1/2 chance that it is a girl. 14. The Y chromosome can be used to trace a person's lineage many generations into the p ast. What characteristic of the Y chromosome allow s this to be wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei a ccomplished? (level 2). Your Answer: The Y chromosome engages in only a tiny bit of crossing over. C orrect: Because of this, the genetic information on the Y chromosome remains the same for many, many generations. 15. At which stage during meiosis are sister chromatids separated into two different groups of chromosomes? (level 1). Your Answer: during anaphase II C orrect: Until this phase, sister chromatids remain joined together. 16. A certain type of diploid organism contains 58 chromosomes. How many chromosomes w ould you expect a gamete of this organism to contain? (level 2). Y our Answer: 23 chromosomes Correct Answer: 29 chromosomes Incorrect: Gametes contain half of the chromosomes that a diploid cell contains. 17. One of the critical functions of meiosis is the mixing of genetic material. This is important for producing variety in the offspring. What are the tw o phases of meiosis w here this mixing takes place? (level 1). Y our Answer: prophase I and metaphase I C orrect: Prophase I is when crossing over occurs, and at metaphase I there are over 8 million different ways to arrange the homologous chromosomes across the metaphase plate. 18. Which of the follow ing definitions for crossing over is accurate? (level 1). Y our Answer: Genes on chromosome #1 are traded for genes on chromosome #2. Correct Answer: Genes on the paternal chromosome are traded for the same genes on the maternal chromosome. Incorrect: This is a chromosomal abnormality and could result in disastrous results in the offspring. 19. Which of the follow ing s tatements concernin g human oo g enesis is correct? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 19. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Mei (level 2). Y our Answer: The complete meiotic division that produces an ovum (egg) does not finish until after fertilization. Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is a true statement, is it the only true statement concerning oogenesis? 20. Which of the follow ing statements concerning human spermatogenesis is INCORRECT? (level 2). Y our Answer: Spermatogonia can develop directly into spermatids without any meiotic divisions. C orrect: Meiosis is required to produce spermatids from spermatogonia. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Mendel's experiments" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Site: Discoveries > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Mendel's experiments Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:14 PM (EDT) 9% Correct of 11 questions 1 corre ct: 10 incorre ct: 9% 9 1% More information about scoring 1. The genetic make-up of an individual is called his/her: Your Answer: recombinant DNA Correct Answer: genotype Incorrect. Recombinant DNA refers to DNA created from more than one source. 2. Inherited traits are transmitted by _______w hich occur in pairs called_____. Your Answer: alleles; genes Correct Answer: genes; alleles Incorrect. Genes are not found in pairs. 3. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a monohybrid cross if both parents are heterozygous for a particular trait? Your Answer: 9:3:3:1 Correct Answer: 3:1 Incorrect. There w ill not be four phenotypes present in the offspring. 4. What w ould be the expected phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation if a homozygous dominant male black hamster is crossed w ith a homozygous recessive female w hite hamster? Your Answer: 1:1 Correct Answer: 3:1 wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Incorrect. There w ill not be an equal ratio betw een the phenotypes. 5. What w ould be the phenotype of the F1 offspring if a homozygous dominant male black hamster is crossed with a homozygous recessive female white hamster, (using B for black and b for white)? Your Answer: Bb Correct Answer: all black Incorrect. This is not a phenotype. 6. Which principle of inheritance concluded that w hen gametes are formed in meiosis, the tw o alleles of each gene separate from one another and each gamete receives only one allele? Your Answer: principle of segregation C orrect. Each gamete receives one allele based on the principle of segregation. 7. In incomplete dominance one sees evidence for ____. Your Answer: genetic blending of traits Correct Answer: neither allele for a particular gene being dominant Incorrect. Blending of traits does not occur. 8. In the F2 generation (Rr x Rr) for the snapdragon example, what is the expected ratio of red : pink : w hite phenotypes, given that RR is red, Rr is pink, and rr is white? Your Answer: 1 : 1 : 2 Correct Answer: 1 : 2 : 1 Incorrect. This is not the proper phenotypic ratio. 9. Even though incomplete dominance resembles blending, why is it not evidence for blending of traits? Your Answer: Because one allele is always clearly dominant over the other Correct Answer: Because the phenotypes of the parents return in subsequent generations Incorrect. One allele is not always dominant over another. 10. You are breeding tw o plants. One parent is tall and the other is short. If incomplete dominance w ere controlling the expression of this trait, you would expect to see w hat in the F1 generation? Your Answer: 75% tall offspring and 25% short offspring Correct Answer: 100% medium heig ht offs p rin g wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Incorrect. This would only occur in the F2 generation if the tall trait w as dominant. 11. Your neighbor can't understand why her new flow er bed contains red and white flow ers. She specifically bought plants that contained only pink flow ers but as new flow ers developed, some produced red and w hite flowers. What can you conclude? Your Answer: pink flowers are dominant Correct Answer: incomplete dominance is involved in this trait Incorrect. Pink flow ers w ere not present in the parent generation. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Site: Discoveries > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:14 PM (EDT) 31% Correct of 39 questions 12 correct: 27 incorrect: 3 1% 6 9% More information about scoring 1. In Mendel's garden peas, the tallness (T) trait is dominant over the dwarf condition (t), round seed (R) is dominant over wrinkled seeds (r), purple flow ers (P) are dominant over w hite flow ers (p), and one-pod seeds (S) are dominant over threepod seeds (s). These genes are all located on separate chromosomes. Suppose a plant heterozygous for each gene is self-fertilized, and 1,000 offspring are produced. How many would Mendel have expected to be dw arf w ith purple flowers 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) and w rinkled, one-pod seeds? ( Your Answer: 35 C orrect. The probability of getting dw arf = 1/4, purple = 3/4, w rinkled = 1/4, and one-pod = 3/4. 1/4 x 3/4 x 1/4 x 3/4 = 9/256 (1,000) = ~35. 2. In a family of six children, two are blood type O, two are blood type AB, one is blood type B, and another type A. What are the possible genotypes of the parents? ( 1 1.8 Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance ) Your Answer: IAi x IBi C orrect. This cross can result in genotypes ii, IAi, IBi, and IAIB, w hich produce all four phenotypes. 3. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a monohybrid cross if both parents are heterozygous for a particular trait? ( 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: 1:1 Correct Answer: 3:1 Incorrect. Prepare a Punnett square to work this problem. See section 11.4 and Figure 11.5 for more information. 4. The fact that all seven of the g arden p ea traits studied b y Mendel obe yed the wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 4. 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi principle of independent assortment means that ______. ( Involving Tw o Characters ) 11.5 Crosses Your Answer: seven pairs of alleles determining these traits behave as if each is on separate chromosome pairs C orrect. For all seven genes to assort independently, they must be on separate chromosomes. 5. You have become a renowned marine biologist, and in your travels, you discover a species of fish that is diploid and reproduces exactly like other sexually reproducing animals w ith the exception that this animal is hermaphroditic (it has both male and female reproductive organs and can self-fertilize). You mate two fish, and then raise one of their offspring and allow it to self-fertilize, producing hundreds of offspring. Which of the following statements about the offspring of the self1 1.5 Crosses Involving Tw o Characters ) fertilizing fish is true? ( Your Answer: They have the same alleles as their parent, but the alleles are shuffled into different combinations, resulting in phenotypically different offspring. C orrect. This is exactly w hat independent assortment does; it produces novel combinations of alleles by shuffling them during meiosis in each sperm- and eggproducing cell. 6. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) is dominant over dwarf (t), and purple flowers (P) are dominant over white flowers (p). Assuming that these genes sort independently, how many different types of gametes would be produced in a plant 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) ( 1 1.5 with the genotype TtPP? ( Crosses Involving Tw o Characters ) Your Answer: 8 Correct Answer: 2 Incorrect. Remember that each gamete w ill receive only one allele from each gene pair. See sections 11.4 and 11.5 for more information. 7. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) is dominant over dwarf (t), and purple flowers (P) are dominant over white flowers (p). A plant that has a phenotype of dwarf plant and w hite flow ers has w hich genotype? ( 1 1.5 Crosses Involving Two Characters ) Your Answer: ttPP Correct Answer: ttpp Incorrect. Remember that each of these traits is recessive. See section 11.5 for more information. 8. A diploid cell with a total of four chromosomes is heterozygous at 10 different 1 1.5 Crosses genes. Do the genes assort independently during meiosis? ( Involving Tw o Characters ) Your Answer: Yes. Correct Answer: No. Incorrect. See section 11.5 for more information on the Law of Independent Assortment. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi In incomplete dominance, one sees evidence for ____. ( Dominance ) 1 1.7 Incomplete 9. Your Register to View Answerfailure of the gene hypothesis for explaining inheritance Correct Answer: neither allele for a particular gene being dominant Incorrect. Remember that incomplete dominance does not allow one allele to completely dominate another allele. See section 11.7 for more information. 10. A cross between tw o heterozygous individuals (AaBb) at tw o independently assorting, incompletely dominant genes w ill produce an expected phenotypic ratio 1 1.5 Crosses Involving Two Characters ) ( 1 1.7 Incomplete of __________. ( Dominance ) Your Answer: 1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1 C orrect. The phenotypic ratio would be the same as the genotypic ratio, because heterozygotes show a phenotype that is different from the homozygous individuals. 11. Even though incomplete dominance resembles blending, why is it not evidence for 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) blending of traits? ( Your Answer: because the phenotypes of the parents return in subsequent generations C orrect. Alleles carried by either parent can resurface in a later generation. 12. Your neighbor cannot understand w hy her new flow er bed contains red and white flow ers. She specifically bought plants that contained only pink flow ers, but as new flow ers developed, some produced red and w hite flowers. What can you conclude? 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) ( Your Answer: White flow ers are recessive. Correct Answer: Incomplete dominance is involved in this trait. Incorrect. Pink is an intermediate phenotype of red and w hite flowers. See section 11.7 for more information. 13. A mother w ho is heterozygous for blood type A states that a man w ith blood type AB is the father of her baby. If the man is indeed the father, which of the follow ing 1 1.8 Lessons from blood types w ould not be possible for the baby to have? ( Blood Types: Codominance ) Your Answer: type AB Correct Answer: type O Incorrect. Remember that a heterozygous type A person has one type A allele and one inactivated allele. A similar situation would exist for a heterozygous type B person. See section 11.8 for more information. 14. A child has g reen e yes yet one of her p arents has brow n e yes and the other has wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 14. 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi blue eyes. This can happen because human eye color is the result of ______. ( 11.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) Your Answer: sex-linked recessive inheritance Correct Answer: polygenic inheritance Incorrect. Is eye color controlled by a single gene? See section 11.9 for more information. 15. With respect to the effects of the environment, w hich of the following statements 1 1.10 Genes and Environment) is true? ( Your Answer: The expression of genes can vary depending upon the environment. C orrect. Yes, the expression of genes can vary depending upon the environment. See Section 11.10 for more information. 16. The study of fragile-X syndrome, showing that genes normally work together in an 11.11 One Gene, Several Effects: interrelated w eb, is an example of ______. ( Pleiotropy) Your Answer: polygenic inheritance Correct Answer: pleiotropy Incorrect. Remember that some genes can have multiple effects. See section 11.11 for more information. 17. A couple decides that they w ant to have three daughters. What is the probability 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) that this will actually occur? ( Your Answer: 1/8 C orrect. For each child, the chance of a girl is a 1/2; for all three children, the change of a girl is 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/8. 18. Which of the follow ing is incorrectly matched? ( 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) ( 11.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) ( 1 1.11 One Gene, Several Effects: Pleiotropy) Your Answer: polygenic inheritance: several alleles contribute to a single trait Correct Answer: multiple alleles: an individual acquires more than two alleles for a given trait Incorrect. See sections 11.7, 11.9, and 11.11 for more information on the characteristics of incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles, and pleiotropy. 19. Which of the follow ing explanations could account for dominant alleles that cause fatal conditions being less common than recessive alleles that cause fatal 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) conditions? ( Your Answer: Every person carrying a single fatal dominant allele, dies whereas most individuals w ho carry a s in g le recessive lethal allele live and wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi reproduce. C orrect. If the dominant allele causes a fatal condition, people w ith the dominant allele w ill not survive. People with the recessive allele will survive and pass on that allele. See section 11.4 for more information. 20. An individual is heterozygous for a trait that functions according to incomplete dominance. This person w ill exhibit _________. ( 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) Your Answer: the recessive phenotype Correct Answer: an intermediate between dominant and recessive phenotypes Incorrect. Remember that in incomplete dominance in a heterozygous individual, neither allele is fully expressed. See section 11.7 for more information. 21. The phenotypic ratio obtained in a dihybrid cross is 6:2:4:4. The number of offspring that are recessive for trait 1 and dominant for trait 2 is_________. ( 11.5 Crosses Involving Two Characters ) Your Answer: 2 Correct Answer: 4 Incorrect. See section 11.5 for more information on the ratios obtained in dihybrid crosses. 22. The allele R* causes a genetic disease. The normal allele is denoted as R. Your 1 1.4 Another genotype is RR*. You will have the disease if ____________. ( Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: both your parents are heterozygous Correct Answer: the R* allele is dominant Incorrect. Remember that dominant alleles can hide recessive alleles in the heterozygous individual. See section 11.4 for more information. 23. Beak color in a certain species of bird is controlled by a single gene. You mate a homozygous finch (w ith an orange beak) with a homozygous finch (w ith an ivory beak). All the offspring have pale, peach colored beaks. The most likely genetic explanation is _____. ( 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) ( 1 1.8 Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance ) ( 1 1.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) Your Register to View Answermutation occurred Correct Answer: incomplete dominance Incorrect. How might an intermediate phenotype be obtained? See section 11.7 for more information. 24. An allele known as BRCA1 is often found in w omen with breast and ovarian cancer. However, some women develop those cancers and do not have the BRCA1 allele. In addition, some w omen who have BRCA1 never develop breast or ovarian cancer. How can this be explained? ( 1 1.10 Genes and Environment) Your Answer: This must be an example of pleiotropy. Correct Answer: Somethin g o ther than the allele must factor into whether cancer wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi d evelops or not. Incorrect. Is the gene the only explanation for phenotype? See section 11.10 for more information. 25. If a disease is caused by a recessive allele, it means that a person w ith the 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) disease _________. ( Your Answer: could be homozygous or heterozygous for the disease trait Correct Answer: w ill only pass it on to children if their mate also carries the allele Incorrect. What genotype must an individual have to express a recessive phenotype? See section 11.4 for more information. 26. The allele F codes for the presence of freckles, whereas the allele f codes for the absence of freckles. The ________________ of a person with freckles would be FF, and an individual without freckles w ould be __________________ recessive for this trait. ( 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: genotype; homozygous C orrect. The genotype is the exact genetic makeup of the individual. Someone who expresses a recessive phenotype must have a homozygous recessive genotype. 27. The phenotypic ratio obtained in a Punnet square is 1:2:1. Based on that ratio, you 11.7 Incomplete can conclude that which genetic "rules" were involved? ( Dominance ) ( 1 1.8 Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance ) ( 1 1.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) ( 1 1.10 Genes and Environment) ( 1 1.11 One Gene, Several Effects: Pleiotropy) Your Answer: codominance Correct Answer: incomplete dominance Incorrect. What type of inheritance results in three phenotypes? See section 11.7 for more information. 28. Which unique genetic situation is not matched w ith a proper example? ( 1 1.7 Incomplete Dominance ) ( 11.8 Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance ) ( 11.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) ( 1 1.10 Genes and Environment) ( 1 1.11 One Gene, Several Effects: Pleiotropy) Your Answer: incomplete dominance and human skin color C orrect. Human skin color is an example of polygenic inheritance. 29. Having six fingers is dominant and having five fingers is recessive. If a person has 11.4 Another Generation for Mendel) six fingers, what is her genotype? ( Your Answer: heterozygous Correct Answer: homozygous dominant or heterozygous Incorrect. Having six fingers is the dominant phenotype. What are the possible genotypes associated with this? See section 11.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi 30. If some individuals w ith a particular condition all have a specific allele, and other individuals with that same allele did not necessarily develop that condition, the best explanation is that ________. ( 1 1.10 Genes and Environment) Your Answer: the condition is caused by a recessive allele Correct Answer: the condition is influenced by the allele as well as an environmental factor Incorrect. Other than alleles, w hat can influence phenotype in an individual? See section 11.10 for more information. 31. A and a are dominant and recessive alleles, respectively, of the same gene. Which genotype(s) would result in an individual with the recessive phenotype? ( 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: AA and aa Correct Answer: only aa Incorrect. Remember that dominant alleles can mask recessive alleles. See section 11.4 for more information. 32. In humans, "unattached" earlobes are dominant over "attached" earlobes. A female and a male, both w ith unattached earlobes, have a child w ith attached earlobes. What is the probability their next child w ill have unattached earlobes? ( 1 1.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: 1/4 Correct Answer: 3/4 Incorrect. If the parents have a child with attached earlobes, this indicates that their genotype is heterozygous. See section 11.4 for more. 33. The phenotypic ratio obtained in a dihybrid cross is 8:0:4:2. The number of offspring that are recessive for trait #1 and dominant for trait #2 is: ( 1 1.5 Crosses Involving Tw o Characters ) Your Answer: 8 Correct Answer: 4 Incorrect. Read about the order in w hich ratios are written for the dihybrid cross in section 11.5. 34. In the individual w ith genotype AaBB, what percentage of gametes w ill contain the B allele? ( 1 1.5 Crosses Involving Two Characters ) Your Answer: 50% Correct Answer: 100% Incorrect. Remember that each allele assorts independently. See section 11.5 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi A plant that produces w hite flowers is crossed to a plant that produces orange flow ers. If all the offspring produce orange flowers, what can you conclude? ( 11.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: This trait shows incomplete dominance. Correct Answer: The orange flower is the dominant phenotype. Incorrect. Read the definitions of dominant a nd recessive in section 11.4. 35. 36. Crossing purple-flowering petunias with white-flowering petunias yields seeds that grow into snapdragons with lavender flowers. This suggests that __________. ( 11.7 Incomplete Dominance ) Your Answer: w hite flowers are dominant Correct Answer: incomplete dominance is occurring Incorrect. The lavender phenotype is an intermediate of the purple and white phenotypes. See section 11.7 for more information. 37. Dimpled cheeks is dominant to undimpled cheeks. If a child has a 25% chance of having undimpled cheeks, the parental genotypes must be ___________. ( 11.4 Another Generation for Mendel) Your Answer: DD and Dd Correct Answer: Dd and Dd Incorrect. Not having dimples is the recessive phenotype. Work backw ard through a Punnett square to determine the parental genotypes. See section 11.4 for more information. 38. When Mendel crossed heterozygotes for flower color and seed color, what 1 1.5 Crosses proportion of the offspring had both recessive phenotypes? ( Involving Tw o Characters ) Your Answer: 1/16 C orrect. The last number in the dihybrid ratio always represents recessiveness for both traits. 39. A, B, and O blood types in humans are controlled by a single gene with three alleles: IA, IB a nd i. The i allele is recessive to both IA a nd IB. Which of the follow ing could be possible genotypes of the parents of a person with type AB blood? ( 11.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance ) Your Answer: IAIB a nd ii Correct Answer: IAi and IBi Incorrect. What alleles would a person have to inherit from each parent to have type AB blood? See section 11.9 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and Hi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The First Geneticist: Mendel Site: and His Dis > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:03 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 50% Correct o f 10 que stions: 5 corre ct: 5 incorre ct: 5 0% 5 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. The first filial generation, or F1 results when Your Answer: two P generation organisms are crossed 2. When Mendel crossed pure-bred yellow peas w ith pure-bred green peas, the F1 generation contained Your Answer: all yellow peas 3. A very important characteristic of the garden peas used by Mendel w as that Y our Answer: All yellow peas had the same genotype. Correct Answer: The plants had the ability to self-fertilize. 4. If a cross is made betw een a pure-breeding green, round (yyRR) plant, and a pure-breeding yellow, wrinkled (YYrr) plant, w hat is the result? Y our Answer: all yellow , w rinkled peas Correct Answer: all yellow , round peas 5. If plants in a cross have the follow ing genotypes (YYRr x yyRr) the correct term for the type of cross is: Your Answer: dihybrid cross 6. Mendels first law states: wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Y our Answer: During the formation of gametes, genetic elements (alleles) segregate from each other. 7. In the ABO blood system in human beings, alleles coding for the A and B proteins are codominant, w hile the O allele is recessive. In a paternity dispute, a type AB w oman claimed that one of four men w as the father of her type A child. Which of the following men could be the father of the child on the basis of the evidence given? Y our Answer: type A Correct Answer: any of them 8. Mendels second law states that Y our Answer: No tw o organisms can ever be genetically identical. Correct Answer: Gene pairs assort independently of one another during gamete formation. 9. Which of the follow ing is true about polygenic inheritance? Y our Answer: Its outcomes are always predictable. Correct Answer: It produces phenotypes that grade smoothly into one another. 10. Which of the follow ing is true regarding the effects of genes and environment on phenotypic variation? Your Answer: The phenotypes of genetically identical organisms may vary in different environments. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 H e lp The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms 2. When Mendel conducted his genetic research, neither DNA nor chromosomes had been discovered. True wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Print this page Your Results for "Genetics Problems" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The First Geneticist: Mendel Site: and His Dis > End of Chapter Quiz > Genetics Problems Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:05 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 50% Correct o f 12 score d que stions: 6 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 5 0% 5 0% 4 que stion not score d. More inform ation about scoring . 1. One of Mendels many monohybrid (single character) crosses w as betw een a true-breeding (homozygous) parent bearing purple flowers and a true-breeding (homozygous) parent bearing w hite flow ers. All the offspring had purple flow ers. When these offspring w ere allow ed to self-fertilize, Mendel observed that their offspring occurred in the ratio of 3 purple-flow ered:1 w hite-flow ered plants. The allele determining purple flow ers is symbolized P a nd the allele determining w hite flow ers is symbolized p. Use this information to answ er the following questions. What are the genotypes of the parents? Your Answer: PP; pp 2. Which generation has only purple-flow ered plants? Your Answer: P 3. Which generation tells you which of the traits is dominant? Y our Answer: F3 Correct Answer: P 4. How many phenotypes are present in the generation? Y our Answer: 3 Correct Answer: 1 5. How man y d ifferent g enotyp es are p resent in the g eneration? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 5. The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Y our Answer: 3 Correct Answer: 1 6. Mendel allowed the w hite-flow ered F2 p lants to self-fertilize. What proportion of these F2 p lants produced only w hite-flow ered offspring? Your Answer: none 7. Mendel allowed the purple-flowered F2 p lants to self-fertilize. What proportion of these F2 p lants produced only purple-flow ered offspring? Your Answer: none 8. If a heterozygous purple-flow ered pea plant is crossed with a homozygous w hite-flow ered plant, what proportion of offspring w ill be white-flowered? Your Answer: none 9. Given w hat you know about the alleles that determine purple and w hite color in pea flow ers, w hy is it possible to have a purple-flowered heterozygote, but not a w hite-flow ered heterozygote? Your Answer: (blank) 10. In considering flower color in pea plants, we are dealing with _____ gene(s) and _____ allele(s). Y our Answer: 1; 2 Correct Answer: 1; 1 11. The next three questions require you to apply rules of probability. In a toss of two coins, what is the chance of obtaining two heads? Y our Answer: 12.5 percent Correct Answer: 0 wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 12. The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di What rule of probability w as used to determine the chance of obtaining tw o heads? Your Answer: (blank) 13. Now, use this rule to solve the follow ing problem. In a cross between tw o purple-flow ered heterozygotes 75 percent of their offspring are expected to be purple-flow ered. In a cross betw een two heterozygotes with yellow-colored seeds, 25 percent of their offspring are expected to be green. If tw o purpleflow ered, yellow -seeded individuals, each heterozygous for both genes, are crossed, w hat proportion of their offspring are expected to be purple-flowered w ith green seeds? Your Answer: (blank) 14. By observing flow er color in snapdragons, is it possible to unambiguously determine the genotype? Is the same true for flower color in peas? Why or w hy not? Your Answer: (blank) 15. If the alleles for snapdragon flow er color were codominant, instead of incompletely dominant, a possible phenotype for a heterozygous individual w ould be: Y our Register to View Answercheckerboard pattern of red and w hite regions on flow ers Correct Answer: pure red flowers 16. If tw o individuals with AB blood type marry, w hat proportion of their children are expected to have AB blood type? Your Answer: none E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: Send as: Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 T A: O the r: He lp The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The First Geneticist: Mendel Site: and His Dis > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:03 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 20 que stions: 2 corre ct: 18 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. Alternate forms of a gene that govern the expression of the same trait and that occur at the same positions on homologous chromosomes are called ... (level 1). Y our Answer: chromatids. Correct Answer: alleles. Incorrect: These are copies of a chromosome that result from DNA replication. 2. A diploid cell with four total chromosomes is heterozygous at 10 different genes. Do these genes assort independently during meiosis? (level 2) Y our Answer: Not enough information is given to determine if the genes assort independently. Correct Answer: No. Incorrect: Can a cell w ith four chromosomes possibly have 10 independently assorting genes? 3. In Mendel's garden peas, the tallness (T) trait is dominant over the dw arf condition (t), round seed (R) is dominant to w rinkled seeds (r), purple flow ers (P) are dominant to w hite flowers (p), and one-pod seeds (S) are dominant to three-pod seeds (s). These genes are all located on separate chromosomes. Suppose a plant heterozygous for each gene is self-fertilized, and 1,000 offspring are produced. How many w ould Mendel have expected to be dwarf w ith purple flowers and w rinkled one-pod seeds? (level 1). Y our Answer: 9 Correct Answer: 35 Incorrect: Determine the probability of getting purple flow ers alone (ignore the other traits). Do this for each trait and multiply their separate probabilities. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di For codominant genes, the standard procedure of using capital and lowercase letters for the different alleles is inadequate. For codominant genes, a superscript is used. For example, the human blood type A allele is indicated as "IA" and the Type B allele is indicated as "IB." The recessive allele that is responsible for Type O blood is still given the low ercase letter "i." In a family of six children, tw o are blood Type O, two are blood Type AB, one is blood Type B, and another Type A. What are the possible genotypes of the parents? (level 1) Y our Answer: IAi x IAIB Correct Answer: IAi x IBi Incorrect: Review Section 11.8, "Lessons from Blood Types." 4. 5. The fact that all seven of the garden pea traits studied by Mendel obeyed the principle of independent assortment means that ...(level 2) Y our Answer: seven pairs of alleles determining these traits are on the same pair of homologous chromosomes. Correct Answer: seven pairs of alleles determining these traits behave as if each is on separate chromosome pairs. Incorrect: Review the concept of independent assortment (Section 11.5). 6. In an individual w ith genotype AaBbCcDDEe, what proportion of the gametes produced w ill have an "A" allele? (level 1) Y our Answer: 9/16 Correct Answer: 1/2 Incorrect: You w ould be more likely to see the ratio among offspring in the F1 dihybrid cross. 7. Assuming no gene interactions, a cross between tw o heterozygous individuals (AaBb) at two independently assorting genes will produce an expected phenotypic ratio of ... (level 2) Y our Answer: 1:1:1:1. Correct Answer: 9:3:3:1. Incorrect: You might get this ratio if you crossed a heterozygote w ith homozygous recessive for tw o genes. 8. A cross betw een two heterozygous individuals (AaBb) at tw o independently assorting incompletely dominant genes will produce an expected phenotypic ratio of ... (level 2 ) wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Y our Answer: 1:1:1:1. Correct Answer: 1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1. Incorrect: You might get this ratio if you crossed a heterozygote w ith homozygous recessive for tw o completely dominant genes. 9. You have become a renow ned marine biologist, and in your travels you discover a species of fish that is diploid and reproduces exactly like other sexually reproducing animals w ith the exception that this animal is hermaphroditic (it has both male and female reproductive organs and can self-fertilize). You mate tw o fish, and then raise one of their offspring and allow it to self-fertilize, producing hundreds of offspring. Which of the follow ing w ould be true of the offspring of this individual? (level 2) Y our Answer: They would be phenotypically identical to their parent. Correct Answer: They would have the same alleles as their parent, but they would be shuffled into different combinations, resulting in phenotypically different offspring. Incorrect: Independent assortment shuffles maternal and paternal alleles during gamete formation. What effect w ould this have on this individual's offspring? 10. In another species of flow ering plant, the tallness (T) trait is dominant over the dwarf condition (t), and red flow ers (R) are dominant to white flow ers (r). Suppose a plant heterozygous for both genes is crossed w ith an individual that is homozygous recessive for each trait. The cross produces a 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio. Are these tw o genes located on separate homologous pairs? (level 2) Your Answer: Yes, the cross TtRr x ttrr w ould give us an expected 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio if the genes assorted independently. C orrect: In this cross you would expect a 1:1:1:1 ratio because, if the genes do assort independently, the heterozygous parent w ould be expected to produce each of the four types of gametes in equal proportions. This would result in offspring being produced in equal proportions. 11. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) was dominant over dw arf (t), and purple flow ers (P) were dominant over w hite flowers (p). Assuming that these genes w ould sort independently, how many different types of gametes would be produced in a plant with the genotype TtPP? (level 2) Y our Answer: 8 Correct Answer: 2 Incorrect: Review the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) was dominant over dw arf (t), and purple flow ers (P) were dominant over w hite flowers (p). A plant w ith genotype the ttPp w ould have w hich phenotype? (level 1) Y our Answer: dw arf plant with white flowers Correct Answer: dw arf plant with purple flow ers Incorrect: The w hite trait is recessive and requires homozygous recessive alleles to be expressed. 12. 13. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) was dominant over dw arf (t), and purple flow ers (P) were dominant over w hite flowers (p). If a plant with the genotype ttPp w ere crossed w ith a plant that w as Ttpp, the phenotypic ratio of the offspring would be ... (level 1) Y our Answer: 3:1. Correct Answer: 1:1:1:1. Incorrect: This is the phenotypic ratio that would be expected for a monohybrid cross. 14. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) was dominant over dw arf (t), and purple flow ers (P) were dominant over w hite flowers (p). A plant that had a phenotype of dw arf plant and white flow ers had w hich genotype? (level 1) Y our Answer: ttPP Correct Answer: ttpp Incorrect: This plant w ould produce one recessive and one dominant trait. 15. For Mendel's pea plants, tall (T) was dominant over dw arf (t), and purple flow ers (P) were dominant over w hite flowers (p). A plant that had a phenotype of tall plant and purple flow ers must have had w hich genotype? (level 1) Y our Answer: TTPp Correct Answer: The genotype cannot be deduced from the phenotype. Incorrect: Although this is a correct genotype, is it the only possible genotype that could produce this phenotype? 16. A mother w ho is heterozygous for blood Type A states that a man w ho is heterozygous for blood Type B is the father of her baby. What blood type must the baby have if the man is indeed the baby's father? (level 2) Y our Answer: Type A wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Correct Answer: All the above are possible blood types for the baby. Incorrect: Although the baby could have this blood type, is this the only possibility? 17. On their w edding day, a man and wife decide that they want to have three daughters. What is the probability that this w ill actually occur? (level 2) Y our Answer: 1/2 Correct Answer: 1/8 Incorrect: This is the chance of having either a boy or a girl baby at each birth. 18. For the Punnett square below, the genotype of parent 1 is ______ w hile that of parent 2 is ______. (level 1) Your Answer: Aa / aa C orrect: By follow ing the letters across and dow n, w e can decipher what the parental genotypes are. 19. A plant w ith orange flow ers is crossed with another plant w ith orange flowers. The offspring show the phenotypic ratio of one red flower:two orange flow ers:one yellow flower. These plants are displaying a classic example of ... (level 1) Y our Answer: pleiotropy. Correct Answer: incomplete dominance. Incorrect: This is seen w hen one gene has many effects in the phenotype. 20. A trait, such as skin color, that is coded for by more than one gene is an example of ...(level 1) Y our Answer: incomplete dominance. Correct Answer: polygenic inheritance. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Di Incorrect: This is only seen w hen there are three different phenotypes: tw o extremes and one intermediate. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Traits and Chromosomes" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes and Site: Inheritance > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Traits and Chromosomes Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:16 PM (EDT) 20% Correct of 15 questions 3 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More information about scoring 1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a sex-linked allele. Its victims are almost always boys who die before the age of 20. Why is this disorder almost never seen in girls? Your Answer: males carrying the allele don't usually live long enough to reproduce Correct Answer: girls must receive the allele from both their mother and their father Incorrect. Males are not carriers of sex-linked alleles. 2. Hemophilia is a sex linked disorder. Which is the best prediction of the offspring if the mother is a carrier and the father has hemophilia? Your Answer: 25% of the daughters will have hemophilia and all of the sons w ill have hemophilia Correct Answer: 50% of the sons will have hemophilia and 50% of the daughters w ill have hemophilia Incorrect. Construct a Punnett square to solve this problem. 3. When can a trait be expressed when only one allele for that trait is present? Your Answer: w hen the allele is on the Y chromosome in the female Correct Answer: w hen the allele is on the X chromosome in the male Incorrect. Females do not have a Y chromosome. wps.aw.com//index.html 4. A female is born w ith color blindness. What must have ha pp ened? 1/5 9/14/2010 4. 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Your Answer: her mother is colorblind and her father is a carrier of the trait Correct Answer: her father is colorblind and her mother is a carrier of the trait Incorrect. Males are not carriers of colorblindness. 5. How many pairs of autosomes are present in humans? Your Answer: 46 Correct Answer: 22 Incorrect. Humans do not have 46 pairs of chromosomes. 6. The condition found mostly in plants, where there are more than 2 sets of chromosomes per cell is called: Your Answer: Multiple alleles Correct Answer: Polyploidy Incorrect. The term multiple alleles does refer to an extra set of chromosomes. 7. Phenylketonuria is caused by an autosomal recessive allele. A man is the carrier of the disorder; his w ife does not have PKU and is not a carrier. What is the probability their offspring w ill have the disorder and other will be carriers? Your Answer: 0% of males would be carriers and 100% of females would be carriers Correct Answer: 0% of the offspring will have the disorder; 50% will be carriers Incorrect. Perform a Punnett square to complete this problem. 8. A karyotype reveals that a w oman is carrying a fetus that has 47 chromosomes. The test reveals that the genotype of the fetus is XYY. Which of the follow ing statements would be correct? Your Answer: this is a trisomy; most likely the sperm cell had a nondisjunction C orrect. The extra Y chromosome must have come from the sperm. 9. Which of the follow ing explanations could account for the fact that dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders? Your Answer: recessive lethal alleles must cause sterility Correct Answer: carrying one dominant lethal allele causes death, carrying one recessive lethal allele does not Incorrect. Recessive alleles that are lethal do not cause sterility. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an If a disease is caused by a dominant allele, it means that a person w ith the disease: Your Answer: only needs to have one copy of the allele that causes the disease in order to have symptoms of the disease C orrect. The dominant phenotype w ill be seen in individuals that have one or tw o copies of the dominant allele. 10. 11. A person w ith an inherited disorder has a child with a person who does not have the disorder. Half the children have the disorder, both males and females. The pattern of inheritance is: Your Answer: sex linked Correct Answer: dominant Incorrect. An equal number of males and females have the disease. 12. A karyotype you are view ing show s an extra piece of chromosome #1 attached to chromosome #22. What type of abnormality caused this? Your Answer: deletion Correct Answer: translocation Incorrect. A deletion removes alleles on a chromosome. 13. A trait that is observed often in males and rarely in females is most likely located on: Your Answer: an autosome Correct Answer: the X chromosome Incorrect. Autosomal inheritance is the same in males and females. 14. If a w hite-eye male is breed with a red-eye female which of the following could never occur? Your Answer: some of the males w ould have white eyes Correct Answer: all of the females would have w hite eyes Incorrect. If the female is heterozygous it is possible for some of the males to have white eyes. 15. Suppose an allele for a particular trait w as carried on the Y chromosome of a male fly. What percentage of male offspring would express that trait? Y our Answer: 100% C orrect. All males receive their Y chromosome from their father. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an wps.aw.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes and Site: Inheritance > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:15 PM (EDT) 18% Correct of 39 questions 7 correct: 32 incorrect: 1 8% 8 2% More information about scoring 1. A trait like white eyes instead of red eyes in fruit flies or color blindness instead of normal vision in humans is more commonly seen in males than in females. When that type of inheritance pattern emerges, it is a good indication that the trait is 1 2.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) caused by ______. ( Your Answer: an autosomal recessive trait Correct Register to View Answerrecessive X-linked gene Incorrect. If the genes w ere dominant, we would see it expressed evenly in both males and females. 2. Hemophilia is a sex-linked disorder. Which is the best prediction of the offspring if 1 2.1 X-Linked the mother is a carrier and the father has hemophilia? ( Inheritance in Humans ) Your Answer: All sons w ill have hemophilia and all daughters will be normal. Correct Answer: Fifty percent of the sons will have hemophilia, and 50% of the daughters will have hemophilia. Incorrect. Construct a Punnett square to solve this problem, remembering that the trait is X-linked. 3. A female is born w ith color blindness. What is the most probable genotype of the parents? ( 1 2.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) Your Answer: Her mother is color-blind and her father is a carrier of the trait. Correct Answer: Her father is color-blind and her mother is a carrier of the trait. Incorrect. Construct a Punnett square to solve this problem, remembering that the trait is X-linked. 4. What is the result from change of the hemoglobin gene in sickle-cell anemia? ( wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) Your Answer: hemoglobin S, a form of hemoglobin that coalesces into crystals C orrect. Hb S gives the typical sickle shape to the RBC in these patients. 5. A person w ho is a carrier for a genetic disease has which of the following 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) phenotypes? ( Your Answer: They do not have the disease. C orrect. A carrier is carrying not only the recessive allele that causes the disease but also a dominant "normal" allele that masks the expression of the disease. 6. How many pairs of autosomes are present in humans? ( Disorders ) Your Answer: 44 Correct Answer: 22 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Incorrect. Humans do not have this number of pairs of autosomes. 7. Which of the follow ing explanations could account for dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders being less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) disorders? ( Your Answer: All dominant alleles cause death before childbearing age. Correct Answer: Carrying one dominant lethal allele causes death; carrying one recessive lethal allele does not. Incorrect. Dominant alleles result in disease with only one allele. 8. If a disease is caused by a dominant allele, it means that a person w ith the disease ________. ( 12.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) Your Answer: w ill pass it on to children only if the person's mate also has the disease Correct Answer: need to have only one copy of the allele that causes the disease to have symptoms of the disease Incorrect. This person may only have one copy of the disease-causing allele (heterozygous). 9. Much genetic information can be derived from pedigrees (family genetic histories). This is done primarily for humans because ____________. ( 1 2.3 Tracking Traits with Pedigrees ) Your Answer: humans have many chromosomes Correct Answer: humans cannot be crossed experimentally Incorrect. Think about the difficulty about experiments with humans. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an A plant biologist develops a seedless fruit. To be seedless, the fruit must be sterile. The sterility is the result of adding an entire set of chromosomes to the genome of the organism. What is this condition called? ( 1 2.4 Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy) Your Answer: aneuploidy Correct Answer: polyploidy Incorrect. To get sterile fruit, genes must be added into the genome of a diploid organism. 10. 11. Alterations in a single trait, like white eyes versus red eyes in fruit flies or color 1 2.4 blindness versus normal vision in humans, are the result of ______. ( Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy) ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) ( 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes ) Your Answer: Polyploidy Correct Answer: Mutations Incorrect. Which term means "change the DNA?" 12. Which of the follow ing can result in aneuploidy? ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Register to View Answernormal sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell with the recessive allele for Dow n syndrome. Correct Register to View Answernormal sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell in w hich nondisjunction of chromosome 21 occurred during anaphase II. Incorrect. Find the example that represents a situation where you would get more genetic material. 13. Which of the follow ing can result in Dow n syndrome? ( Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Register to View Answerchromosomal deletion Correct Answer: nondisjunction during meiosis Incorrect. Review w hat nondisjunction is. 1 2.5 Incorrect 14. What is nondisjunction? ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate C orrect. The cause of nondisjunction is improper separation of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids. 15. Karyotyping was done for a patient of suspected blood cancer. Chromosomal analysis indicated that there w as an extra-long chromosome 9 and a shorter chromosome 22, called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia , a form of blood cancer in which a big p ortion of chromosome 22 wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an is transferred to chromosome 9 and a small portion of 22 is transferred to 1 2.6 chromosome 9. What is this form of chromosomal abnormality called? ( Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes ) Your Answer: duplication Correct Answer: translocation Incorrect. You don't understand this term. 16. The b and c genes on a chromosome are linked. BBCC bbcc is crossed to produce the F1 h eterozygotes. Which of the following gametes can an F1 h eterozygote produce? Your Answer: Bc Correct Answer: BC, Bc, bC, and bc Incorrect. This is not the only possibility. 17. A fruit fly that is heterozygous for tw o genes (AaBb) is crossed with a homozygous recessive fruit fly (aabb). If the genes assorted independently, what proportion of the offspring would have the same phenotype as the parents? ( 12.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: 75% Correct Answer: 25% AaBb and 25% aabb Incorrect. Diagram a dihybrid cross and see the results. 18. If a somatic cell from a diploid organism has 32 chromosomes, how many chromosomes w ould be in a gamete that is the result of nondisjunction involving a single pair of homologous chromosome? ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: 32 or 64 Correct Answer: 15 or 17 Incorrect. Consider the difference in the number of chromosomes in somatic cells and gametes. Refer to Chapter 10. 19. Nondisjunction during meiosis can occur at either the first or second meiotic division. Although neither event is desired, w hy w ould a nondisjunction during the second meiotic division be preferred over a nondisjunction in the first meiotic 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes ) division? ( Your Answer: The overall product of meiosis would be that no gametes produced. Correct Answer: The overall products of meiosis w ould be 50% normal and 50% abnormal gametes. Incorrect. This would be impossible for either case of nondisjunction. 20. Amniocentesis is a technique __________. ( Chromosomes ) 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Y our Answer: used in prenatal diagnosis to detect chromosomal mutations and metabolic disorders in embryos C orrect. It is one of the prenatal genetic-testing methods. 21. What is the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)? ( Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes ) Your Answer: detecting pregnancy in women 1 2.6 Correct Answer: screening of embryos of in vitro fertilization for genetic defects Incorrect. It is not used for the diagnosis of this disease. 22. Which statement about Down syndrome is FALSE? ( Number: Aneuploidy) 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Your Answer: The cause is a nondisjunction w hen chromosomes do not separate during the meiotic division. Correct Answer: Affected individuals have an extra sex chromosome. Incorrect. It is important to understand the circumstances leading to a nondisjunctional event in Dow n syndrome. 23. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) is an example of chromosomal aneuploidy that can be 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: readily diagnosed by ________. ( Aneuploidy) Your Answer: biochemical analysis Correct Answer: karyotyping Incorrect. Since it is a chromosomal abnormality, w hat is the best w ay to detect it? 24. An X-linked carrier is a ___________. ( 12.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) Your Answer: homozygous recessive female Correct Answer: heterozygous female Incorrect. A female can only be homozygous or heterozygous for X-linked traits because she has XX. A male has XY. 25. Which of the follow ing is a transfer of genetic material betw een nonhomologous 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes ) chromosomes? ( Your Answer: trisomy Correct Answer: translocation Incorrect. Distinguish betw een the transfer of genetic material betw een homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes and nondisjunction. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by ________. ( Chromosomes ) Your Answer: aneuploidy Correct Answer: deletion Incorrect. Distinguish betw een various structural aberrations in chromosomes and their effects on the human phenotype. 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in 26. 27. Which of the follow ing genetic conditions is seen more often in males than in 1 2.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) ( 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic females? ( Disorders ) ( 1 2.4 Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy) ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: Dow n syndrome Correct Answer: Duchenne muscular dystrophy Incorrect. The question here is w hether there is predominance of these conditions in males, so the inheritance of this disorder should be linked to the sex chromosomes. 28. A female is not color-blind, but half her sons are color-blind. Her daughters are not 1 2.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) color-blind. Which conclusion is correct? ( Your Answer: Color blindness is dominant. Correct Answer: The woman is heterozygous for the color-blindness gene. Incorrect. A Punnett square will answer this question. 29. X-linked conditions are caused by ___________. ( Humans ) 12.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Your Answer: inheritance of an extra X chromosome Correct Answer: genes on the X chromosome Incorrect. The information on the chromosomes is located on the genes that make proteins. 30. A trait is seen w ith equal frequency in males and females. Tw o people w ho do not have the trait might have offspring w ho do have the trait, at a frequency of approximately 1 in 4. The inheritance of this trait is __________. ( 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) Your Answer: recessive and autosomal C orrect. In an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, the ratio is 3:1. 31. Which disease is autosomal and results in misshapen RBCs that clog capillaries? ( 1 2.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders ) Your Answer: sickle-cell anemia wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an C orrect. Sickle-cell anemia typically has the deformed sickle-shaped RBCs that clog capillaries. 32. What is one difference betw een polyploidy and aneuploidy? ( 1 2.4 Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy) ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: Polyploidy is extra sets of chromosomes; aneuploidy does not increase by a full set. C orrect. Polyploidy is more than two sets of chromosomes w hereas aneuploidy does not increase by a full set. 33. Nondisjunction involving the X chromosomes may occur during oogenesis and produce tw o kinds of eggs. If normal sperm fertilize the two types of eggs, which of the following pairs of genotypes are possible? ( 12.4 Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy) ( 1 2.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: XYY and YO Correct Answer: XXY and XO Incorrect. Review Figures 12.2 and 12.7 in your textbook. A Punnett square w ould be helpful to w ork on the genotypes of offspring. 34. Which of the follow ing is correct regarding the sex chromosomes? ( Linked Inheritance in Humans ) 1 2.1 X- Your Answer: X and Y are different in size but carry nearly equal numbers of genes. Correct Answer: The X chromosome carries more genes for nonsexual traits than does the Y chromosome. Incorrect. Review section 12.1 and Chapter 10 in your textbook. 35. The pedigrees of the European royal families show hemophilia w as carried by Queen Victoria's daughters, w hich had important consequences in European history. What are the consequences of hemophilia? ( 1 2.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans ) Your Answer: The Factor VIII gene is located on an autosome. Correct Answer: The blood does not clot after an injury. Incorrect. What would be the cause of hemophilia? Review section 12.1 in your textbook. 36. The main advantage of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) over 1 2.6 Structural Aberrations in amniocentesis is that _________________. ( Chromosomes ) Your Answer: PGD can be done later than amniocentesis Correct Answer: PGD can be done three days after fertilization, and amniocentesis is performed many months after conception, w hen the fetus is more mature wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Incorrect. Review the differences betw een the two techniques. 37. Which condition or disease can be caused by aneuploidy? ( Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy) Your Answer: hemophilia Correct Answer: Dow n syndrome 1 2.5 Incorrect Incorrect. Review sections 12.1, 12.2, 12.4, and 12.5 in your textbook. 38. The probability that a man inherited his Y chromosome from his maternal 1 2.3 Tracking Traits with Pedigrees ) ( 10.4 Meiosis grandfather is______. ( and Sex Outcome ) Your Answer: 50% Correct Answer: 0% Incorrect. Which sex chromosome does the mother contribute to her son? 39. A w oman whose husband w orked as an X-ray technician gives birth to a 1 2.1 X-Linked hemophiliac son. Which of the following statements is true? ( Inheritance in Humans ) Your Answer: Hemophilia is environmentally induced, not genetic. Correct Answer: She should not blame the exposure because she carried the hemophilia allele. Incorrect. Review the cause of hemophilia. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 12. Units of Heredity: Chromosomes an Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Chromosomes and Site: Inheritance > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:07 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Much genetic information can be derived from pedigrees (family genetic histories). Such information is especially helpful in connection with humans because Y our Answer: humans are too complicated Correct Answer: humans cannot be crossed experimentally 2. Sickle-cell anemia patients have a different form of _____, which leads to _____. Y our Answer: pigment, color blindness Correct Answer: hemoglobin, decreased oxygen transport 3. Individuals most protected against malaria are those w ho Your Answer: are heterozygous for sickle-cell anemia (one hemoglobin A, one hemoglobin S) 4. Inheritance of a dominant autosomal disorder differs from inheritance of an autosomal recessive disorder in that: Y our Register to View Answerdominant disorder may be passed on only if both parents are affected. Correct Register to View Answerdominant disorder may be passed on even if only one parent is affected. 5. An individual having 44 autosomes and one X chromosome w ould be classified as: Y our Answer: polyploid wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance Correct Answer: both b and d 6. A human embryo w ith 69 chromosomes w ould Y our Answer: die in the w omb or shortly after birth Correct Answer: both a and b 7. Which of the follow ing statements is not true regarding Dow n syndrome? Your Register to View Answerw oman over 35 increases her chance of having a Dow n syndrome child to 1 out of every 40 births. 8. Nondisjunction can occur in Y our Answer: mitosis or meiosis II Correct Answer: either meiosis I or II 9. A carrier is a person w ho Y our Answer: suffers from a recessive disorder Correct Register to View Answerand d 10. What do all human males inherit from their mother? Y our Answer: an X chromosome Correct Register to View Answerand b only E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 O the r: He lp Chromosomes and Inheritance Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms 3. Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder associated with an allele of one autosomal gene. Individuals with neurofibromatosis have uneven skin pigmentation and skin tumors. A man with neurofibromatosis marries a normal woman who does not carry the allele for this disorder. The couple has 5 children, 3 of whom have neurofibromatosis. The most likely explanation for this outcome is that neurofibromatosis is a _____ trait and the man is _____. . Answer: recessive; homozygous recessive 8. Consider the following pedigree, which posits a fantasy gene for ear shape, symbolized by P for the regular allele or p for a pointy-shaped allele if this is an autosomal trait; or by for the regular allele or for the pointy allele if this is an X-linked trait. Please refer to the figure in your textbook to help you answer this question. This pedigree indicates the trait is most likely inherited as an: . Answer: autosomal dominant wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Chromosomes and Site: Inheritance > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:06 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Refer to the following pedigree on albinism in a South African tribe. Which of the follow ing is the likely inheritance pattern for albinism in this family? (level 1) O-> - normal male @-> - albino male O+ - normal female @+ - albino female Y our Answer: Y-linked recessive Correct Answer: autosomal recessive Incorrect: Can a girl get a Y-linked trait? 2. The gene for color blindness is sex-linked recessive. The gene for eye color is autosomal, with brown eyes dominant to blue eyes. A blue-eyed man w hose mother w as color-blind marries a woman w ho is heterozygous for the eye color gene and the color-blindness gene. What are the chances that their first child w ill be a blue-eyed, color-blind male? (level 2) Y our Answer: 1/4 Correct Answer: 1/8 Incorrect: Try doing a dihybrid Punnett square. Count up the total number of blue-eyed, color-blind males out of the total number of possible phenotypes. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance Refer to the following pedigree on "blue skin" in the Fugate family of Kentucky. 3. O-> - normal male @-> - blue-skin male O+ - normal female @+ - blue-skin female Which of the follow ing is the likely inheritance pattern for "blue skin" in this family? (level 2) Y our Answer: autosomal recessive Correct Answer: cannot definitely be determined from this pedigree This is a possible inheritance pattern, but are there any other possibilities? 4. Which of the follow ing can result in Dow n syndrome? (level 1) Y our Answer: an inversion Correct Answer: non-disjunction during meiosis Incorrect: Review Section 12.4 on Down syndrome. 5. A normal human sperm fertilizes an egg in which non-disjunction of the X chromosomes occurred during anaphase I. Which of the following is NOT a possible karyotype of the resulting zygote? (level 2) Your Register to View Answercompletely normal XX or XY zygote C orrect: This would not be possible because an egg cell that results from nondisjunction during anaphase I w ould either have two X chromosomes or it w ould lack an X chromosome. 6. Which of the follow ing can result in aneuploidy? (level 1) Y our Register to View Answernormal sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell w ith the recessive allele for Dow n syndrome. Correct Register to View Answernormal s p erm cell fertilizes an e gg cell in w hich non- wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance d isjunction of chromosome #21 occurred during anaphase II. Incorrect: Review the cause of Dow n syndrome in Section 12.4. 7. Sickle cell anemia is a debilitating genetic disease that often results in death during childhood. The allele that causes sickle cell anemia is more common than one might expect among Africans (about 1 in 10 individuals have the allele). Why is this harmful allele so common in this population? (level 2) Y our Answer: Sickle cell anemia is caused by a dominant allele. Correct Answer: Carriers of sickle cell anemia have some resistance to malaria, a common disease in Africa. Incorrect: Sickle cell anemia is caused by a recessive allele, although this has little to do with why it is so common in Africa. 8. A fruit fly that is heterozygous for tw o genes (AaBb) is crossed w ith a homozygous recessive individual (aabb). If the genes assorted independently, then w hat proportion of the offspring would have the same phenotype as the parents? (level 2) Y our Answer: 75% Correct Answer: 50% Incorrect: This cross w ould produce an expected 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio. 9. A fruit fly that is heterozygous for tw o genes (BbCc) is crossed w ith a homozygous recessive individual (bbcc). If the genes w ere closely linked on the same chromosome, then w hich of the following would be true of the offspring in this cross? (level 2) Your Answer: We w ould get more offspring that have the same phenotype as one of the parents and few er offspring that are phenotypically different from the parents. C orrect: The offspring that are phenotypically different from the parents are the result of the fertilization of a gamete in w hich a crossover event occurred. 10. The "b" gene is closely linked on the same chromosome as the "c" gene. BBCC x bbcc is crossed to produce the F1 heterozygotes. Which of the follow ing gametes can an F1 heterozygote produce? (level 2) Y our Answer: bc Correct Answer: all of the above Is this the only possibility? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance 11. The cell pictured below has the genotype AabB. Assuming NO crossing over could occur, how many different possible gametes could it produce? (level 2) Your Answer: 2 C orrect: Because the genes are linked and there is no crossing over, the only possible gametes w ould be Ab and aB. 12. The cell pictured below has the genotype AabB. Assuming that crossing over COULD occur, how many different possible gametes can it produce? (level 2) Your Answer: 4 C orrect: Although the genes are linked, crossing over increases the possible gametes Ab, aB, AB, and ab. 13. A female employee was accidentally exposed to a small dose of X-ray radiation w hile at w ork. Some of the X-ray radiation penetrated her body and struck her developing egg cell in her ovary, causing one of the arms on a replicated chromosome to break. As the egg continued through meiosis, the broken piece of chromosome did not reconnect with its original chromosome but w as instead lost in the cytoplasm. This type of chromosomal aberration is considered to be ...(level 1) Y our Register to View Answerduplication. Correct Register to View Answerdeletion. Incorrect: A duplication occurs when a second copy of a gene is inserted into a chromosome. 14. A female employee was accidentally exposed to a small dose of X-ray radiation w hile at w ork. Some of the X-ray radiation penetrated her body and struck her developing egg cell in her ovary, causing one of the arms on a replicated chromosome to break. Before reconnecting with its original chromosome the broken p iece flip s-over, s o that the broken end now becomes the terminal end wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance o f the arm. This type of chromosomal aberration is considered to be ...(level 1) Y our Register to View Answertranslocation. Correct Answer: an inversion. Incorrect: A translocation occurs w hen two arms of different chromosomes are broken and sw apped. 15. A female employee was accidentally exposed to a small dose of X-ray radiation w hile at w ork. Some of the X-ray radiation penetrated her body and struck her developing egg cell in her ovary, causing one arm on the replicated chromosome 10 and one arm on the replicated chromosome 15 to break off. Before reconnecting, the tw o broken pieces sw itch places so that the broken piece of chromosome 10 becomes attached to chromosome 15 and vice versa. This type of chromosomal aberration is considered to be ...(level 1) Y our Answer: an inversion. Correct Register to View Answertranslocation. Incorrect: An inversion occurs when the small piece is flipped-over and reconnects to the broken chromatid arm. 16. Alterations in a single trait, such as w hite eyes versus red eyes in fruit flies or color-blind versus normal vision in humans are the result of ...(level 1) Y our Answer: linkage. Correct Answer: mutations. Incorrect: How ever, linkage does cause alteration in traits. It is the natural result of having a large number of genes and only a limited number of chromosomes. 17. Traits such as w hite eyes versus red eyes in fruit flies or color-blind versus normal vision in humans are more commonly seen in males than in females. When this type of inheritance pattern emerges, it is a good indication that ...(level 1) Y our Answer: the trait is caused by a chromosomal aberration. Correct Answer: the trait is caused by a recessive X-linked gene. Incorrect: Chromosomal aberrations cause w idespread effects such as cri-duchat syndrome. 18. A person w ho is a carrier for a genetic disease has which of the following phenotypes? (level 1) Y our Answer: The y d o not have the disease in childhood but w ill develo p wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 Chromosomes and Inheritance the disease later in life. Correct Answer: They do not have the disease. Incorrect: Carriers cannot develop the disease, because they have a "normal" dominant allele that w ill alw ays mask the expression of the disease. 19. Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disorder. What is the probability that a child of a heterozygous parent with Huntington's disease w ill also have the disease? (level 1) Y our Answer: 0 Correct Answer: 0.5 Incorrect: Do a simple monohybrid cross using a Punnett square, then look at the phenotypes of the offspring. 20. Non-disjunction during meiosis can occur at either the first or second meiotic division. Although neither event is desired, w hy would a non-disjunction during the second meiotic division be preferred over a non-disjunction in the first meiotic division? (level 2) Y our Answer: because the overall products of meiosis w ould be 100% normal gametes Correct Answer: because the overall products of meiosis w ould be 50% normal and 50% abnormal gametes Incorrect: This w ould be impossible for either case of non-disjunction. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: DNA" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Site: Structure, and Replication > Student Home > Animations Quiz: DNA Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:18 PM (EDT) 33% Correct of 12 questions 4 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 3 3% 6 7% More information about scoring 1. According to Chargaff's rule, which of the following base-pairings is correct? Your Answer: adenine --thymine C orrect. A and T normally pair. 2. Which of the follow ing is not part of the nucleotide structure that makes up the DNA molecule? Your Register to View Answernitrogenous base Correct Register to View Answercarboxyl group Incorrect. A nitrogenous base is part of a nucleotide. 3. During DNA replication one template has the following base sequence AACTGGCTA, what would be the sequence on the complementary strand? Your Answer: GGACTTACG Correct Answer: TTGACCGAT Incorrect. The complementary strand needs to base pair with the template strand. 4. If you took a normal cell and replaced its thymine (T) w ith radioactive T and you allowed this cell to divide once, which of these results w ould you expect? Your Answer: the DNA in each of the daughter cells w ould be radioactive C orrect. During semiconservative replication each original DNA strand w ill serve as a template to make a complementary new strand. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA What is the correct relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes? Your Register to View Answergene contains many chromosomes w hich are composed of proteins Correct Register to View Answerchromosome contains many genes w hich are composed of DNA Incorrect. Are chromosome made of proteins? 5. 6. How do mutations affect an organism? Your Answer: they may cause the development of a disease-causing allele Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 7. DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, we can expect to find a _____ number of mistakes. Your Answer: large Correct Answer: small Incorrect. DNA polymerase makes few mistakes 8. A female that is planning to become pregnant is concerned about her exposure to environmental mutagens w hich may have caused DNA mutations. In order for these mutations to become heritable, they must affect the: Your Answer: her egg cells C orrect. The gametes are passed to the next generation. 9. Which of the follow ing would indicate a base pairing mutation in DNA? Your Answer: an A paired with a T Correct Register to View AnswerG paired with a T Incorrect. A and T normally pair. 10. Genes provide the information needed to produce _____ in the cell. Your Answer: lipids Correct Answer: enzymes Incorrect. Do genes produce lipids? 11. You have g row n Neuros p ora under a variety o f conditions listed below . You are wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 11. 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA trying to find a w ild-type variety. Neurospora grow ing on w hich of these media could possibly be of the w ild type? Your Answer: minimal media Correct Answer: the w ild-type Neurospora could grow in any of these conditions Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 12. How many enzymes are typically produced from a single gene? Your Answer: one C orrect. This is specified by the one gene-one enzyme theory. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Site: Structure, and Replication > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:17 PM (EDT) 15% Correct of 40 questions 6 corre ct: 34 incorre ct: 1 5% 8 5% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing statements correctly indicates the relationship among 1 3.1 What Do Genes Do, and What Are chromosomes, genes, and proteins? ( They Made of? ) Y our Register to View Answergene is composed of proteins that are found on the chromosomes Correct Register to View Answerchromosome contains many genes that encode for proteins. Incorrect. Recall that each chromosome is composed of many genes. See section 13.1 for more information. 2. Consider the backbone of the DNA double helix. Which of the follow ing statements 13.2 Watson and Crick: The about the structure of the double helix is FALSE? ( Double Helix) Your Answer: It is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups. Correct Answer: The DNA backbone forms the central core of the DNA molecule. Incorrect. Recall that the DNA backbone is made of repeating sugar and PO 4 subunits. See section 13.2 for more information. 3. Genes provide the information needed to produce _____ in the cell. ( 13.1 What Do Genes Do, and What Are They Made of?) ( 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: ribosomes Correct Answer: enzymes Incorrect. Recall the flow of information in a cell. See sections 13.1 and 13.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA How do mutations affect an organism? ( 1 3.4 Mutations ) 4. Your Answer: They may cause the development of a disease-causing allele or a beneficial allele, or they may have no noticeable effect. C orrect. Different mutations have different effects. 5. Which of the follow ing statements about the process of DNA replication is true? ( 13.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) ( 1 3.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: Adenine pairs with guanine, and cytosine pairs with thymine. Correct Answer: It utilizes DNA polymerase, w hich catalyzes the reaction that adds a new nucleotide to the growing strand. Incorrect. Read about the process of replication in section 13.3 and Figure 13.4. 6. Which of the follow ing statements describes a DNA molecule? ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) 13.3 The Your Answer: If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, tw isted rope ladder, the phosphate groups represent rungs on the ladder. Correct Answer: If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, tw isted rope ladder, the interactions of the nitrogenous bases represent the rungs of the ladder. Incorrect. Read about the structure of DNA section 13.3. 7. A single chromatid is composed of _________. ( and Their Arrangement) Your Register to View Answerportion of a DNA strand Correct Register to View AnswerDNA double helix 1 3.3 The Components of DNA Incorrect. Remember that a chromatid is a single copy of a chromosome. See section 13.3 for more information. 8. The DNA base sequence TTGCGATCG on the parent strand w ould code for w hich of 1 3.3 The the follow ing sequences on the newly synthesized strand? ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: CCATAGCTA Correct Answer: AACGCTAGC Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing: A pairs w ith T while C pairs with G. See section 13.3 for more information. 9. According to one of the fundamental rules of base pairings, which of the following 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) base pairings is correct? ( Your Answer: guanine-uracil Correct Answer: adenine-thymine wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. See section 13.3 and Figure 13.3 for more information. 10. If you took a normal cell and replaced its thymine (T) w ith radioactive T and allowed that cell to divide once, which of the following results would you expect? ( 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: The DNA w ould not be radioactive in either daughter cell. Correct Answer: The DNA in each of the daughter cells would be radioactive. Incorrect. Remember that in replication, one strand serves as a template to produce a new strand. See section 13.3 and Figure 13.4 for more information. 11. A DNA sample has 20% C, 23% G, 27% T, and 30% A. This sample must have come from ________. ( 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Register to View Answerpair of homologous chromosomes Correct Register to View Answersingle strand of DNA Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. See section 13.3 for more information. 12. Why is cancer so much more common in older people than in younger people? ( 13.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: Younger people have much better correcting mechanisms in their replication machinery. Correct Answer: For most types of cancer, it usually takes multiple mutations to occur in a cell before it w ill become cancerous. Incorrect. How many mutations typically must occur for cancer to develop? See section 13.4 for more information. 13. For a mutation to play any heritable role, it must _______. ( Your Answer: occur in a somatic cell Correct Answer: occur in a germ-line cell 13.4 Mutations ) Incorrect. What sorts of cells are passed from one generation to the next? See section 13.4 for more information. 14. DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, a 1 3.3 The Components of DNA _____ number of mistakes are likely to occur. ( and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: average Correct Answer: small Incorrect. Recall that the DNA polymerase has a proofreading mechanism. See section 13.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Which of the follow ing would indicate a base-pairing mutation in DNA? ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Register to View AnswerG paired w ith a T C orrect. G and T should not pair. 1 3.3 The 15. 16. How many enzymes are typically produced from a single gene? ( Your Answer: two Correct Answer: one 13.4 Mutations ) Incorrect. An enzyme is a protein. How many proteins are typically produced from a single gene? See section 13.4 for more information. 17. A DNA template has the follow ing base sequence: GGTCAATCG. What w ould be the 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and sequence on the complementary strand? ( Their Arrangement) Your Answer: TTGACCGAT Correct Answer: CCAGTTAGC Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. See section 13.3 for more information. 18. Which of the follow ing statements about gene mutations is FALSE? ( Mutations ) Your Answer: They may have no phenotypic effect on an organism. 1 3.4 Correct Answer: They are responsible for most of the phenotypic differences betw een siblings. Incorrect. Read about the potential outcomes of mutations in section 13.4. 19. In their Nobel Prize-w inning experiments, Beadle and Tatum exposed fungal spores to X-rays to induce mutations. To test if the spores had actually been mutated, the scientists inoculated various media with the mutated spores. Which 1 3.4 of the following media was used as a control in the experiment? ( Mutations ) Your Answer: minimal medium + vitamins Correct Answer: complete medium Incorrect. Which of these choices does not contain a specific variable to be tested? See section 13.4 for more information. 20. Which of the follow ing statements about DNA replication is FALSE? ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: It occurs in all living organisms. 13.3 The Correct Answer: It alw ays produces an exact copy of the entire DNA in the cell. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Incorrect. Recall that mutations occur during DNA replication. See section 13.3 for more information. 21. Which of the follow ing sets is composed of DNA that is most similar? ( 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) ( 1 0.2 The Steps in Meiosis ) Your Answer: homologous chromosomes Correct Answer: sister chromatids before crossing over Incorrect. Read about chromosome structure and DNA replication in section 13.3. 22. Which of the follow ing statements is consistent with the hypothesis that DNA is the 13.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) molecule of inheritance? ( Your Answer: Gametes get twice as much thymine as the original parent cell. Correct Answer: The amount of each of the four nitrogenous bases varies from species to species. Incorrect. Remember the basic rules of base pairing. See section 13.3 for more information. 23. If a point mutation occurred during DNA replication, you w ould immediately expect 13.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) ( to see ________. ( 13.4 Mutations ) Your Register to View Answerchange to the DNA template but not the newly synthesized strand of DNA Correct Register to View Answerchange to the new ly synthesized DNA strand but not the template Incorrect. Remember that during DNA replication, a new strand of DNA is synthesized from a template strand. See sections 13.3 and 13.4 for more information. 24. Mutations that increase trinucleotide repeats in a gene would most likely _________. ( 1 3.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: increase the size of the protein produced from the gene C orrect. The trinucleotide repeats increase the size of the gene, which can increase the size of the protein made from the gene. 25. A single strand of DNA is a very stable molecule. However, the tw o strands of the double helix are not so stable and are easily separated from each other. The best explanation for this is that ___________. ( 1 3.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: the covalent bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are w eak and easily broken Correct Answer: the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are w eak and easily broken Incorrect. What sort of bond w ould allow for the strands of DNA to easily separate? See section 13.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA 26. A certain organism's DNA is composed of 21% guanine. What percentage of 13.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) thymine does it have? ( Your Answer: 25% Correct Answer: 29% Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. See section 13.3 for more information. 27. A DNA sequence reads ATCGCTATCGAC. If the fourth nucleotide is changed to a T, 1 3.3 the fourth nucleotide on the complementary strand w ould be _________. ( The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: G Correct Register to View AnswerIncorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. See section 13.3 for more information. 28. The types of mutations that produce new alleles and drive evolution must occur in 1 3.4 Mutations ) __________. ( Your Answer: cells that have a fast rate of mitosis Correct Answer: germ cells Incorrect. Evolution requires that alleles be passed from one generation to the next. See section 13.4 for more information. 29. If a certain type of Neurospora w as mutated such that it could not synthesize a particular amino acid, on w hich of the following types of media w ould it grow ? ( 13.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: minimal medium Correct Answer: complete medium Incorrect. Which type of medium w ould provide the missing amino acid? See section 13.4 for more information. 30. The nucleotides in one strand of DNA are attached to the nucleotides of another 13.3 The Components of DNA and Their strand of DNA by _______. ( Arrangement) Your Answer: hydrogen bonds betw een phosphates Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds betw een complementary bases Incorrect. Remember that the two strands of DNA must be able to separate during DNA replication. This means that a relatively w eak bond must be used. See section 13.3 for more information. 31. If the sequence CATGTA was used as a template in DNA replication, what would 1 3.3 The the sequence of bases be on the new ly synthesized strand? ( wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA C omponents of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: GTACAT C orrect. Base pairing always results between C and G and between A and T. 32. A point mutation ___________. ( 1 3.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: cannot be repaired Correct Answer: can sometimes be detrimental Incorrect. A point mutation changes a single nucleotide. Read about this type of mutation in section 13.4. 33. An organism's DNA contains 22% cytosine. How much thymine does it have? ( 13.4 Mutations ) Your Answer: 78% Correct Answer: 23% Incorrect. Recall the rules of complementary base pairing. If an organism's DNA contains 22% cytosine, it should have 22% guanine. What does this leave to be split betw een A and T? See section 13.4 for more information. 34. DNA replication errors can be corrected by _______. ( DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: DNA polymerase 13.3 The Components of C orrect. DNA polymerase detects and repairs most errors made in DNA replication. 35. Which of the follow ing is an appropriate base pairing? ( DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: thymine and guanine Correct Answer: adenine and thymine 1 3.3 The Components of Incorrect. Which bases pair w ith each other? See section 13.3 for more information. 36. Which of the follow ing best describes the products of DNA replication? ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) 1 3.3 The Your Answer: two strands of DNA, with each strand consisting of some of the old template strand and the newly synthesized DNA Correct Answer: one new strand of DNA and one old template strand of DNA Incorrect. Remember that in DNA replication, two strands of DNA are being used to produce tw o new strands of DNA. See section 13.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA The difference betw een tw o alleles is the result of _______. ( Your Answer: the sequence of nucleotides C orrect. The sequence of nucleotides makes two alleles different from one another. 1 3.4 Mutations ) 37. 38. A gene is ___________. ( of? ) 1 3.1 What Do Genes Do, and What Are They Made Your Answer: all the DNA on a given chromosome Correct Register to View Answersegment of DNA with information to code for a single protein Incorrect. Read the definition of a gene in section 13.1. 39. The parts of a nucleotide that do not change are the ____________. ( Components of DNA and Their Arrangement) Your Answer: phosphate groups Correct Answer: sugars and phosphate groups 13.3 The Incorrect. Remember that a nucleotide is made of a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Which of these parts is variable? See section 13.3 for more information. 40. If ________ makes an error that is not repaired in its proofreading mechanism, a 1 3.4 Mutations ) mutation w ill result. ( Your Answer: DNA ligase Correct Answer: DNA polymerase Incorrect. Which enzyme is used for DNA replication and proofreading? See section 13.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 13. Passing on Life's Information: DNA Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > DNA Structure and Replication Site: > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:11 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. James Watson and Francis Crick Y our Answer: proved that DNA contains information for the production of proteins Correct Answer: discovered the structure of DNA 2. The type of biological study that w as exemplified through the discovery of DNA structure is called Y our Answer: component biology Correct Answer: molecular biology 3. The components of the DNA handrails are _____ and _____. Your Answer: sugars, phosphates 4. Which of the follow ing combinations is an example of a nucleotide? Y our Answer: sugar + phosphate + thymine Correct Answer: all of the above 5. Which of the follow ing DNA sequences contains a mutation? Your Answer: GATA CTCT 6. If cytosine makes up 26 percent of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an org anism, then adenine would make u p w hat p ercent of the bases? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Y our Answer: 26 Correct Answer: 24 7. If DNAs structure is compared to a spiral staircase, then its stair-steps w ould be Y our Answer: free-floating DNA bases bonded together randomly Correct Answer: paired DNA bases, always linking A and T, or G and C 8. DNA polymerases work to Y our Answer: unw ind the double helix during replication Correct Answer: both c and d 9. Watson and Crick made their momentous discovery about DNA in _____. Y our Answer: 1973 Correct Answer: 1953 10. How are the base pairs of the DNA double helix linked together? Y our Answer: basic bonds Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms 3. DNA polymerases work only in a forward direction. . Register to View Answer wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > DNA Structure and Replication Site: > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:10 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which is NOT true of DNA replication? (level 1) Y our Answer: It occurs in all living organisms. Correct Answer: It always produces an exact copy of the entire DNA in the cell. Incorrect: DNA is a hallmark of all life, and its replication is necessary for reproduction. 2. Which of the follow ing is true of the process of DNA replication? (level 1) Y our Answer: Adenine pairs w ith guanine, and cytosine pairs w ith thymine. Correct Answer: It utilizes DNA polymerase, w hich catalyzes the reaction that adds a new nucleotide to the growing strand. Incorrect: Adenine pairs w ith thymine, and cytosine w ith guanine. 3. The DNA base sequence TTGCGATCG on the parent strand w ould code for w hich sequence on the newly synthesized strand? (level 1) Your Answer: AACGCTAGC C orrect: A pairs with T and G w ith C during replication. 4. Which of the follow ing sets is composed of DNA that is most similar? (level 2) Y our Answer: sister chromatids after crossing over Correct Answer: sister chromatids prior to crossing over Incorrect: Due to shuffling of alleles betw een homologous pairs during crossing over, these may be less similar. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Which of the follow ing is consistent w ith the hypothesis that DNA is the molecule of inheritance? (level 2) Y our Answer: Gametes get tw ice as much thymine as the original parent cell. Correct Answer: The amounts of each of the four nitrogenous bases vary from species to species. Incorrect: Meiosis halves the chromosome number, and therefore the amount of DNA. 5. 6. Which is characteristic of mutations? (level 1) Y our Answer: They are random. Correct Answer: All of the above are characteristics of mutations. Incorrect: Is this all that is true of mutations? 7. Which is characteristic of gene mutation? (level 1) Y our Answer: It may be caused by chemical agents. Correct Answer: All of the above are characteristics of gene mutation. Incorrect: Is this all that is true of mutations? 8. Which of the follow ing is NOT true of gene mutations? (level 1) Y our Answer: They may result in a genetic disorder. Correct Answer: They are responsible for most of the phenotypic differences between siblings. Incorrect: Disorders such as sickle cell anemia and color blindness result from mutated alleles. 9. Which of the follow ing statements describes a DNA molecule? (level 1) Y our Answer: If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, tw isted rope ladder, the sugar and phosphate groups w ould represent the rungs of the ladder. Correct Answer: If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, tw isted rope ladder, the interactions of the nitrogenous bases would represent the rungs of the ladder. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Incorrect: The sugarphosphate backbone holds the nucleotides within each strand together. 10. Which of the follow ing is responsible for the accuracy of DNA replication? (level 1) Y our Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: DNA polymerases Incorrect: Natural selection simply chooses w hich alleles will be adaptive. 11. DNA is which kind of major biological molecule? (level 1) Y our Answer: lipid Correct Answer: nucleic acid Incorrect: No portion of the DNA molecule has any lipid-like component. 12. The information in DNA is used for the production of ... (level 1) Y our Answer: proteins. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only correct answ er in the list? 13. (level 1) Your Answer: 1. phosphate, 2. sugar, 3. nitrogenous base C orrect: The 4 relatively simple nucleotides are responsible for storing an unimaginably vast library of information in the entire DNA of living organisms. 14. While looking at its genetic makeup, researchers discovered that there w ere approximately 500,000 cytosine molecules in the DNA of a bacterium. Which of the follow ing w ould w e also expect to be true? (level 1) Y our Answer: There are 500,000 phosphates in the bacterium's DNA. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Correct Answer: There are 500,000 guanine molecules in the bacterium's DNA. Incorrect: Know ing the quantity of cytosine does not provide any clues as to the number of phosphates. 15. Which of the follow ing enzymes is NOT used to replicate DNA? (level 1) Y our Answer: DNA ligase Correct Answer: DNA synthase Incorrect: DNA ligases are involved in bonding sugar and phosphate groups in replicating DNA. 16. Why is cancer so much more common in older people than in young? (level 1) Your Answer: For most types of cancer, it usually takes multiple mutations to occur in a cell before it will become cancerous. C orrect: Older people have been exposed to more mutation-causing agents, so they are more likely to have accumulated sufficient mutations to cause cancer. 17. Which of the follow ing types of organisms DO NOT reproduce using information that is encoded within DNA? (level 2) Y our Answer: animals Correct Answer: All of the above DO use DNA to reproduce. Incorrect: Animals must transfer genetic information to the next generation, and they use DNA to do this. 18. In their Nobel prize w inning experiments, Beadle and Tatum exposed fungal spores to X rays to induce mutations. To test to see if the spores had actually been mutated, they inoculated a variety of media with the mutated spores. Which of the follow ing media w as used as a control in the experiment? (level 1) Your Answer: nutrient complete medium C orrect: This is w hat is called a "positive" control. 19. In order for a mutation to play any role in the evolution of a population ... (level 2) Y our Answer: it must occur in a somatic cell. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 DNA Structure and Replication Correct Answer: it must occur in a germ-line cell. Incorrect: Mutations that occur in somatic cells cannot be passed on to future generations. 20. The scientists who are renowned for discovering the molecular structure of DNA are ...(level 1) Y our Answer: Franklin and Mendel Correct Answer: Watson and Crick Incorrect: Rosalind Franklin aided in the discovery of the DNA structure by using X-ray crystallography. Mendel is the grandfather of modern-day genetics. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Structure of proteins" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Site: Transcription, Translation, and Regulation > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Structure of proteins Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:20 PM (EDT) 40% Correct of 5 questions 2 corre ct: 3 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More information about scoring 1. How many amino acids are responsible for producing all the different types of proteins? Your Answer: 20 C orrect. There are 20 amino acids used to make proteins. 2. What distinguishes one amino acid from another? Your Answer: the presence of an amino group Correct Answer: the presence of an R group Incorrect. Amino groups are present on all amino acids. 3. Proteins differ from one another because: Your Answer: the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein C orrect. The sequence of amino acids determines the specific protein made. 4. What is the most critical feature in determining if a protein functions properly? Your Answer: its size Correct Answer: its shape Incorrect. Size does not determine the function of a protein. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Which of the following is never found in the core structure of an amino acid? Your Answer: nitrogen Correct Answer: phosphorous Incorrect. Nitrogen is found in the core structure of all amino acids. 5. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Site: Transcription, Translation, and Regulation > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:19 PM (EDT) 16% Correct of 38 questions 6 correct: 32 incorrect: 1 6% 8 4% More information about scoring 1. What distinguishes one amino acid from another? [The Structure of Proteins] ( 14.1 The Structure of Proteins ) Your Answer: the presence of a carboxyl group Correct Answer: the presence of an R group Incorrect. What part of the amino acid is the unique? 2. What is the most critical feature in a protein that determines its function? [The 1 4.1 The Structure of Proteins ) Structure of Proteins] ( Your Answer: the types of amino acids it contains Correct Answer: its shape Incorrect. This doesn't determine the function of a protein. 3. Which of the follow ing might cause a shift in the entire "reading frame" of the mRNA transcript during translation? [Protein Synthesis in Overview] [A Closer Look at Translation] . ( 1 4.2 Protein Synthesis in Overview ) ( 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Register to View Answersubstitution of one nucleotide for another occurs. Correct Register to View Answerdeletion of a single nucleotide base pair occurs. Incorrect. This would only change the sequence of one codon and w ould have no effect on the grouping of dow nstream codons. 4. Which of the follow ing would have the greatest impact on the ability of a mammal to transport oxygen in the blood? [Protein Synthesis in Overview] [A Closer Look at 1 4.2 Translation] [Mutations: Another Name for a Permanent Change in DNA] ( wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr P rotein Synthesis in Overview ) ( Mutations ) 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) ( 13.4 Your Answer: an accidental alteration in the ribonucleotide sequence of an mRNA transcript transcribed from the hemoglobin gene Correct Answer: an inherited mutation in DNA that altered the sequence of nucleotides in the gene for hemoglobin Incorrect. This would only affect the function of a single hemoglobin molecule. 5. How does RNA differ from DNA? [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( Synthesis in Overview ) 1 4.2 Protein Your Answer: RNA is found only in the cytoplasm; DNA is found only in the nucleus. Correct Answer: In living cells, DNA replicates itself; RNA does not. Incorrect. The difference is key. 6. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement about mRNA? [A Closer Look at 14.3 A Closer Look at Transcription) Transcription] ( Y our Answer: During transcription, tw o mRNAs are alw ays produced together, one from each side of the separated DNA. Correct Register to View Answersingle mRNA molecule may be translated again and again by multiple ribosomes. Incorrect. You need to read each statement carefully. 7. How does DNA differ from RNA? [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( Look at Transcription) 1 4.3 A Closer Your Answer: DNA has the bases A, T, C, and G; RNA has the bases A, U, C, and G. Correct Answer: All the above are correct. Incorrect. This is a correct statement, but it is not the only possible answ er. 8. A certain bacterial protein is made by a DNA sequence of 120 bases. The mRNA used to make this protein w ill be ______ bases long. [A Closer Look at 14.3 A Closer Look at Transcription) Transcription] ( Your Answer: 40 Correct Answer: 120 Incorrect. The mRNA w ill have the same number of bases as the DNA. 9. When an RNA molecule is first transcribed, it often contains base sequences that must be eliminated before translation can begin. Such sequences are referred to 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) as ______. [A Closer Look at Translation] ( Your Answer: proteome wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Correct Answer: introns Incorrect. This about what is the junk DNA. 10. Of the 64 codons that exist on the genetic code, three of them, UAA, UGA, and 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation ) AGA, _______. [Cracking the Genetic Code] ( Your Answer: do not specify a particular amino acid and provide instructions such as "stop" C orrect. They are the codons that stop the synthesis of the polypeptide chain. 11. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement about translation? [A Closer Look at 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Translation] ( Your Answer: New codons that need to be "read" move into the P site of the ribosome. Correct Answer: The large ribosomal subunit does not join the translation process until after the first tRNA has arrived. Incorrect. Review the process of translation. 12. Which of the follow ing is a correct description of a gene? [The Structure of 1 4.1 The Structure of Proteins ) Proteins] ( Your Register to View Answerprotein w hose amino acid sequence is encoded in a segment of DNA Correct Register to View Answersegment of DNA transcribed into an mRNA, a tRNA, or an rRNA Incorrect. This is not the description of a gene. 13. During the elongation phase of translation, tRNAs, carrying their specific amino acids, are accepted by the _____ of the ribosome. [A Closer Look at Translation] ( 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Answer: rRNA Correct Register to View Answersite Incorrect. This site does not receive the amino acids as they enter the ribosome. 14. The human genome has information that codes for thousands of proteins, but any given cell produces only a fraction of those proteins. How is this possible? [Genetic Regulation] ( 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation) Your Answer: All possible proteins are made in all cells; how ever, those that are not needed are destroyed. Correct Answer: Genes are regulated so that not all genes are expressed in all cells. Incorrect. Recycling is the key. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr It is estimated that the human genome has from 20,000 to 25,000 genes, yet 90,000-odd proteins are synthesized. What is the mechanism? [Genetic 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation) Regulation] ( Your Answer: The tRNA and rRNA w ith mRNA also help in the process. Correct Answer: In one estimate, 75% of the genes undergo alternate splicing. Incorrect. Transcripts can be edited and changed. 15. 16. Micro-RNAs are 22 bases long, and about 1,500 have been discovered. What is 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation ) their function? [Genetic Regulation] ( Your Answer: They code for polypeptide chains. Correct Answer: They are regulatory. Incorrect. Review the function of mRNA, tRNA. 17. The human and the chimp genomes are 98.8% similar. What is the cause of the 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation ) difference betw een them? [Genetic Regulation] ( Your Answer: few er ribosomes in the chimp cell Correct Answer: different regulatory sequences Incorrect. The key is DNA differences. 18. What scientific breakthrough w as made by marking artificial mRNA in specific known sequences that were translated in a test tube? [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( 14.3 A Closer Look at Transcription) Your Answer: Introns were discovered. Correct Answer: The genetic code w as deciphered. Incorrect. Review the essay "Cracking the Genetic Code" in your textbook. 19. How do proteins differ from one another? [The Structure of Proteins] [Proteins] ( 14.1 The Structure of Proteins ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: The number of nucleotides found in each protein varies from molecule to molecule. Correct Answer: The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein. Incorrect. What makes up proteins? 20. Where in the eukaryotic cell do mRNA, amino acids, and tRNAs come together to 1 4.4 A Closer Look at make a protein? [A Closer Look at Translation] ( Translation) Your Answer: in the nucleus Correct Answer: at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Incorrect. Where does translation take place? 21. The nitrogenous base found only in DNA but not in RNA is __________. [A Closer 1 4.3 A Closer Look at Transcription ) Look at Transcription] ( Your Answer: cytosine Correct Answer: thymine Incorrect. Review Figure 14.3 to understand the difference between DNA and RNA. 22. The RNA that carries the information to make proteins from DNA to the cytoplasm is called ____________. [A Closer Look at Transcription] [Protein Synthesis in 1 4.2 Protein Synthesis in Overview ) ( 1 4.3 A Closer Look at Overview] ( Transcription ) Your Answer: transfer RNA Correct Answer: messenger RNA Incorrect. What are the types of RNA that are found in a cell and their functions? 23. Transcription _______________. [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( Look at Transcription) 1 4.3 A Closer Your Answer: occurs during the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template C orrect. All RNAs are synthesized from DNA during transcription. 24. If a DNA segment has the sequence GCTAA, what w ill be its complementary RNA 1 4.3 A Closer Look at Transcription ) sequence? [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( Your Answer: CGAUU C orrect. This the complementary base sequence. 25. Which of the follow ing is (are) involved in both transcription and translation? [A 1 4.3 A Closer Look Closer Look at Transcription] [A Closer Look at Translation] ( at Transcription ) ( 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Answer: DNA Correct Answer: messenger RNA Incorrect. What are the components of the two processes? 26. What is the product of transcription? [A Closer Look at Transcription] ( Closer Look at Transcription) Your Answer: DNA Correct Answer: RNA 1 4.3 A wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Incorrect. What is made during transcription? 27. The portion of the DNA molecule that is not ultimately translated and is a noncoding portion of DNA is composed of ___________. [Genetic Regulation] ( 14.5 Genetic Regulation ) Your Answer: exons Correct Answer: introns Incorrect. Which portion of the primary transcript is spliced out? 28. The first amino acid of a new ly synthesized polypeptide chain during translation is 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) _____. [A Closer Look at Translation] ( Your Answer: AUG Correct Answer: methionine Incorrect. Which is the first amino acid the tRNA brings in? 29. What is a codon? [A Closer Look at Transcription] [A Closer Look at Translation] ( 1 4.3 A Closer Look at Transcription )( 14.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Answer: three genes in a bacterium that are all regulated together Correct Register to View Answerbase sequence of mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid Incorrect. Remember it is a combination of nucleotides. 30. Which of the follow ing carries amino acids to ribosomes, w here amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? [A Closer Look at Translation] ( 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Answer: tRNA C orrect. Transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes. 31. What is the function of ribosomes in protein synthesis? [A Closer Look at 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Translation] ( Your Answer: They provide a source of amino acids. Correct Answer: They provide a site for transfer RNAs to link to messenger RNAs. Incorrect. Remember this is the organelle that is important in the cytoplasm. 32. Which of the follow ing is NOT involved in translation? [A Closer Look at Translation] ( 1 4.4 A Closer Look at Translation) Your Answer: ribosome Correct Answer: DNA wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Incorrect. What is required for translation to take place? Review Figures 14.6 and 14.8 in your textbook. 33. The human genome can code for 50,000 to 100,000 proteins, but any given cell might produce only 5,000 to 20,000 proteins at a given time. What is the 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation ) mechanism of this process? [Genetic Regulation] ( Your Answer: Not every cell has the machinery for transcription and translation. Correct Answer: Genes are regulated so that not all genes are transcribed in all cells. Incorrect. What are the factors that control the synthesis of proteins? 34. Which of the follow ing statements is (are) true about promoters? [Genetic 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation) Regulation] ( Your Answer: They are locations in DNA w here regulatory proteins gather. Correct Answer: all of these Incorrect. This is a correct statement, but it is not the only possible answ er. Review what constitutes promoters. 35. Which of the follow ing statements about the Hoxc8 g ene is (are) true? [Genetic 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation) Regulation] ( Your Answer: The enhancer sequence in mice can increase transcription rates. Correct Answer: All the above are correct. Incorrect. Review how the Hoxc8 g ene w orks and Figure 14.11. 36. Which of the follow ing statements about the function of genes is FALSE? [Genetic Regulation] ( 1 4.5 Genetic Regulation) Your Answer: Liver cells and brain cells differ mostly in form and function, not in the genes they have. Correct Answer: Only red blood cells have hemoglobin genes. Incorrect. How do genes function? 37. Humans are estimated to have betw een 20,000 and 25,000 genes, whereas simpler organisms like the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans h ave 19,000 genes. What could be a possible explanation for humans having a disproportionately low 14.5 Genetic number of genes despite their complexity? [Genetic Regulation] ( Regulation ) Your Answer: Human mRNA undergoes alternate splicing to make more proteins. C orrect. It is estimated that from 20,000 to 25,000 genes make about 90,000 proteins. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr How do micro-RNAs help in genetic regulation? [Genetic Regulation] ( Genetic Regulation) 1 4.5 38. Your Answer: They interact with mRNAs and target them for destruction. C orrect. They interfere with mRNAs, preventing protein synthesis or limiting it to smaller amounts. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Tr Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > How Proteins Are Made > End Site: of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:13 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. A chain of _____ results in a polypeptide chain that folds up into a _____. Your Answer: amino acids protein 2. How does DNA differ from RNA? Y our Answer: DNA uses the bases A, T, C, G; RNA uses the bases A, U, C, G. Correct Register to View Answerand b 3. The press reported recently that, w ithin a large liver cancer tumor, doctors found small bone fragments, fingernails and skeletal muscle tissue. What can you infer from this about the tumor cells? Y our Answer: that cancerous cells need many different kinds of tissue Correct Answer: that genetic regulation in them has broken dow n 4. What mRNA sequence signals the start of a sequence to be translated? Y our Answer: UAA Correct Answer: AUG 5. An intron is: Your Register to View Answerportion of a DNA or primary transcript sequence that does not contribute to mRNA wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 6. How Proteins Are Made Which of the follow ing statements is true regarding ribosomes? Y our Answer: They are composed of tw o separate units, each made of rRNA combined with protein. Correct Answer: all of the above 7. Why can transfer RNA be referred to as a bridging molecule? Y our Answer: It creates the linkage betw een the base pairs of the double helix. Correct Answer: It forms chemical bonds w ith both amino acids and messenger RNA. 8. A typical protein might be _____ amino acids long and could be produced in as little as _____ in translation. Y our Answer: 50,000 five hours Correct Answer: 400 10 seconds 9. The lac o peron provided an example of feedback in genetic regulation. What w as feeding back onto what? Y our Answer: Transfer RNA molecules sped up translation in mitochondria. Correct Register to View Answerprotein produced through transcription and translation of one gene went on to regulate transcription of a different gene. 10. The genetic code is an inventory of which _____ specify(ies) w hich _____. Y our Answer: polypeptide chain protein Correct Answer: three mRNA bases amino acid E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: Send as: Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 T A: O the r: He lp How Proteins Are Made Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > How Proteins Are Made > Site: Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:12 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 35% Correct o f 20 que stions: 7 corre ct: 13 incorre ct: 3 5% 6 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which is true of transcription? (level 1) Y our Answer: It produces an exact copy of one of the strands of DNA. Correct Answer: It occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Incorrect: The mRNA is complementary to DNA, and uracil replaces any complementary thymines. 2. Which is true of translation of the mRNA transcript? (level 1) Y our Answer: It always produces a fully mature protein once the ribosome detaches from the mRNA at the end of translation. Correct Answer: It utilizes tRNA that acts as the "translator" betw een the molecular languages of amino acids and nucleic acids. Incorrect: mRNA provides the information to build polypeptides, which may have to interact w ith other polypeptides to form a mature protein. 3. Which of the follow ing is a function of RNA polymerase? (level 1) Your Answer: to unw ind DNA during transcription C orrect: This is a function of RNA polymerase. 4. Which of the follow ing is NOT a component of a ribonucleotide? (level 1) Y our Answer: uracil Correct Answer: thymine Incorrect: Uracil takes the place of one of the bases present in DNA. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made How does RNA differ from DNA? (level 2) Y our Answer: RNA is found only in the cytoplasm; DNA is found only in the nucleus. Correct Answer: In living cells, DNA replicates itself w hile RNA does not. Incorrect: RNA is transcribed in the nucleus. 5. 6. Choose the answ er that has these events of protein synthesis in proper sequence. 1. A tRNA binds to the A site 2. A peptide bond forms 3. tRNA leaves the P site 4. A ribosome associates w ith the mRNA 5. tRNA translocates to the P site (level 1) Your Answer: 4, 1, 3, 2, 5 C orrect: This is the correct sequence, although a few steps are left out. 7. Which of the follow ing might cause a shift in the entire "reading frame" of the mRNA transcript during translation? (level 2) Y our Register to View Answerdeletion of three nucleotide base pairs successively from the same location occurs. Correct Register to View Answerdeletion of a single nucleotide base pair occurs. Incorrect: This w ould only delete one codon, and would have no effect on the grouping of dow nstream codons. 8. An accidental change in the monomer sequence in w hich of the following molecules could affect the function of a protein? (level 2) Y our Answer: DNA Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect: Although this is true, is this all that may affect the structure of a protein? 9. Which of the follow ing w ould have the greatest impact on the ability of a mammal to transport oxygen in the blood? (level 2) Your Answer: an inherited mutation in DNA that altered the sequence of nucleotides in the gene for hemoglobin wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made C orrect: A mutation in the germ-cell line will be passed to all cells of the body and w ill affect the function of all hemoglobin molecules in the body. 10. The DNA base sequence TTGCGATCG w ould code for w hich mRNA transcript? (level 1) Your Answer: AACGCUAGC C orrect: Uracil takes the place of thymine in RNA. 11. The process of translation is completed when....(level 1) Y our Answer: the translation machinery reaches the end of the DNA molecule. Correct Register to View Answerstop codon moves into the A site. Incorrect: The translation machinery does not w ork on the DNA molecule. 12. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement concerning translation? (level 1) Y our Answer: New codons that need to be "read" move into the P-site of the ribosome. Correct Answer: The large ribosomal subunit does not join the translation process until after the first tRNA has arrived. Incorrect: The new codons move into the A-site first. 13. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement concerning mRNA? (level 1) Y our Answer: An mRNA w ill always have an equal amount of adenine and uracil. Correct Register to View Answersingle mRNA molecule may be translated again and again by multiple ribosomes. Incorrect: RNA is transcribed from only one side of a DNA molecule. If that one side has a lot of thymines but very few adenines, then this w ill be transcribed into the RNA as lots of adenines but very few uracils. 14. A protein that is made up of 50 amino acids would have been translated from an mRNA that had at least... (level 1) Y our Answer: 500 nucleotides. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made Correct Answer: 150 nucleotides. Incorrect: This is almost 4 times as many nucleotides as w ould be required to code for a 50 amino acid protein. 15. Which of the follow ing polymers w ould have the greatest number of monomers? (level 2) Your Register to View Answersection of DNA that w as exactly 1 micrometer long. C orrect: Since DNA has nucleotides on tw o sides of the molecule it would have the most monomers. 16. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement concerning the codons found in the genetic code? (level 1) Y our Answer: Some amino acids are coded for by 4 different codons. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct statements. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only true statement concerning codons. 17. When an RNA molecule is first produced it often contains erroneous information in it that must be eliminated before translation can begin. This erroneous information is referred to as...(level 1) Your Answer: introns C orrect: Introns must be spliced out before the onset of translation. 18. Which of the follow ing is a correct statement concerning a gene? (level 1) Y our Register to View Answergene is a section of the DNA that is transcribed into an mRNA that is used to build a protein. Correct Answer: (All of the above are correct definitions of a gene.) Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only true statement concerning genes. 19. Some of the DNA in your genome is not used to code for proteins. Approximately how much of this non-coding DNA is found in the human genome? (level 2) Your Answer: > 95% wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 How Proteins Are Made C orrect: Amazingly enough, 97% of the human genome is non-coding. 20. Monod and Jacob discovered that a system dubbed an "operon" was responsible for regulating the gene activity of certain E. coli genes. According to this system, whenever there w as an increase in the concentration of the sugar lactose you w ould also expect to see... (level 1) Y our Register to View Answerdecrease in the number of promoter sites. Correct Answer: an increase in the production of b-galactosidase. Incorrect: The number of promoter sites is fixed as they are parts of the bacterium's genetic code. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Action of restriction enzymes and plasmids" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Site: Biotechnology > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Action of restriction enzymes and plasmids Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:21 PM (EDT) 23% Correct of 13 questions 3 correct: 10 incorrect: 2 3% 7 7% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing can produce sticky ends in DNA sequences? Your Answer: restriction enzymes C orrect. Restriction enzymes can produce sticky ends. 2. What does a restriction enzyme recognize? Your Answer: certain DNA sequences Correct Answer: sticky ends C orrect. Restriction enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences. 3. Tw o different restriction enzymes recognize: Your Answer: two different DNA sequences C orrect. Different restriction enzymes have different recognition sequences. 4. You are attempting to insert a human gene into a plasmid. You cut the plasmid with a certain restriction enzyme and you cut the human gene w ith a different restriction enzyme. You find the sticky ends produced in the plasmid are not complementary to those in the human gene. What happened? Your Answer: there must have been a mutation Correct Answer: the tw o different restriction enzymes used had different DNA recognition sequences wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Incorrect. Mutation is not the cause of this problem. 5. When a bacterium accepts a plasmid after treatment with heat and calcium, the bacterium is said to be: Your Answer: restricted Correct Answer: transformed Incorrect. Bacteria that accept plasmids are not said to be restricted. 6. Which of the follow ing is incorrect concerning plasmids? Your Answer: they replicate independently Correct Answer: they naturally occur in eukaryotic cells Incorrect. Plasmids do replciate indepently of the bacteria chromosome. 7. Which of the follow ing represents the correct order of events required to get bacteria to produce human proteins? Your Answer: extract human DNA; insert into plasmid; cut w ith restriction enzymes; allow bacteria to multiply; add plasmid to bacteria Correct Answer: extract human DNA; cut with restriction enzymes; insert into plasmid; add plasmid to bacteria; allow bacteria to multiply Incorrect. When are the restriction enzymes needed? 8. Which of the follow ing is not required in a cloning procedure? Your Register to View Answersurrogate mother Correct Register to View Answersperm cell C orrect. A female surrogate will be needed to complete the development of the embryo. 9. What is a bacteriophage? Your Register to View Answertype of bacteria Correct Register to View Answervirus that infects bacteria Incorrect. Bacteriophage are not types of bacteria. 10. In a PCR reaction, the strands of DNA are first separated by ___. Your Answer: treatment with an acid Correct Answer: heating Incorrect. Acid does not separate DNA strands. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: 11. When is PCR particularly applicable? Your Answer: When there are large quantities of DNA to analyze Correct Answer: When there are small quantities of DNA to analyze Incorrect. The purpose of PCR is to generate large quantities of DNA for analysis. 12. What is the correct sequence of events that occur in a PCR reaction? Your Answer: use of DNA polymerase to produce a second strand of DNA; separation of DNA strands; addition of primers Correct Answer: separation of DNA strands; addition of primers; use of DNA polymerase to produce second strand of DNA Incorrect. The use of DNA polymerase to produce a second strand is not the first step. 13. DNA polymerase is a heat-sensitive enzyme. What is one thing that would need to be considered concerning the activity of this enzyme in PCR w hen the temperature is heated during each cycle to separate the DNA strands? Your Answer: that the DNA polymerase could be denatured C orrect. The DNA polymerase enzyme could be denatured by heat. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Site: Biotechnology > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:21 PM (EDT) 16% Correct of 43 questions 7 correct: 36 incorrect: 1 6% 8 4% More information about scoring 1. Forensic and transgenic techniques demonstrate that scientific advances have 1 5.1 What Is been made based on the combination of biology and ______. ( Biotechnology? ) Your Answer: chemistry Correct Answer: technology Incorrect. What aspect of scientific research allows practical applications of the basic science revealed by biological research? See section 15.1 for more information. 2. Which of the follow ing is an example of recombinant DNA? ( Biotechnology) Your Answer: using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA 15.2 Transgenic Correct Answer: inserting the genes into plants that will allow them to resist pests Incorrect. Recombinant DNA involves the combination of foreign DNA into an organism, which changes its biology. See section 15.2 for more information. 3. Which is a result of transformation? ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: Bacteria begin producing human proteins. C orrect. The bacterial cells have been "transformed" into cells that produce foreign proteins. 4. A self-replicating agent that can serve to transfer and replicate genetic material is 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) referred to as ________. ( Your Register to View Answercloning vector wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: C orrect. Cloning vectors carry genetic information into the cells that they enter. 5. Restriction enzymes are used to ______. ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: fuse enucleated egg cells w ith normal body cells in the cloning process Correct Answer: cut DNA in specific locations Incorrect. Restriction enzymes recognize certain stretches of DNA and slice the molecule in very specific places. See section 15.2 for more information. 6. Tw o different restriction enzymes recognize two different ______. ( Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: types of bacteria Correct Answer: DNA sequences 1 5.2 Incorrect. Restriction enzymes recognize certain stretches of DNA and slice the molecule in very specific places. See section 15.2 for more information. 7. Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called ______. ( Biotechnology) Your Register to View Answervirus that infects animal cells Correct Register to View Answerbacteriophage 15.2 Transgenic Incorrect. These viruses have the ability to enter a bacterial cell and incorporate themselves into the DNA of the bacteria. See section 15.2 for more information. 8. Consider the following results from an experiment performed by a scientist. Each experiment was performed repeatedly and the same results w ere obtained each time. W hich of the follow ing is the best explanation for the results of this experiment? ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Y our Answer: The nonpathogenic bacteria in experiment 4 w ere changed into pneumonia-causing bacteria through transformation. C orrect. The nonpathogenic bacteria were transformed into pneumonia-causing bacteria by picking up free pieces of DNA (containing pneumonia-causing genes) from the pathogenic bacteria. 9. A somatic cell nuclear transplant involves _______. ( 1 5.3 Reproductive Cloning ) Your Answer: fusion of a sperm cell of one species with the egg cell of a different species Correct Answer: fusion of one somatic cell with an egg cell w hose nucleus has been removed Incorrect. Remember that somatic cells are not sex cells or gametes. See section 15.3 for more information. 10. Which of the follow ing is required in a cloning procedure? ( Cloning ) Your Register to View Answerhaploid cell Correct Register to View Answersurrogate mother 15.3 Reproductive Incorrect. Cloning requires the fusion of an enucleated egg cell with another cell that contributes DNA to the developing embryo. See section 15.3 for more information. 11. Which of the follow ing biotechnological procedures is used in the process of 1 5.4 Forensic forensic DNA typing, sometimes called "DNA fingerprinting?" ( Biotechnology) Your Answer: reproductive cloning Correct Answer: polymerase chain reaction Incorrect. Remember that the purpose of this process is to match two known sequences of short tandem repeats. See section 15.4 for more information. 12. In a PCR reaction, the strands of DNA are first separated by ______. ( Forensic Biotechnology) Your Answer: treatment with a strong base Correct Answer: gentle heating 1 5.4 Incorrect. The DNA molecule must first be separated in the simplest w ay, with no chemical reactions or changes that w ould be magnified in the copies to be made. See section 15.4 for more information. 13. What is the correct sequence of events that occur in a PCR reaction? ( Forensic Biotechnology) 1 5.4 Your Answer: separation of DNA strands, use of DNA polymerase to produce a second strand of DNA, addition of primers Correct Answer: se p aration of DNA strands , a ddition of p rimers , u se of DNA wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: p olymerase to produce second strand of DNA Incorrect. Before anything can be copied, the DNA molecule must be separated into two complementary strands. See section 15.4 for more information. 14. During development, the vast majority of cells in our bodies assume roles that are specific and unchangeable. This process is called _________. ( 1 5.5 Stem Cells ) Your Answer: transformation Correct Answer: commitment Incorrect. This is the opposite behavior of what we see in stem cells, w hich retain the ability to develop into a number of different types of cells. See section 15.5 for more information. 15. Which of the follow ing tools of biotechnology is paired correctly w ith its function? ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) ( 1 5.3 Reproductive Cloning ) ( 1 5.4 Forensic Biotechnology) ( 1 5.5 Stem Cells ) Your Answer: transformation: a process of amplifying DNA Correct Answer: plasmids: a kind of cloning vector Incorrect. Several specific techniques and tools have allow ed the advancement of biotechnology. See sections 15.2 through 15.5 for descriptions of these functions. 16. Which of the follow ing crops has been modified to produce the substance betacarotene? ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) ( 1 5.6 Biotechnology in the Real World ) Your Answer: tomatoes Correct Answer: rice Incorrect. The crop is known as "golden rice." See Figure 15.6 for more information. 17. Which of the follow ing reasons do protesters give to explain their opposition to genetically modified foods? ( 15.6 Biotechnology in the Real World ) Your Answer: The genetically modified food will cause a genetic modification in human DNA. Correct Answer: The genetically modified plants w ill hybridize w ith natural plants, thereby producing unforeseen ecological problems in the w ild. Incorrect. The resistance to genetically modified foods focuses on the effects the foods will have on the health of consumers or the environment. See section 15.6 for more information. 18. One of the advantages of producing human insulin from a cloned gene in a 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) transformed bacterium is ________. ( Your Answer: more insulin could be produced if w e used rats instead of bacteria Correct Answer: great quantities of insulin can be produced in this way wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Incorrect. Imagine how much insulin can be produced by billions of bacterial cells grow n under ideal conditions in huge containers. See section 15.2 for more information. 19. Which kinds of molecules are used to cut DNA at specific sites? ( Biotechnology) Your Answer: transgenic genes Correct Answer: restriction enzymes 1 5.2 Transgenic Incorrect. Only a very specific kind of enzyme is capable of cutting DNA at specific sites. See section 15.2 for more information. 20. Which of the follow ing would be used to introduce recombinant DNA into a bacterial 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) cell? ( Your Answer: w hole chromosomes Correct Answer: plasmids Incorrect. These small units are usually found w ithin bacterial cells, but in this situation they contain only native bacterial DNA. See section 15.2 for more information. 21. A bacterium becomes "transformed" when it ______. ( Biotechnology) 15.2 Transgenic Your Answer: is combined and cloned w ith another bacterium Correct Answer: absorbs DNA from its surroundings Incorrect. Transformation refers to the genetic characteristics of a bacterium. See section 15.2 for more information. 22. Plasmids _____________. ( 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: are the same size as bacterial chromosomes Correct Answer: move easily into and out of bacterial cells Incorrect. Because of the size, plasmids are capable of doing something that complete cells cannot do. See section 15.2 for more information. 23. A protruding end of a few unpaired bases on a DNA molecule is ________. ( 15.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: important in the PCR process Correct Answer: called a "sticky end" Incorrect. These unpaired bases are very important in the process of producing recombinant DNA. See section 15.2 for more information. 24. Which of the follow ing is a specific virus that can invade a specific bacterial cell? ( 15.2 Trans g enic Biotechnolo gy) wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Y our Register to View Answerplasmid Correct Register to View Answerbacteriophage Incorrect. See section 15.2 for more information on this special type of virus. 25. Any DNA vehicle that carries recombinant DNA into a cell is called _____________. 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) ( Your Answer: an enzyme Correct Register to View Answercloning vector Incorrect. This general term describes the function of the agent. See section 15.2 for more information. 26. Any exact copy of a DNA, cell, or organism is called ________. ( Reproductive Cloning ) Your Register to View Answerrecombinant protein Correct Register to View Answerclone 1 5.3 Incorrect. The process of producing exact copies of living organisms or their parts is a very specialized procedure. See section 15.3 for more information. 27. Which of the follow ing steps is important in producing a cloned animal like Dolly the sheep? ( 15.3 Reproductive Cloning ) Your Answer: An enucleated egg cell was donated by an adult sheep. C orrect. The enucleated egg cell provided other chemical factors necessary for the early development of the embryo. 28. Which of the follow ing techniques w as used to produce the sheep Dolly? ( Reproductive Cloning ) Your Answer: PCR Correct Answer: reproductive cloning 15.3 Incorrect. The production of a clone like Dolly requires a very special sequence of steps. See section 15.3 and Figure 15.8 for more information. 29. An animal that carries a foreign gene that has been inserted into its DNA is called 1 5.2 Transgenic Biotechnology) ____________. ( Your Register to View Answerreproductive clone Correct Register to View Answertransgenic animal Incorrect. This process involves the addition of a gene from another source into an animal's genome. See section 15.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Which of the follow ing is an example of a transgenic cell or organism? ( Transgenic Biotechnology) Your Answer: Dolly's mother Correct Answer: golden rice Incorrect. A transgenic organism must contain genes from another organism that have been added to its genome. See section 15.2 for more information. 1 5.2 30. 31. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process used in ________. ( Cloning ) Your Answer: PCR Correct Answer: reproductive cloning 15.3 Reproductive Incorrect. This process involves the addition of a somatic cell to an enucleated egg for a very specific purpose. See section 15.3 for more information. 32. Primers are important functional units used in the process of _________. ( Forensic Biotechnology) Your Answer: polymerase chain reaction 1 5.4 C orrect. Primers signal DNA polymerase to begin producing complementary DNA during PCR. 33. Producing large amounts of DNA from a small sample is the goal of ____________. 1 5.4 Forensic Biotechnology) ( Your Answer: transgenic transformation Correct Answer: PCR Incorrect. This process would not increase the amount of DNA present in the test tube. See section 15.4 for more information. 34. During the PCR process, the two strands of DNA to be amplified are separated by ___________. ( 1 5.4 Forensic Biotechnology) Your Answer: transformed bacteria Correct Answer: heat Incorrect. Chemicals or plasmids w ould not accomplish this purpose. See section 15.4 for more information. 35. After heating a sample of DNA in preparation for using the PCR process to amplify the sample, you w ould add primers, DNA polymerase, and ___________ to the mixture. ( 1 5.4 Forensic Biotechnology) Your Answer: proteins Correct Answer: nucleotides Incorrect. This entire process is used to add certain units to the exposed singlestranded DNA molecules. What are those units? See section 15.4 and Fig ure 15.9 wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: for more information. 36. Forensic DNA typing is most often used ________. ( Biotechnology) Your Answer: to obtain pure stem cells 1 5.4 Forensic Correct Answer: to determine if DNA left at a crime scene belongs to a specific individual Incorrect. This process is used to match tw o samples of DNA. See section 15.4 for more information. 37. Short tandem repeats are important factors in the process of _________. ( Forensic Biotechnology) Your Answer: the polymerase chain reaction Correct Answer: forensic DNA typing 1 5.4 Incorrect. STRs are markers that can be used to match tw o samples of DNA. See section 15.4 for more information. 38. Stem cells are different from other kinds of cells because _________. ( Stem Cells ) Your Answer: they have lost the ability to divide 15.5 Correct Answer: they have retained the ability to develop into several kinds of adult body cells Incorrect. The importance of stem cells is their lack of commitment. See section 15.5 for a discussion of commitment. 39. Embryonic stem cells are usually harvested from __________. ( Your Answer: fertilized eggs Correct Answer: the inner cell mass of a blastocyst 15.5 Stem Cells ) Incorrect. Look up the fate of the inner cell mass found within the blastocyst. See section 15.5 for more information. 40. Adult stem cells are found in which part of the human body? ( Your Answer: stomach Correct Answer: bone marrow 15.5 Stem Cells ) Incorrect. There is only one common site in the body w here adult stem cells are found. See section 15.5 for more information. 41. A research project at the University of California in Irvine has show n that damage to which part of a rat's body can be successfully treated by injection of embryonic stem cells? ( 1 5.5 Stem Cells ) wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Y our Answer: spinal cord C orrect. It w as the injured spinal cord that w as helped by the presence of embryonic stem cells. 42. The cloning of stem cells to treat disease or injury is known as _________. ( 15.5 Stem Cells ) Your Answer: transgenic cloning Correct Answer: therapeutic cloning Incorrect. This process holds the promise of being able to cure many human diseases or injuries. See section 15.5 for more information. 43. Genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis h ave been engineered into certain 1 5.6 Biotechnology in the Real World ) crop plants to increase _______. ( Your Answer: the plant's resistance to insect attack C orrect. Toxins from the bacterial genes act as a built-in insecticide for the plant. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Future Isnt What It Used Site: to Be > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:14 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 10 que stions: 1 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. How is biotechnology defined? Y our Answer: the use of commercialization in biological research Correct Answer: the application of technology to natural biological processes 2. In transgenic biotechnology involving bacteria, which sequence of events w ould be follow ed in the process of harvesting a protein of interest? Your Answer: Isolate gene that codes for protein; insert gene into vector; transform the vector into bacteria; replicate vectors in host cells; harvest protein of interest. 3. The most common w ay to visualize DNA molecules is to employ gel electrophoresis. The reason the DNA molecule migrates from one end of a gel electrophoresis tray to another is that: Y our Answer: DNA is naturally active Correct Answer: DNA molecules are negatively charged; the opposite ends of the trays are positively charged 4. Criminal investigators w ho w ant to make copies of a DNA sample from a crime do so through Y our Answer: gel electrophoresis Correct Answer: the polymerase chain reaction 5. Which of the follow ing has biotechnology helped accomplish? Y our Answer: cloning of mammals Correct Answer: all of the above wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio 6. Which of the follow ing is an example of a transgenic organism? Y our Register to View Answercoli b acterium w ith a human gene inserted Correct Register to View Answerand c only 7. Dolly the sheep was cloned by means of Y our Answer: getting sperm to fuse with egg outside a living sheep Correct Answer: taking a cell from an adult sheep and fusing it with a sheep egg that had its DNA removed 8. The basis of personalized medicine is that Y our Answer: genes can be moved from one organism to another Correct Answer: individual human genomes differ slightly from one another 9. Microarrays provide Y our Register to View Answerway to reliably sequence entire genomes Correct Answer: know ledge of w hich genes are being expressed in a given cell 10. What is a clone? Y our Register to View Answersegment of DNA of a specified length Correct Answer: an exact genetic copy of a gene, or an entire living thing E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 O the r: He lp The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Future Isnt What It Used Site: to Be > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:13 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. The gene for human grow th hormone (HGH) can be inserted into the genome of bacteria. The bacteria that take up the HGH gene can transcribe and translate this gene into small quantities of this protein. How is this technology possible? (level 1). Y our Answer: Reproductive cloning is possible only in bacteria. Correct Answer: Bacteria employ the same genetic code as humans. Incorrect: Review Section 15.3. 2. Which of the follow ing is (are) a tool(s) of biotechnology? (level 1). Y our Answer: plasmids Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect: Although this is correct, are there any other tools? 3. Which is an example of recombinant DNA? (level 1). Y our Answer: using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA Correct Answer: inserting the genes into plants that will allow them to resist pests Incorrect: This is a tool used in recombinant DNA technology. 4. Consider the following procedures involved in recombinant DNA technology: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Splice DNA containing insulin gene into a plasmid. Cut human DNA into fragments using BamHI. Treat bacteria chemically to induce transformation. Isolate the insulin gene. Culture the bacteria. Extract and p urify insulin. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio VII. Cut the plasmid using BamHI. Which of the follow ing is the correct sequence of procedures for inserting a human gene into a bacterium? (level 1). Y our Answer: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII Correct Answer: IV, II, VII, I, III, V, VI Incorrect: We must alw ays isolate the gene of interest first. 5. Which is NOT true of restriction enzymes? (level 1). Y our Answer: They cut DNA in a predictable manner. Correct Answer: They are used in PCR to amplify DNA. Incorrect: Herein lies their usefulness. 6. Which is a result of transformation? (level 2). Y our Answer: Bacteria construct plasmids. Correct Answer: Bacteria begin producing human proteins. Incorrect: A bacterium that has not undergone a transformation can still have plasmids. 7. Consider the following results from an experiment performed by a scientist. Each experiment w as performed repeatedly and the same results were obtained each time. Experiment #1, Pneumoniacausing strain of bacteria is injected into a rat. #2, Nonpathogenic (harmless) bacteria is injected into a rat. #3, Pneumoniacausing bacteria, that have been Result Rat develops pneumonia. Rat does not contract pneumonia. wps.prenhall.com//index.html Rat does not contract pneumonia. 2/6 9/14/2010 heat-killed, are injected into a rat. The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio p # 4, Mixture of non-pathogen bacteria and heat-killed pneumoniacausing bacteria are injected into a rat. Rat develops pneumonia. Which of the follow ing is the best explanation for the results of this experiment? (level 2). Y our Answer: The heat-killed bacteria in experiment #4 cloned themselves before being heat-killed. Correct Answer: The non-pathogenic bacteria in experiment #4 w ere changed into pneumonia-causing bacteria through transformation. Incorrect: Consider the results of experiment #3. 8. Which of the follow ing tools of biotechnology are paired correctly with their function? (level 1). Y our Answer: plasmids: induce bacteria to take up cloning vectors Correct Answer: gel electrophoresis: a method of separating fragments of DNA by size Incorrect: Review Section 15.2. 9. Which of the follow ing can be a cloning vector? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerbacteriophage Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only type of cloning vector? 10. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues successfully produced the first true vertebrate reproductive clones. These w ere sheep named Polly and Dolly. How w as Polly different from Dolly? (level 1) Y our Answer: Polly w as a reproductive clone like Dolly; how ever, she also had some human DNA spliced into her chromosomes. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only w ay Dolly w as different from Polly? 11. Which of the follow ing reasons is NOT given by protestors w ho oppose genetically modified foods? (level 2) Y our Answer: The manufacturers of genetically modified foods are more interested in making money than helping hungry people. Correct Answer: The genetically modified food w ill cause a genetic modification in human DNA. Incorrect: Because of the genetic modifications, some of the plant's seeds will not be viable, thus requiring farmers to alw ays buy seed rather than cultivate their own. This potentially means larger profits for the genetically modified food company. 12. Which of the follow ing outcomes was NOT produced through the process of transformation? (level 1) Y our Answer: the population of potato plants that produce a natural pesticide that is normally only produced in a type of bacteria Correct Answer: the cloned sheep Dolly Incorrect: The bacterial Bt genes had to be inserted into these potato plant cells, thus recombining plant and bacterial DNA. 13. Restriction enzymes are used to ... (level 1) Y our Answer: split double-stranded DNA molecules into two single strands. Correct Answer: cut DNA in specific locations. Incorrect: In the PCR procedure, heat is used to separate the double-stranded DNA. 14. A strain of pigs has been produced that has had certain genes removed from its DNA. These genes w ere responsible for producing proteins that caused strong human immune system responses w hen the organs w ere transplanted into a person. Now the organs can be placed in a patient, and the organs w ill not be rejected. However, these organs are still not widely used on patients w ho need organs. What is the main concern w ith using these xenotransplanted organs? (level 2). Your Answer: that a certain class of pig virus that can move into human tissues may cause unknow n human diseases wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio C orrect: This is an enormous unknown that needs further study before the process of xenotransplantation can become truly effective. 15. The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a biotechnological process that is used to ...(level 1). Y our Answer: produce reproductive clones. Correct Answer: quickly produce multiple copies of a segment of DNA. Incorrect: Reproductive clones are not produced in the PCR process. 16. Note these steps in the reproductive cloning processes. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. An egg cell is harvested and the nucleus is removed. The embryo is implanted in a surrogate mother. An embryo develops. Somatic (body) cells are harvested and allowed to undergo mitosis. The somatic cell and the egg cell are fused together. A clone is born. Which of the follow ing answers lists these steps in the correct order? (level 1). Your Answer: IV -> I -> V -> III -> II -> VI C orrect: Since Dolly, many other reproductive clones have been produced following this or a similar procedure. 17. In the process of reproductive cloning, the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced w ith a somatic (body) cell nucleus. Why can't the egg nucleus be used to produce the cloned offspring? (level 2). Y our Answer: The egg nucleus is haploid. Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only correct answ er. 18. Which of the follow ing biotechnological procedures is used in the process of DNA fingerprinting? (level 2) Y our Answer: reproductive cloning Correct Answer: polymerase chain reaction Incorrect: Review the essay "DNA in the Courtroom" and Section 15.5. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 The Future Isnt What It Used to Be: Bio In the process of gel electrophoresis, DNA segments can be separated from each other based on ...(level 2) Your Answer: the length of each base-pair segment. C orrect: The longer the piece, the slow er it will move through the electrophoretic gel. 19. 20. In June 2000 it w as announced that the "first draft of the human genome" had been completed. What did this mean? (level 2) Your Answer: that the correct order of approximately 90% of all of the basepairs in human DNA were know n C orrect: Although understanding the human genome is still a long w ay off, w e at least now have the sequence of bases that code for all of that information. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Principles of Evolution" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charles Site: Darwin, Evolutionary Thought, and the Evidence for Evolution > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Principles of Evolution Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:23 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 5 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 5 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. Which of the following w ould be considered homologous structures? Y our Answer: lungs of a mammal and trachea of an insect Correct Answer: wings of a bird and arms of a man Incorrect. These are not homologous structures. 2. The main idea behind Darwin's theory of natural selection is: Y our Answer: competition for space w ithin the population controls the individual numbers of a species. Correct Answer: individuals with advantageous adaptations are more likely to outreproduce those lacking the adaptation Incorrect. This is not the main principle of natural selection. 3. Which of the following is considered an evidence for evolution? Your Answer: radiometric dating Correct Answer: all of the above are considered evidences for evolution Incorrect. Is this the only possible answer? 4. The more _____ two species are related, the more _____ their DNA sequences will be. Your Answer: closely; different Correct Answer: distantly; different wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Incorrect. If species are closely related, w ould their DNA be different? 5. From the choices listed, which of the following has DNA sequences that w ould cause it to be relatively far away from humans on an evolutionary tree diagram? Your Register to View Answerchicken Correct Answer: yeast Incorrect. Chickens are relatively close to humans on the evolutionary tree. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charles Site: Darwin, Evolutionary Thought, and the Evidence for Evolution > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:22 PM (EDT) 26% Correct of 42 questions 11 corre ct: 31 incorre ct: 2 6% 7 4% More information about scoring 1. Richard Dawkins's book on the theories behind evolution is entitled The Blind 16.1 Evolution Watchmaker. What is the significance of this rather ironic title? ( and Its Core Principles ) Your Answer: Time is the most critical element to evolution. Correct Answer: Organisms are indeed very complex, much like a precision w atch; however, evolution fashions organisms without any "forethought or plan" for their ultimate design. Incorrect. This question asks you to think about the reference to a "blind" watchmaker. Could a watchmaker be blind? See section 16.1 for more information. 2. Who is credited with providing the core ideas of evolutionary biology? ( 1 6.2 Charles Darw in and the Theory of Evolution) ( 1 6.5 Alfred Russel Wallace ) Your Answer: Darwin C orrect. Darwin deserves primary credit for the ideas central to evolutionary biology. 3. Before Darwin's theory of evolution, most scientists presumed that organisms w ere ______. ( 1 6.3 Evolutionary Thinking before Darw in) Your Answer: ever-changing Correct Answer: fixed and permanent Incorrect. Before Darw in, most scientists believed that divine creation w as the prime force in producing the species we see today. See section 16.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4. Charles Darw in is g iven the credit for formulating the idea of evolution throug h 1/10 9/14/2010 4. 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl natural selection. How ever, another naturalist came up w ith the same insight at 1 6.3 Evolutionary approximately the same time as Darw in. Who w as it? ( Thinking before Darw in) Your Answer: Charles Lyell Correct Answer: Alfred Russel Wallace Incorrect. See section 16.5 for more information on the other scientist who perceived natural selection as the force behind evolution. 5. Imagine a tree frog sitting on a limb of a tree when an arboreal snake suddenly attacks it. To escape predation, the frog leaps from the limb to the ground. The fall would be fatal, except that the frog spreads its fingers and toes, forming small parachutes that break its fall. After its initial discovery, the frog regularly escapes predators using this procedure. Through time and use, the w ebbing in its fingers and toes expand and stretch so that they become even more parachute-like and are more effective at braking the frog's fall. When this frog mates with a female of 1 6.4 the same species, w e would expect all its offspring to have ______. ( Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage ) Your Answer: normal, regularly w ebbed fingers and toes C orrect. Because the expanded webbing was an acquired characteristic, it w ould not be passed down to offspring. 6. Which of the follow ing organisms provided Darwin with much insight as to how a single ancestral species might diverge into several species occupying divergent habitats? ( 16.4 Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage ) Your Answer: pigeons Correct Answer: finches Incorrect. The species Darwin observed undoubtedly arrived from the mainland through the air. See section 16.4 for more information. 7. Some moles have eyes that are so reduced that they function only minimally in light perception. Some snakes have hind-limb bones that are reduced completely to nonfunctional remnants. Which of the following might be a plausible evolutionary 1 6.4 argument for the reason structures like these become minimized? ( Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage ) ( 1 6.6 Descent with Modification Is Accepted ) ( 1 6.7 Darwin Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection ) Your Answer: Structures are minimized through disuse by an individual to the point of becoming useless or rudimentary, and those structures can then be passed on to offspring. Correct Answer: Individuals who have inherited a minimized useless structure may actually have an advantage over individuals who have the structure because possessing it might cause them to be less "fit" in their environment or be a less successful reproducer. Incorrect. Do not ascribe purposeful attributes to the results of natural selection. See sections 16.4, 16.6, and 16.7 for more information. 8. Evolutionary theory has been supported by the "modern synthesis." What does that term mean? ( 1 6.7 Darw in Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection ) Your Answer: Advances in comp uters and mathematics led to the acce p tance wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl o f evolutionary theory. Correct Answer: The convergence of many lines of research unified evolutionary theory. Incorrect. Remember that the word "synthesis" refers to something put together from separate sources. See section 16.7 for more information. 9. Opponents of evolution often remark that it ______. ( Theory of Evolution ) 1 6.8 Opposition to the Your Answer: is not supported by molecular evidence Correct Answer: cannot be observed happening Incorrect. Opponents of evolution usually do not try to deny the abundant evidence provided by many sources. See section 16.8 for more information. 10. Sometimes evolutionary changes can actually be seen occurring in populations of organisms. Which of the following characteristics is a requirement for observing evolutionary changes taking place in a population? ( 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: Organisms must be invertebrates. Correct Answer: Organisms must have rapid reproductive capability. Incorrect. This question deals primarily w ith the time needed for evolution to occur, which does not involve the nature of an organism's chromosomes or its classification. See section 16.9 for more information. 11. Which of the follow ing pieces of evidence, if actually discovered, w ould most likely 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution) discredit the theory of evolution? ( Your Register to View Answerhuman gene that is also found in a duck, fish, insect, and fungus Correct Register to View Answerprimate fossil in the same rock layer as a trilobite Incorrect. This example is adequately explained by current evolutionary theory. See section 16.9 for more information. 12. How do the forelimbs of a bat, whale, cat, and gorilla support the theory of evolution? ( 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: They all have a similar bone structure, indicating they all descended from a common ancestor. C orrect. This is the most logical conclusion based on the evidence presented. 13. Richard Dawkins, a prolific w riter on evolutionary theory, has stated that when it comes to the theory of evolution, scientists are really more like detectives. Why 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) would that be true? ( Your Answer: Most of the evidence for evolution requires that scientists use magnifying glasses and look for clues. Correct Answer: Like scientists, detectives must formulate hypotheses and theories based on the evidence they have found. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Incorrect. What does a detective gather and use to bolster a hypothesis about who committed a crime? See section 16.9 for more information. 14. Which of the follow ing is considered evidence for evolution? ( for Evolution ) Your Answer: Darw in's ideas about natural selection Correct Answer: the fossil record 1 6.9 The Evidence Incorrect. Remember that evidence is something relevant to a question that can be observed, measured, and analyzed to either support or refute a hypothesis. See section 16.9 for more information. 15. The embryos of human beings possess gill slits at one stage of their development. 1 6.9 The Which of the follow ing is the evolutionary explanation for this fact? ( Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: One day w e may evolve into aquatic organisms. Correct Answer: Humans are descended from ancestors w ho w ere able to breathe under water. Incorrect. An evolutionary biologist w ould insist that the explanation be consistent with current evolutionary theory. See section 16.9 for more information. 16. Which of the follow ing has DNA sequences that would cause it to be relatively 1 6.9 The Evidence for close to humans on an evolutionary tree diagram? ( Evolution ) Your Answer: yeast Correct Register to View Answerpig Incorrect. Remember that a human is a mammal, and this organism is not a mammal. See section 16.9 and Figure 16.14 for more information. 17. The differential adaptation of individual organisms to their environment selects the traits that will be passed on with greater frequency from one generation to the next. This process is called ________. ( 1 6.1 Evolution and Its Core Principles ) Your Answer: fossil evidence Correct Answer: natural selection Incorrect. This is the major force operating in nature that produces differential reproduction within a population. See section 16.1 for more information. 18. If we were to compare the science of biology to the construction of a house, 1 6.1 Evolution and Its Core evolution would be comparable to ___________. ( Principles ) Your Answer: the roof, giving shelter to the structure Correct Answer: the mortar, holding the bricks together Incorrect. No biological discovery made to date makes any sense without the concept of evolution. See section 16.1 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl 19. The gradual development of strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics can be 1 6.1 Evolution and Its Core Principles ) explained by _________. ( Your Answer: the selective (natural selection) force of the antibiotic favoring the reproduction of those resistant bacteria C orrect. This is a perfect example of how natural selection w orks. 20. What w ould happen if we subjected a population of bacteria to an antibiotic to 16.1 Evolution and Its Core which they possessed no natural resistance? ( Principles ) Your Answer: The presence of the antibiotic would stimulate the development of resistance in the bacteria. Correct Answer: They w ould all die. Incorrect. The bacteria have no means to develop a resistance within a single generation. See section 16.1 for more information. 21. How many years did Darw in spend on the voyage of the HMS Beagle? ( Charles Darw in and the Theory of Evolution) Your Answer: two years Correct Answer: five years Incorrect. See section 16.2 for more information. 16.2 22. Charles Lyell, a contemporary of Darw in, w as famous because ____________. ( 16.3 Evolutionary Thinking before Darw in) Your Answer: he developed the theory of evolution along with Darwin Correct Answer: he wrote the textbook Principles of Geology Incorrect. What impact did Lyell have on Darwin's work during his voyage on the Beagle? See section 16.3 for more information. 23. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck w as famous because _________. ( Thinking before Darw in) 1 6.3 Evolutionary Your Answer: he said that acquired characteristics could be inherited C orrect. Many scientists believed this false hypothesis before the rules of genetic inheritance w ere understood. 24. Georges Cuvier's ideas on catastrophes ___________. ( Thinking before Darw in) 1 6.3 Evolutionary Your Answer: were an acceptable explanation for the sequence of fossils known in his day wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl C orrect. Even though many Christians believed that the creator would never let his creations die out, Cuvier showed that fossil evidence argued strongly for extinctions. 25. Darwin's studies of the finches he discovered on the Galapagos Islands _________. ( 1 6.4 Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage ) Your Answer: provided a solid basis for Darw in to conceive one of the basic explanations of how natural selection worked C orrect. This famous group of birds helped Darw in with the core ideas of adaptive radiation. 26. Darwin was influenced in developing his ideas about natural selection by a famous book, An Essay on the Principle of Population , by ___________. ( 16.3 Evolutionary Thinking before Darwin ) ( 16.4 Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage ) Your Register to View AnswerR. Malthus C orrect. Malthus was a social scientist who studied human populations. 27. Alfred Russel Wallace was an important figure in Darw in's time because _________. ( 1 6.5 Alfred Russel Wallace ) Your Answer: he formulated the hypothesis of natural selection along with Darwin C orrect. Follow ing many years of field observations, he arrived at the same conclusion as did Darwin about natural selection acting to cause evolution. 28. Jackrabbits live in the deserts of North America, and cottontail rabbits are common in the deciduous forests. Based on Darw in's theory of natural selection, w hat might be a reasonable hypothesis for w hy jackrabbits have larger ears than do cottontail 1 6.1 Evolution and Its Core Principles ) rabbits? ( Your Answer: The large jackrabbit ears serve as "radiators" and help to keep the animal cool in the hot desert climate. C orrect. Jackrabbit ears allow the animals to cool its blood by radiating heat into the air. 29. One of the major hurdles in the nineteenth century to having scientists accept the 16.7 Darwin process of evolution as a viable theory was that ___________. ( Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection) Your Answer: Darw in lacked of evidence for his theory Correct Answer: most scientists of that day thought that inheritance was of a blending process and incapable of sustaining Darw in's theory Incorrect. See section 16.7 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl The convergence of several lines of evidence from 1937 to 1950 that supported 1 6.7 Darwin Darwin's theory resulted in what is now called ____________. ( Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection) Your Answer: the modern synthesis C orrect. This term implies that the current theory is composed of evidence from a wide variety of sources. 30. 31. Today, hospitals contain bacteria resistant to many types of antibiotics that used to be effective years ago. Using Darwin's theory of evolution, what might be a reasonable hypothesis for the existence of resistant bacteria? ( 1 6.1 Evolution and Its Core Principles ) Your Answer: Doctors have stopped using the correct antibiotics, and the bacteria have thrived. Correct Answer: Genetically resistant individuals in the bacterial population have a selective advantage over nonresistant ones and pass the trait on to their offspring. Incorrect. Is the force at w ork here human or bacterial, or something else? See section 16.1 for more information. 32. The best possible explanation science has for a natural phenomenon based on all 1 6.8 Opposition to the Theory of the available evidence is called _________. ( Evolution ) Your Answer: law Correct Answer: theory Incorrect. The explanation has to be formulated after all the evidence has been analyzed. See section 16.8 for more information. 33. One of the vexing problems with studying evolution is that ____________. ( 16.8 Opposition to the Theory of Evolution ) Your Answer: it is no longer happening today Correct Answer: it usually takes a very long time for evolution to occur Incorrect. See section 16.8 for more information. 34. Many scientists believe that evolution is "God's w ay of doing things." Which of the 1 6.8 Opposition to the Theory of Evolution ) following is accurate? ( Your Answer: This belief is grounded in the fossil evidence found by paleontologists. Correct Answer: This belief does not contradict any of the natural scientific evidence for evolution. Incorrect. Because this belief is outside of the nature of science, do you think it can either affirm or negate evolution? See section 16.8 for more information. 35. One of the greatest problems that scientists have in explaining the theory of 1 6.8 Opposition to the Theory of Evolution ) evolution is that ______________. ( wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 ( 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: not enough evidence exists to prove that evolution has really occurred Correct Answer: many people simply have decided that they do not believe anything that directly contradicts the Bible's literal account of creation in Genesis Incorrect. Abundant evidence for the theory of evolution can be found in many sources. See sections 16.8 and 16.9 for more information on both sides of the discussion on evolution. 36. Radiometric dating indicates that Earth is approximately ___________________ 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution) years old. ( Your Answer: 6,000 Correct Answer: 4.6 billion Incorrect. Earth is older than this date. See section 16.9 for more information. 37. Any artifact preserved in rocks that is evidence of the past presence of an 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) organism is called a ________. ( Your Answer: rocks Correct Answer: fossils Incorrect. This is not the term used to describe petrified remains. See section 16.9 for more information. 38. The evidence from fossil remains is that the primate line that gave rise to humans 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) appeared no more than ________ years ago. ( Your Answer: 40,000 Correct Answer: 65 million Incorrect. The primate line is much older than this figure. See section 16.9 for more information. 39. Based on the evolutionary theme of this chapter, w hich of the following is a good reason for a young woman not to use a tanning bed? ( 16.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: She may not respond to the UV in the tanning bed and not darken at all. Correct Answer: She may get pregnant and, because of the extra UV exposure, bear deformed children, thus failing to pass on her genes to succeeding generations. Incorrect. Remember that darkening of the skin protects humans against overexposure to UV radiation. See the essay "The Evolution of Human Skin Color" for more information. 40. Evidence for evolution gathered by studying the distribution of organisms on 1 6.9 The isolated oceanic islands falls under the study of ___________. ( wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl E vidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: shared ancestry Correct Answer: biogeography Incorrect. This term does not describe this kind of study of distributions. See section 16.9 for more information. 41. Because of a history of common ancestry, the forelimb of a bat is very similar to the 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution) forelimb of _________. ( Your Answer: lobster Correct Answer: cat Incorrect A bat has no common ancestry with this animal. See section 16.9 and Figure 16.11 for more information. 42. Which group of islands is the home of 800 species of Drosophila flies? ( Evidence for Evolution ) Your Answer: Madagascar Correct Answer: Haw aii 1 6.9 The Incorrect. This is not the island w here these flies are found. See section 16.9 for 1 6.9 The Evidence for Evolution ) more information. ( wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charl Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Introduction to Evolution Site: > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:16 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 9% Correct o f 8 que stions: 1 corre ct: 10 incorre ct: 9% 9 1% 1 que stions conta in m ultiple pairs, score d for a total of 4 que stions. More inform ation about scoring . 1. In science, a theory is Your Answer: speculation about the natural world, based on general knowledge of a field Correct Register to View Answergeneral set of principles, supported by evidence, that explains some aspect of the natural world 2. Which of the follow ing are central ideas in the theory of evolution by natural selection? Your Register to View AnswerOrganisms vary in traits that affect their reproduction. Correct Answer: g, a, b, and d are central ideas. 3. Which of the follow ing observations does not provide evidence for evolution? Your Answer: Species w hose adult forms look very different may have similar features in embryonic life. Correct Answer: Athletic training can produce an increase in muscle mass. 4. During the formulation of his theory of evolution by natural selection, Darwin brought together ideas and results from several disciplines. Match the person with the phrase that describes his work. Option Y our Answer A. Natural selection is differential survival or reproduction. A. Natural selection is differential survival or reproduction. A. Natural selection is Correct Answer C. Geological forces observable today caused changes in Earth. A. Natural selection is differential survival or reproduction. B. Inheritance of acq uired 4.1 4.2 4.3 wps.prenhall.com//index.html Lyell Wallace Lamarck 1/3 9/14/2010 4.3 An Introduction to Evolution differential survival or reproduction. Cuvier A. Natural selection is differential survival or reproduction. characters. D. Catastrophic extinction and new creations explain fossil record. 4.4 5. Some of the follow ing structures are homologous with each other. Which structure does not belong to this group? Your Answer: w hale flipper Correct Answer: insect leg 6. The discovery of _____ provided critical evidence for natural selection to be widely accepted as the chief mechanism driving evolution (select one): Your Answer: fossil bacteria Correct Answer: genes as the units of inheritance 7. Important implications of the theory of evolution by natural selection do not include (select the answ er that is not an important implication): Your Answer: All organisms, including humans, are descended from a common ancestor. Correct Answer: Nature designs things intentionally. 8. John Endler performed an experiment involving guppies in which he demonstrated evolution driven by natural selection that worked through a predator-prey relationship. Which of the following is not a true statement about the results of his experiments? Your Answer: When predator fish w ere added to a population that had not previously had predators, males w ith dull coloration were favored by natural selection. Correct Answer: When predators w ere removed, the average brightness of male tails in the population increased. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Send as: wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp An Introduction to Evolution Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Introduction to Evolution Site: > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:15 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing is a component of Darwin's original theory of evolution? (level Y our Answer: Organisms w hose traits fit their environments w ill be the best reproducers. C orrect: Organisms with traits that fit them best to current environmental conditions are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on to their offspring. 2. Which of the follow ing is true of evolution? (level 1). Y our Answer: There is forethought and planning behind evolution. Correct Answer: Evolutionary changes are often not directly observable because they occur over vast expanses of time. Incorrect: Review Section 16.1. 3. Of the follow ing structures, which is homologous to that of the w ing of a bat? (level 2). Y our Answer: the hind leg of a kangaroo Correct Answer: the forearm of a lizard Incorrect: The w ing of a bat is the forelimb; the leg of a kangaroo is the hind limb. 4. Richard Daw kins's book on the theories behind evolution is entitled "The Blind Watchmaker." What is the significance of this rather ironic title? (level 2). Y our Answer: Evolution fashions organisms that function perfectly, much like a precision watch runs perfectly. Correct Answer: Organisms are indeed very complex, much like a precision watch; h ow ever, e volution fashions org anisms without an y wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution " forethought or plan" for their ultimate design. Incorrect: Review Section 16.1. 5. During a class on evolution one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck w hile reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." To correct your fellow student's misconception, w hat w ould you say? (level 2) Y our Answer: Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival. Correct Answer: Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes. Incorrect: Although this is true, it has little to do w ith Lamarckian evolution. 6. Which of the follow ing statements describes how evolution is a biological theme that ties all others together? (level 2). Y our Answer: Evolution explains how organisms become adapted to their environment. Correct Answer: All of the above are true. Incorrect: Although this is correct, is this all that evolution explains? 7. Some moles have eyes that are so reduced that they function only minimally in light perception. Some snakes have hind-limb bones that are reduced completely to nonfunctional remnants. Which of the following might be a plausible evolutionary argument for the reason structures like these become minimized? (level 2) Your Answer: Individuals who have inherited a minimized nonuseful structure may actually have an advantage over individuals that have the structure because possessing it may cause them to be less "fit" in their environment or be a less successful reproducer. C orrect: This is natural selection at work. 8. Prior to Darwin's theory of evolution, most scientists presumed that organisms w ere ...(level 1). Y our Answer: subject to extinction. Correct Answer: fixed and permanent. Incorrect: Review Section 16.3. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution Which of these scientists did not believe that organisms changed over time, or evolved? (level 1). Y our Answer: Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck Correct Answer: Georges Cuvier Incorrect: Lamarck believed that organisms change; however, his mechanism of change was incorrect. 9. 10. In formulating his ideas on evolution, Darwin relied on information from what other scientific disciplines? (level 2). Y our Answer: geology Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only discipline in the list Darw in relied upon? 11. Which of the follow ing evidences, if it w ere actually discovered, w ould most likely cause the demise of the theory of evolution? (level 2). Y our Register to View Answerfossil bat that revealed a different forelimb structure than modern-day bats Correct Register to View Answerprimate fossil in the same rock layer as a trilobite Incorrect: Evolutionary theory w ould predict that bat forelimbs have changed over time. 12. The overall idea that is expressed by the theory of evolution is that ... (level 1). Your Answer: all living things have descended from a common ancestor. C orrect: This is the primary theme of all evolutionary theory. 13. Before Darw in's theory of evolution w as accepted, there w as some doubt that natural selection w ould actually w ork. What w as the main stumbling block in scientists' acceptance of natural selection? (level 2). Y our Answer: an incomplete fossil record Correct Register to View Answermisunderstanding of how traits were passed on to offspring Incorrect: We still have an incomplete fossil record today. That has not impeded the acceptance of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution 14. Based on your understanding of mutations and the evolutionary process, arrange these organisms in order, starting w ith the one that w ould have the closest relationship to man, and ending w ith the one that would have the most distant relationship to man. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. turtle dolphin amoeba pigeon house fly great white shark (level 2). Y our Answer: IV -> II -> I -> V -> VI -> III Correct Answer: II -> IV -> I -> VI -> V -> III Incorrect: Review Section 16.9, "Evidence from Molecular Biology," and Figure 16.13. 15. How do the forelimbs of a bat, w hale, dog, and monkey support the theory of evolution? (level 1). Your Answer: They all have a similar 1-2-5 bone structure, indicating they all descended from a common ancestor. C orrect: This is the most logical conclusion based on the evidence presented. 16. Imagine a tree frog sitting on a limb of a tree when an arboreal snake suddenly attacks it. To escape predation, the frog leaps from the limb to the ground. The fall w ould be fatal, except that the frog spreads its fingers and toes, forming small parachutes that break its fall. After its initial discovery, the frog regularly escapes predators using this procedure. Through time and use, the w ebbing in its fingers and toes expand and stretch so that they become even more parachute-like and are more effective at braking the frog's fall. When this frog mates w ith a female of the same species, we w ould expect that all of its offspring ... (level 2). Y our Answer: would have no webbing betw een its fingers and toes. Correct Answer: would have normal regular w ebbed fingers and toes. Incorrect: Having w ebbed hands and feet is a genetic trait of frogs. 17. Uranium-238 is a radioactive element that will decay into lead-206. It has a half-life of 4.5 billion years, w hich means that after 4.5 billion years exactly onehalf of the total amount of uranium-238 that you started w ith will have decayed into lead-206. Suppose you were given a 100-gram, solid block of uranium-238, and you buried it in the g round. Nine billion years from now , if someone du g it wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution u p and analyzed it, how much uranium-238 w ould be left? (level 1). Y our Answer: 100 grams Correct Answer: 25 grams Incorrect: In the first 4.5 billion years, 50 grams of uranium-238 w ill have decayed. How much of the remaining 50 grams would decay in the next 4.5 billion years? 18. Sometimes evolutionary changes can actually be seen occurring in populations of organisms. Which of the follow ing characteristics is required in order to see evolutionary changes take place in a population? (level 2). Y our Answer: Organisms must be prokaryotic. Correct Answer: Organisms must have rapid reproductive capability. Incorrect: Although evolutionary processes can be observed in prokaryotes, being prokaryotic is not a required characteristic to see evolution taking place. 19. Richard Daw kins, a prolific w riter on evolutionary theory, has stated that when it comes to the theory of evolution, scientists are really more like detectives. Why would this be so? (level 2). Y our Answer: When it comes to the diversity of life on Earth, like detectives, scientists are trying to answer the question, "How did this happen and who is responsible?" Correct Answer: Like scientists, detectives must formulate hypotheses and theories based on the evidence they have found. Incorrect: Although scientists do try to discover how evolutionary change happens, they know that no person is responsible for evolutionary change. 20. Charles Darwin is given the credit for formulating the idea of evolution through natural selection. How ever, another naturalist came up with the same insight at approximately the same time as Darw in. Who was it? (level 1). Y our Register to View AnswerR. Malthus Correct Answer: Alfred Russel Wallace Incorrect: Lamarck's mechanism did not rely on differential survival and reproduction, but rather on adaptive change taking place w ithin the lifetime of each organism. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Evolution E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Evolution and genetics" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 17. The Means of Evolution: Site: Microevolution > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Evolution and genetics Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:25 PM (EDT) 18% Correct of 11 questions 2 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: 1 8% 8 2% More information about scoring 1. An allele is: Y our Register to View Answerparticular trait Correct Register to View Answerparticular version of a gene Incorrect. An allele is not a particular trait. 2. What factors can eventually influence allelic frequencies in a population? Your Answer: mutations Correct Answer: any of the above can influence allelic frequencies Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 3. A population is: Y our Answer: various alleles at all the gene loci Correct Answer: members of the same species occupying the same area at the same time Incorrect. Populations include individuals. 4. How many alleles do you inherit for each genetic trait? Your Answer: 1 Correct Answer: 2 Incorrect. Each parent contributes one allele per trait. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol 5. Allelic frequencies change in: Your Register to View Answerpopulation C orrect. Allelic frequencies change w ithin a population. 6. Which of the follow ing is the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in an environment: Y our Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: fitness Incorrect. Natural selection does not describe the ability to survive and reproduce in the environment. 7. What type of natural selection favors the mean phenotype w ithin the population? Y our Answer: disruptive selection Correct Answer: stabilizing selection Incorrect. Disruptive selection does not favor the mean phenotype. 8. The distribution of human birth w eight is an example of: Y our Answer: disruptive selection Correct Answer: stabilizing selection Incorrect. Human birth w eight is not an example of disruptive selection. 9. The success an organism has in passing on its genes to offspring relative to other members of its population in a particular environment is termed: Y our Answer: fitness C orrect. Fitness involves the success an organism has in passing on its genes. 10. Evolution can only occur within: Y our Register to View Answercommunity Correct Register to View Answerpopulation Incorrect. Evolution can occur at other levels. 11. When an extreme phenotype is favored this is an example of: Y our Answer: stabilizing selection wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Correct Answer: directional selection Incorrect. Stabilizing selection does not favor an extreme phenotype. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 17. The Means of Evolution: Site: Microevolution > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:25 PM (EDT) 13% Correct of 45 questions 6 corre ct: 39 incorre ct: 1 3% 8 7% More information about scoring 1. An allele is ______. ( 1 7.1 What Is It That Evolves?) Your Answer: the gene pool of a population Correct Register to View Answerparticular version of a gene Incorrect. An allele is a very specific item. See section 17.1 for more information. 2. Which of the follow ing could be considered a definition of "evolution"? ( 17.1 What Is It That Evolves? ) ( 1 7.2 Evolution as a Change in the Frequency of Alleles ) Your Register to View Answerchange in environmental conditions Correct Register to View Answerchange in the gene pool of a population Incorrect. Is this a change in the range of variation in a population? See sections 17.1 and 17.2 for more information. 3. Microevolution can be defined as a change in ______. ( Change in the Frequency of Alleles ) 1 7.2 Evolution as a Your Answer: the types of alleles an individual carries as a result of mutations Correct Answer: the allele frequency w ithin a population over a relatively short time Incorrect. Is this a change in the range of genetic variation w ithin a population? See section 17.2 for more information. 4. A scientist notices that over a period of 10 years, spotted frogs, which were rare in a population of solid green frogs, have become almost 30% of the population. How 1 7.2 Evolution as a Change in the would you describe this observation? ( Fre q uency o f Alleles ) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Y our Answer: disruptive selection Correct Answer: microevolution Incorrect. This is an example of the type of change that occurs in all populations. See section 17.2 for more information. 5. If a population is to undergo NO evolution, then ______. ( Microevolution ) Your Answer: the population must be very small Correct Answer: reproduction must be random 1 7.3 Five Agents of Incorrect. Remember that it is normal for populations to evolve. What does natural selection enhance in those members of the populations with beneficial adaptations to pass on to the next generation? See section 17.3 and Table 17.1 for more information. 6. Unlike the other mechanisms that can cause microevolution, natural selection 1 7.3 Five alw ays works in concert with ______ to make organisms more fit. ( Agents of Microevolution) Your Answer: totally random mating Correct Answer: the environment Incorrect. There is a reason that we call the force acting to cause microevolution "natural" selection. Consider w hat the organisms are exposed to every day. See section 17.3 for more information. 7. Unlike natural selection, genetic drift is based solely on _________. ( Agents of Microevolution) Your Answer: chance events 17.3 Five C orrect. It is solely by chance that certain individuals survive while others perish. This causes the drift in the allele frequency. 8. On a remote Pacific island, a species of rabbits can be found that has very short, reduced ears. During a storm, a package containing live, domesticated rabbits is washed over the side of a ship and eventually washed onto the shore of the island. Within only a few generations, the population of island rabbits has changed so that 50% of them have short ears and 50% have long ears. This would be an example of microevolution through ______. ( 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: mutation Correct Answer: gene flow Incorrect. The most important factor here is the influx of the new rabbits that washed ashore. See section 17.3 and Table 17.1 for more information. 9. Along the length of a river, a species of green sunfish exists. To provide electricity to area homes, a hydroelectric dam is built that separates the low er river area from a new ly formed lake above. After many years, the green sunfish in the river and lake are sampled and found to be phenotypically very different. Which of the followin g s cenarios is the best h yp othesis to exp lain the microevolutionary wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol changes observed? ( 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: The electricity produced in the dam caused mutations in the river sunfish, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms. Correct Answer: The dam caused various environmental conditions to be formed in the lake versus the river, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms in both environments. Incorrect. The physical presence of the dam is the important factor here. Can the two populations come into contact as long as the dam is there? See section 17.3 and Figure 17.1 for more information. 10. The movement of alleles from one population to another by the migration of individuals is called ________. ( 17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: gene flow Incorrect. This question deals with the flow of alleles, not a decrease in the flow of alleles. See section 17.3 for more information. 11. In 1986, a terrible accident occurred in Chernobyl, Ukraine, in which radioactive material w as released to the surrounding area as a result of a nuclear pow er plant explosion. Which of the following scenarios would you expect to find in the area? ( 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: Microevolutionary changes decrease because of increased mutations. Correct Answer: Microevolutionary changes increase because of increased mutations. Incorrect. Radiation causes more mutations in a population. What w ould you expect to happen to the genetic variability of the animals in the area? See section 17.3 and Table 17.1 for more information. 12. A scientist conducting a long-term study of bluebirds in a Minnesota forest notices that the males have become a more brilliant blue over the last 30 years. Of what 17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) advantage could this be to the population? ( Your Answer: Brighter males are probably healthier and attract females preferentially. C orrect. Any adaptation that increases the likelihood of passing on alleles for good health will cause microevolutionary changes in the population. 13. Which of the follow ing is the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in an 17.4 Natural Selection and Evolutionary Fitness ) environment? ( Your Answer: adaptation Correct Answer: fitness Incorrect. Natural selection and adaptations must produce results that can be measured in terms of the relative success an organism has in passing its genes on to the next generation. See section 17.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol The study of finches in the Galapagos show ed that ______. ( Selection and Evolutionary Fitness ) Your Answer: one particular bird w as most fit Correct Answer: different traits were favored under different environmental conditions Incorrect. You cannot consider the adaptation in terms of the environment in which it is found. See section 17.4 for more information. 1 7.4 Natural 14. 15. Which of the follow ing statements is true? ( Selection ) 1 7.5 Three Modes of Natural Your Answer: In stabilizing selection, the mean character remains unchanged, and the variation about the mean decreases. C orrect. The average character measurement stays the same, but the variation in the population diminishes. 16. Which of the follow ing graphs represent(s) the most common type of selection? ( 17.5 Three Modes of Natural Selection) Your Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View AnswerIncorrect. If the environmental conditions are fairly constant, would natural selection favor adaptations that w ere farther away from the constant environment? See section 17.5 for more information. 17. Which of the follow ing graphs represent(s) selection that may lead to the 1 7.5 Three Modes of Natural Selection) emergence of a new species? . ( Your Answer: III only Correct Answer: I or III Incorrect. Is this the "only" type of selection that could lead to the emergence of a new species? See section 17.5 for more information. 18. When the environmental conditions select against organisms at only one extreme 1 7.5 Three of the range of diversity in a population, the results will be ______. ( Modes of Natural Selection ) Your Answer: directional selection C orrect. This is the mode of natural selection that produces a change toward one of the extremes of a characteristic that is better suited to the environment. 19. Which of the follow ing groups of organisms is subject to natural selection? ( What Is It That Evolves? ) Your Answer: the Thoroughbred race horses found throughout the United States Correct Answer: the grass frogs found in Minnesota 1 7.1 wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Incorrect. Does this group of organisms qualify as a population? See section 17.1 for more information. 20. It is impossible to predict w hich w ay evolution w ill proceed in any given population 17.1 What Is It That Evolves? ) because _______. ( Your Answer: Mutations may cease to occur in a population. Correct Answer: Environmental changes are almost impossible to predict. Incorrect. Even if we know how an environment will change and which mutations are occurring in a population, could we predict how natural selection will respond? See section 17.1 for more information. 21. For scientists to analyze evolutionary change in populations, they must think of 1 7.2 Evolution as a Change in the Frequency of individual genes as ________. ( Alleles ) Your Answer: theoretical entities used to represent unknow n quantities w ithin organisms Correct Answer: members of a gene pool that is subject to random change because of mutations Incorrect. A gene pool is a mix of alleles constantly in flux because of mutations and other evolutionary forces. See section 17.2 for more information. 22. Evolution that results in the formation of new species or other large groupings of 1 7.2 Evolution as a Change in the living things is defined as _____________. ( Frequency of Alleles ) Your Answer: microevolution Correct Answer: macroevolution Incorrect. This term refers to another evolutionary phenomenon. See section 17.2 for more information. 23. If an albino variant suddenly appears in a population of frogs ranging from solid green to spotted green, the new phenotype is probably the result of _________. ( 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: mutation Incorrect. Has this phenotype had the chance to be subjected to the forces of natural selection yet? See section 17.3 for more information. 24. One of the reasons that natural selection works on populations rather than on 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) individuals is that _____________. ( Your Answer: populations are too large for natural selection to have an effect Correct Answer: organisms produce only one set of offspring Incorrect. Evolution is change over time involving several generations. Can an individual belong to more than one generation? See section 17.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol 25. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the most important characteristic of a mutation is 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) that it _______. ( Your Answer: produces a beneficial effect Correct Answer: occurs in the reproductive cells that produce either sperm or eggs Incorrect. Does the individual w ho develops the mutation evolve? See section 17.3 for more information. 26. A typical mutation rate would be __________. ( Microevolution ) Your Answer: one DNA base pair per 1 million Correct Answer: one DNA base pair per 1 billion 1 7.3 Five Agents of Incorrect. Mutations are very rare occurrences. See section 17.3 for more information. 27. The movement of genes from one population to another is accomplished through 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) _________. ( Your Answer: the bottleneck effect Correct Answer: migration Incorrect. Because genes are carried by individuals, as the individual moves, so do the genes. See section 17.3 for more information. 28. Why are the results of genetic drift so difficult to predict? ( Microevolution ) Your Answer: Small populations evolve at a slow er rate. 1 7.3 Five Agents of Correct Answer: Small populations are subject to greater statistical chance. Incorrect. Why is genetic drift found only in small populations? See section 17.3 for more information. 29. If a population is subjected to the bottleneck effect, w hich evolutionary consequence do you think will be accentuated? ( 17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: genetic drift Incorrect. The bottleneck effect produces a small population that subsequently suffers the statistical consequences of being small. See section 17.3 for more information. 30. How does the founder effect differ from the bottleneck effect? ( of Microevolution ) 1 7.3 Five Agents wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Y our Answer: Founders have a higher mutation rate than do bottleneck survivors. Correct Answer: Founders leave behind a large gene pool, whereas a bottleneck population comprises the sole survivors of a chance population reduction. Incorrect. Although founders and migrants are similar in that they are both small populations, they are very different in another respect. See section 17.3 for more information. 31. What appears to be the major evolutionary problem with inbreeding within a 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution) population? ( Your Answer: Inbreeding produces too many offspring in the next generation. Correct Answer: It reduces the amount of genetic variety. Incorrect. Evolution is best when natural selection has a large variation in the genetic makeup of a population. See section 17.3 for more information. 32. People often see evolution as a struggle for existence and "survival of the fittest." 1 7.3 Five Agents of In reality, evolution is based on __________. ( Microevolution ) Your Answer: survival of the smartest Correct Answer: reproduction of the fittest Incorrect. Even if the individual survives, is there any guarantee that its genes are going to be passed on to the next generation? See section 17.3 for more information. 33. Which of the follow ing evolutionary forces consistently works to adapt organisms 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution) to their environment? ( Your Answer: mutation Correct Answer: natural selection Incorrect. Adaptation requires that a population's gene pool be changed in a way that increases success in the environment. See section 17.3 for more information. 34. How does natural selection increase the fitness of an organism? ( Selection and Evolutionary Fitness ) Your Answer: Natural selection makes individuals stronger. 17.4 Natural Correct Answer: Natural selection increases an individual's reproductive efficiency. Incorrect. Do these attributes increase the ability of an individual to reproduce? See section 17.3 for more information. 35. In Peter and Rosemary Grant's studies of Galapagos finches, they discovered that __________. ( 1 7.4 Natural Selection and Evolutionary Fitness ) Your Answer: Finches responded to drought by grow ing larger beaks. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Correct Answer: Finches with larger beaks were able to feed on the more abundant large seeds. Incorrect. Finches are not able to consciously respond to environmental circumstances in a way that improves their chances of survival. See section 17.4 for more information. 36. Polygenic characters are particularly susceptible to the forces of natural selection because _________. ( 1 7.5 Three Modes of Natural Selection) Your Answer: they are especially resistant to the forces of natural selection Correct Answer: they are continuously variable Incorrect. These characters are very common and are important in evolutionary forces. See section 17.5 for more information. 37. If a population of lizards that normally eats small insects expands its range into an area that has both small and large insects available, w hat type of natural selection would you expect to see in this population? ( 1 7.5 Three Modes of Natural Selection ) Your Answer: disruptive selection C orrect. Even though we cannot be sure it w ould happen, the conditions are ripe for disruptive selection. 38. Why do most human infants weigh less than 7 pounds at birth? ( Modes of Natural Selection ) 1 7.5 Three Your Answer: Human females have become smaller in recent years. Correct Answer: This birth w eight is the most adaptive. Incorrect. Any adaptation must be based on a significant fact. See section 17.5 for more information. 39. If a recessive allele is found in 11% of a population and no selective forces are 1 7.5 acting on the allele, what will be its frequency in the next generation? ( Three Modes of Natural Selection) Your Answer: 11% C orrect. If there is no selection pressure on this allele, its frequency w ill remain the same. 40. Male deer have developed large antlers because ____________. ( Agents of Microevolution) Your Answer: their diets have changed in recent years Correct Answer: female deer prefer males with large antlers 1 7.3 Five Incorrect. Can you figure out how large antlers must be related to fitness? See section 17.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol When a chromosome loses some of its DNA, w e say that a ______________ has 1 7.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) occurred. ( Your Answer: metamorphosis Correct Answer: deletion Incorrect. This situation involves the entire chromosome, not just one nucleotide in its DNA. See section 17.3 for more information. 41. 42. Most mutations that occur in an organism ________. ( Microevolution ) 1 7.3 Five Agents of Your Answer: make the organism less adapted to its environment Correct Answer: have little or no effect on the life of the organism Incorrect. If mutations had a significant effect on the life of an organism, w ould you expect to see more evolution occurring today? See section 17.3 for more information. 43. Water currents, wind currents, animal dispersal of seeds, and human activity are 1 7.3 Five Agents of examples of which kind of evolutionary activity? ( Microevolution ) Your Answer: genetic drift Correct Answer: gene flow Incorrect. These activities produce a similar result. See section 17.3 for more information. 44. The hunting of seals in the 1890s produced w hich effect on their populations? ( 17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) Your Answer: genetic drift Correct Answer: bottleneck effect Incorrect. Hunting must have a negative effect on seal populations. See section 17.3 and Figure 17.6 for more information. 45. The massive development we see of a peacock's tail is a good example of 17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution ) ________. ( Your Answer: stabilizing selection Correct Answer: sexual selection Incorrect. Consider which aspect of the environment is selecting which peacocks will reproduce and pass their genes on to the next generation. See section 17.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevol Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Means of Evolution: Site: Microevolution > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:25 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 26% Correct o f 11 que stions: 5 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 2 6% 7 4% 2 que stions conta in m ultiple pairs, score d for a total of 10 que stions. More inform ation a bout scoring . 1. In most populations of living things, each individual has ___ copies of each gene, w hich may be the same or different allelic variants. A population may have _____ allelic variants for a given gene. Y our Answer: 2, 4 Correct Answer: 2, many 2. Match the terms w ith their meanings: Option Your Answer A. exchange of genes betw een populations A. exchange of genes betw een populations A. exchange of genes betw een populations A. exchange of genes betw een populations A. exchange of genes betw een populations Correct Answer C. the set of all alleles in a population B. a variant form of a gene D. the relative representation of a given form of a gene in a population E. the genetic makeup of an organism A. exchange of genes between populations 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 gene pool allele allele frequency genotype gene flow 3. Which of the follow ing statements is true of microevolution? Y our Register to View AnswerIt is a change in allele frequency w ithin populations. Correct Register to View AnswerBoth a and c are correct. 4. Agents of change in allele frequency in populations do not include: Your Answer: meiosis wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution 5. Agents that consistently produce adaptive evolution (adaptation) include (select all that apply): Y our Answer: mutation Correct Answer: natural selection 6. Mutations are: Y our Answer: alw ays caused by changes in single base pairs of DNA Correct Answer: the ultimate source of new genetic variation 7. In stabilizing selection, _____ individuals have the highest fitness: Your Answer: intermediate 8. Match the agent of evolution to its description: Option Y our Answer A. chance alterations of allele frequencies in a population, w ith such alterations having greatest impact on small populations A. chance alterations of allele frequencies in a population, w ith such alterations having greatest impact on small populations A. chance alterations of allele frequencies in a population, w ith such alterations having greatest impact on small populations A. chance alterations of allele frequencies in a population, w ith such alterations having greatest impact on small populations A. chance alterations of allele fre q uencies in a Correct Answer C. changes in the genetic material 8.1 mutation 8.2 gene flow B. movement of alleles between populations by migration 8.3 natural selection D. a process in which the fit of an organism w ith its environment selects those traits that w ill be passed on w ith greater frequency from one generation to the next A. chance alterations of allele frequencies in a population, with such alterations having greatest impact on small populations 8.4 genetic drift 8.5 wps.prenhall.com//index.html founder effect E. genetic drift due to a few colonizin g g enotyp es 2/4 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution p opulation, w ith such alterations having greatest impact on small populations 9. When an insect population becomes resistant to insecticides, this is an example of a response to _____ selection. Y our Answer: random Correct Answer: directional 10. Finches in the Galapagos experienced _____ selection on beak depth follow ing a drought, w hile the African finch P. ostrinus e xperiences _____ selection on beak size because it eats either very small, soft seeds or much larger, hard seeds. Your Answer: directional; disruptive 11. A large lizard population (1,000 individuals) on the coast contains mostly individuals that are plain brow n, but a few have white spots. Coloration is genetically determined. One day during a storm, tw o spotted lizards hitch a ride on a piece of driftw ood to a nearby island, w here they join a population of 100 lizards, some of w hich are spotted and some of which are plain brow n. The islands lizard population allele frequency has thus changed due to Y our Answer: natural selection Correct Answer: gene flow E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Means of Evolution: Site: Microevolution > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:24 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 20 que stions: 6 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which is NOT true of mutations? (level 1). Your Answer: They are the only force in evolution that consistently adapts organisms to their environment. C orrect: Mutations produce the variation upon w hich natural selection acts, and natural selection is the main force that adapts organisms to their environment. 2. Which of the follow ing could be considered a definition of evolution? (level 2). Y our Register to View Answerchange in the genetic makeup of an individual Correct Register to View Answerchange in the gene pool of a population Incorrect: This could result from a somatic mutation. 3. Which of the follow ing statements is true? (level 2). Y our Answer: Natural selection acts directly on genotype, but individuals evolve. Correct Answer: Natural selection acts directly on phenotype, but populations evolve. Incorrect: Natural selection acts INDIRECTLY on genotype, and individual organisms do not evolve. 4. If a population is to undergo no evolution then ... (level 2). Y our Answer: the population must be very small. Correct Answer: survival must be random. Incorrect: Small populations are more susceptible to the effects of genetic drift. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution According to the evolutionary definition of fitness, w hich of these organisms has shown that they are the "fittest" at this current moment in time? (level 2). Your Register to View Answerfemale humpback w hale that has calved four calves, but is now at the end of her life C orrect: Since she has produced offspring, she is the fittest. 5. 6. The graph below represents w hich of the follow ing types of selection? (level 2). Your Answer: disruptive selection C orrect: Disruptive selection moves a given character tow ard two extreme forms. 7. Which of the follow ing statements is true? (level 2) Y our Answer: In stabilizing selection, the mean character decreases, w hile the variation about the mean decreases. Correct Answer: In stabilizing selection, the mean character remains unchanged, w hile the variation about the mean decreases. Incorrect: Review Figure 17.10. 8. Which of the graphs below represents the most common Type of Selection. (level 2). Y our Register to View Answer wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Correct Register to View Answer Incorrect: This graph is the result of tw o selection pressures that favor the extremes in the population. 9. Which of the graphs below represent(s) selection that may lead to the emergence of a new species? (level 2). Y our Answer: I, II, or III Correct Answer: I or III Incorrect: Stabilizing selection tends to decrease the variation in a population. 10. The disadvantage of inbreeding is that ... (level 1). Y our Answer: it reduces the genetic diversity of the population. Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only disadvantage to inbreeding. 11. Unlike the other mechanisms that can cause microevolution, natural selection always w orks in concert w ith ______ to make organisms more fit. (level 1). Y our Answer: totally random mating Correct Answer: the environment Incorrect: Totally random mating will produce no microevolutionary changes. 12. In the microevolutionary agent known as sexual selection, mate choice is based solely on an individual's ... (level 1). Y our Answer: mutations. Correct Answer: phenotype. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Incorrect: Mutations are invisible and therefore cannot be used as a selection cue. 13. Unlike natural selection, genetic drift is based solely on ... (level 2). Y our Answer: chance events. C orrect: It is solely by chance that certain individuals survive w hile others perish. This causes the drift in the allele frequency. 14. Microevolution can be defined as a change in ... (level 1). Y our Answer: the phenotype of an individual due to the use or disuse of certain anatomical features. Correct Answer: the allele frequency within a population. Incorrect: Microevolution does not occur in an individual. 15. On a remote Pacific island, a species of hares (rabbits) can be found that has very short, reduced ears. During a storm, a package containing live, domesticated rabbits is washed over the side of a ship and eventually w ashed onto the shore of the island. Within only a few generations, the population of hares has changed so that 50% of the hares have short ears and 50% have long ears. This would be an example of microevolution through ... (level 2). Y our Answer: genetic drift. Correct Answer: gene flow . Incorrect: Genetic drift works on populations that used to be large but have been reduced to only a few individuals. 16. When the environmental conditions favor organisms at each extreme of the range of diversity in a population, the results will be ... (level 2). Y our Answer: stabilizing selection. Correct Answer: disruptive selection. Incorrect: Review the animation of Figure 17.10 on the three modes of natural selection. 17. When the environmental conditions select against organisms at only one extreme of the range of diversity in a population, the results will be ... (level 1). Your Answer: directional selection. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution C orrect: This is the mode of natural selection most commonly recognized. 18. Which of the follow ing statements concerning adaptations is a TRUE statement? (level 2). Your Register to View Answergenetically caused change in an individual's phenotype may or may not be an adaptation depending upon the environment. C orrect: The environment determines if the phenotypical change is beneficial, harmful, or neutral. It is only classified as an adaptation if it is beneficial. 19. The only means by w hich new genetic information is produced is through the process of ... (level 1). Y our Answer: gene flow . Correct Answer: mutations. Incorrect: Migrations can bring new alleles into a population, but those alleles existed somewhere prior to their movement. They w ere not new ly produced. 20. Along the length of a river there exists a species of green sunfish. In order to provide electricity to area homes, a hydroelectric dam is built that separates the lower river area from a new ly formed lake above. After many, many years, the green sunfish in the river and lake are sampled and found to be phenotypically very different. Which of the scenarios listed below is the best hypothesis to explain the microevolutionary changes observed? (level 2). Y our Answer: The dam forced an increase in the amount of gene flow between the populations, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms in each group. Correct Answer: The dam caused different environmental conditions to be formed in the lake versus the river, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms in both environments. Incorrect: The presence of the dam w ould actually reduce the amount of gene flow betw een the populations. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Send as: Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 I nstructor: T A: O the r: He lp The Means of Evolution: Microevolution Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Speciation" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Site: Macroevolution > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Speciation Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:27 PM (EDT) 17% Correct of 6 questions 1 corre ct: 5 incorre ct: 1 7% 8 3% More information about scoring 1. Hybridization betw een different plant species producing more than tw o sets of chromosomes is called : Y our Answer: allopatric speciation Correct Answer: polyploidy Incorrect. Allopatric speciation does not produce more than tw o sets of chromosomes. 2. Which of the following w ould be an extrinsic reproductive isolating mechanism? Y our Answer: temporal isolation Correct Answer: geographic isolation Incorrect. This is not an extrinsic reproductive isolating mechanism. 3. Allopatric speciation occurs w hen: Y our Answer: tw o populations of different species within the same geographic area share a gene pool Correct Answer: one population of the same species is separated geographically and can no longer interbreed. Incorrect. Allopatric speciation does not occur in this situation. 4. Which of the following is a post-mating reproductive isolation method? Y our Answer: temporal isolation Correct Answer: hybrid sterility wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Incorrect. This is not a post-mating isolation mechanism. 5. When a population becomes geographically separated so that they no longer share a gene pool, the follow ing can occur: Y our Answer: allopatric speciation C orrect. Allopatric speciation can occur in this situation. 6. Two species of birds live in the same area and have the same mating season. Why are two birds of different species unlikely to attempt breeding? Y our Answer: because of ecological isolation Correct Answer: because of behavioral isolation Incorrect. These birds live in the same area and have the same mating season. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Site: Macroevolution > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:26 PM (EDT) 26% Correct of 43 questions 11 corre ct: 32 incorre ct: 2 6% 7 4% More information about scoring 1. While making repairs, a zoo had to place a species of bird from Africa in the same enclosure as a bird species from South America. To everyone's surprise, some of the birds mated and produced hybrid offspring. The hybrids w ere eventually separated from the other birds and placed in their own enclosure. Again to everyone's surprise the hybrids mated and produced offspring. According to today's biological concept of a species, how should all these birds be classified? ( 1 8.1 What Is a Species? ) Your Answer: The two original groups should still be classified as different species, and their offspring should be classified as a third species. Correct Answer: The two original groups should still be classified as two species; the first group of offspring and their offspring should be classified as hybrids. Incorrect. Members of a species can breed successfully in nature. Can this zoo encounter be considered a natural occurrence? See section 18.1 for more information. 2. Approximately one-third of all species of fish live in freshwater, and the other tw othirds are saltwater species. How ever, freshwater lakes and rivers cover only about 1% of Earth's surface, compared w ith saltw ater, w hich covers 75% of Earth's surface. Which of the follow ing arguments might best explain the diversity of freshwater fish in this spatially limited habitat? ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) Your Answer: Freshw ater fish have undergone a series of evolutionary bottlenecks (bottleneck effect). Correct Answer: Greater opportunities for separation of populations in freshwater habitats has led to higher levels of allopatric speciation. Incorrect. The answ er to this question lies in the difference in the physical distribution of the oceans versus freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers. See section 18.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3. Tw o s p ecies of monke ys are ca p tured in the Amazonian forest and p laced in the 1/10 9/14/2010 3. 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro zoo. The zookeeper feels safe in putting the two species together in the same enclosure because they are not known to interbreed in the wild. How ever, the monkeys are soon interbreeding and producing hybrid offspring. The zookeeper checks the records and discovers that although these tw o species live in the same jungle, one species is active only at night and the other is active only during the day. Which intrinsic isolating mechanism has been keeping these tw o species from 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) interbreeding? ( Your Answer: temporal isolation Correct Answer: ecological isolation Incorrect. The answ er lies in which environmental factor that normally keeps these species apart has been removed in the zoo. See section 18.2 for more information. 4. Which type of speciation is associated with a geographical barrier that separates 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) two populations of organisms? ( Your Answer: terrapatric speciation Correct Answer: allopatric speciation Incorrect. Only two methods of speciation are associated with geography, and this is not one of them. See section 18.2 for more information. 5. Female spiders are notorious hunters. For some spider species, the male spider must perform a certain type of "dance" before mating with the female of that species. Male spiders of other species that do not know this "dance" are devoured before they have a chance to mate. This is an example of ______. ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) Your Answer: ecological isolation Correct Answer: behavioral isolation Incorrect. See section 18.2 and Table 18.1 for more information. 6. Hybridization between different plant species producing more than two sets of chromosomes is called ______. ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise?) Your Answer: species interaction Correct Answer: polyploidy Incorrect. Hybridization means that the two species have already mated, so this could not be the answ er. See section 18.2 for more information. 7. Geographic isolation is often referred to as ______. ( Arise? ) Your Answer: an extrinsic isolating mechanism 1 8.2 How Do New Species C orrect. Geographic isolation prevents mating and thus acts extrinsically rather than intrinsically. 8. Which of the follow ing is a post-mating reproductive isolation method? ( How Do New Species Arise? ) 1 8.2 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Y our Answer: mechanical isolation Correct Answer: hybrid sterility Incorrect. Does this type of isolating mechanism allow the two species to exchange gametes? See section 18.2 and Table 18.1 for more information. 9. The relatively rapid emergence of numerous new species all from a common 1 8.3 Many New Species from One: Adaptive ancestor is referred to as ______. ( Radiation ) Your Answer: sympatric speciation Correct Answer: adaptive radiation Incorrect. This type of speciation involves natural selection favoring certain adaptive traits over others. See section 18.3 for more information. 10. Which of the follow ing organisms would be the least likely to show drastic 1 8.4 The Pace of Speciation) evolutionary changes over a long period? ( Your Register to View Answerspecies of snail that can live both in water and on land C orrect. Out of this list of organisms, this one is the only generalist. 11. Imagine that a flock of birds is blown off course during migration, and they land on an island lacking birds. They evolve rapidly into several new species as they exploit 1 8.3 Many New Species from One: Adaptive new habitats. What has occurred? ( Radiation ) Your Answer: adaptive radiation C orrect. Adaptive radiation is the rapid emergence of many species from a single species that has been introduced into a new environment. 12. The ichthyosaur w as a large aquatic reptile. Fossils show that it had a dorsal fin and a tail just like fish, even though its closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. Compared with the fins and tail of 18.5 The fishes, the dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs are ______. ( Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: cladistic Correct Answer: analogous Incorrect. The important clue to the correct answer is the fact that ichthyosaurs and fish are not closely related. See section 18.5 and Figure 18.13 for more information. 13. How did Darw in's theory of evolution change the way organisms w ere classified? ( 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: It had no effect on taxonomy. Correct Answer: Taxonomic categories are now considered to reflect evolutionary "relatedness." Incorrect. Before Darw in , d id taxonomists take evolutionary relatedness into wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro consideration when they named organisms? See section 18.5 for more information. 14. One draw back of classical taxonomy w as that in it, the relationships betw een 1 8.6 Classical Taxonomy and organisms w ere often based on ______. ( Cladistics ) Your Answer: hard evidence Correct Answer: subjective judgments Incorrect. How important w as the subjective judgment of scientists in determining the importance of anatomical and physiological characteristics? See section 18.6 for more information. 15. Using a cladistic model, organisms w ith ______ shared derived characteristics would be more ______ related. ( 1 8.6 Classical Taxonomy and Cladistics ) Your Answer: few er; distantly Correct Answer: more; closely Incorrect. The cladistic model emphasizes shared derived characteristics in more closely related organisms. See section 18.6 for more information. 16. The term macroevolution refers to ________. ( 1 8.1 What Is a Species?) Your Answer: the same processes as in microevolution but resulting in the formation of new species C orrect. Macroevolution involves the same processes as microevolution with isolation involved in separating populations. 17. Ernst Mayer was instrumental in advancing the biological species concept, which 1 8.1 What Is a Species? ) stressed ______. ( Your Answer: the sizes of populations of animals and plants Correct Answer: the presence or absence of reproductive isolation Incorrect. This concept is not concerned primarily with anatomical or physiological factors. See section 18.1 for more information. 18. Does the fact that lions and tigers mate successfully in a zoo negate the fact that 1 8.1 What Is a Species?) these are separate species? ( Your Answer: This may indicate that they prefer to hybridize rather than breed within their ow n species. Correct Answer: No. The zoo is not a natural habitat for these species, and w hat occurs there is no indication of what happens in nature. Incorrect. Does the fact that a particular mating practice occurs in zoos but not in nature have any bearing on this question? See section 18.1 for more information. 19. The development of a new species through evolution is called __________. ( 18.2 How Do New Sp ecies Arise? ) wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Y our Answer: geographic isolation Correct Answer: speciation Incorrect. Even though populations are subjected to many evolutionary forces, do they alw ays respond by developing new species? See section 18.2 for more information. 20. Geographic separation is of paramount importance in the process of ___________. 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) ( Your Answer: allopatric speciation C orrect. Allopatric speciation requires geographic separation of tw o populations. 21. The biological species concept is based on the ______________ behavior of 1 8.1 What Is a Species?) species. ( Your Answer: breeding C orrect. The absence of breeding between members of tw o populations is paramount in the establishment of new species. 22. Even though two species of hawks live in the same forest, one species feeds on rodents and the other feeds on birds. Which type of isolation does this represent? 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) ( Your Answer: ecological isolation C orrect. The tw o hawks are using different parts of the same habitat. 23. There are two varieties of spadefoot toads living in the southw estern deserts. One breeds in February and the other breeds in April. Which type of isolation does this represent? ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) Your Answer: gametic isolation Correct Answer: temporal isolation Incorrect. This type of isolation is triggered by different climactic cues in the environment. See section 18.2 for more information. 24. Tw o species of orioles live in the same forest. The female of each species is attracted to the distinctive song of males of its own species. Which type of isolation does this represent? ( 18.2 How Do New Species Arise?) Your Answer: behavioral isolation C orrect. The behavioral differences that result in the songs of the two orioles are what maintains the genetic separation of these species. wps.aw.com//index.html 25. Tw o s p ecies of beetles occupy the same rottin g lo g s in a forest. If a male of 5/10 9/14/2010 25. 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro species A attempts to mate with a female of species B, he is unsuccessful because his reproductive structures do not fit into hers. Which type of isolating mechanism 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) does this represent? ( Your Answer: gametic isolation Correct Answer: mechanical isolation Incorrect. This mechanism involves anatomical differences betw een the two species. See section 18.2 for more information. 26. When tw o species of grass frogs mate in the same pond, the sperm of one species may come into contact w ith the eggs of another species, yet fertilization does not take place because the egg lacks matching receptors for chemicals on the sperm. Which type of isolation does this represent? ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) Your Answer: ecological isolation Correct Answer: gametic isolation Incorrect. What is critical in combining eggs and sperm? What is the scientific term for eggs and sperm? See section 18.2 for more information. 27. Tw o species of frogs mate in the same pond, and sometimes the sperm of one species fertilizes the eggs of another species in the pond. The tadpoles produced have misshapen mouth parts and cannot feed. Which type of isolation does this 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) represent? ( Your Answer: genetic isolation Correct Answer: hybrid inviability Incorrect. This type of isolation is caused by the lack of matching instructions in the DNA of the respective chromosomes. See section 18.2 for more information. 28. Most people know that the only way to produce a mule is to mate a horse w ith a donkey. Trying to mate a mule with a mule does not work. Which type of isolation does this represent? ( 1 8.2 How Do New Species Arise? ) Your Answer: behavioral isolation Correct Answer: hybrid sterility Incorrect. Mules are strong animals; therefore, there must be enough matching of the chromosomes to allow the production of a healthy animal. See section 18.2 for more information. 29. Which of the follow ing processes is capable of producing a new species w ithin a 18.3 Many New Species from One: Adaptive Radiation) single generation? ( Your Answer: polyploidy C orrect. A new species can be produced within a single generation with a complete double set of chromosomes unable to mate back with either parent. 30. The evolution of a single species into a number of new species by filling new ecologic niches is know n as _________. ( 1 8.3 Many New Species from One: Ada p tive Radiation) wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Y our Answer: environmental speciation Correct Answer: adaptive radiation Incorrect. This type of evolution is related to the diversity of the environment rather than internal characteristics of the organism. See section 18.3 for more information. 31. The fossil record has many examples of one type of organism gradually changing 1 8.4 The into another type of organism. This is an example of ___________. ( Pace of Speciation ) Your Answer: punctuated equilibrium Correct Answer: gradual evolution Incorrect. Some fossil columns show little change in the characteristics of organisms over long periods. See section 18.4 for more information. 32. Sometimes the fossil record show s w hat appears to be the sudden disappearance of one species w ith the sudden appearance of a related species. Which type of 1 8.4 The Pace of Speciation ) evolution does this represent? ( Your Answer: allopatric evolution Correct Answer: punctuated equilibrium Incorrect. What could account for gaps in the fossil history? See section 18.4 for more information. 33. The term binomial nomenclature refers to the rule that _____. ( Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) 1 8.5 The Your Answer: at least tw o scientists must agree on the correct name for an organism Correct Answer: each species has two parts to its scientific name Incorrect. This is a simple rule that ensures that each species has a unique name. See section 18.5 for more information. 34. Carolus Linnaeus w as important to the study of biology because he _________. ( 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: w orked with Darwin to discover the principles of evolution Correct Answer: invented binomial nomenclature Incorrect. This scientist w as concerned with order and organization. See section 18.5 for more information. 35. The field of biology that studies the diversity and relatedness of organisms is called ________. ( 18.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: systematics C orrect. This is the study of how organisms are related to one another. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro 36. Which of the follow ing classification categories is the largest and most inclusive? ( 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: family Correct Answer: phylum Incorrect. This category is not the largest one listed here. See section 18.5 and Figure 18.11 for more information. 37. Which of the follow ing is one of the problems with phylogenetic trees? ( The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: None of the information is verified by fossil evidence. Correct Answer: The connections betw een the organisms in the tree are hypothetical. 1 8.5 Incorrect. Can the evidence for this phylogenetic tree be quantified? See section 18.5 for more information. 38. Scientists do not use analogous structures to establish evolutionary relationships 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) because they _________. ( Your Answer: often mimic homologous structures Correct Answer: are based on convergent evolution of unrelated forms Incorrect. Remember that analogous structures permit various organisms to behave in the same way. See section 18.5 for more information. 39. Classical taxonomy differs from cladistics because classical taxonomy ________. ( 1 8.6 Classical Taxonomy and Cladistics ) Your Answer: uses subjective judgments to analyze relationships C orrect. Classical taxonomists often decide that some evidence is more important than other evidence. 40. The first part of the tw o-part name for every organism is the _______ of the 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) species. ( Your Answer: family Correct Answer: genus Incorrect. See section 18.5 for more information. 41. Which of the follow ing includes all related genera? ( Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: phylum Correct Answer: family 1 8.5 The Categorization of wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Incorrect. Which group is the next largest after genus? See section 18.5 and Figure 18.11 for more information. 42. Which of the follow ing is the only group in w hich microevolution can occur? ( What Is a Species? ) Your Answer: order Correct Answer: species 1 8.1 Incorrect. This group is too large for microevolution to affect. See section 18.1 for more information. 43. If we base an analysis of phylogenetic relationships solely on a study of comparative anatomy, w e might arrive at incorrect conclusions because of _____. ( 1 8.5 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things ) Your Answer: homologies Correct Answer: convergent evolution Incorrect. This would help us reach valid conclusions. See section 18.5 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macro Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Outcomes of Evolution: Site: Macroevolutio > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:27 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 15% Correct o f 9 questions: 2 corre ct: 11 incorre ct: 1 5% 8 5% 1 que stions conta in m ultiple pairs, score d for a total of 5 que stions. More inform ation about scoring . 1. In the biological species concept, the factor that defines a species is Your Answer: its behavior Correct Answer: reproductive isolation 2. In allopatric speciation (select the answ er that does not apply): Your Answer: Gene flow betw een populations is greatly reduced by physical barriers. Correct Answer: Allele frequency changes are shared between populations. 3. Factors that can be problems in determining the true relationships among organisms may include (select the answer that does not apply): Your Answer: poor fossil record Correct Answer: homologous traits 4. Possible intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanisms include (select the answ er that does not apply): Your Answer: mating at different times of year or times of day Correct Answer: producing fertile hybrids 5. Match the reproductive isolating mechanism with the means by w hich it w orks: Option Your Answer A. progeny of a cross are unable to reproduce Correct Answer C. mating occurs at different times of day or year 5.1 wps.prenhall.com//index.html temporal isolation 1/3 9/14/2010 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol ecological A. progeny of a cross are isolation unable to reproduce geographical isolation gametic isolation hybrid sterility A. progeny of a cross are unable to reproduce A. progeny of a cross are unable to reproduce A. progeny of a cross are unable to reproduce E. populations live in different environments D. populations are separated by physical barriers B. egg and sperm do not fuse A. progeny of a cross are unable to reproduce 6. In ocean-dw elling creatures such as sea urchins or corals, sperm and eggs are released into the w ater by males and females, and fertilization occurs externally. If several closely related species of coral live in the same location, w hat reproductive isolating mechanisms are likely to be effective at preventing interbreeding? (Select the answ er that does not apply.) Your Answer: gametic isolation Correct Answer: ecological isolation 7. Order the follow ing categories into the appropriate biological hierarchy, with the least inclusive category first: genus, class, species, family, phylum Your Answer: family, class, species, genus, phylum Correct Answer: species, genus, family, class, phylum 8. Adaptive radiations (select the answer that does not apply): Y our Answer: concern the evolution of heat loss in vertebrates experiencing stressful climates 9. Which pair of animals is probably most closely related evolutionarily? Your Answer: animals in the same class Correct Answer: animals in the same genus E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Send as: Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 I nstructor: T A: O the r: He lp The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Outcomes of Evolution: Site: Macroevolutio > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:26 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 20 que stions: 6 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing is NOT a component of today's biological concept of a species? (level 1). Your Register to View Answerpopulation of organisms w hose appearance is sufficiently similar C orrect: This definition may be used for asexual organisms or for extinct fossils. 2. While making repairs at a zoo, it became necessary to place a species of bird from Africa in the same enclosure as a bird species from South America. To everyone's surprise, some of the birds mated and produced hybrid offspring. The hybrids were eventually separated from the other birds and placed in their own enclosure. Again to everyone's surprise the hybrids mated and produced their own offspring. According to today's biological concept of a species, how should all of these birds be classified? (level 1). Y our Answer: They should all be classified as hybrids. Correct Answer: The tw o original groups should still be classified as different species, and their offspring should be classified as hybrids. Incorrect: A hybrid is the offspring produced by the mating of tw o different species. This definition does not apply to the two original groups. 3. Observe the following cladogram: Place the derived characters that separate these organisms in the proper sequence. (level 2). Y our Answer: 1. tetra p od structure 2. formation of feathers 3. a q uatic habitat wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol 4 . flightless C orrect: Each of these derived characters separates the remaining organisms from the previous. 4. Two species live in a very similar environment, but on different continents. Although these two are not at all closely related, they may appear quite similar as a result of ...(level 1). Y our Answer: homologous similarities. Correct Answer: convergent evolution. Incorrect: These are similarities due to shared ancestry. 5. The ichthyosaur w as a large aquatic reptile. Fossils show that it had a dorsal fin and a tail just like fish, even though its closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. Compared to the fins and tail of fishes, the dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs are ... (level 2). Y our Answer: taxonomic. Correct Answer: analogous. Incorrect: Review Section 18.5. 6. The relatively rapid emergence of numerous new species all from a common ancestor is referred to as ... (level 1). Y our Answer: sympatric speciation. Correct Answer: adaptive radiation. Incorrect: This may play a minor role in this extensive speciation episode. 7. Approximately 1/3 of all species of fish live in freshw ater, the other 2/3 are saltwater species. How ever, freshwater lakes and rivers cover only about 1% of the Earth's surface, compared to salt w ater, which covers 3/4 of the Earth's surface. Which of the following arguments might best explain the diversity of freshwater fishes in this spatially limited habitat? (level 2). Y our Answer: Freshw ater fishes have undergone a series of evolutionary bottlenecks (bottleneck effect). Correct Answer: There are greater opportunities for separation of populations in freshwater habitats, w hich has led to higher levels of allopatric speciation. Incorrect: Review the mechanisms of speciation, Section 18.2. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol 8. Which one of the follow ing is the correct hierarchical sequence of taxonomic groups beginning with the most inclusive group and proceeding to the most exclusive? (level 1). Y our Answer: kingdom-class-phylum-order-family Correct Answer: phylum-class-order-family Incorrect: Review Section 18.4 and the animation of Figure 18.9. 9. How did Darwin's theory of evolution change the w ay in w hich organisms w ere classified? (level 2). Y our Answer: The evolutionary relationships betw een organisms became completely known, and all species are now correctly categorized into their proper taxa. Correct Answer: Taxonomic categories are now considered to reflect evolutionary "relatedness." Incorrect: Classification schemes are continually changing as new evidence (i.e., new fossils, molecular evidence) is uncovered. 10. People have purposely bred female horses w ith male donkeys to produce an organism called a mule. But tw o mules are incapable of mating and producing any baby mules. This is an example of w hich intrinsic isolating mechanism? (level 1). Y our Answer: gamete isolation Correct Answer: hybrid infertility Incorrect: This refers to isolation due to the fact that the male gamete cannot fertilize the female gamete. 11. Two species of monkeys are captured in the Amazonian forest and placed in the zoo. The zookeeper feels safe in putting the two species together in the same enclosure, because they are not know n to interbreed in the w ild. But soon they find that the monkeys are interbreeding and producing hybrid offspring. The zookeeper checks his records and discovers that although these tw o species live in the same jungle, one species is only active at night while the other is only active during the day. Which intrinsic isolating mechanism has been keeping these two species from interbreeding? (level 1). Y our Answer: temporal isolation Correct Answer: ecological isolation Incorrect: This refers to isolation due to the timing of reproductive cycles, not to regular activities. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol 12. Which of the follow ing is the only extrinsic isolating mechanism? (level 1). Y our Answer: gamete isolation Correct Answer: geographic isolation Incorrect: This refers to isolation because a male gamete cannot fertilize the female gamete, a physiological function. 13. In the process of speciation, it is possible for a new species to evolve w hile the same parent species is also retained. This type of speciation is called ... (level 2). Your Answer: cladogenesis. C orrect: This kind of speciation is also referred to as branching evolution. 14. Which type of speciation is associated w ith a geographical barrier that separates tw o populations of organisms? (level 1). Y our Answer: sympatric speciation Correct Answer: allopatric speciation Incorrect: This is speciation that occurs w ithout geographic isolation. 15. In 1972, Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge proposed that macroevolution took place by a process know n as punctuated equilibrium. What w as the primary evidence they used to support their hypothesis? (level 1). Y our Answer: homologous structures Correct Answer: fossil record Incorrect: Review "Is Speciation Smooth or Jerky" in Section 18.3. 16. Polyploidy is generally thought of as a genetic mistake. How ever, it can lead to new and different plant species. How is polyploidy important in producing these new species? (level 2). Your Answer: By doubling hybrid chromosomes w ithout dividing the cell, new pairs of homologous chromosomes are created, enabling the organism to undergo sexual reproduction. C orrect: Man y o f our imp ortant cro p s such as p otatoes , coffee , w heat, a nd wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol cotton are the results of polyploidy. 17. Female spiders are notorious hunters. For some spider species, the male spider must perform a certain type of "dance" before mating w ith the female of that species. Male spiders of other species that do not know this "dance" are devoured before they have a chance to mate. This is an example of ... (level 1). Y our Answer: ecological isolation. Correct Answer: behavioral isolation. Incorrect: This refers to isolation due to a difference in the tw o species' habitats. 18. A "mad" scientist believed that he could create a "slave species" by forming a hybrid betw een humans and chimpanzees. He collected eggs from female chimps and sperm from human males and then allowed the two kinds of gametes to come together in a test tube. Fortunately, the human sperm w ere incapable of fertilizing the chimpanzee eggs due to the lack of a proper receptor on the surface of the egg. Which isolating mechanism w as w orking to keep these tw o species separate? (level 1). Your Answer: gamete isolation C orrect: Different surface receptors may be found on different species' gametes. An improper receptor w ill not be recognized, and thus no fertilization can occur. 19. Which of these organisms w ould be the least likely to show drastic evolutionary changes over a long period of time? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerspecies of bird that makes its nesting material out of only one species of wetland grass Correct Register to View Answerspecies of snail that can live both in the w ater and on the land Incorrect: This species has a specialized reproductive behavior that may force it to adapt as the environment changes. 20. The phrase "natural population" is important to the definition of species because: (level 2). Your Answer: if tw o populations co-occur but do not interbreed in nature, they are separate species. C orrect. Refer to the definition of species. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevol E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Evolutionary timescales" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life Site: on Earth > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Evolutionary timescales Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:28 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 8 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 8 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. The age of reptiles was the ______ age. Y our Answer: Proterozoic Correct Answer: Mesozoic Incorrect. This w as not the age of reptiles. 2. During w hat era did vascular land plants appear? Your Answer: Cenozoic Correct Answer: Paleozoic Incorrect. This is not the era in which vascular land plants appeared. 3. Between the Permian of the Paleozoic Era and the Triassic of the Mesozoic Era, what geologic event took place that may explain some of the mass extinctions of organisms on the planet? Y our Answer: major glaciations Correct Answer: formation of the super continent Pangea Incorrect. This is not the appropriate theory on mass extinctions. 4. Which of the following choices moved onto land first? Your Answer: tetrapods Correct Answer: mosses wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Incorrect. Tetrapods did not move onto land first. 5. A ribozyme: Your Answer: produces proteins Correct Answer: allows for self-replication to occur Incorrect. Ribozymes do not produce proteins. 6. Based on the chemical make-up of the first self-replicating molecule, it most closely resembles the structure of certain types of: Your Answer: plant cells Correct Answer: viruses Incorrect. The first self-replicating molecules did not resemble plant cells. 7. Self-replicating molecules are thought to have appeared about: Your Answer: 10 million years ago Correct Answer: 4 billion years ago Incorrect. Self-replicating molecules occured before this time. 8. The most likely location of where ribozymes developed is: Your Answer: in lakes Correct Answer: in hot-springs Incorrect. Ribozymes are not thought to have developed in lakes. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life Site: on Earth > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:28 PM (EDT) 17% Correct of 30 questions 5 correct: 25 incorrect: 1 7% 8 3% More information about scoring 1. Before radiometric dating, how did scientists assign the age of the rock layers 1 9.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) found in Earth's crust? ( Your Answer: by measuring the amount of radioactive elements that were in the layers Correct Answer: by identifying the types of fossils found in the layers Incorrect. Does the thickness or types of rock indicate w hen they w ere deposited? See section 19.1 for more information. 2. Which of these domains would include microscopic protists, such as an amoeba, a 4 .2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) ( paramecium, or a E uglena? ( 19.3 The Tree of Life ) Y our Answer: Bacteria Correct Answer: Eukarya Incorrect. Think about the group that has the more advanced cell structures. See section 19.3 and Figure 19.9 for more information. 3. The greatest extinction event thus far found by scientists is the ___________. ( 19.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) Your Answer: Cambrian Extinction Correct Answer: Permian Extinction Incorrect. This is not the most extensive extinction. See section 19.1 for more information. 4. Origins-of-life researchers have hypothesized that one particular kind of organic molecule may have been the first precursor to a true living system. In this h yp othesis , the molecule could serve as both a temp late for re p lication and as an wps.aw.com//index.html 1/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif e nzyme to facilitate the replication process. What kind of organic molecule w as 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) this? ( Your Answer: ribonucleic acid C orrect. In this hypothesis, RNA was the self-replicating, self-catalyzing molecule. 5. Continental drift has had profound effects on evolution. One of these has been the fact that when continents move toward the poles ____________. ( 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) Your Answer: Continents disintegrate at the poles. Correct Answer: More glaciers form on the continents. Incorrect. The poles receive less solar heat than the equator, causing a drastic differential change in temperatures. See the essay on physical forces and evolution for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing was responsible for the initial accumulation of molecular 19.4 A Long First oxygen in Earth's atmosphere about 2 billion years ago? ( Period: The Precambrian) Your Answer: production of O 2 from the oxidation of iron in Earth's crust Correct Answer: production of O 2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria Incorrect. A specific kind bacterium was active in this liberation of oxygen. See 1 9.4 A Long First Period: The Precambrian) section 19.4 for more information. ( 7. Approximately how old are the oldest know n eukaryotic fossils? ( First Period: The Precambrian) Your Answer: 14 million years Correct Answer: 2 billion years 1 9.4 A Long Incorrect. They are much older than this figure. See section 19.4 for more 1 9.4 A Long First Period: The Precambrian) information. ( 8. Deep-sea vents may be very important in the evolutionary process because ____________. ( 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) Your Answer: they helped to melt the glaciers that developed on the continents during ice ages Correct Answer: their mineral-rich surroundings may have been the place where life began Incorrect. Try to imagine w hat might have happened in the pre-biotic soup created by these vents. See section 19.2 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing is true of animals? ( Your Answer: They can be unicellular. 1 9.5 The Cambrian Explosion ) Correct Answer: They consume organic material for energy. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Incorrect. Animals are the most highly evolved form of life, and they are consumers. See section 19.5 for more information. 10. Jellyfish are classified into w hich kingdom? ( Your Answer: Plantae Correct Answer: Animalia 1 9.3 The Tree of Life ) Incorrect. Jellyfish do not belong in this kingdom. See section 19.3 and Figure 19.9 for more information. 11. During what era did vascular land plants appear? ( Land: Plants First) Your Answer: Mesozoic Correct Answer: Paleozoic 1 9.6 The Movement onto the Incorrect. This is not the correct era. See section 19.6 and Figure 19.15 for more information. 12. What factor has been suggested in the increase in size noted in animals during the 1 9.5 The Cambrian Explosion ) Cambrian explosion? ( Your Answer: an increase in freshw ater supplies Correct Answer: an increase in atmospheric oxygen Incorrect. This is not the reason hypothesized. See section 19.5 for more information. 13. The age of reptiles w as the ______ age. ( Land ) Your Answer: Mesozoic 1 9.7 Animals Follow Plants onto the C orrect. The Mesozoic era w as the age of the reptiles. 14. The primates first appeared in the ______ period. ( onto the Land ) Your Answer: Mesozoic Correct Answer: Cenozoic 1 9.7 Animals Follow Plants Incorrect. Primates appeared much later than this era. See section 19.7 for more information. 15. One of the adaptations that arthropods had that made it possible for them to exist 1 9.7 Animals Follow Plants onto the on land, out of the w ater, w as ________. ( Land ) Your Register to View Answeryes wps.aw.com//index.html 3/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif y Correct Register to View Answerhard exoskeleton Incorrect. This adaptation is not particularly crucial for a terrestrial existence. See section 19.7 for more information. 16. Which important organic compounds did Harold Urey and Stanley Miller synthesize 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) in a glass sphere? ( Your Answer: cholesterol Correct Answer: amino acids Incorrect. This is not the correct organic compound. See section 19.2 and Figure 19.5 for more information. 17. Paleontologists use the term "strata" to refer to _______. ( Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) 1 9.1 The Geological Your Answer: periods allocated to the fossils in the geologic column Correct Answer: the layers of sedimentary in a geologic column Incorrect. This term is a very general reference used by geologists. See section 19.1 for more information. 18. The geologic record provides much evidence that life originated on Earth about 1 9.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) _________. ( Your Answer: 100,000 years ago Correct Answer: more than 3 billion years ago Incorrect. Life originated much earlier than this. See section 19.1 and Figure 19.3 for more information. 19. Which geologic period contains the most primitive forms of life? ( Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) Your Answer: Silurian Correct Answer: Precambrian 19.1 The Incorrect. This period contains relatively advanced organisms. See section 19.1 and Figure 19.3 for more information. 20. Suppose you w ere a paleontologist exploring the Rocky Mountains, and you happened on a deposit of fossils of very primitive fish w ith jaw s. Which geologic period are you exploring? ( 19.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) Y our Answer: Carboniferous Correct Answer: Silurian Incorrect. This is not far enough back in time. See section 19.1 and Figure 19.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Besides large extinction events, what other major event has been used to define 1 9.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages ) geologic eras on Earth? ( Your Answer: the appearance of an ice age Correct Answer: the explosive appearance of a great diversity of animal forms Incorrect. There is a much more major type of event that has been used to define an era. See section 19.1 for more information. 21. 22. The Cambrian Explosion refers to ________. ( Life Marks Earth's Ages ) 19.1 The Geological Timescale: Your Answer: the explosive appearance of a large number of new animal forms C orrect. All the major animal forms appeared during this period. 23. When Earth first formed, it w as impossible for life to have existed on the planet 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) because __________. ( Your Answer: Earth was coated w ith poisonous gases, such as cyanide, that w ould kill anything living Correct Answer: Earth was so hot that its surface w as composed of molten rock Incorrect. Remember that the Earth w as formed by the fusion of materials from space. See section 19.2 for more information. 24. During the Paleozoic era, the solid portion of Earth was dominated by a large 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) continent called ______. ( Your Answer: Eurasia Correct Answer: Pangaea Incorrect. This was not the name of the large super-continent. See the essay on physical forces and evolution for more information. 25. Matching strata and fossils on the eastern coast of South America and the w estern coast of Africa indicate that _________. ( 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) Your Answer: the extinct animals w ere very good swimmers Correct Answer: the tw o continents w ere once connected at this area Incorrect. This evidence suggests a very specific conclusion. See the essay on physical forces and evolution for more information. 26. What is the effect of a mid-Atlantic ridge spewing hot material into the Atlantic 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) ocean? ( Your Answer: This pushes South America and Africa farther away from one another. C orrect. This is one of the major forces of continental drift. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif 27. What conclusion can be drawn from the fact that marsupials but not placental 1 9.2 How Did Life Begin? ) mammals reached the continent of Australia? ( Your Answer: Marsupials swim better than placental mammals. Correct Answer: Placental mammals did not develop on Pangaea. Incorrect. The answ er here is associated with continental drift, not the abilities or activities of the animals. See the essay on physical forces and evolution for more information. 28. Which continents developed from the early landmass called Gondw ana? ( How Did Life Begin? ) Your Answer: South America 1 9.2 C orrect. South America w as one of the continents to develop from Gondwana. 29. What fact about the replication of DNA suggests that another self-replicating 19.2 How Did Life Begin? ) molecule must have appeared before DNA? ( Your Answer: DNA requires very high temperatures for replication. Correct Answer: DNA requires enzymes to uncoil and replicate. Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of DNA. See section 19.2 for more information. 30. Molecules called ribozymes are unique because they _____. ( Begin? ) Your Answer: can operate in very high temperatures 19.2 How Did Life Correct Answer: can both encode information and act as enzymes Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of ribozymes. See section 19.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/7 9/14/2010 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Lif Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 7/7 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > A Slow Unfolding: The History Site: of Life on > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:28 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 10 que stions: 1 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. Which of the follow ing events came first? Y our Answer: first land plants Correct Answer: first bacteria 2. The time frames in the geological timescale generally denote _____. Y our Answer: 10,000-year increments Correct Answer: transitions in life-forms 3. The first life on Earth may have been Y our Answer: eukaryotic cells Correct Answer: formed at extreme temperatures 4. Which of the follow ing characteristics of animals and/or plants are not adaptations to life on land? Y our Answer: pollen and seeds Correct Answer: multicellularity 5. Of the follow ing organisms, w hich came first in order of evolution? Your Answer: lobe-finned fish 6. Dinosaurs w ere often hunted b y humans. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 6. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View Answer 7. Photosynthesis w as a huge innovation in the history of life not because (select the answ er that does not apply) Y our Answer: It resulted in blockage of UV light, increasing habitability of the land for terrestrial organisms. Correct Answer: It helped the Earth to thaw out. 8. Mitochondria and chloroplasts (select the answ er that does not apply) Y our Answer: are thought to have arisen as symbiotes Correct Answer: are very similar to algae 9. Which of the follow ing organisms does not have an amniotic egg? Y our Answer: bird Correct Answer: salamander 10. The family tree of the hominids is rooted in _____ and is thought to extend back _____ years. Y our Answer: Europe; 3 to 4 million Correct Answer: Africa; 6 to 7 million E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 H e lp A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > A Slow Unfolding: The History Site: of Life on > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:27 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 20 que stions: 6 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing w as responsible for the initial accumulation of molecular oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere about 2 billion years ago? (level 1). Y our Answer: The production of O 2 from cellular respiration in animals. Correct Answer: The production of O 2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria. Incorrect: O 2 is not liberated during cellular respiration. 2. Which of the follow ing represents the correct chronology of the evolution of the following forms of metabolism? 1. glycolysis 2. photosynthesis 3. aerobic cellular respiration (level 1). Y our Answer: 2, 1, 3 Correct Answer: 1, 2, 3 Incorrect: The first life probably fed on organic molecules. 3. Approximately how old are the oldest known fossils of living organisms? (level 1). Y our Answer: 3.4 million years Correct Answer: 3.4 billion years Incorrect: Review Section 19.4. 4. Refer to the following events that have occurred during the Precambrian era. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o 1. prebiotic (before life) formation of organic monomers 2. first accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere as a result of the activity of cyanobacteria 3. first prokaryotic cells appeared on the Earth 4. origin of organic polymers 5. origin of eukaryotes Which of the follow ing indicates the most likely chronological order of events indicated above? (level 2). Your Answer: 1, 4, 3, 2, 5 C orrect: This is the likely order of events during the Precambrian era. 5. Why do many scientists believe that the first living organisms arose deep in the ocean near hydrothermal vents or hot springs? (level 1). Y our Answer: Organisms living around hydrothermal vents may have had some refuge from large meteors and comets that were bombarding the early Earth. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect: Is this the only reason? 6. Which of the follow ing contradicts the notion that enzymes are alw ays proteins? (level 1). Your Answer: ribozymes C orrect: These are strands of RNA that can act as enzymes. 7. What happened to many species of organisms 2.5 billion years ago when oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere? (level 1). Y our Answer: They retreated into anaerobic environments and extracted energy from food via glycolysis/fermentation. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect: Because oxygen tends to oxidize molecules, this is only one possible outcome of the accumulation of O 2 . 8. Which of the follow ing is true of animals? (level 1). Y our Answer: They consume organic material for energy. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o C orrect: Animals do not produce their own food, but have to ingest it. 9. What was the Cambrian Explosion? (level 1). Y our Answer: the massive increase in volcanic activity on the Earth at the end of the Precambrian era Correct Answer: the origin and adaptive radiation of numerous phyla of animals Incorrect: Review Section 19.5. 10. Before radiometric dating, how did scientists assign the age of the rock layers that are found in the Earth's crust? (level 1). Y our Answer: by measuring the thickness of the layer in centimeters; each centimeter w as equal to 100 years Correct Answer: by the types of fossils that w ere found in the layers Incorrect: This w ould not w ork because layers of sediment are not laid dow n consistently. Some layers w ould take much longer to form than others. 11. The geologic timescale is divided into several different eras or epochs of time. What are the major events that separate these eras? (level 1). Your Answer: major extinction events C orrect: The largest of these events was the Permian extinction, which eliminated 96% of all living species. 12. Fossil evidence indicates that during the Cambrian explosion many animal phyla appear quite suddenly. Which of these phyla is NOT seen in the Cambrian explosion? (level 1). Y our Answer: Porifera Correct Answer: All of these w ere formed in the Cambrian explosion. Incorrect: This is the phylum that contains sponges, and it is seen in the Cambrian explosion. 13. Which of these domains w ould include microscopic protists such as an amoeba, a paramecium, or a euglena? (level 1). Y our Answer: Bacteria wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o Correct Answer: Eukarya Incorrect: This domain is made of the more familiar prokaryotes, such as E . coli and Streptococcus . 14. Origin of life researchers have hypothesized that one particular kind of organic molecule may have been the first precursor to a true living system. In this hypothesis, this molecule could serve as both a template for replication and as an enzyme to facilitate the replication process. What kind of organic molecule w as this? (level 2). Y our Answer: protein Correct Answer: nucleic acid Incorrect: Proteins do not have the ability to replicate. 15. Which of these important cellular processes was NOT initiated during the Precambrian era? (level 1). Y our Answer: glycolysis Correct Answer: All of these processes w ere initiated during the Precambrian era. Incorrect: Of all of the cellular energy processes, this is thought to be the oldest. 16. Early cyanobacteria are thought to be responsible for the liberation of molecular oxygen into the Earth's primitive atmosphere. Which of these effects w as achieved through the liberation of oxygen from cyanobacteria? (level 2). Your Answer: blocked ultraviolet radiation from reaching the surface of the Earth C orrect: Molecular oxygen formed the ozone layer that surrounds the Earth, protecting it from much of the Sun's damaging ultraviolet radiation. 17. Although plants are believed to have occupied the land much, much earlier than animals, both types of organisms had many of the same obstacles to overcome in order to exist on land. Which of the follow ing w as NOT one of the obstacles that had to be overcome by either plants or animals as they moved onto the land? (level 2). Your Answer: the existence of land organisms that consumed or "ate up" the organisms as soon as they began to move onto the land C orrect: Since these were the first to move onto land (both plants and animals), there could not have been any organisms on the land to consume them. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o 18. In the evolution of land-dwelling plants, w hich of these adaptations is thought to have developed last? (level 1). Y our Answer: formation of a cuticle to reduce w ater loss Correct Answer: formation of flowers Incorrect: This occurred earlier than other adaptations in the list. 19. In the evolution of land-dwelling animals, several different phyla have made the transition from a strictly aquatic to a terrestrial (land-based) existence. Which of these phyla has remained exclusively an aquatic phylum? (level 2). Y our Answer: Chordata Correct Answer: Porifera Incorrect: Reptiles, birds, mammals, and amphibians are all members of this phylum. 20. Which of the follow ing is NOT true concerning the history of the evolution of life? (level 2) Y our Answer: Organisms have increased in complexity. Correct Answer: There are more varieties of body plans now than there were 600 million years ago. Incorrect. The first life on earth was a single celled prokaryotic organism simple organism. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life o Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Fundamental Building Site: Blocks: Chemist > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:54 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 25% Correct o f 8 questions: 2 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Carbon is an element w ith an atomic number of 6. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true? (More than one may be true.) Your Register to View AnswerCarbon can be broken dow n into simpler component substances. Correct Register to View AnswerBoth b and d are true. 2. Suppose that you are review ing for a test, and some fellow students say that the equation for photosynthesis is 6CO 2 + H2 O C 6 H12 O 6 + 6O 2 . How w ould you reply? Y our Answer: The w ay this equation is w ritten violates the law of the conservation of matter. 3. Neon used to be called an inert gas. Thus it Y our Answer: has a filled outer shell 4. Oxygen and hydrogen differ in their electronegativity. Thus Your Answer: Hydrogen is attracted to oxygen, but does not bond w ith it. Correct Answer: They can share electrons, but unequally. 5. A molecule that does not have a net electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other is: Your Register to View Answerpolar molecule Correct Register to View Answernonpolar molecule wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che You add sugar to black coffee, and the sugar dissolves. Thus the coffee is the _____ and the sugar is the _____. Your Answer: ionic bond hydrogen bond Correct Answer: solvent solute 6. 7. The tw o strands of a DNA molecule are held together because large numbers of hydrogens that are covalently bonded to oxygen or nitrogen in one strand are weakly attracted to oxygens or nitrogens in the opposite strand. Therefore the tw o strands of DNA are held together by Your Answer: nonpolar covalent bonds Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds 8. While baking cookies for a friend, you're having a hard time keeping your roommate from eating them because the smell is driving her w ild. She is able to smell the cookies because the molecules w afting from them Your Answer: travel along her nervescausing changes as they gountil they reach the brain, where they are recognized Correct Answer: have a shape that allows them to bind to receptors in her nose E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > The Fundamental Building Site: Blocks: Chemist > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:53 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 15% Correct o f 20 que stions: 3 corre ct: 17 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 5% 8 5% 1. Which of the follow ing is formed by the sharing of electrons betw een two atoms that do not differ in electronegativities? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerpolar covalent bond Correct Register to View Answernonpolar covalent bond Incorrect. How do the electronegativities of atoms that form polar covalent bonds differ? 2. Which of the follow ing is the bond formed between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of w ater? (level 1). Y our Answer: ionic bonds Correct Answer: polar covalent bonds Incorrect. Ionic bonds are formed only betw een atoms that give or take electrons. 3. The draw ings of atoms in your text are actually based on the "planetary model" of w hat an atom looks like. If a three-dimensional model of an atom could be constructed that was as big as the room you are sitting in, most of the atom's volume w ould be occupied by ...(level 2). Y our Answer: the electrons. Correct Answer: empty space. Incorrect. Electrons are so small that they are often assumed to have a mass of zero. In other w ords, they are almost completely energy. 4. In an atom that has not undergone any type of chemical reaction, the number of electrons ...(level 2). Y our Answer: is always equal to the number of neutrons. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che Correct Answer: is always equal to the number of protons. Incorrect. Many unreacted atoms have a different number of neutrons compared to either the electrons or the protons. 5. The primary reason that atoms form chemical bonds is so they can ...(level 2). Y our Answer: change from one element to another. Correct Answer: move into a more stable energy state. Incorrect. Although there are some cases in w hich atoms can change from one element to another, this does not occur as a result of chemical bonding. 6. Protons and neutrons are said to have a mass of approximately 1 dalton each. Recall that electrons are thought to have virtually no mass. Therefore, a hydrogen atom (with an atomic number of 1) w ould have a mass of approximately 1 dalton, and an oxygen atom (w ith an atomic number of 8) w ould have a mass of approximately 16 daltons. How much mass w ould one molecule of water have? (level 1). Y our Answer: 10 daltons Correct Answer: 18 daltons Incorrect. When atoms are combined in chemical bonds, the mass of each atom is conserved in the molecule. 7. Look carefully at the follow ing chemical equation. What is incorrect about this equation? 3 C + 16 H -----> 3 CH4 (level 2). Your Answer: There are 16 H on the left side of the equation and only 12 H on the right side of the equation. C orrect. Chemical reactions must be balanced. The same number and kind of atoms must be on both sides of the arrow . 8. Nitric oxide is a common type of "free radical" found in human cells. Free radicals are defined as ...(level 1). Y our Answer: an unreactive atom. Correct Register to View Answermolecule that contains an atom that has an unpaired electron. Incorrect. Unreactive atoms fit into a category called the "inert" or "noble" gasses. They are not free radicals. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che When you pour salt into w ater and stir, the salt w ill disappear. Which of the following statements is true concerning this phenomenon? (level 1). Y our Answer: Water is a good solute for salt. Correct Answer: Water is a good solvent for polar molecules. Incorrect. A solute is the solid substance that is dissolved into a solvent. 9. 10. Before the nature of atoms was know n, many men (known as alchemists) tried to turn iron into gold. How ever, none of them ever succeeded. If you could truly turn iron into gold, how w ould you do it? (level 2). Your Answer: by inserting protons into the nuclei of the iron atoms C orrect. Although no person has been able to do it, this w ould be the only way to convert iron into gold. 11. When a water molecule is formed ...(level 2). Y our Answer: tw o covalent bonds are formed between one oxygen and tw o hydrogens. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect. This is true, but what kind of subatomic particles form these bonds? 12. The identity of a chemical element is determined by ... (level 1). Y our Answer: the number of electrons in the outer shell of the atom. Correct Answer: the number of protons in the nucleus. Incorrect. The number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom w ill change as it becomes an ion, but it is still the same element. 13. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen that contains three subatomic particles in its nucleus. The three particles are ... (level 1). Y our Answer: one proton and two electrons. Correct Answer: one proton and two neutrons. Incorrect. Electrons are not found in the nucleus, but in orbits outside the nucleus. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 14. The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che Salt molecules dissolve in w ater because ... (level 2). Y our Answer: they contain water in their molecular structure. Correct Answer: they have atoms with charges on them. Incorrect. Salt is composed of only Na and Cl ions. 15. The primary elements that are used to build the human body are ... (level 1). Y our Answer: oxygen, silicon, and calcium. Correct Answer: carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Incorrect. Silicon is not an element normally found in the human body. 16. If an atom has an atomic number of 7, how many electrons would be in the atom's outer shell? (level 1). Y our Answer: 7 Correct Answer: 5 Incorrect. Look again at Figure 2.8 to see how many electrons each shell w ill hold. 17. In the formation of a salt molecule (NaCl) ... (level 1). Y our Answer: Na gains an outer-shell electron to become a negative Na ion. Correct Answer: Na loses its outer-shell electron and becomes a positive Na ion. Incorrect. The gain of an electron w ould not benefit the Na atom, because it w ould still have an unfilled outer shell. 18. Some molecules are know n as "signals" because they signal the beginning of certain cellular functions. In order for a signal to do its job though, it must bind to a specific "receptor" on the cell's surface. What is the most critical factor in signal/receptor binding? (level 2). Your Answer: The shapes of both the signal and the receptor are critical. C orrect. The molecules are designed to fit together, due to the shapes of both the signal and receptor. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 19. The Fundamental Building Blocks: Che The following is the chemical formula for the molecule carbon dioxide: O=C=O. The two lines that connect each oxygen atom to the one carbon atom represent ...(level 2). Y our Register to View Answerhydrogen bond Correct Answer: tw o shared pairs of electrons. Incorrect. Hydrogen bonds are not found w ithin a single molecule. They are found only betw een two or more molecules. 20. Free radicals are potentially damaging atoms or molecules that are created in our cells during metabolic processes. They initiate damage to our bodies by ...(level 1). Y our Answer: damaging the mitochondria in our cells, w hich may result in the aging of our bodies. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect. Is this the only type of damage that free radicals are known to inflict? E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Structure of Atoms, Elements, Isotopes" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Site: Chemistry, Water, and pH > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Structure of Atoms, Elements, Isotopes Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:10 AM (EDT) 25% Correct of 16 questions 4 correct: 12 incorrect: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. A chemical element is uniquely identified by its __________. Your Answer: Proton number C orrect. The number of protons identifies an atom. 2. An atom that gains or loses electrons is called a (an): Your Answer: isotope Correct Answer: ion Incorrect. An isotope is a variant of a specific element that contains a variable number of neutrons. 3. If there are 11 protons and 10 neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, what is the atomic number? Your Answer: 10 Correct Answer: 11 Incorrect. The atomic number is the number of protons. 4. A sodium atom has a mass number of 23. Its atomic number is 11. How many electrons does it have (assume it is a neutral atom and not an ion)? Your Answer: 22 Correct Answer: 11 wps.aw.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Incorrect. A neutral atom has an equal number of protons and electrons. 5. Phosphorous has an atomic number of 15. What w ill be the distribution of its electrons? Your Answer: 8 in the first electron shell and 7 in the second Correct Answer: 2 in the first electron shell, 8 in the second, and 5 in the third Incorrect. Only 2 electrons can orbit in the first electron shell. 6. A covalent bond involves: Your Answer: The sharing of ions and compounds Correct Answer: The sharing of electrons Incorrect. Covalent bonds involve electron sharing. 7. A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between atoms, resulting in no positive or negative side of the molecule is termed __________. Your Answer: Nonpolar covalent bond C orrect. Equal sharing of electrons results in a nonpolar covalent bond. 8. The fundamental difference betw een covalent bonds and ionic bonds is than in covalent bonds ______ w hereas in ionic bonds ______. Your Answer: Electron pairs are shared; ions are formed C orrect. Electrons are shared in covalent bonds w hile ionic bonds involve the attraction betw een oppositely charged ions. 9. Water molecule stick together because: Your Answer: Hydrogen bonds form between the w ater molecules C orrect. Hydrogen bonds are responsible to the attraction of w ater molecules to each other. 10. Before adding pasta to boiling water, you add salt (NaCl). After your pasta has cooked, you analyze the substances remaining in the w ater. You find no solid salt (NaCl) remains. The best explanation is: Your Answer: The covalent bonds holding w ater together disrupted the NaCl Correct Answer: The ionic bonds that hold NaCl together were broken in the w ater Incorrect. Review the properties of ionic bonds. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Biologically speaking, why is shape important to living organisms? Your Answer: The shape of molecules dictates how they w ill interact w ith other molecules Correct Answer: All of the above Incorrect. Is this the only correct choice? 11. 12. Your roommate has a very sensitive sense of smell. She keeps complaining about an odor that you can't smell. The best explanation for why you can't smell the odor is: Your Answer: That your sense of smell is just not as w ell developed as that of your roommate Correct Answer: That you are lacking receptors in the cells of your nasal passage that recognize the chemical causing the odor Incorrect. Is this the most accurate choice? 13. Which of the follow ing is not true concerning the unique properties of w ater? Your Answer: Ice is less dense than liquid water Correct Answer: Water can change temperatures easily relative to other liquids Incorrect. Ice is less dense than liquid water. 14. Some of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules: Your Answer: Are very small Correct Answer: Tend to stick together Incorrect. Is this the reason that w ater exhibits its unique properties? 15. Your roommate is experiencing heartburn and asks you to purchase an antacid for her. Chemically speaking, you know that the antacid w ill help eliminate her pain because: Your Answer: It will hold the pH stable in her digestive tract Correct Answer: It has less hydrogen ions than her digestive tract which will help increase the pH Incorrect. An antacid changes pH as opposed to stabilizing pH. 16. A solution with a pH of 2 is: Your Answer: Weakly acidic Correct Answer: Strongly acidic Incorrect. Weak acids w ould be closer to neutral (pH 7). wps.aw.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi wps.aw.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Site: Chemistry, Water, and pH > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:09 AM (EDT) 24% Correct of 41 questions 10 correct: 31 incorrect: 2 4% 7 6% More information about scoring 1. The drawings of atoms in your textbook are actually based on the "planetary model" of w hat an atom looks like. If a three-dimensional model of an atom could be constructed that was as big as the room you are sitting in, most of the atom's 2.1 Chemistry's Building Block: The volume would be occupied by ______. ( Atom) Your Answer: the neutrons Correct Answer: empty space Incorrect. An atom has both a core and an outer area. See section 2.1 for more information. 2. Before the nature of atoms w as know n, many men (know n as alchemists) tried to turn iron into gold. However, none of them ever succeeded. If you could truly turn iron into gold, how w ould you do it? ( 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Atom) Your Answer: by inserting protons into the nuclei of the iron atoms C orrect. Although no person has been able to do it, this w ould be the only w ay to convert iron into gold. 3. The atomic number of carbon is 6. A carbon atom has __________ protons and 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Atom) __________ electrons. ( Your Answer: 3, 3 Correct Answer: 6, 6 Incorrect. Protons are found within the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. See section 2.1 for more information. 4. If you examined the human body and the crust of Earth, which of the following combinations of elements would you find were most common? ( 2.1 Chemistry's wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Building Block: The Atom) Y our Answer: H, C, S, O, P Correct Answer: Si, O, H, C Incorrect. What atoms do you find w ithin the organic molecules? See section 2.1 and Figure 2.4 for more information. 5. The fundamental difference betw een covalent bonds and ionic bonds is that in 2 .2 Matter Is covalent bonds ______, whereas in ionic bonds ______. ( Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: the electrons shift from one atom to another; the electrons are shared Correct Answer: electron pairs are shared; ions are formed Incorrect. Covalent bonds and ionic bonds occur differently. See section 2.2 for more information. 6. The primary reason that atoms form chemical bonds is so they can ______. ( Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: form an ion Correct Answer: move into a more stable energy state Incorrect. Those atoms that form bonds easily are those that are reactive. See section 2.2 for more information. 2 .2 7. Protons and neutrons are said to have a mass of approximately 1 dalton each. Recall that electrons are thought to have virtually no mass. Therefore, a hydrogen atom (with an atomic number of 1) would have a mass of approximately 1 dalton, and an oxygen atom (w ith an atomic number of 8) would have a mass of approximately 16 daltons. How much mass would one molecule of w ater have? ( 2.2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Y our Answer: 10 daltons Correct Answer: 18 daltons Incorrect. Recall that the Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. See section 2.2 for more information. 8. Which of the follow ing is the bond formed between the oxygen atom and the tw o 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through hydrogen atoms in a molecule of water? ( Chemical Bonding ) Y our Answer: hydrogen bonds Correct Answer: polar covalent bonds Incorrect. Think about the electronegativities of the individual atoms found within water. See section 2.2 and Figure 2.8 for more information. 9. Look carefully at the follow ing chemical equation. What is incorrect about this equation? 3C + 16H 3CH4 ( 2.2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 Bonding ) 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Y our Register to View Answeratoms w ill not form chemical bonds with H atoms. Correct Answer: The left side of the equation has 16 H, and the right side of the equation has only 12 H. Incorrect. How do you write a "balanced" chemical equation? See the essay "Getting to Know Chemistry's Symbols" for more information. 10. Some molecules are know n as "signals" because they signal the beginning of certain cellular functions. For a signal to do its job, however, it must bind to a specific "receptor" on the cell's surface. What is the most critical factor in signal/receptor binding? ( 2.3 Some Qualities of Chemical Compounds ) Your Answer: Both the signal and the receptor must be composed of the same atoms. Correct Answer: The shapes of both the signal and the receptor must fit together. Incorrect. Binding betw een tw o molecules means they must be able to form many noncovalent bonds to remain associated w ith each other. See section 2.3 and Figure 2.13 for more information. 11. Water molecules stick to other water molecules because ______. ( and Life ) Y our Answer: ionic bonds hold them together 2 .4 Water Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds form between different w ater molecules Incorrect. Remember that water molecules are polar. See section 2.4 for more information. 12. If the shape of a molecule is changed, all the follow ing w ill also change EXCEPT the 2 .3 Some Qualities of Chemical Compounds ) molecule's __________. ( Your Answer: ability to bind to other molecules Correct Answer: atomic makeup Incorrect. The shape of a molecule defines how the molecule will interact. See section 2.3 for more information. 13. Free radicals _________. ( Bonding ) 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Your Answer: allow more oxygen to circulate through the blood Correct Answer: produce mutations in our DNA Incorrect. When is a free radical produced, and w hat do free radicals do? See the essay on free radicals for more information. 14. Which of the follow ing type of molecule w ill not dissolve in water? ( and Life ) Your Answer: molecules that are charged 2 .4 Water wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Correct Answer: nonpolar molecules Incorrect. Read section 2.4 to learn the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic. 15. When a water molecule is formed, _______. ( Chemical Bonding ) 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through Your Answer: two ions are generated that are attracted to each other Correct Answer: the oxygen atom takes on a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen atoms take on a partial positive charge Incorrect. What atoms make up water? See section 2.2 and Figure 2.8 for more information. 16. Which of the follow ing is formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through that do not differ in electronegativities? ( Chemical Bonding ) Your Register to View Answernonpolar covalent bond C orrect. Nonpolar covalent bonds involve an equal sharing of electrons. 17. If an atom has an atomic number of 7, how many electrons are in the atom's outer 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) shell? ( Y our Answer: 2 Correct Answer: 5 Incorrect. Read section 2.2 and Figure 2.7 to learn w hat and where each subatomic particle is present w ithin an atom. 18. Which of the follow ing correctly describes an ion? ( through Chemical Bonding ) 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed Y our Answer: an atom that contains an unequal number of electrons and protons C orrect. The number of protons differs from the number of electrons in an ion. 19. Salt molecules dissolve in water because ______. ( 2 .4 Water and Life ) Y our Answer: they have only a few atoms in their molecules Correct Answer: they have atoms w ith charges on them Incorrect. Read section 2.4 to learn the difference between polar and nonpolar molecules. 20. An acidic solution _________. ( 2.5 Acids and Bases Are Important to Life ) Your Answer: is a common component of an antacid tablet wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Correct Answer: has more hydrogen ions that hydroxide ions Incorrect. What is the definition of an acid? See section 2.5 for more information. 21. When you pour salt into water and stir, the salt disappears. Which of the following 2 .4 Water and Life ) statements about this phenomenon is true? ( Y our Answer: Salt sinks to the bottom of the water and does not dissolve. Correct Answer: Water is a good solvent for polar molecules. Incorrect. What is the difference betw een a solute and a solvent? See section 2.4 for more information. 22. If the atomic number of an atom is 20, ________. ( Block: The Atom) 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Your Answer: the atom has more than 20 electrons Correct Answer: the first, second, and third shells of the atom are full Incorrect. Read section 2.1 to learn about the three subatomic particles that can be present inside an atom. 23. An element with 12 protons, 12 neutrons, and 12 electrons has an atomic number 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Atom) of _____. ( Your Answer: 12 C orrect. The number of protons is the atomic number. 24. Atom A has enough electrons to completely fill three electron shells, and atom B has enough electrons to fill tw o and a half electron shells. From this information 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Atom) you can predict that ________. ( Your Answer: atom B is as stable as atom A Correct Answer: atom A has more protons in its nucleus Incorrect. How many of each type of subatomic particle will be present in each atom? See section 2.1 for more information. 25. Which of the follow ing atoms is the most stable? ( The Atom) Your Answer: helium, atomic number 2 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: C orrect. Tw o electrons will fill the inner shell of helium molecule, making it inert. 26. Sodium has one electron in its third shell, and fluorine has seven electrons in its second shell. Which of the following statements is an accurate prediction of what 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed will happen when these two elements bond? ( throug h Chemical Bondin g ) wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Y our Answer: Sodium and fluorine will share a pair of electrons equally. Correct Answer: Sodium will transfer its extra electron to fluorine to create two ions. Incorrect. Atoms bond to each other to achieve full outer electron shells. See section 2.2 for more information. 27. You have been given the task of determining which of three known liquids is an acid. You have measured the concentration of hydroxide ions in all three solutions. Solution A has the most hydroxide ions, solution B has the few est hydroxide ions, and solution C has a concentration betw een A and B. Which solution is the most acidic? ( 2 .5 Acids and Bases Are Important to Life ) Your Answer: cannot determine an answ er given this information Correct Answer: solution B Incorrect. What is the definition of an acid? See section 2.5 for more information. 28. To neutralize a solution currently measured at pH 1, you need to add _________. ( 2 .5 Acids and Bases Are Important to Life ) Your Answer: base C orrect. A solution of pH 1 is highly acidic, and to neutralize it, you would need to add a base. 29. Free radicals are produced __________. ( Chemical Bonding ) 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through Your Answer: when a covalent bond occurs but leaves one electron unpaired C orrect. A free radical is defined as an atom within a bonded pair w ith an unpaired electron. 30. Helium is an inert gas and thus _________. ( Atom) 2.1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Your Answer: has more electrons than protons Correct Answer: is unreactive Incorrect. What does it mean to be inert? See section 2.1 for more information. 31. Which of the follow ing is living? ( Your Answer: atom Correct Answer: cell 2 .1 Chemistry's Building Block: The Atom) Incorrect. If something is living, w hat must it be able to do? See section 2.1 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Which of the follow ing materials will dissolve? ( Y our Register to View Answersolute C orrect. The definition of a solute is a material that is being dissolved. 2 .4 Water and Life ) 32. 33. Which of the follow ing atoms would be reactive? ( through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: argon (atomic number 18) Correct Answer: fluorine (atomic number 9) 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed Incorrect. When is an atom considered reactive? See section 2.2 for more information. 34. Which of the follow ing statements correctly describes the difference between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond? ( 2.2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Y our Register to View Answerpolar covalent bond occurs between ions, w hereas a nonpolar covalent bond occurs betw een atoms. Correct Register to View Answerpolar covalent bond occurs from unequal sharing of electrons, w hereas a nonpolar covalent bond occurs during equal sharing events. Incorrect. How do electronegativities of atoms affect the types of bonds that can occur? See section 2.2 for more information. 35. Fluorine has an atomic number of 9, and neon has an atomic number of 10. From 2 .1 Chemistry's this information alone, you can predict that _________. ( Building Block: The Atom) Your Answer: fluorine is more chemically reactive than neon C orrect. Because fluorine has an outer shell that is unfilled, it is more reactive than neon. 36. Isotopes differ in the number of neutrons they have. What makes different 2 .1 Chemistry's isotopes of the same atom chemically similar to each other? ( Building Block: The Atom) Your Answer: They all have the same mass number. Correct Answer: They all have the same number of protons. Incorrect. Which subatomic particle defines an atom? See section 2.1 for more information. 37. The difference betw een an ion and an atom is ______. ( Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: its proton number Correct Answer: its electron number 2 .2 Matter Is wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Incorrect. Which particle is involved in bonding? See section 2.2 for more information. 38. The symbol 4H2 O represents _________. ( Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: four w ater molecules 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed through C orrect. This is the molecular formula for water, and it indicates the presence of four molecules. 39. Which of the follow ing is a balanced equation? ( through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: HCl + 2H2 O ( 2 Cl- + H3 O + Correct Answer: CO 2 + H2 O ( H2 CO 3 2 .2 Matter Is Transformed Incorrect. How do you write a balanced equation? See the essay "Getting to Know Chemistry's Symbols" for more information. 40. One portion of the immune system relies on recognition events between a pathogen's antigen and an immune system cell's antibody. A binding event occurs betw een the antigen and the antibody. Given this information, which of the 2.3 Some Qualities of Chemical Compounds ) following statements is true? ( Your Answer: The antigen must have an overall positive charge, w hile the antibody must have an overall negative charge. Correct Answer: The antigen and antibody must be shaped correctly. Incorrect. What must occur between proteins for binding to occur? See section 2.3 for more information. 41. A large difference in electronegativity betw een tw o atoms is important when discussing w hat type of bond? ( 2.2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding ) Your Answer: ionic bonds Correct Answer: polar covalent bonds Incorrect. Read section 2.2 to learn about the difference betw een covalent and ionic bonds. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 2. Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Site: Evolution of Human Beings > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:29 PM (EDT) 33% Correct of 30 questions 10 corre ct: 20 incorre ct: 3 3% 6 7% More information about scoring 1. In which year was Neanderthal Man first discovered? ( Tree ) Your Answer: 1856 20.1 The Human Family C orrect. This w as the year w hen fossils of Neanderthal Man w ere discovered. 2. About how many species have been discovered to date that can be classified in 2 0.1 The Human Family Tree ) the taxonomic category know n as Hominini? ( Your Answer: more than 25 C orrect. More are being discovered every year. 3. During which geologic period did modern humans appear? ( Family Tree ) Your Answer: Mesozoic Correct Answer: Cenozoic 2 0.1 The Human Incorrect. Humans have not been around this long. See section 20.1 for more information. 4. The scientific name for modern humans is _______. ( Tree ) Your Answer: Homo habilis Correct Answer: Homo sapiens 2 0.1 The Human Family Incorrect. This is not the scientific name for modern humans. See section 20.1 for wps.aw.com//index.html 1/7 9/14/2010 more information. 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo 5. Which of the follow ing groups of primates are the closest living relatives of modern 2 0.2 Human Evolution in Overview ) humans? ( Your Answer: chimpanzees C orrect. Chimpanzees represent the closest living relatives to humans. 6. Fossil evidence indicates that the "common primate ancestor" of the hominin group 2 0.1 The Human Family Tree ) appeared about _____. ( Your Answer: 100,000 years ago Correct Answer: more than 6 million years ago Incorrect. It w as much longer ago than that. See section 20.1 and Figure 20.1 for more information. 7. Why is it impossible to identify the immediate "common ancestor" of chimps and humans? ( 2 0.1 The Human Family Tree ) Your Answer: It is too difficult to find such fossils. Correct Answer: Fossils of this species have not yet been found. Incorrect. The answ er is much more basic than this. See section 20.1 for more information. 8. The extinct hominin that was closest to modern humans in appearance and 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Three Hominins ) behavior w as ______. ( Your Answer: Homo erectus Correct Answer: Homo neanderthalensis Incorrect. This species w as not very close to modern humans. See section 20.4 and Figure 20.5 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing is a living member of the hominin family today? ( Human Evolution in Overview ) Your Answer: Homo sapiens C orrect. This is the species of modern man. 2 0.2 10. The earliest hominins belonged to a group called _______. ( Family Tree ) ( 2 0.2 Human Evolution in Overview ) Your Answer: Homo neanderthalensis Correct Answer: Australopithecus 2 0.1 The Human Incorrect. This is not the correct g roup . See sections 20.1 and 20.2 and Fig ure 20.1 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/7 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo for more information. 11. Which group w as the last to appear before modern humans in the hominin line? ( 2 0.2 Human Evolution in Overview ) Your Answer: Homo erectus Correct Answer: Homo neanderthalensis Incorrect. This species w as one of the earlier species in the hominin line. See section 20.2 and Figure 20.1 for more information. 12. If the geologic history of Earth were compared to a 24-hour day, humans would 2 0.2 Human Evolution in Overview ) appear during which part of that day? ( Your Answer: 2 minutes Correct Answer: 5 seconds Incorrect. Humans have not been around for that long. See section 20.2 for more information. 13. Most of hominin history has been spent in w hich area of Earth? ( Evolution in Overview ) Your Answer: South America Correct Answer: Africa 2 0.2 Human Incorrect. Hominins are not found as fossils in this area. See section 20.2 for more information. 14. The hominin and chimpanzee lines split approximately ____________ years ago. ( 2 0.2 Human Evolution in Overview ) Your Answer: 100,000 Correct Answer: 7 million Incorrect. The split occurred much longer ago than that. See section 20.2 for more information. 15. Which of the follow ing characteristics in a fossil w ould suggest that the fossil is 2 0.3 Interpreting the Fossil Evidence ) from a hominin? ( Your Register to View Answerprotruding jaw Correct Answer: small canine teeth Incorrect. This feature does not distinguish hominins from nonhominins. See section 20.3 for more information. 16. The single most defining feature of a hominin is _________. ( the Fossil Evidence ) Your Answer: four-chambered heart 20.3 Interpreting wps.aw.com//index.html 3/7 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo Correct Answer: bipedalism Incorrect. This is not a defining characteristic. See section 20.3 for more information. 17. Which of the follow ing lines of evidence has been used to characterize the position of Sahelanthropus tchadensis a s a primitive hominin? ( 2 0.3 Interpreting the Fossil Evidence ) Your Answer: fossil bones C orrect. This is the only type of evidence available that this extinct species existed. 18. Paleontology is the study of ________. ( Your Answer: fossils C orrect. Paleontologists study fossils. 2 0.3 Interpreting the Fossil Evidence ) 19. Which of the follow ing characteristics can be deduced from fossil evidence? ( 20.3 Interpreting the Fossil Evidence ) Your Answer: language Correct Answer: bipedalism Incorrect. This cannot be deduced from fossil evidence. See section 20.3 for more information. 20. The anatomy of Lucy's pelvic bone indicates that she ________. ( Snapshots from the Past: Three Hominins ) Your Answer: walked upright C orrect. The structure of her pelvis indicates that she w as bipedal. 2 0.4 21. Hominin features evolved together at different times in different species, a process 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Three referred to as a ___________ pattern. ( Hominins ) Your Answer: mosaic C orrect. A mosaic pattern of evolution is characteristic of hominin evolution. 22. What is the significance of the ability to walk upright? ( Past: Three Hominins ) Your Answer: It improves circulation. Correct Answer: It frees the hands for other tasks. 2 0.4 Snapshots from the wps.aw.com//index.html 4/7 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo Incorrect. This is not an advantage of bipedalism. See section 20.4 for more information. 23. The cranial capacity of modern humans is approximately __________ cubic 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Three Hominins ) centimeters. ( Your Answer: 1,000 Correct Answer: 1,400 Incorrect. The modern human skull is larger than this. See section 20.4 for more information. 24. The cranial capacity of the Australopithecus afarensis known as Lucy was about 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Three Hominins ) ____________. ( Your Answer: 1,500 cubic centimeters Correct Answer: 450 cubic centimeters Incorrect. Lucy's cranial capacity w as much smaller than this. See section 20.4 for more information. 25. Which species is currently thought to be and ancestor of both Homo sapiens a nd Homo erectus ? ( 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Three Hominins ) Your Answer: Homo ergaster C orrect. This Kenyan species appears at the ancestral branch of the two species. 26. Neanderthals produced tools from _________. ( Three Hominins ) Your Answer: elephant tusks Correct Answer: stone 2 0.4 Snapshots from the Past: Incorrect. These materials were not used by Neanderthals. See section 20.4 for more information. 27. About 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals were joined in Europe by 2 0.5 The Appearance of Modern Human Beings ) ______________. ( Your Answer: Homo erectus Correct Answer: Homo sapiens Incorrect. This species did not coexist with Neanderthals. See section 20.5 for more information. 28. About 40,000 years ago, the species Homo erectus w as replaced in Australia by __________. ( 2 0.5 The Appearance of Modern Human Beings ) Your Answer: Homo ergaster wps.aw.com//index.html 5/7 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo Correct Answer: Homo sapiens Incorrect. This was not the species that replaced Homo erectus . See section 20.5 for more information. 29. One of the unique features of Homo floresiensis w as ____________. ( Next-to-Last Standing? The Hobbit People ) Your Register to View Answercranial capacity of less than 400 cubic centimeters C orrect. This is less than the cranial capacity of a chimpanzee. 2 0.6 30. How did modern humans replace Neanderthal humans? ( of Modern Human Beings ) Your Answer: w arfare Correct Answer: competition 2 0.5 The Appearance Incorrect. This does not appear to be the reason for the disappearance of Neanderthals. See section 20.5 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/7 9/14/2010 20. Arriving Late, Traveling Far: The Evo Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 7/7 9/14/2010 Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, Site: and Protists > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:29 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 10 que stions: 3 corre ct: 7 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Microbes Y our Answer: make nitrogen available to plants Correct Answer: all of the above 2. Viruses Y our Answer: have circular chromosomeshave circular chromosomes Correct Answer: replicate only by invading living cells 3. All viruses possess _____ w hich they _____. Y our Answer: toxins; kill cells with Correct Answer: DNA or RNA; transfer into a host cell 4. Bacteria Y our Answer: reproduce sexually or asexually Correct Answer: are single-celled prokaryotes 5. Within the human body, bacteria exist in greatest numbers in the _____, with many of these bacteria having a _____ relationship w ith their human host. Your Answer: digestive tract; mutualistic 6. Dama g e done b y p atho g enic bacteria most often comes from wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 6. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Your Answer: bacterial release of toxins 7. Archaea are Y our Answer: superficially similar to fungi Correct Answer: single-celled and often found in extreme environments 8. Protists w ere the first life-forms to Y our Answer: evolve follow ing the bacteria and archaea Correct Answer: all of the above 9. Phytoplankton are important because they Y our Answer: produce antibiotics Correct Answer: sit at the base of aquatic food chains 10. The hallmark of true multicellularity is Your Answer: specialization among cells in the association E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, Site: and Protists > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:28 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 35% Correct o f 20 que stions: 7 corre ct: 13 incorre ct: 3 5% 6 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing is NOT true of the lytic cycle of a virus? (level 1). Your Answer: The virus incorporates its DNA into the host cell's chromosome, replicating each time the host cell divides. C orrect: Once the viral DNA becomes part of the host cell's replication of DNA, the virus has entered the lysogenic cycle. 2. Most scientists do not classify viruses as living things. All of the following are cited as reasons to exclude viruses as living things except.... (level 2). Y our Answer: viruses lack the "machinery" necessary to synthesize proteins. Correct Answer: viruses are intracellular parasites. Incorrect: Viruses use the translation "machinery" of the host cell to produce new viral proteins. 3. During the nineteenth century, a physician named Edw ard Jenner noticed that cows get a disease called cow pox, w hich is similar in its symptoms to a disease that infects humans called smallpox; how ever, humans can't contract cow pox. Jenner also noticed that milkmaids were immune to smallpox. Jenner infected a child with the pus from a cow pox blister, and found that the child w as subsequently immune to smallpox. How did the child develop immunity to smallpox? (level 2). Y our Answer: The cow pox virus prevented the smallpox virus from entering the lysogenic cycle. Correct Answer: The cow pox virus was so similar to the smallpox virus that it stimulated "immunological memory" of the smallpox virus. Incorrect: The cow pox virus acted like a vaccine. 4. Wh y d oesn't the recip ient of a live flu virus vaccine contract the flu? (level 2 ). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 4. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Y our Answer: Vaccines cannot be made from live versions of the virus. Correct Answer: The vaccine is an attenuated flu virus. Incorrect: Review Section 20.1 on the immune system and vaccines. 5. Which statement is correct? (level 2). Y our Answer: Segments of DNA called introns may have given rise to bacteria. Correct Answer: Segments of DNA called mobile elements may have given rise to viruses. Incorrect: Introns are the segments of RNA removed prior to translation. 6. One theory to explain the origin of RNA editing prior to translation is that it developed as a means of "editing out" genetic material that was inserted into the chromosomes of earlier cells in a lineage of organisms. Where do you think this DNA may have come from? (level 2). Your Answer: viruses C orrect: Viruses can infect a cell by injecting their DNA into the cell. This DNA can often be incorporated into the host's chromosome. 7. In addition to bacteria and viruses, prions are also know n to cause human diseases. Like viruses, prions are not living organisms but are a type of disease-carrying organic molecule. In w hich category of organic molecules are prions? (level 1). Y our Answer: nucleic acids Correct Answer: proteins Incorrect: Review the essay "Not Alive, but Deadly: Prions and 'Mad Cow ' Disease." 8. If "success" of a group of organisms is defined by such parameters as nutritional diversity, longevity, pervasiveness, ability to adapt, and ability to w ithstand the most hostile of environments, then w hich of the follow ing groups of organisms is most successful? (level Y our Answer: bacteria C orrect: Bacteria are ubiquitous; they are the first organisms to have appeared on the Earth, are the most nutritionally diverse, and can be found in places w here no other organisms survive. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: 9. Bacteria fill many roles that benefit life on Earth. Which of the follow ing is one of these roles? (level 1). Y our Answer: They decompose dead organic material. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect: Although bacteria, along w ith the fungi, are the decomposers of the Earth, do bacteria have any other roles? 10. Which domain contains organisms that live in the most extreme of environments, such as those prevalent around deep-sea hydrothermal vents or hot springs? (level 1). Y our Answer: Eukarya Correct Answer: Archaea Incorrect: Review Section 20.3. 11. Most protists reproduce by both sexual and asexual mechanisms. Which mechanism occurs most frequently and w hy? Y our Answer: sexually, for the genetic diversity Correct Answer: asexually, for speed of reproduction Incorrect, sexual reproduction takes time to find a partner, but genetic diversity is achieved 12. Plant-like protists are mostly plant-like due to their ability: (level 1). Your Answer: photosynthize C orrect, review 20.9 13. Animal-like protists are unique in that some can: (level 1). Your Answer: do cellular respiration and photosynthesis C orrect, the key word here w as SOME wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 14. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Arguably, the biggest single organism (species) on the earth lives in the ocean. What kind of organism is it? (level 2). Y our Answer: Octopus Correct Answer: algae Incorrect, review 20.9 15. Unlike the terrestrial environment, ocean food webs have this as their basis for food: (level 1). Y our Answer: zooplankton Correct Answer: phytoplankton Incorrect, technically small insects could substitute here 16. Which of the follow ing statements concerning protists is incorrect? (level 1). Your Answer: Protists are composed of prokaryotic cells. C orrect: Protists are in the domain Eukarya; they are eukaryotes. 17. Which type of organism is NOT thought to have evolved from a primitive type of protist? (level 1). Y our Answer: Plants Correct Answer: Archaea Incorrect: Review section 20.5 on the protist. 18. Until 1996, organisms that are now placed in the Archaean domain were considered to just be an odd type of bacteria. What happened in 1996 that changed the scientists' opinion? (level 1). Your Answer: An entire Archaean genome w as sequenced. C orrect: By observing the vast difference in the genes of an archaean vs. bacteria the Archaeans w ere granted separate status. 19. Which of the follow ing statements concerning antibiotics is NOT correct? (level 1). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: Y our Answer: Antibiotics are derived from the compounds produced by living things. Correct Answer: Antibiotics can kill human cells. Incorrect: Antibiotics are not designed from scratch but are synthesized based on a naturally produced antibiotic. 20. Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes. Which of the following is NOT a common bacterial cell shape? Y our Answer: cocci Correct Answer: anguli Incorrect: Cocci bacteria are spherical. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Site: Protists: The Diversity of Life 1 > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:31 PM (EDT) 22% Correct of 45 questions 10 corre ct: 35 incorre ct: 2 2% 7 8% More information about scoring 1. Which organisms represent the largest amount of biomass on Earth? ( Life's Categories and the Importance of Microbes ) Your Answer: microbes 2 1.1 C orrect. The total mass of these microscopic organisms greatly outnumbers plants, animals, and fungi. 2. Which of the follow ing statements about viruses is correct? ( Making a Living by Hijacking Cells ) 2 1.2 Viruses: Your Answer: The HIV virus uses DNA to store its genetic code. Correct Answer: Viruses are not considered independent living organisms. Incorrect. Viruses are very limited in their functions. See section 21.2 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing is one of the ways that viruses can undergo genetic 21.2 Viruses: Making a Living by Hijacking Cells ) alteration? ( Your Answer: combining with the genes of a host cell Correct Answer: exchange of genes betw een tw o viruses w ithin an infected cell Incorrect. Viruses do use this mechanism to alter their genome. See section 21.2 for more information. 4. Because wild birds are not harmed by the avian flu, why are scientists studying it with such intensity? ( 2 1.2 Viruses: Making a Living by Hijacking Cells ) Your Answer: It can be used as a vaccine. Correct Answer: It might be transferred to humans, with fatal results. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Incorrect. This is not a potential danger with the avian flu. See section 21.2 for more information. 5. Most scientists do not classify viruses as living things because ________. ( Viruses: Making a Living by Hijacking Cells ) Your Answer: Viruses use proteins to carry their genetic code. Correct Answer: Viruses lack the "machinery" necessary to reproduce themselves independently. 2 1.2 Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of viruses that w ould preclude them being alive. See section 21.2 for more information. 6. The host cell in which HIV reproduces is a ______. ( Living by Hijacking Cells ) Your Answer: nerve cell Correct Answer: helper T cell 2 1.2 Viruses: Making a Incorrect. This is not the type of cell that HIV invades. See section 21.2 and Figure 21.3 for more information. 7. The absence of a prominent feature is characteristic of all bacteria. That feature is 2 1.3 Bacteria: Masters of Every Environment) _________. ( Your Answer: ribosomes Correct Register to View Answernucleus Incorrect. Bacteria possess this structure. See section 21.3 for more information. 8. A bacillus is a bacterium w ith w hich type of shape? ( Every Environment) Your Answer: square Correct Answer: rod-shaped 2 1.3 Bacteria: Masters of Incorrect. This is not the shape of a bacillus. See section 21.3 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing shapes is characteristic of bacteria know n as cocci? ( Bacteria: Masters of Every Environment) Your Answer: spherical C orrect. A coccus is a spherical-shaped bacterium. 2 1.3 10. Disease-causing bacteria are called ______. ( Your Answer: pathogens 2 1.5 Bacteria and Human Disease ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti C orrect. Disease-causing bacteria are pathogenic. 11. Until 1996, organisms that are now placed in the Archaean domain were considered to be just an odd type of bacteria. What happened in 1996 that 2 1.6 Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center changed scientific opinion? ( Stage ) Your Register to View Answerlink betw een archaea and protists was discovered. Correct Answer: An entire archaeal genome was sequenced. Incorrect. The correct answ er is much more basic than this. See section 21.6 for more information. 12. What is of great importance about the bacterium know n as MRSA? ( Bacteria and Human Disease ) Your Answer: It was the first bacterium discovered. 21.5 Correct Answer: It is resistant to the antibiotic methicillin and can be fatal to humans. Incorrect. This bacterium can be very dangerous to humans. See section 21.5 for more information. 13. A microbe that uses organic materials (food) as a supply of both carbon and 2 1.4 energy is described as a(n) ___________ in terms of its nutrition. ( Intimate Strangers: Humans and Bacteria ) Your Answer: photoautotroph Correct Answer: chemoautotroph Incorrect. This is not the type of nutrition described here. See the essay on modes of nutrition for more information. 14. Tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, cholera, tetanus, leprosy, typhoid fever, and 2 1.5 Bacteria diphtheria are diseases caused by which type of microorganism? ( and Human Disease ) Your Answer: archaea Correct Answer: bacteria Incorrect. These diseases are not caused by this type of agent. See section 21.5 for more information. 15. Which of the follow ing organisms are able to reproduce sexually? ( and Sexual Reproduction ) Your Answer: bacteria Correct Answer: protists 2 1.8 Protists Incorrect. These microbes are not able to reproduce sexually. See section 21.8 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Arguably, the organism with the greatest biomass lives in the ocean. What is it? ( 2 1.9 Photosynthesizing Protists ) Your Register to View Answerplant Correct Answer: phytoplankton Incorrect. This organism is not abundant enough to have the most biomass. See section 21.9 for more information. 16. 17. Free-floating, photosynthetic, unicellular organisms are called ______. ( Photosynthesizing Protists ) Your Answer: brow n algae Correct Answer: phytoplankton 2 1.9 Incorrect. This is not the correct term for these organisms. See section 21.9 for more information. 18. The biggest single organism (species) that lives in the ocean is ___________. ( 21.9 Photosynthesizing Protists ) Your Register to View Answerw hale Correct Answer: algae Incorrect. This is not the largest single organism in the ocean. See section 21.9 for more information. 19. Amoebic dysentery is caused by a parasitic form of ______ common in w arm climates. ( 21.10 Heterotrophic Protists ) Your Answer: amoeba C orrect. E ntamoeba histolytica is the ameboid protist that causes dysentery. 20. One of the modes of nutrition found in microorganisms is called photoautotrophy. 2 1.4 Which of the follow ing statements best describes this type of nutrition? ( Intimate Strangers: Humans and Bacteria ) Your Answer: Organic material provides both an energy source and a carbon source. Correct Answer: The sun's rays provide energy, and the atmosphere provides a source of carbon. Incorrect. This does not fit the photoautotrophic mode of life. See the essay on modes of nutrition for more information. 21. Which type of relationship do w e have w ith most of the bacteria that live in our 2 1.4 Intimate Strangers: Humans and Bacteria ) large intestine? ( Your Answer: competition Correct Answer: mutualism wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Incorrect. This is not the most common type of relationship. See section 21.4 and Figure 21.8 for more information 22. What is the nature of the mutualistic relationship w e share with our intestinal 2 1.4 Intimate Strangers: Humans and Bacteria ) bacteria? ( Your Answer: One species benefits w hile the other is not affected. Correct Answer: Both species benefit. Incorrect. This is not how mutualistic species relate to one another. See section 21.4 for more information. 23. Humans share a commensal relationship w ith many intestinal bacteria. What is the nature of a commensal relationship? ( 2 1.5 Bacteria and Human Disease ) Your Answer: Both species benefit. Correct Answer: One species benefits w hile the other is unaffected. Incorrect. This is not the nature of a commensal relationship. See section 21.5 for more information. 24. The botulism bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, may be deadly because ___________. ( 2 1.5 Bacteria and Human Disease ) Your Answer: It secretes deadly toxins that can paralyze the victim. C orrect. Botulism secretes deadly toxins, although it is the same material they use in Botox. 25. How is the bacterium that causes bubonic plague transmitted? ( and Human Disease ) Your Answer: from the bite of a flea that lives on rats C orrect. The bubonic plague is transmitted by fleabites. 2 1.5 Bacteria 26. How does the tetanus bacterium, Clostridium tetani, infect a person? ( Bacteria and Human Disease ) Your Answer: through a puncture w ound from a rusty nail 21.5 C orrect. This bacterium festers in wounds that close up and provide an anaerobic environment. 27. How does the tuberculosis bacterium infect a person? ( Human Disease ) Your Answer: through rotting food Correct Answer: by inhalation 2 1.5 Bacteria and wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Incorrect. This is not how tuberculosis is transmitted. See section 21.5 for more information. 28. How does the antibiotic penicillin kill bacteria? ( Disease ) 2 1.5 Bacteria and Human Your Answer: It prevents them from breathing. Correct Answer: It prevents them from making a cell wall. Incorrect. This is not how penicillin kills bacteria. See section 21.5 for more information. 29. Why is it not advisable to overprescribe antibiotics? ( Disease ) 21.5 Bacteria and Human Your Answer: Excess antibiotic use raises the cost of medical care. Correct Answer: Excess antibiotic use causes the evolution of resistant strains of bacteria. Incorrect. This is not the reason antibiotics should be used only when absolutely necessary. See section 21.5 for more information. 30. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exists today because _________. ( 2 1.5 Bacteria and Human Disease ) Your Answer: it w as purposely developed by scientists in the laboratory Correct Answer: of overuse of methicillin in the past Incorrect. This is not the reason this strain of bacterium exists today. See section 21.5 for more information. 31. Differences in the cell wall led scientists to the realization that which of the 21.6 Archaea: From Marginal following organisms merited their own domain? ( Player to Center Stage ) Your Answer: fungi Correct Answer: archaea Incorrect. This was not the group of organisms involved. See section 21.6 for more information. 32. In terms of a common ancestor, which of the following groups is farthest away 2 1.6 Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center Stage ) from Domain Archaea? ( Your Answer: fungi Correct Answer: bacteria Incorrect. This group shares a common ancestor w ith the archaea. See section 21.6 and Figure 21.10 for more information. 33. The term "extremophiles" is used to describe ______. ( 2 1.6 Archaea: From wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Marginal Player to Center Stage ) Your Answer: organisms that are extremely large in size Correct Answer: organisms that live in extreme environments Incorrect. This is not what "extremophiles" refers to. See section 21.6 for more information. 34. Suppose a scientist discovers a microbe that cannot live in an environment that 2 1.6 contains free oxygen. We would call that microbe a(n) ________. ( Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center Stage ) Your Answer: anaerobe C orrect. Anaerobes cannot live in an environment w ith free oxygen. 35. A thermophile is an organism that can survive only in an environment of _________. ( 2 1.6 Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center Stage ) Your Answer: low oxygen content Correct Answer: high temperatures Incorrect. Thermophiles require another kind of environment. See section 21.6 for more information. 36. An organism that can survive only in an environment that contains an extremely high salt content is referred to as a(n) _________. ( 2 1.6 Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center Stage ) Your Answer: salinophile Correct Answer: halophile Incorrect. That is not the descriptive name for this kind of organism. See section 21.6 for more information. 37. Eukaryotic organisms that do not have all the defining characteristics of a plant, an 2 1.7 Protists: animal, or a fungus belong to the kingdom of ___________. ( Pioneers in Diversifying Life ) Your Answer: protists C orrect. Protists are a motley group of organisms that are lumped together because they do not readily fit into one of the other recognized kingdoms. 38. The microscopic protist Plasmodium falciparum causes w hich one of the world's most widespread diseases? ( 2 1.7 Protists: Pioneers in Diversifying Life ) Your Answer: malaria C orrect. This virulent disease kills millions of people every year. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti What kind of organism caused the great Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s? ( 21.7 Protists: Pioneers in Diversifying Life ) Your Answer: bacterium Correct Answer: protist Incorrect. This is not the agent that caused the famine. See section 21.7 for more information. 39. 40. Chlamydomonas is a very interesting protist because _________. ( and Sexual Reproduction ) Your Answer: it also behaves like a bacterium Correct Answer: it practices both asexual and sexual reproduction 2 1.8 Protists Incorrect. This is not the reason for scientific interest in Chlamydomonas . See section 21.8 for more information. 41. When tw o haploid Chlamydomonas cells fuse, they produce _________. ( Protists and Sexual Reproduction ) Your Register to View Answersperm cell Correct Register to View Answerdiploid zygote 2 1.8 Incorrect. This is not what is produced w hen two Chlamydomonas cells fuse. See section 21.8 for more information. 42. When does meiosis occur in the life cycle of Chlamydomonas ? ( Sexual Reproduction ) Your Answer: just before the formation of the zygote Correct Answer: after a zygote is formed 2 1.8 Protists and Incorrect. Meiosis occurs at another point in the life cycle of this protist. See section 21.8 for more information. 43. What is the name used for the protists that use photosynthesis to produce their food? ( 2 1.9 Photosynthesizing Protists ) Your Answer: bacteria Correct Answer: algae Incorrect. This is not the term used to describe photosynthetic protists. See section 21.9 for more information. 44. Small photosynthetic organisms that float near the surface of the ocean are referred to as ________. ( 2 1.9 Photosynthesizing Protists ) Your Answer: consumers Correct Answer: phytoplankton Incorrect. This is not the correct name for this g rou p o f org anisms. See section 21.9 wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti for more information. 45. Into w hich group of organisms would you classify an amoeba? ( Heterotrophic Protists ) Your Answer: phytoplankton Correct Answer: heterotrophic protists 2 1.10 Incorrect. The amoeba does not belong in this group. See section 21.10 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 21. Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Proti Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Fungi and Plants: The Site: Diversity of Life > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:30 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 10 que stions: 4 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Most fungi are composed almost entirely of Your Answer: slender filaments called hyphae 2. With respect to food, animals _____ while fungi _____ Y our Answer: digest, then ingest ingest, then digest Correct Answer: ingest, then digest digest, then ingest 3. Fungi reproduce through cells called spores, which Y our Answer: can germinate without fusing w ith another cell Correct Answer: all of the above 4. Only one of these organisms grow s tow ard new sources of food. Which one is it? Your Answer: fungus 5. Fungi do not cause Your Answer: tetanus 6. Defining characteristics of plants do not include (select all that apply) Y our Answer: nutrition from photosynthesis Correct Answer: reproduction through fruiting bodies wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 7. You are w alking through a botanical garden and you see a 6-meter-tall plant that shows no evidence of flow ering, but seeds are present. To w hich group of plants does it belong? Y our Answer: angiosperms Correct Answer: gymnosperms 8. Which of the follow ing are not characteristics of angiosperms? Y our Answer: encase seeds in fruit Correct Answer: have sperm encased in pollen grains 9. In the alternation of generations that plants employ Y our Answer: all generations produce spores Correct Answer: one generation produces spores, the next produces eggs and sperm 10. Which of the follow ing is not a characteristic of plants? Your Answer: decompose organic matter E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Fungi and Plants: The Site: Diversity of Life > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:30 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 15% Correct o f 20 que stions: 3 corre ct: 17 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 5% 8 5% 1. Fungi can be parasitic on: (level 1). Your Answer: protists. Correct Answers: other fungi. a ll of the above. Incorrect, review 21.4 2. The cell w alls of fungi are made of: (level 1). Y our Answer: silica. Correct Answer: chitin. Incorrect, review 21.3 and 21.6 3. One adaptation that fungi have for absorption nutrition, in w hich nutrients are absorbed across the cell surfaces, is: (level 2). Y our Register to View Answerlow surface area-to-volume ratio. Correct Register to View Answerhigh surface area-to-volume ratio. Incorrect, review 21.1, 21.5 and Chapters 3 and 4 on surface areas and absorption rates 4. Mycorrhizae are___________associations of a fungus with ___________. (level 1). Y our Answer: parasitic an alga or bacterium Correct Answer: mutualistic; plant roots wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 Incorrect, review 21.5 5. The gills of a mushroom are specialized for: (level 2). Your Answer: reproduction C orrect, you have mastered 21.3 6. Dikaryotic fungal cells: (level 1). Y our Answer: have two identical nuclei per cell. Correct Answer: contain two genetically different nuclei per cell. Incorrect, review 21.3 7. Lichens obtain nutrients by: (level 2). Y our Answer: decaying organic materials. Correct Answer: photosynthesis. Incorrect, review 21.5 8. Forms of asexual reproduction in fungi include: Y our Answer: cell division. Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect, review 21.3 9. Ecologically speaking, most soil fungi are to plant roots as: (level 2). Your Answer: Escherichia coli is to humans. C orrect, fungi benefit plants as E. coli benefits humans. 10. The purpose of nectar in flow ers is: (level 1). Your Answer: to rew ard pollinators wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 C orrect, pollinators need rew ards for their pollen carrying efforts. 11. Although fruit provides a source of nutrients for animals when they eat it, it provides a different function for the plants that produce it. What function does it provide for the plant? (level 1). Y our Answer: photosynthesis Correct Answer: seed dispersal Incorrect: Leaves are the primary photosynthesizing structures in plants. 12. The seeds of angiosperms include the plant embryo as well as large food reserve called the ... (level 1). Y our Answer: gymnosperm Correct Answer: Endosperm Incorrect: This is the classification for conifers such as pines, spruce and junipers. 13. Bryophytes are believed to be the earliest type of terrestrial plants. Which of these characteristics is NOT characteristic of bryophytes? (level 1). Y our Answer: water transportation of gametes Correct Answer: very simple seeds Incorrect: Bryophytes do require at least a small film of w ater for gamete transportation. 14. Arguably the biggest single organism on the earth is an underground, w eb-like structure that covers 1,500 acres. This structure is called a ... (level 1). Y our Answer: mycorrhizae Correct Answer: mycelium Incorrect: This is a symbiotic structure formed between fungi and plant roots. 15. Fungi share a very important role with another kingdom or organisms. What is that role? (level 2). Y our Answer: Like bacteria, fungi 'fix' nitrogen into the soil. Correct Answer: Like bacteria , fung i are decomp osers. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 , g Incorrect: Fungi do not 'fix' nitrogen. p 16. Which of the follow ing statements concerning fungi is correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Fungi can engulf and digest prey like animals. Correct Answer: Fungi can reproduce by producing and releasing spores. Incorrect, review 21.3 17. Which type of organism is NOT thought to have evolved from a primitive type of protist? (level 2). Y our Answer: Fungi Correct Answer: Archaea Incorrect, review Sections 20.7 on the protists and 21.1, 21.7 and 21.8 on plants, animals and fungi. 18. Lichens are a good indicator of w hat? (level 1). Y our Answer: Poor environmental ground w ater Correct Answer: Clean environmental air quality Incorrect, review section 21.5. 19. Can you use antibiotics on fungal infections? (level 2). Y our Answer: Yes, Antibiotics work on both fungal and bacterial infections. Correct Answer: No, Antibiotics only w ork on bacterial cells. Incorrect, review antibiotics in Section 20.5 on bacterial diseases and Section 21.2 on fungi and society. 20. Fungi and plants w ork synergistically...how? Y our Answer: they benefit each other by providing certain wastes Correct Answer: they benefit each other by providing certain substrates Incorrect, review sections 21.5 and 21.6 wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2 E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Life cycles of fungi" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Site: Life 2 > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Life cycles of fungi Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:36 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 4 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 4 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. In fungi, a large mass of hyphae is referred to as a _______. Your Answer: cap Correct Answer: mycelium Incorrect. The cap is not a mass of hyphae. 2. What parts of fungi assist in food acquisition? Your Answer: spores Correct Answer: mycelium Incorrect. The spores do not assist in food acquisition. 3. Fungi are characterized as having a _____ life cycle. Your Answer: haploid Correct Answer: alternation betw een the two Incorrect. Is this the only possible option? 4. Fungi spend most of their life cycle in the _____ form. _____ cells only occur briefly in the _____ of a mushroom. Your Answer: haploid; diploid; hyphae Correct Answer: haploid; diploid; gills Incorrect. Do diploid cells form in the hyphae? wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Site: Life 2 > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:36 PM (EDT) 27% Correct of 45 questions 12 corre ct: 33 incorre ct: 2 7% 7 3% More information about scoring 1. A mushroom is composed of small tube-like filaments called ________. ( The Fungi: Life as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: mycelium Correct Answer: hyphae 2 2.1 Incorrect. This is not the name of the individual tube-like filaments. See section 22.1 for more information. 2. Fungi digest their food by releasing digestive enzymes ______. ( Fungi: Life as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: directly into the insects Correct Answer: externally 22.1 The Incorrect. The enzymes come from the hyphae and must have time to w ork on the dead organism. See section 22.1 for more information. 3. Farmers inject antibiotics into farm animals to prevent disease. Why don't farmers 2 1.5 Bacteria and spray antibiotics on crops to prevent fungal diseases? ( Human Disease ) ( 2 2.2 Roles of Fungi in Society and Nature ) Your Answer: Only certain kinds of antibiotics can kill fungi. Correct Answer: Antibiotics only work on bacterial cells. Incorrect. Antibiotics are produced by fungi, but can they kill fungi? See sections 21.5 and 22.2 for more information. 4. The gills of a mushroom are specialized for ______. ( Sponges ) 2 3.3 Phylum Porifera: The wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Y our Answer: defense Correct Answer: reproduction Incorrect. A mushroom's gills have no relationship to the gills found on a fish. See section 22.3 and Figure 22.5 for more information. 5. Forms of asexual reproduction in fungi include ______. ( Reproduction in Fungi) Your Answer: production of seeds 2 2.3 Structure and Correct Answer: production of haploid spores within sporangia Incorrect. This is not a part of reproduction in a fungus. See section 22.3 for more information. 6. What part of a fungus assists in food acquisition? ( Reproduction in Fungi) Your Answer: cap Correct Answer: mycelium 22.3 Structure and Incorrect. This part of the fungus does not assist in acquiring food. See section 22.3 for more information. 7. Most fungi are sessile organisms, w hich means that they __________. ( The Fungi: Life as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: consume only carbohydrate food Correct Answer: cannot get up and move around Incorrect. Can these organisms move around? See section 22.1 for more information. 2 2.1 8. Fungi spend most of their life cycle in the _____ state. ( Reproduction in Fungi) Your Answer: diploid Correct Answer: haploid 2 2.3 Structure and Incorrect. Fungi exist in different states within their life cycle. See section 22.3 and Figure 22.5 for more information. 9. Fungi that can swim through w ater using a flagellum are the __________. ( Categories of Fungi) Your Answer: basidiomycetes Correct Answer: Chytridiomycota Incorrect. This group of fungi is sessile. See section 22.4 for more information. 2 2.4 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Fungi share a very important role w ith another kingdom of organisms. What is that 2 2.3 Structure and Reproduction in Fungi) ( 2 2.5 Fungal Associations: role? ( Lichens and Mycorrhizae ) Your Answer: Like bacteria, fungi fix nitrogen into the soil. Correct Answer: Like bacteria, fungi are decomposers. Incorrect. This is not an important role served by fungi. See sections 22.3 and 22.5 for more information. 10. 11. Mycorrhizae are _________ associations of a fungus with ___________. ( Fungal Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae ) Your Answer: mutualistic; plant roots C orrect. Mycorrhizae are the root-hyphae association of plants and fungi. 2 2.5 12. Which type of fungi is representative of Phylum Zygomycetes? ( of Fungi) Your Answer: bread mold C orrect. Bread mold is a type of zygomycete. 22.4 Categories 13. Ecologically, most soil fungi are to plant roots as ______. ( Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae ) Your Answer: Escherichia coli is to humans C orrect. Fungi benefit plants as E . coli b enefits humans. 22.5 Fungal 14. Which of the follow ing describes how plant reproduction is similar to human 2 2.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life ) reproduction? ( Your Answer: Both plants and humans have both a haploid and a diploid phase. C orrect. Both life cycles include a haploid and a diploid phase. 15. Ferns developed ______, which advanced them beyond the bryophytes. ( Types of Plants ) Your Register to View Answersystem of hyphae Correct Register to View Answervascular system 2 2.7 Incorrect. This advancement allowed them to truly invade the drier terrestrial environment. See section 22.7 for more information. 16. The purpose of nectar in flowers is ______. ( Interactions ) 2 2.8 Angiosperm-Animal wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Y our Answer: to be a pollen transfer liquid Correct Answer: to attract pollinators Incorrect. Nectar does not serve this function in plants. See section 22.8 and Figure 22.24 for more information. 17. The seed coat of a see functions to ________. ( Interactions ) Your Answer: fruit Correct Answer: protection 22.8 Angiosperm-Animal Incorrect. This is not the function of the seed coat. See section 22.8 and Figure 22.21 for more information. 18. The fruiting body of a fungus is responsible for ________. ( as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: nourishing the fungus Correct Answer: reproducing the fungus 22.1 The Fungi: Life Incorrect. This is not the function of a fruiting body. See section 22.1 and Figure 22.3 for more information. 19. Which of the follow ing terms refers to the nutritional pattern of fungi? ( Fungi: Life as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: autotrophic Correct Answer: heterotrophic 2 2.1 The Incorrect. This term does not refer to how fungi obtain nourishment. See section 22.1 for more information. 20. Yeasts differ from almost all other fungi because ________. ( Life as a Web of Slender Threads ) Your Answer: they are noncellular Correct Answer: they are unicellular 2 2.1 The Fungi: Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of yeasts. See section 22.1 for more information. 21. Which variety of tree has been almost wiped out of the eastern United States by 22.2 Roles of Fungi in Society and Nature ) fungal disease? ( Your Answer: Douglas fir trees Correct Answer: elm trees Incorrect. This is not the tree involved. See section 22.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Fusion of two haploid nuclei occurs in w hich part of a fungus? ( and Reproduction in Fungi) Your Answer: gills of a mushroom C orrect. The basidia in the gills of the mushroom are the site of fusion of the haploid dikaryotic nuclei. 2 2.3 Structure 22. 23. In the dikaryotic phase of a fungal mycelium, each nucleus in a hyphal cell 2 2.3 Structure and Reproduction in Fungi) __________. ( Your Answer: produces a new hyphal strand of cells Correct Answer: exists in a haploid state Incorrect. This is not characteristic of the dikaryotic phase in a fungus. See section 22.3 and Figure 22.5 for more information. 24. Sex is accomplished in the life cycle of a fungus w hen _________. ( Structure and Reproduction in Fungi) Your Answer: haploid nuclei fuse in the gills of a mushroom 2 2.3 C orrect. This represents the fusion of genes from two different fungal strains. 25. Toadstool-shaped mushrooms are included in Phylum _________. ( Categories of Fungi) Your Answer: Ascomycota Correct Answer: Basidiomycota 2 2.4 Incorrect. Toadstools do not belong in this phylum. See section 22.4 for more information. 26. Which of the follow ing drugs is a derivative of the fungus Claviceps ? ( Categories of Fungi) Your Answer: cocaine Correct Answer: LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) 2 2.4 Incorrect. This drug is not derived from Claviceps . See the essay "A Psychedelic Drug from an Ancient Source" for more information. 27. Which fungus is important in making beer and wine? ( Your Answer: morel mushrooms Correct Answer: yeast 2 2.4 Categories of Fungi) Incorrect. This is not the type of fungus used in making beer and wine. See section 22.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li Which type of organism forms most of the body mass of a lichen? ( Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae ) Your Answer: alga Correct Answer: fungus Incorrect. This is not the type of organism that makes up most of a lichen. See section 22.5 for more information. 2 2.5 Fungal 28. 29. A photosynthesizing, multicellular organism that is fixed in place and mostly land 2 2.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life ) dwelling is called a __________. ( Your Answer: mushroom Correct Answer: plant Incorrect. These characteristics do not fit this organism. See section 22.6 for more information. 30. A cell wall composed of cellulose is characteristic of _________. ( The Foundation for Much of Life ) Your Answer: plants C orrect. Green plants have cell w alls composed of cellulose. 22.6 Plants: 31. Chloroplasts are green organelles associated w ith w hich function in plants? ( 22.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life ) Your Answer: food production C orrect. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which convert the sun's energy into the chemical bonds of glucose. 32. Ferns go through an alternation of generations. The haploid stage of their life cycle 2 2.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life ) is called a ________. ( Your Answer: fern plant Correct Answer: gametophyte Incorrect. This part of the fern life cycle is diploid. See section 22.6 and Figure 22.16 for more information. 33. In the life cycle of a fern plant, the sporophyte plant ________. ( The Foundation for Much of Life ) Your Answer: produces gametes Correct Answer: produces spores 22.6 Plants: Incorrect. The sporophyte plant does not perform this activity. See section 22.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li The diploid gametophyte in a plant life cycle _____. ( Foundation for Much of Life ) Your Answer: develops from a zygote Correct Answer: produces gametes Incorrect. This is not descriptive of a gametophyte. See section 22.6 for more information. 2 2.6 Plants: The 34. 35. In redw ood trees, the tree is _________. ( Much of Life ) Your Register to View Answerspore Correct Register to View Answersporophyte 22.6 Plants: The Foundation for Incorrect. This is not the true identity of a redwood tree. See section 22.6 for more information. 36. The pollen grains released by a pine tree represent which part of the plant's life 22.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life ) cycle? ( Your Answer: the spores Correct Answer: the male gametophyte Incorrect. Pollen grains do not represent this stage of reproduction in pine trees. See section 22.6 for more information. 37. Which characteristic separates pine trees and apple trees from other plants? ( 22.7 Types of Plants ) Your Answer: vascular tissue Correct Answer: seeds Incorrect. This is not the characteristic that separates these trees from other plants. See section 22.7 and Figure 22.17 for more information. 38. The most primitive green plants living today are ____. ( Your Answer: redw ood trees Correct Answer: mosses 2 2.7 Types of Plants ) Incorrect. These are not the most primitive true plants. See section 22.7 for more information. 39. The most dominant plants on Earth today are the _________. ( Plants ) Your Answer: ferns Correct Answer: angiosperms 2 2.7 Types of Incorrect. These are not the most dominant plants alive today. See section 22.7 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li 40. A liverw ort is a type of _________. ( Your Answer: bryophyte 2 2.7 Types of Plants ) C orrect. Liverworts are related to mosses. 41. The big difference between mosses and ferns is that ________. ( Plants ) Your Answer: mosses do not produce seeds and ferns do Correct Answer: mosses do not have vascular tissue and ferns do 2 2.7 Types of Incorrect. This is not a difference between mosses and ferns. See section 22.7 for more information. 42. Seedless vascular plants include _________. ( Your Answer: ferns 2 2.7 Types of Plants ) C orrect. Ferns have vascular tissues but do not produce seeds. 43. The gymnosperms were the first plants to produce ________. ( Plants ) Your Answer: seeds C orrect. Gymnosperms were the first seed plants. 22.7 Types of 44. Gymnosperms differ from angiosperms in that ________. ( Your Answer: gymnosperms do not produce pollen Correct Answer: gymnosperms do not produce fruit 2 2.7 Types of Plants ) Incorrect. Gymnosperms and angiosperms share this characteristic. See section 22.7 for more information. 45. What is the chief function of a fruit in flow ering plants? ( Interactions ) 2 2.8 Angiosperm-Animal Your Answer: attraction of animals for dispersal of the seeds C orrect. Fruits attract animals that eat the fruit containing seeds and then disperse the seeds in their feces. Copy right 1995 - 2010 P earson Education . A ll rights reserved. P earson Benjamin Cummings is an im print of P earson . wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 Legal Notice 22. Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Li | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Animals: The Diversity of Life Site: 3 > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:31 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. All animals (select all that apply) Y our Answer: go through a blastula stage in development Correct Answer: all of the above 2. Bilateral symmetry is a condition in w hich Your Answer: one side of an animal is symmetrical to the other 3. A coelom is Your Answer: an enclosed body cavity, not found in sponges, cnidarians, or flatworms 4. An animal has bilateral symmetry, but no coelom. What phylum is it in? Y our Answer: Chordata Correct Answer: Platyhelminthes 5. Only _____ are endothermic, a physiological condition w hose chief direct cost is _____. Y our Answer: cephalopods and echinoderms; smaller size Correct Answer: mammals and birds; increased energy expenditure 6. A marine animal w ith radial symmetry goes through both medusa and polyp sta g es in its life cycle. Which of the follow in g features is it certain to have? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Y our Register to View Answerbrain Correct Register to View Answermouth 7. The w orlds largest invertebrates, the _______, alw ays _______. Y our Answer: echinoderms; have radial symmetry Correct Answer: cephalopods; are single-sex 8. In earthw orms, w e can see a clear example of the widespread animal feature known as Y our Answer: filter feeding Correct Answer: body segmentation 9. Which of the follow ing is not a physical feature of all vertebrates at some point in their lives? Y our Answer: pharyngeal slits Correct Register to View Answerventral nerve cord 10. If an animal has an exoskeleton, paired jointed appendages, and goes through the process of molting, it is: Your Register to View Answertetrapod Correct Answers: a bivalve a n arthropod E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 O the r: He lp Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Animals: The Diversity of Life Site: 3 > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:31 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 20 que stions: 6 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing characteristics is exclusive to animals? (level 1). Y our Answer: Organisms are multicellular. Correct Answer: Embryos pass through a blastula stage. Incorrect: This is also true of plants and fungi. 2. According to evolutionary theory, certain animal features developed that allow ed for the diversification of the animal phyla. Which phylum or phyla in the list below DO NOT have the features of specific tissues and symmetry? (level 1). Your Answer: Porifera C orrect: Sponges do not show symmetry, and their cells are not organized into tissues. 3. Animals in phylum Chordata are defined by some specific characteristics. Which of the follow ing is NOT found in all chordates? (level 1). Y our Answer: dorsal nerve cord Correct Answer: vertebral column Incorrect: This is a common feature of all chordates. 4. Which of these characteristics is NOT present in phylum Echinodermata? (level 1). Y our Answer: exoskeleton Correct Answer: protostome development Incorrect: They have this feature in common with arthropods. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 5. Most animal phyla show some type of body symmetry. Which of the follow ing show radial symmetry? (level 2). Y our Answer: Cnidaria Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only phylum that show s radial symmetry? 6. The term "cephalization" refers to what special animal feature? (level 1). Y our Answer: formation of a complex reproductive system Correct Answer: concentration of nerve cells at one end of the body Incorrect: Review Section 22.2. 7. Repetition of body parts is known as segmentation. Which of these phyla does NOT display segmentation? (level 1). Your Answer: Echinodermata C orrect: Sea stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers do not show segmentation. 8. Organisms in phylum Arthropoda have many common characteristics. How ever, there is one characteristic that defines this phylum. What is this characteristic? (level 1). Your Answer: paired, jointed appendages C orrect: The jointed appendages of arthropods are specialized into a variety of structures such as legs, wings, antennae, and mouthparts. 9. A true coelom is an internal body cavity. Which of these phyla contain organisms that have a true coelom? (level 1). Y our Answer: Platyhelminthes Correct Answer: Annelida Incorrect: Flatw orms do not have coeloms; that is why they are so flat. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 10. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Which of the follow ing phyla is a deuterostome? (level 1). Y our Answer: Annelida Correct Answer: Echinodermata Incorrect: Segmented worms are protostomes. 11. Some animals are said to be "hermaphroditic." To w hat does this term refer? (level 1). Your Register to View Answerstate in w hich one animal possesses both female and male sex organs C orrect: Although it is possible, hermaphroditic animals tend not to self-fertilize. 12. Some phyla are said to be "triploblastic." What does this term mean? (level 1) Your Answer: embryos having three different germ layers C orrect: The formation of a mesoderm in addition to the endoderm and ectoderm allow s for more complex developmental structures. 13. Before synthetic sponges w ere developed, living sponges w ere harvested for people to use in bathing or cleaning. These sponges are not the w hole living sponge, only a remnant of the animal. What part of the sponge animal is used to make a bathing sponge? (level 1). Y our Answer: the nervous system Correct Answer: the skeleton Incorrect: Sponges do not have a nervous system. 14. Although cnidarians do not have organs, they do have specialized tissues. Which of these tissue types can be found in cnidarians? (level 1). Y our Answer: muscle tissue Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only type of tissue found in cnidarians? Phylum Mollusca is a very diverse phylum. Species in this phylum have a tremendous amount of variety in characteristics. Which of the follow ing wps.prenhall.com//index.html 15. 3/5 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 characteristics is found in all mollusks? (level 1). Y our Answer: They are all herbivores (eat only plant material). Correct Answer: They all have a mantle. Incorrect: Squids and octopi are efficient and voracious meat eaters (carnivores). 16. Which of the phyla listed below contains organisms with a circulatory system? (level 2). Y our Answer: Platyhelminthes Correct Answer: Mollusca Incorrect: Although some flatw orms have a simple digestive system, digested molecules are not transported; instead they diffuse to all of the w orm's cells. 17. Which of these phyla contain(s) organisms that are human parasites? (level 2). Y our Answer: Platyhelminthes Correct Register to View AnswerB, and C are correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only parasitic phylum in this list? 18. Complex, specialized, camera-like eyes are found in the species of tw o different phyla. Humans and other vertebrates are in phylum Chordata. The other phylum w ith complex eyes would be ... (level 1). Y our Answer: Echinodermata. Correct Answer: Mollusca. Incorrect: There are no specialized eyes in sea stars or sea urchins. 19. Which of these animal phyla has a digestive tract w ith both a mouth and an anus? (level 1). Your Answer: Nematoda C orrect: This phylum is estimated to contain as many as 100,000 species. 20. Which of these phyla contains the parasitic organisms known as "flukes"? (level 1 ). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Y our Answer: Annelida Correct Answer: Platyhelminthes Incorrect: Some segmented w orms are parasitic, but they are not flukes. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 > Site: Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:38 PM (EDT) 20% Correct of 44 questions 9 corre ct: 35 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing characteristics is exclusive to animals? ( Animal? ) Your Answer: Organisms are heterotrophs. Correct Answer: Embryos pass through a blastula stage. 2 3.1 What is an Incorrect. Animals are the only organisms to pass through a blastula stage during development. 2. The vast majority of animals are described as being _____________. ( What is an Animal? ) Your Answer: invertebrates 2 3.1 C orrect. 99% of all animals are invertebrates, w ithout a backbone. Read Section 23.1. 3. Which of the follow ing is an example of a tissue? ( Your Answer: the digestive tract Correct Register to View Answermuscle 23.1 What is an Animal? ) Incorrect. A muscle is a tissue made up of different cells with a similar function. Organs, like the brain are made up of several related tissues. 4. A group of organisms that share a basic body structure is called a(n) 2 3.2 Animal Types: The Family Tree ) ________________. ( Your Answer: phylum C orrect. A group of organisms that share basic body structures is a phylum. Read Section 23.2 and review Figure 23.2. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 5. Coelom is __________________________. ( Tree ) Your Register to View Answerbody cavity 2 3.2 Animal Types: The Family C orrect. A coelom is a body cavity that is lined on both sides by mesoderm. Read Section 23.2, Addition 4 and review Figure 23.4. 6. The term cephalization refers to what special animal feature? ( Types: The Family Tree ) Your Answer: formation of a complex digestive system 2 3.2 Animal Correct Answer: concentration of nerve cells at one end of the body Incorrect. Bilateral symmetry allow s for a concentration of nerve cells at the front of the body, or cephalization. 7. In protostomes, the blastopore becomes the ________, while in deuterostomes, 23.2 Animal Types: The Family the blastopore becomes the ______________. ( Tree ) Your Answer: anus; anus Correct Answer: mouth; anus Incorrect. The blastopore becomes the mouth in protostomes and becomes the anus in deuterostomes. 8. The only animal phylum that does not have tissues and symmetry is ______. ( 23.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges ) ( 2 3.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) ( 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatw orms ) ( 23.6 Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms ) ( 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More ) ( 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundw orms ) ( 2 3.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, Lobsters, Spiders, and More ) ( 2 3.10 Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More ) ( 2 3.11 Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals with Backbones ) Your Answer: Platyhelminthes Correct Answer: Porifera Incorrect. Members of the phylum Porifera lack symmetry and do not have tissues. 9. Which of the follow ing is responsible for creating the w ater current through the 2 3.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges ) sponge body? ( Your Answer: osculum Correct Answer: collar cell Incorrect. One of the functions of the collar cell is to push the water through the sponge body. 10. The larg e o p enin g a t the to p o f the s p on g e bod y is called the .( wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 10. 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 2 3.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges ) Your Answer: ostium Correct Answer: osculum Incorrect. The osculum is the opening at the top of the sponge. ( Porifera: The Sponges ) 2 3.3 Phylum 11. Which of the follow ing is a function of the collar cells in sponges? ( Porifera: The Sponges ) Your Answer: holding the sponge in place Correct Answer: filtering the water for food particles 2 3.3 Phylum Incorrect. The collar cell filters the passing w ater for small bits of food. 12. Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of all members of the phylum Cnidaria? ( 23.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) Your Answer: an adult or medusa stage Correct Answer: the ability to sting prey Incorrect. Cnidarians must sting their prey to paralyze them before eating them. 13. The primary ecological role of cnidarians is __________________. ( Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) Your Answer: photosynthesis Correct Answer: building coral reefs 2 3.4 Phylum Incorrect. Coral reefs provide shelter and habitat for many marine species. 14. The tentacles of cnidarians have _____________ to capture prey. ( Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) Your Answer: eyes Correct Answer: stinging cells Incorrect. Cnidarians use stinging cells to trap prey. 2 3.4 Phylum 15. In cnidarians, the medusa stage is __________, and the polyp stage is ____________. ( 2 3.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) Your Answer: sessile; motile Correct Answer: motile; sessile Incorrect. The medusa stage, as in jellyfish, is motile w hile the polyp stage, like coral, is sessile. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Some phyla are said to be triploblastic. That description refers to ________. ( 23.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ) Your Answer: organisms with three embryonic stages Correct Answer: embryos w ith three germ layers Incorrect. Triploblastic animals have three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. 16. 17. A highly organized structure composed of several kinds of tissues is called a 23.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ) _____________. ( Your Answer: organ C orrect. An organ is a highly organized structure composed of several tissues. Review Section 23.5. 18. Bilateral symmetry allows for the development of a ______________. ( 23.2 Animal Types: The Family Tree ) ( 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatw orms ) Your Answer: head C orrect. Head and tail regions require bilateral symmetry. Read Section 23.5 and review Figure 23.3. 19. Free-living members of the phylum Platyhelminthes take in food and nutrients 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatw orms ) using an extendable _________. ( Your Answer: teeth Correct Answer: pharynx Incorrect. Free-living flatw orms sw allow small bits of food w ith their pharynx. Review 20. Earthw orms are ecologically important by their ability to __________________. ( 2 3.6 Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms ) Your Answer: compact the soil Correct Answer: aerate the soil Incorrect. Aerating the soil increases its productivity. 21. Segmentation in annelids leads to _______________. ( Segmented Worms ) Your Answer: slow er movement Correct Answer: increased flexibility 23.6 Phylum Annelida: Incorrect. Repeating body parts generally leads to increased flexibility. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Which of the follow ing characteristics of leeches make them valuable to modern medicine? ( 2 3.6 Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms ) Your Answer: They are born in water. Correct Answer: They secrete anticoagulants. Incorrect. Production of anticoagulants prevents blood from clotting after reattachment surgery. 22. 23. What is the function of the radula in molluscs? ( Oysters, Squid, and More ) Your Answer: reproduction Correct Answer: feeding 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Incorrect. The radula functions in feeding by scraping or tearing small bits of food. 24. Which of the follow ing are responsible for movement in molluscs? ( Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More ) Your Answer: foot 2 3.7 Phylum C orrect. The foot in its various forms is responsible for movement in mollusks. Read Section 23.7 and Figure 23.16. 25. Which of the molluscs are predatory? ( Squid, and More ) Your Answer: clams and mussels Correct Answer: squid and octopi 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Incorrect. The most advanced molluscs, the cephalopods, are active predators. 26. Which of the follow ing phyla contains organisms w ith an open circulatory system? ( 2 3.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others ) ( 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ) ( 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More ) ( 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms ) Your Answer: Nematoda Correct Answer: Mollusca Incorrect. Large organisms, like molluscs, require a circulatory system to transport nutrients and waste. 27. Complex, specialized, camera-like eyes are found in the species of two phyla. Humans and other vertebrates are in phylum Chordata. The other phylum with 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and complex eyes is ______. ( More ) Your Answer: Annelida Correct Answer: Mollusca wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Incorrect. The eyes of squid and octopi are very similar to vertebrates. 28. The protective structure in Nematodes that makes them more resistant to medical 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms ) treatment is the ___________. ( Your Answer: paired appendages Correct Answer: cuticle Incorrect. The cuticle protects nematodes from the environment. 29. Which of these phyla contains organisms that are human parasites? ( Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms ) Your Answer: Nematoda C orrect. Many Nematodes are human parasites. Read Section 23.8. 2 3.8 30. What reproductive characteristic distinguishes the phylum Nematoda from the other w orms? ( 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms ) Your Answer: They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction. Correct Answer: They only reproduce sexually. Incorrect. Members of the phylum Nematoda all reproduce sexually; there is no asexual reproduction in this group. 31. What is the main difference betw een the pseudocoel and the coelom? ( 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms ) ( 23.2 Animal Types: The Family Tree ) Your Answer: The pseudocoel has no mesoderm. Correct Answer: The coelom has mesoderm on both sides of the body cavity. Incorrect. In the coelom, the mesoderm lines both sides of the cavity. 32. Which of the follow ing animal phyla has a digestive tract with both a mouth and an 2 3.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges ) ( 2 3.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish anus? ( and Others ) ( 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatw orms ) ( 23.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundw orms ) Your Answer: Nematoda C orrect. The Phylum Nematoda has a complete digestive tract. Read Section 23.8. 33. Which of the follow ing groups is the most diverse? ( 2 3.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More ) ( 2 3.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundw orms ) ( 23.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, Lobsters, Spiders, and More ) ( 2 3.10 Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More ) Your Answer: Mollusca wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Correct Answer: Arthropoda Incorrect. There are more insects than all other animals combined. 34. Why do arthropods molt? ( and More ) 2 3.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, Lobsters, Spiders, Your Answer: It is part of a mating ritual. Correct Answer: Their exoskeleton is a fixed size. Incorrect. The exoskeleton is not alive, so it does not grow w ith the animal. ( 23.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, Lobsters, Spiders, and More ) 35. Members of the subphylum Chelicerata benefit humans by _______________ and 2 3.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, damage humans by ________________. ( Lobsters, Spiders, and More ) Your Answer: damaging crops; decomposing dead organics Correct Answer: eating pest insects; carrying disease Incorrect. Spiders control pest insect populations, but ticks have been know n to carry diseases. 36. Insects, like the honeybee, affect human society in many w ays. What is the 23.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, biggest importance of insects on our society? ( Lobsters, Spiders, and More ) Your Answer: killing humans (allergic reactions to bee stings) Correct Answer: pollination of crops (bees) Incorrect. Pollination of food crops is the most important role insects play in human society. 37. Most animal phyla show some type of body symmetry. Which of the follow ing show radial symmetry? ( 2 3.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges ) ( 2 3.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ) ( 23.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More ) ( 2 3.10 Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More ) Your Answer: Porifera Correct Answer: Echinodermata Incorrect. Echinoderms have bilateral symmetry as larvae and then "regress" to radial symmetry as an adult. 38. How do echinoderms move? ( Urchins, and More ) 2 3.10 Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Your Answer: flagella and cilia Correct Answer: w ater and tube feet Incorrect. Pumping w ater in and out of the tube feet allow s the echinoderms to move and hold onto prey. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 39. What unusual event happens during digestion in echinoderms? ( Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More ) 2 3.10 Phylum Your Answer: Different types of food particles are digested by different chambers of the stomach. Correct Answer: The stomach is everted from the body. Incorrect. The stomach is pushed out of the body to ingest the food. 40. Humans, as members of the phylum Chordata, have what type of symmetry? ( 23.11 Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals with Backbones ) Your Answer: none Correct Answer: bilateral Incorrect. All chordates have bilateral symmetry. 41. Which of the follow ing phyla is a deuterostome? ( Tree ) Your Answer: Nematoda Correct Answer: Echinodermata 23.2 Animal Types: The Family Incorrect. Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes. 42. The nerve cords in protostomes are ____________ and in deuterostomes are 2 3.11 Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals w ith Backbones ) ( __________. ( 23.2 Animal Types: The Family Tree ) Your Answer: ventral; dorsal C orrect. In protostomes the nerve cord is on the ventral surface in the body while the nerve cord of a deuterostome is on the dorsal surface. Read Section 23.11 and review Figure 23.5. 43. The development of jaws provides what advantage? ( Mostly Animals w ith Backbones ) Your Answer: making shelter Correct Answer: tearing pieces of food from large prey 2 3.11 Phylum Chordata: Incorrect. Jaw s allow for predators to tear pieces of food. 44. All mammals possess _____________. ( with Backbones ) Your Answer: internal development Correct Answer: mammary glands 23.11 Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Incorrect. While most mammals have fur, all mammals possess mammary glands to nourish their young. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 23. Animals: The Diversity of Life 3 Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Introduction to Flow ering Site: Plants > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:33 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 10 que stions: 1 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. Which of the follow ing is not a benefit that plants provide to other living things? Y our Answer: lock up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere Correct Answer: act to decompose dead organic material 2. Plants take in _____ and _____ through their roots, but take in _____ primarily through tiny pores on their leaves. Y our Answer: water; carbon dioxide; minerals Correct Answer: minerals; w ater; carbon dioxide 3. Which of the follow ing are not functions of roots? (Select all that apply.) Y our Answer: absorption of water Correct Answer: loss of oxygen in photosynthesis 4. You decide that you want your spruce tree in the front yard to be rounded instead of conical. What do you need to do to ensure that the plant no longer grow s taller? Y our Answer: Trim the sides of the tree, but leave the top alone. Correct Answer: Cut off the top of the tree. 5. Pollen grains are Your Answer: sperm-bearing gametophyte plants wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 6. An Introduction to Flowering Plants Plant grow th (select all that apply) Y our Answer: must come to an end after a fixed number of months or years Correct Answer: occurs, in vertical grow th, only at the tips of roots or shoots 7. The sucrose produced by photosynthesis is transported from the leaf to other parts of the plant through Y our Answer: rhizoids Correct Answer: sieve elements 8. Fertilization in angiosperms occurs when Y our Answer: the megaspore in an ovary goes through meiosis Correct Register to View Answersperm cell from a pollen grain fuses w ith an egg cell in an ovary 9. Phototropism and gravitropism lead to the bending of shoots or roots tow ard or away from a stimulus (light or gravity, respectively). Such bending is brought about by Y our Answer: increased grow th over the general surface of the root or shoot Correct Answer: differential growth on opposite sides of the root or shoot 10. Photoperiodism allow s some plants to respond to _____ by timing such things as _____ in accordance w ith the amount of _____ they are exposed to. Y our Answer: other plants; flowering; ethylene Correct Answer: the seasons; flow ering; darkness E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: Send as: Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 T A: O the r: He lp An Introduction to Flowering Plants Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Introduction to Flow ering Site: Plants > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:32 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 15% Correct o f 20 que stions: 3 corre ct: 17 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 5% 8 5% 1. According to one hypothesis, the "Fertile Crescent" allowed Europeans to advance technologically so that approximately 500 years ago they began to colonize new continents. What is the "Fertile Crescent"? (level 2). Y our Register to View Answercrescent-shaped swath of land w here modern humans first evolved from more primitive ancestors Correct Register to View Answercrescent-shaped swath of land w here human populations first started to develop agriculture Incorrect: Review the introduction and Section 23.1. 2. Which of the follow ing is a function of root hairs? (level 1). Your Answer: increase the surface area for more w ater absorption C orrect: Plants need a tremendous amount of water, thus the need for large w ater-absorbing surface area. 3. Which grouping of plants lacks vascular tissue? (level 1). Y our Answer: angiosperms Correct Answer: bryophytes Incorrect: Review Section 23.2 and 23.7. 4. A generalized flower has four components. Which component is the colorful advertiser to pollinating insects? (level 1) Y our Answer: sepals Correct Answer: petals Incorrect: Although sepals are sometimes also colored, typically it is another flow er comp onent that attracts insects. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants 5. While hiking through a forest of aspens during the fall, you notice that the trees seem to be growing in groves. All of the trees w ithin each grove appear to be displaying the same fall foliage colors, but other groves are displaying different colors. Which of the following w ould NOT be a likely explanation for these observations? (level 2). Y our Answer: The fall foliage colors are the result of the unmasking of photosynthetic pigments that w ere present in the leaves all along. Correct Answer: Adjacent deciduous trees produce hormones that travel through the soil to nearby trees w hich triggers simultaneous leaf abscission, resulting in similar fall colors in these groves. Incorrect: Review Sections 23.3 and 23.4. 6. Water and dissolved minerals move upward against gravity by traveling through w hich type of plant vascular tissue? (level 1). Y our Answer: phloem Correct Answer: xylem Incorrect: Phloem typically carries material dow nw ard, rather than upward. 7. Which of these plant hormones is primarily responsible for giving Christmas trees their distinctive triangular shape? (level 1). Y our Answer: thigmotropin Correct Answer: auxin Incorrect: Review the section on plant hormones in Section 23.3. 8. How is plant grow th different from the growth experienced by most animals? (level 2) Y our Answer: Plant grow th is indeterminate. Correct Answer: Plant grow th is determined by nutrient and w ater consumption. C orrect: Plants can grow indefinitely, as long as they are given proper temperatures, w ater, and nutrients. Although plants are often thought of as being motionless, they do in fact move. One w a y that p lants w ill move is to turn toward a source of lig ht. This typ e o f wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9. 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants y p movement is referred to as ... (level 1). Y our Answer: photodeterminism. Correct Answer: phototropism. g yp Incorrect: Review Section 23.4 "Responding to External Signals" and the animation to Figure 23.19. 10. In the w inter, deciduous trees drop their leaves and go into dormancy. What is the tree's primary strategy for undertaking this drastic measure? (level 2). Y our Answer: to reduce the potential weight load of snow -laden leaves Correct Answer: to reduce water loss through the leaves Incorrect: Review the deciduous strategy in Section 23.4. 11. What is the evolutionary importance of having flow ers and leaves? (level Y our Answer: To allow both to be pretty. Correct Answer: To allow both parts to divide the labor needed by the plant Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only hypothesized reason? 12. More than 90% of the water that is pulled into plants by roots is lost in transpiration. What is the other 10% used for? (level 2) Your Answer: Water is used as a source of electrons for the process of photosynthesis. C orrect: The split w ater molecules are also the source of oxygen atoms for making O 2 . 13. Where w ould you look to find the largest number of "stomata"? (level 2) Y our Answer: the carpel of a flower Correct Answer: on the underside of a leaf Incorrect: Recall that stomata are used to allow carbon dioxide to reach photosynthesizing cells. Review Section 23.2 on plant structures. 14. In which part of the flow er w ould you find the "style"? (level 1). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants Y our Answer: sepal Correct Answer: carpel Incorrect: Review Figure on flow er parts. 15. Which of the follow ing structures is part of the gametophyte generation in flow ering plants? (level 1) Y our Answer: seed Correct Answer: pollen Incorrect: A seed carries a diploid embryo and is part of the sporophyte generation. 16. In a plant's vascular tissue, the xylem and phloem have many similarities. But there are also some very real differences. In the list below, w hich of these characteristics is true for BOTH xylem and phloem? (level 2). Your Answer: composed of tw o different kinds of cells C orrect: Xylem is composed of vessel elements and tracheids; phloem is composed of sieve elements and companion cells. 17. Before deciduous trees go through abscission (dropping their leaves), they always do this as well. What is it? (level 2) Y our Answer: heat the leaves to cause a color change from green to red, yellow , and orange Correct Answer: move all the nutrients stored in leaves back dow n to the stem and roots Incorrect: Actually, this results from cooling the leaves, not heating them. 18. In order to avoid predation, plants have developed several different types of defenses. Which of the following is NOT a type of plant defense? (level 2). Y our Answer: leaves that have specialized to form thorns Correct Answer: All of the above are types of plant defenses. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only type of plant defense in this list? 19. Certain types of plants produce specialized types of leaflets, called tendrils, that are able to twist and climb. These tendrils are able to do this because the p lant wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 An Introduction to Flowering Plants is displaying a sensitivity to touch. This phenomenon is called ... (level 1). Y our Answer: galvitropism. Correct Answer: thigmotropism. Incorrect: This is a plant's ability to respond to the pull of Earth's gravity. 20. Many plants benefit from the symbiotic association w ith fungal hyphae called mycorrhizae. What is the direct benefit that plants receive from this association? (level 2). Y our Answer: The mycorrhizae enable the plants to continue to do photosynthesis even in the absence of light. Correct Answer: The mycorrhizae increase the surface area for w ater and mineral absorption. Incorrect: Not even a symbiotic fungal partner has the capability of doing that. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Flowering plants" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction to Site: Flowering Plants > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Flowering plants Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:41 PM (EDT) 44% Correct of 9 questions 4 corre ct: 5 incorre ct: 4 4% 5 6% More information about scoring 1. The bryophytes differ from other plant divisions because of: Your Answer: the lack of vascular tissue C orrect. This is a major difference betw een bryophytes and other plants. 2. The three basic plant organs are: Your Answer: flow ers, fruits, seeds Correct Answer: roots, stems, leaves Incorrect. Are flowers considered a plant organ? 3. The female portion of the flow er is made of w hich three parts? Your Answer: stigma, style, ovary C orrect. These are all considered females portions of a flow er. 4. A ripened ovary is also known as a (an): Your Answer: flow er Correct Answer: fruit Incorrect. A fruit is not a ripened ovary. 5. The eva p oration of water from the aerial p arts of a p lant is know n as: wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 5. 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Your Answer: transportation Correct Answer: transpiration Incorrect. Transportation does not describe evaporation. 6. When roots grow downward into the soil, they do so in part because roots typically show ___________. Y our Answer: positive gravitropism C orrect. This is an example of positive gravitropism. 7. Plant flowering caused by a change in day length is called ____________. Y our Answer: geotropism Correct Answer: photoperiodism Incorrect. Geotropism does not cause plant flow ering. 8. IAA causes: Your Answer: plant cells to elongate so that they grow towards light sources C orrect. IAA causes plant cells to elongate to grow tow ards light sources. 9. Plants can direct their growth as a result of: Your Answer: an appropriate signal from their nervous system Correct Answer: differential cell grow th in certain areas of the plant Incorrect. Plants do not direct their growth through signals from the nervous system. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction to Site: Flowering Plants > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:40 PM (EDT) 24% Correct of 45 questions 11 correct: 34 incorrect: 2 4% 7 6% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing plant groups is the dominant form on the earth today? ( 24.1 The Importance of Plants ) Your Answer: gymnosperms Correct Answer: angiosperms Incorrect. There are more flow ering plants than all other plant groups combined. 2. What ecological benefit do plants roots provide soil? ( Plants ) Your Answer: increase available water Correct Answer: reduce erosion 2 4.1 The Importance of Incorrect. The roots themselves physically hold the soil in place, reducing erosion. 3. In one summer, a mature tree like a maple can absorb as much as __________ of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. ( 24.1 The Importance of Plants ) Your Answer: 10 lb Correct Answer: 1,000 lb Incorrect. A mature tree can take in as much as 1000 pounds of carbon dioxide in one summer. 4. Human society relies on about a dozen plants for survival. Which is the most 2 4.1 The Importance of Plants ) important plant to people worldwide? ( Your Answer: w heat Correct Answer: rice wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Incorrect. Rice is the most cultivated plant in the w orld. 5. Differentiate between the root system and the shoot system. ( Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: root, above ground; shoot below ground Correct Answer: root, below ground; shoot above ground 2 4.2 The Incorrect. The shoot system is above ground and the root stem is below ground. 6. What is the primary function of roots for the plant? ( Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: store nutrients Correct Answer: absorb w ater 2 4.2 The Structure of Incorrect. Absorption of w ater and minerals is the primary function of roots. 7. What is the primary function of the shoot system of plants? ( of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: attract animal pollinators Correct Answer: photosynthesis 24.2 The Structure Incorrect. All plants need to carry out photosynthesis to survive. 8. Which root structures increase the surface area for w ater and nutrient absorption? 2 4.2 The Structure of Flow ering Plants ) ( Your Answer: lateral roots Correct Answer: root hairs Incorrect. The root hairs absorb most of the water and minerals for the plant. 9. What is the function of the stomata? ( Your Answer: shading Correct Answer: gas exchange 2 4.2 The Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Incorrect. The stomata are responsible for gas exchange. 10. What is the function of the guard cells? ( 2 4.2 The Structure of Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: protect the leaves from predators Correct Answer: open and close the stomata Incorrect. The guard cells open and close the stomata. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t 11. The individual photosynthetic surfaces of a compound leaf are called 24.2 The Structure of Flowering Plants ) _____________. ( Your Answer: blades Correct Answer: leaflets Incorrect. Leaflets are the individual surfaces of a compound leaf. 12. _____________ protect (s) the flower w hile it is in bud. ( Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: Pedicel Correct Answer: Sepals Incorrect. The sepals cover the flow er w hen it is in bud. 2 4.2 The Structure of 13. A generalized flow er has four components. Which component is the colorful advertiser to pollinating insects? ( 24.2 The Structure of Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: sepals Correct Answer: petals Incorrect. Petals have various shapes and colors to attract pollinators. 14. In which part of the flower w ould you find the style? ( Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: petal Correct Answer: carpel Incorrect. The style is part of the carpel. 24.2 The Structure of 15. The female portion of the flower is made of which three parts? ( Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: anther, filament, pollen Correct Answer: stigma, style, ovary Incorrect. The stigma, style, and ovary make up the carpel. 2 4.2 The 16. On a bright sunny day w ith adequate available w ater, the guard cells w ould be expected to be ______ and ______. ( 2 4.2 The Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: swollen; closed Correct Answer: swollen; open Incorrect. The g uard cells sw ell and o p en w hen there is p lenty o f water and wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 s unlight. 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t 17. What is the function of the tube cell? ( 24.3 Basic Functions in Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: produce the stem in the embryo Correct Answer: produce the pollen tube Incorrect. The tube cell produces the pollen tube through which the sperm can sw im to the egg. 18. Which of the follow ing flow er parts is specialized to receive pollen? ( Functions in Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: stigma 2 4.3 Basic C orrect. The stigma is specialized to receive pollen in the flower. Read Section 24.3. 19. Water and dissolved minerals move up toward the photosynthetic leaves by 24.3 Basic Functions in traveling through w hich type of plant vascular tissue? ( Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: xylem C orrect. Xylem carries water and minerals from the ground. Read Section 24.3. 20. How is the overall growth pattern of plants different from the grow th pattern of 24.3 Basic Functions in Flowering Plants ) most animals? ( Your Answer: Plant grow th is controlled by hormones. Correct Answer: Plant grow th is indeterminate and localized. Incorrect. Plant grow th is indeterminate and focused in specific regions of the plant body. 21. The pollen tube grow s through primarily what structure? ( in Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: style 24.3 Basic Functions C orrect. The style is the longest structure in the carpel. Read Section 24.3. 22. Define the term angiosperm. ( Your Answer: naked seed Correct Answer: covered seed 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flow ering Plants ) Incorrect. The seed is covered by another part of the reproductive structure. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Some food plants like navel oranges are unable to reproduce sexually. How are 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flowering Plants ) they propagated? ( Your Answer: no form of reproduction possible Correct Answer: cuttings Incorrect. Cuttings are the easiest and most reliable w ay to propagate plants asexually. 23. 24. Apical dominance is controlled by an auxin. How does the auxin work in this 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flow ering Plants ) system? ( Your Answer: increasing the secondary growth patterns Correct Answer: inhibiting growth in the lateral buds Incorrect. Auxins inhibit the grow th of the lateral buds. 25. The presence of ______________ indicates the presence of an increased number 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flowering Plants ) of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. ( Your Answer: root cap Correct Answer: root nodules Incorrect. Root nodules house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 26. What do deciduous trees do before going through abscission (dropping their 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flow ering Plants ) ( 24.4 Responding to leaves)? ( External Signals ) Your Answer: move all the nutrients stored in the roots up into the leaves Correct Answer: move all the nutrients stored in leaves back dow n to the stem and roots Incorrect. Materials are moved from the leaves before they are lost by the plant. 27. Many plants benefit from the symbiotic association w ith fungal hyphae called mycorrhizae. What is the direct benefit that plants receive from this association? ( 2 4.3 Basic Functions in Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: The mycorrhizae enable the plants to continue to do photosynthesis, even in the absence of light. Correct Answer: The mycorrhizae increase the surface area for water and mineral absorption. Incorrect. The fungus increases the surface area for w ater and nutrient absorption. 28. A ripened ovary is also know n as a ______. ( Plants ) Your Answer: seed Correct Answer: fruit 24.3 Basic Functions in Flowering wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Incorrect. The fruit is an edible seed cover in the angiosperms. 29. What hormone causes fruit to ripen and ultimately spoil quickly? ( Functions in Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: ethylene 2 4.3 Basic C orrect. Ethylene is a gas and triggers fruit ripening. It can be produced by one individual and affect others nearby. Read Section 24.3 and the essay "Ripening Fruit is a Gas." 30. Which part of the root responds to gravity? ( Signals ) Your Answer: cap 2 4.4 Responding to External C orrect. Research indicates that the root cap is sensitive to gravity. Read Section 24.4 and review Figure 24.19. 31. Cell elongation is controlled by __________. ( Signals ) Your Answer: IAA 24.4 Responding to External C orrect. IAA is an auxin that triggers cell elongation. Read Section 24.4 and Review Figure 24.20. 32. This growth response allows the tendrils of grapes to hold up the vines. ( Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: phototropism Correct Answer: thigmotropism Incorrect. Thigmotropism helps support w eak stemmed plants. 2 4.4 33. Which term is used to describe a plant that loses its leaves annually? ( Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: angiosperm Correct Answer: deciduous Incorrect. Deciduous plants lose their leaves annually in response to an environmental stress. 2 4.4 34. What is the term for a response to the amount of light and dark in a 24-hour 2 4.4 Responding to External Signals ) period? ( Your Answer: photoperiodism wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t C orrect. Photoperiodism is the response to the relative amounts of light and dark in a 24 hour period. Read Section 24.4 and Review Figure 24.22. 35. In the w inter, having dropped their leaves, deciduous trees go into dormancy. 2 4.4 What is the tree's primary reason for undertaking this drastic measure? ( Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: to increase the aerodynamics of the tree to w ithstand w inter w inds Correct Answer: to reduce water loss through the leaves Incorrect. Generally the rate of photosynthesis is not enough to offset the loss of water from the leaves in w inter. 36. When roots grow dow nw ard into the soil, they do so in part because roots typically show ___________. ( 2 4.4 Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: negative gravitropism Correct Answer: positive gravitropism Incorrect. The roots grow toward the source of gravity, thus displaying positive gravitropism. 37. IAA causes ______. ( 2 4.4 Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: plant roots to grow into the ground Correct Answer: plant cells to elongate and grow tow ard light sources Incorrect. IAA is responsible for cell elongation. 38. Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of IAA molecules? ( External Signals ) Your Answer: cause branching Correct Answer: negative phototropism 2 4.4 Responding to Incorrect. The molecules themselves move away from the light. 39. The metabolic shutdow n many plants exhibit in w inter is referred to as 2 4.4 Responding to External Signals ) ______________. ( Your Answer: photoperiodism Correct Answer: dormancy Incorrect. Plants can exhibit dormancy to avoid the environmental stresses of winter. 40. Photoperiodism plays a role in ________________. ( External Signals ) 2 4.4 Responding to wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Y our Answer: seed germination Correct Answer: flowering Incorrect. Flow ering and reproduction are triggered by photoperiodic responses. 41. Which hormone is responsible for leaf fall? ( Signals ) Your Answer: abscisic acid 2 4.4 Responding to External C orrect. Abscisic acid controls leaf fall. Read Section 24.4. 42. What causes the appearance of various colors in leaves in autumn? ( Responding to External Signals ) Your Answer: breakdow n of chlorophyll 24.4 C orrect. The chlorophyll is being broken dow n and reabsorbed by the plant, thus showing pigments that w ere masked w hile chlorophyll was present. Read Section 24.4. 43. The collective term for the male parts of the flow er is ______________. ( The Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: stamen 2 4.2 C orrect. The stamen is the term for the male flow er parts. Read Section 24.2 and review Figure 24.10. 44. Which three nutrients are generally the most limiting to plant grow th? ( Structure of Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon Correct Answer: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium 2 4.2 The Incorrect. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the most important of the many elements plants need to grow. 45. After fruits, the most common plant part that is used as food is the __________. ( 2 4.1 The Importance of Plants ) Your Answer: root C orrect. Roots are the second most common part of a plant used for food. Read Section 24.1. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 24. The Angiosperms: An Introduction t Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Form and Function in Site: Flow ering Plants > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:34 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Dermal tissue _____, while vascular tissue _____. Y our Answer: provides strength; facilitates grow th Correct Answer: protects the plant; conducts fluids 2. Biennials, like cauliflower, radishes, and beets, Y our Answer: grow and bloom each season, for many years Correct Answer: go through their entire life cycle in about two years 3. Sclerenchyma cells Y our Answer: are found exclusively in roots Correct Answer: are generally dead at maturity 4. Secondary grow th Your Answer: leads to an increase in the girth of the plant 5. Which of the follow ing statements about the ascent of w ater in tall trees is true? Your Answer: The evaporation of water from the leaf surface is required to lift w ater from the roots to the canopy of a tall tree. 6. Phloem sieve tubes develop a positive pressure because wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Y our Answer: Sieve elements are dead at maturity. Correct Answer: Osmotic uptake of w ater occurs w hen sugars are loaded into the sieve elements. 7. Endosperm is formed w hen Y our Register to View Answersperm nucleus from the pollen fuses with one haploid nucleus from the embryo sac. Correct Register to View Answersperm nucleus from the pollen fuses with two central cell nuclei in the embryo sac. 8. Which of the follow ing statements about spores is true? Y our Answer: Spores give rise to single-celled diploid gametes. Correct Answer: Spores give rise to the gametophyte generation of plants. 9. Which of these is a gametophyte plant? Y our Answer: sepal Correct Answer: embryo sac 10. The difference between a seed and a fruit is that Y our Answer: Annuals produce seeds w hile perennials produce fruits. Correct Answer: Seeds develop from ovules while fruit tissue is derived from ovary w alls. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Form and Function in Site: Flow ering Plants > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:34 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 50% Correct o f 20 que stions: 10 corre ct: 10 incorre ct: 5 0% 5 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing plant cells are not alive at functional maturity? (level 1). Y our Answer: guard cells Correct Answer: vessel elements Incorrect: These cells regulate gas exchange and water loss from the leaf. 2. Of the follow ing plant tissues, w hich (1) contain cells that lack cytoplasm at functional maturity, (2) are usually found within vascular bundles, and (3) have thickened cell w alls that provide support for the plant? (level 2). Your Answer: sclerenchyma C orrect: The cells that comprise sclerenchyma are dead at maturity and have lignified cell w alls that provide support for the plant. 3. What does vascular cambium differentiate into in order to regulate the loading of sugars into sieve elements? (level 1). Your Answer: companion cells C orrect: Each sieve element has a companion cell associated with it. These cells arise from vascular cambium in older parts of the plant. 4. What causes primary grow th in w oody dicots? (level 1). Y our Answer: Primary grow th in w oody dicots is caused by differentiation of apical meristem to secondary xylem. Correct Answer: Primary grow th in w oody dicots is caused by differentiation of apical meristem to produce new ground, dermal, and vascular tissues. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Incorrect: Secondary xylem arises from vascular cambium. 5. What causes most of the grow th that results in increase in girth or diameter in w oody dicots? (level 1). Y our Answer: Increase in girth is caused by differentiation of apical meristem to primary xylem. Correct Answer: Increase in girth is caused by differentiation of vascular cambium to produce secondary xylem. Incorrect: This is primary grow th 6. In this diagram of a w oody dicot, which part represents xylem laid dow n by apical meristem? (level 2). Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View Answer Incorrect: The arrow is pointing to the primary phloem laid dow n by the apical meristem. 7. During w hich year of growth w as the w oody dicot from Minnesota (below ) cut? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants (level 2). Your Answer: 5 C orrect: The current year's xylem (gray) is the ring closest to the vascular cambium. Counting rings from the pith, this is the fifth year's xylem ring. 8. In the process of alternation of generation, a plant w ill alter between the sporophyte and gametophyte stage. Which type of plant shows the most balanced lifestyle betw een these two stages? (level 2). Your Answer: ferns C orrect: Neither the sporophyte nor gametophyte generation dominates in the ferns. 9. Which of these characteristics is more commonly seen in dicots, rather than monocots? (level 2). Your Answer: taproot system C orrect: Monocots tend to have a fibrous root system. 10. In which type of tissue would you be most likely to find trichomes? (level 1). Y our Answer: parenchyma Correct Answer: dermal tissue Incorrect: Figures on plant tissues and section 24.3 11. The primary benefit that carnivorous plants receive from their insect prey is ... (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Y our Register to View Answersupplement of nitrogen and phosphate to their nutrient-poor diet. C orrect: The animal tissue is a good source of these nutrients, w hich are often lacking in the soil. 12. While rummaging around in your garden, you find an old package of seeds; how ever, the picture and description are so w orn and faded they are indecipherable. You decide to plant the seeds anyway. The seeds germinate and begin to grow. They produce shoots and leaves and finally beautiful flow ers. At the end of the season, the plants have all died. These seeds belonged to which type of plant? (level 1). Your Answer: annual C orrect: Annuals go through their entire life span in a single season. 13. The most abundant cell type in plants (found in the flesh of fruit, the outer surface of young plants, and the photosynthetic cells) are the ... (level 1). Your Answer: parenchyma. C orrect: These cells have thin w alls, and they are alive at maturity. 14. Which of the follow ing types of plants displays secondary grow th in addition to primary growth? (level 2). Y our Answer: tulips Correct Answer: maple trees Incorrect: Tulips do not have a w oody portion to their shoots. Woody tissue is a result of secondary grow th. 15. In which of the follow ing plant locations would you find an apical meristem? (level 1). Y our Answer: the tip of the growing shoot Correct Register to View AnswerB, and C are all correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only tissue on the list that is comprised of an apical meristem? 16. The root cap serves several functions for a growing root. Which of the functions in the list below is NOT a function of the root ca p ? (level 2 ). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants Y our Answer: acts as a storage site for most of the plant's stored nutrients C orrect: The fleshy portions of the roots, not the root cap, act as storage houses for nutrients. 17. In gymnosperm xylem, only tracheids are found, w hile in angiosperm xylem, both tracheids and vessel elements are used to transport w ater. However, vessel elements are much more efficient water transporters than are tracheids. Since vessel elements are so much better at water transportation than tracheids, w hy is it hypothesized that natural selection has not eliminated tracheids from angiosperms? (level 2). Y our Answer: Tracheids are also used in the fertilization of the female gametes by pollen. Correct Answer: Tracheids are much less susceptible to forming air bubbles that impede the flow of w ater through the xylem. Incorrect: Review the functioning of plant vascular tissue in Section 24.6. 18. In xylem, w ater moves up the tracheids and vessel elements by w ay of capillary action and the negative pressure created by transpiration. How do w ater and nutrients move through phloem? (level 2). Y our Answer: by the negative pressure exerted on the roots by the soil Correct Answer: by active transport and osmosis Incorrect: Review the animation on nutrient movement. 19. In the list below , w hich of the following conditions w ould cause a tree to grow "reaction w ood"? (level 2). Your Answer: if a large boulder were released, rolled dow n a hill, and came to rest against the tree C orrect: Reaction w ood grow s w hen the tree is resisting being pushed over. The reaction w ood w ould grow on the opposite side of the boulder to add extra support to the tree. 20. Which of the follow ing types of plants w ould be most likely to have a vascular cambium? (level 1). Y our Answer: annual Correct Answer: perennial Incorrect: Since annuals only live one season , the y w ould not need to have any wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 Form and Function in Flowering Plants w oody tissues that come from the vascular cambium. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Plant tissue and growth" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Function Site: in Flowering Plants > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Plant tissue and growth Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:43 PM (EDT) 20% Correct of 15 questions 3 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing structures give rise to secondary grow th in plants? Y our Answer: apical meristem Correct Answer: vascular cambium Incorrect. The apical meristem does not give rise to secondary growth. 2. Which of the follow ing cell types are found in ground tissue? Your Answer: primary xylem Correct Answer: parenchyma, collenchyma Incorrect. Primary xylem is not found in ground tissue. 3. The region of functional xylem in a w oody plant is called the: Y our Answer: bark Correct Answer: sap wood Incorrect. The bark is not the region of functional xylem. 4. Which of the follow ing plant parts w ould not have a cuticle covering the epidermis? Your Answer: stems Correct Answer: roots Incorrect. The stems do have a cuticle. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi 5. What structure protects the apical meristem of the grow ing root? Your Answer: casparian strip Correct Answer: root cap Incorrect. The casparian strip does not protect the apical meristem. 6. The pressure-flow hypothesis explains translocation of sugars in a plant from the ______(where sugars are made) to the ___________(w here the sugars are used). Y our Answer: source; sink Correct Answer: leaves; roots Incorrect. Sugars are used in the sink. 7. Which type of plant tissue is composed of tracheids and vessel elements? Your Answer: phloem Correct Answer: xylem Incorrect. Phloem is not made of tracheids and vessel elements. 8. The movement of _____ w ithin the plant requires energy provided by the _____. Your Answer: sucrose; plant C orrect. Sucrose is moved by energy from the plant. 9. Angiosperms are very successful due to the presence of _____ w hich is (are) unique to this group of plants. Your Answer: sieve elements Correct Answer: vessel elements Incorrect. Sieve elements are not unique to angiosperms. 10. Water moves through xylem tissue due to: Your Answer: pow er provided by ATP Correct Answer: transpiration Incorrect. ATP does not pow er the movement of water. 11. Plants that grow, reproduce and die in one year are considered to be p lants. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Y our Answer: annual C orrect. Annual plants complete their life cycle in one year. 12. Double fertilization involves: Your Answer: the fusion of 2 eggs with 1 sperm to produce the embryo sac Correct Answer: the fusion of 1 sperm with 2 polar nuclei to produce a 3n endosperm, and the other sperm fuses w ith the egg to form the zygote Incorrect. Double fertilization does not require tw o eggs. 13. Alternation of generations is unique to: Your Answer: bacteria Correct Answer: all plants Incorrect. Alteration of generations does not occur in bacteria. 14. A flower is an example of: Your Register to View Answersporophyte generation Incorrect. Flow ers are the sporophyte generation. 15. The sporophyte generation begins when: Your Register to View Answerseed germinates Correct Register to View Answerzygote is produced Incorrect. The sporophyte generation does not begin w ith the germination of a seed. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Function Site: in Flowering Plants > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:42 PM (EDT) 32% Correct of 44 questions 14 corre ct: 30 incorre ct: 3 2% 6 8% More information about scoring 1. While rummaging around in your garden, you find an old package of seeds; how ever, the picture and description are so worn and faded they are indecipherable. You decide to plant the seeds anyway. The seeds germinate and begin to grow . They produce shoots and leaves and finally beautiful flowers. At the end of the season, the plants have all died. These seeds belonged to which type of plant? ( 25.1 Tw o Ways of Catergorizing Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: biennial Correct Answer: annual Incorrect. The plants only lasted one season. See section 25.1 and Figure 25.4 for more information. 2. The most abundant cells in plants (found in the flesh of fruit, the outer surface of young plants, and the photosynthetic cells) are the ______. ( 2 5.2 There Are Three Fundamental Types of Plant Cells ) Your Answer: sclerenchyma Correct Answer: parenchyma Incorrect. These cells are not the most abundant in these places in a plant. See section 25.2 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing cell types are found in ground tissue? ( Body and Its Tissue Types ) Your Answer: vessel elements and tracheids Correct Answer: parenchyma and collenchyma 2 5.3 The Plant Incorrect. These cell types are not present in ground tissue. See section 25.3 and Figure 25.10 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 25. Angiosperms: The Form and Functi In which of the following plant locations w ould you find an apical meristem? ( 25.4 How a Plant Grows: Apical Meristems Give Rise to the Entire Plant) Your Register to View Answerroot hair Correct Answer: the tip of the growing shoot Incorrect. Apical meristems are not found here. See section 25.4 and Figure 25.13 for more information. 4. 5. Which of the follow ing plant cells are not alive at functional maturity? ( Secondary Grow th Comes from a Thickening of Tw o Types of Tissue ) Your Answer: guard cells Correct Answer: vessel elements 2 5.5 Incorrect. These cells are alive when they function as mature cells. See section 25.5 and the essay "A Tree's History Can Be Seen in Its Wood" for more information. 6. Which cells differentiate from vascular cambium and regulate the loading of sugars into sieve elements? ( 25.5 Secondary Growth Comes from a Thickening of Tw o Types of Tissue ) ( 2 5.6 How the Plant's Vascular System Functions ) Your Answer: sclerenchyma Correct Answer: companion cells Incorrect. These cells do not perform a regulatory function w ith sieve elements. See sections 25.5 and 25.6 for more information. 7. In the process of alternation of generations, a plant alternates between the sporophyte and gametophyte generations. Which type of plant spends about half 2 5.7 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering of its life cycle in each generation? ( Plants ) Your Answer: mosses Correct Answer: ferns Incorrect. This type of plant spends most of its life cycle in only one of the generations. See section 25.7 and Figure 25.32 for more information. 8. In this diagram of a dicot, which part(s) represent(s) meristematic tissue? ( The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types ) 2 5.3 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View AnswerIncorrect. Remember that meristemic tissue occurs at a particular position due to its function w ithin the plant. See section 15.3 and Figure 25.8 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing types of plants displays secondary growth in addition to 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types ) primary growth? ( Your Answer: maple trees C orrect. The wood of a maple tree is a result of secondary grow th. 10. The region of functional xylem in a w oody plant is called the ______. ( Secondary Grow th Comes from a Thickening of Tw o Types of Tissue ) Y our Answer: annual ring Correct Answer: sapwood 2 5.5 Incorrect. This is not the term for the xylem that is still conducting water in a tree. See section 25.5 and the essay "A Tree's History Can Be Seen in Its Wood" for more information. 11. In gymnosperm xylem, only tracheids are found, w hereas in angiosperm xylem, both tracheids and vessel elements are used to transport water. However, vessel elements are much more efficient water transporters than are tracheids. Because vessel elements are so much better at w ater transportation than tracheids, why is it hypothesized that natural selection has not eliminated tracheids from angiosperms? ( 2 5.6 How the Plant's Vascular System Functions ) Your Answer: Tracheids also function in the photosynthesis of the plant. Correct Answer: Tracheids are much less susceptible to forming air bubbles that impede the flow of water through the xylem. Incorrect. This is not one of the functions of tracheids. See section 25.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Which type of plant tissue is composed of tracheids and vessel elements? ( How the Plant's Vascular System Functions ) Your Answer: roots Correct Answer: xylem Incorrect. This plant tissue is not composed of tracheids and vessel elements. See section 25.6 and Figure 25.25 for more information. 2 5.6 12. 13. Angiosperms are very successful because of the presence of _____, w hich is (are) 2 5.6 How the Plant's Vascular System unique to this group of plants. ( Functions ) Your Answer: vessel elements C orrect. Vessel elements are unique to angiosperms. 14. Water moves through xylem tissue because of ______. ( Vascular System Functions ) Your Answer: diffusion Correct Answer: transpiration 2 5.6 How the Plant's Incorrect. The force that moves w ater up the stem of a plant is not the result the water itself. See section 25.6 and Figure 25.26 for more information. 15. A flower is an example of a ______. ( Plants ) Your Answer: sporophyte generation 2 5.7 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering C orrect. Flowers are the sporophyte generation. 16. The sporophyte generation begins when ______. ( Flowering Plants ) Your Register to View Answerzygote is produced 2 5.7 Sexual Reproduction in C orrect. The sporophyte generation begins w ith a zygote. 17. Why is the formation of fruit important to plants? ( The Developing Plant) Your Answer: It attracts animals for seed dispersal. 2 5.8 Embryo, Seed, and Fruit: C orrect. The fruit attracts animals that then disperse the seeds. 18. Which of the follow ing conditions w ould cause a tree to grow reaction wood? ( 25.5 Secondary Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissue ) wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Y our Answer: The tree w as sprayed w ith a toxic chemical. Correct Register to View Answerlarge boulder was released, rolled dow n a hill, and came to rest against the tree. Incorrect. Reaction w ood is so named because it develops as a reaction to something that has happened on one side of a tree. See the essay "A Tree's History Can Be Seen in Its Wood" for more information. 19. Intercalary meristems are growth areas found in ________. ( Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissue ) Your Answer: rose bushes Correct Answer: grasses 25.5 Secondary Incorrect. These meristems are not found in this type of perennial plant. See section 25.5 and Figure 25.17 for more information. 20. Which of the follow ing features is characteristic of monocots? ( of Catergorizing Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: narrow leaves with parallel veins 2 5.1 Two Ways C orrect. Narrow leaves w ith parallel veins are characteristic of monocots. 21. Which of the follow ing features is characteristic of dicots? ( Catergorizing Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: often has secondary woody growth 2 5.1 Two Ways of C orrect. Dicots often grow several years and have lots of secondary w oody grow th. 22. Plants that live for many years are referred to as _________. ( of Catergorizing Flow ering Plants ) Your Answer: biennial Correct Answer: perennial 2 5.1 Two Ways Incorrect. This is not the term that describes a plant that lives many years. See section 25.1 and Figure 25.4 for more information. 23. Which type of adult plant tissue has the ability to transform back into embryonic 2 5.2 grow th cells, such as happens when we propagate plants by cuttings? ( There Are Three Fundamental Types of Plant Cells ) Your Answer: parenchyma C orrect. This tissue can assume embryonic duties should the need arise. 24. Lignin is a compound found in which of the following tissues? ( 2 5.2 There Are wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Three Fundamental Types of Plant Cells ) Your Answer: embryonic Correct Answer: sclerenchyma Incorrect. Lignin is not usually found in this tissue. See section 25.2 for more information. 25. The apical meristem of a plant is primarily responsible for ___________. ( The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types ) Your Answer: lengthwise growth C orrect. This is the primary way that a plant gets taller. 2 5.3 26. Primary growth is produced by __________. ( Tissue Types ) Your Answer: cork cambium Correct Answer: meristems 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its Incorrect. Primary grow th does not originate in this tissue. See section 25.3 for more information. 27. Any plant that does not produce woody tissue is called a(n) ________________ 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types ) plant. ( Your Answer: herbaceous C orrect. Herbaceous plants consist of only primary tissues. 28. A plant's first line of defense against parasites and predators is __________. ( 25.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types ) Your Answer: cuticle C orrect. The waxy cuticle protects the plant from invasion by parasites and predators. 29. What is the function of the spaces called stomata in a plant? ( Body and Its Tissue Types ) Your Answer: protect the plant from parasites Correct Answer: allow the exchange of gases into the leaf 2 5.3 The Plant Incorrect. This is not the function of stomata. See section 25.3 for more information. 30. What is the major function of sclerenchyma tissue? ( Tissue Typ es ) 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Y our Answer: movement of sap Correct Answer: structural support Incorrect. This is not a function performed by sclerenchyma. See section 25.3 and Figure 25.10 for more information. 31. Sieve elements are classified as which type of plant tissue? ( Body and Its Tissue Types ) Your Answer: protection of the leaf Correct Answer: movement of sap 25.3 The Plant Incorrect. Sieve elements perform an entirely different function. See section 25.3 and Figure 25.11 for more information. 32. What is the function of tracheids in a plant? ( Types ) Your Answer: photosynthesis Correct Answer: movement of water 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Incorrect. This is not a function performed by tracheids. See section 25.3 and Figure 25.11 for more information. 33. What is a major function of parenchyma? ( Types ) Your Answer: movement of water Correct Answer: photosynthesis 2 5.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Incorrect. This is not a function of parenchyma tissue. See section 25.3 and Figure 25.10 for more information. 34. Most of the elongation of the shoot and root in a young plant results from 25.4 How a Plant Grows: Apical Meristems Give Rise to the _____________. ( Entire Plant) Your Answer: cell division at the meristem Correct Answer: cell elongation at the internodes Incorrect. This is not the method of elongation in a young plant. See section 25.4 and Figure 25.16 for more information. 35. In a developing stem, the ground, dermal, and vascular tissues take shape in 2 5.4 How a Plant Grow s: Apical Meristems Give Rise to the ___________. ( Entire Plant) Your Register to View Answerzone of cell division Correct Register to View Answerzone of differentiation Incorrect. This is not the place where cell differentiation takes place. See section 25.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi 36. Which of the follow ing is an example of secondary grow th? ( Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissue ) Your Answer: the apical meristem Correct Answer: w ood 2 5.5 Secondary Incorrect. This tissue develops as part of primary growth. See section 25.5 for more information. 37. What is the major function of root hairs? ( Meristems Give Rise to the Entire Plant) Your Answer: absorption of w ater 2 5.4 How a Plant Grow s: Apical C orrect. This is the major function of root hairs. 38. Primary phloem is produced by __________. ( from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissue ) Your Answer: the vascular cambium Correct Answer: the apical meristem 25.5 Secondary Growth Comes Incorrect. Primary phloem is not produced by this tissue. See section 25.5 and Figure 25.24 for more information. 39. In a mature tree, cells are produced by the vascular cambium _____________. ( 25.5 Secondary Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissue ) Your Answer: both to the inside and outside of the cambium C orrect. Secondary xylem and phloem are produced internally and externally, respectively. 40. Transpiration, the loss of w ater from a plant through its leaves, provides the force 2 5.6 How the Plant's Vascular System Functions ) for _________. ( Your Answer: apical meristem grow th Correct Answer: movement of water through the stem Incorrect. Transpiration does not provide the force for this activity. See section 25.6 and Figure 25.26 for more information. 41. A reproductive cell that can develop into a new organism w ithout fusing with another reproductive cell is ____________. ( 2 5.7 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants ) Your Register to View Answerspore C orrect. A spore germinates and develops into a gametophyte. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi 42. Which part of a flower carries the egg? ( Plants ) Your Answer: the pollen grain Correct Answer: the carpel 25.7 Sexual Reproduction in Flow ering Incorrect. The egg is not carried in this part of the flower. See section 25.7 and Figure 25.33 for more information. 43. The male gametophyte in a flowering plant is _______. ( Reproduction in Flowering Plants ) Your Answer: the anther Correct Answer: the pollen grain 2 5.7 Sexual Incorrect. This is not the male gametophyte. See section 25.7 and Figure 25.34 for more information. 44. A mature ovary w all develops into ________. ( The Developing Plant) Your Answer: seed Correct Answer: fruit 2 5.8 Embryo, Seed, and Fruit: Incorrect. This is not the structure produced by a mature ovary wall. See section 25.8 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 25. The Angiosperms: Form and Functi Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Introduction to Animal Site: Anatomy and Physi > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:35 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 36% Correct o f 11 que stions: 4 corre ct: 7 incorre ct: 3 6% 6 4% More inform ation about scoring . 1. To survive, the human body needs to maintain _____ and does so primarily through the means of self-regulation know n as _____. Y our Answer: nerve signal transmission, hormonal secretion Correct Answer: homeostasis, negative feedback 2. The four basic types of tissue in the human body are Your Answer: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous 3. Endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands in that endocrine glands Y our Answer: consist of epithelia and muscle tissue Correct Answer: are ductless 4. Muscle fibers that are striated and voluntary are found in Your Answer: skeletal muscle 5. Hormones and the glands or cells that secrete them make up the Y our Answer: cardiovascular system Correct Answer: lymphatic system 6. Surface epidermal cells of the skin Your Answer: are dead and filled w ith keratin wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P 7. Body odor comes primarily from Y our Answer: the tightly linked nature of epidermal cells Correct Answer: byproducts of the bacteria that feed on apocrine sweat 8. Cells called _____ build bone tissue _____ maintain it, and _____ break it dow n. Y our Answer: osteoclasts, osteons osteoblasts Correct Answer: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts 9. The essence of muscle contraction is that thick and thin muscle proteins Your Answer: slide past each other 10. No skeletal muscle can contract without first Your Answer: receiving a hormone signal Correct Answers: receiving a nervous system signal receiving a hormone signal 11. Which type of bone cell w ould you expect w ould be most active in a female with osteoporosis? Y our Answer: osteoblasts Correct Answer: osteoclasts E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: Send as: Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 T A: O the r: He lp Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Introduction to Animal Site: Anatomy and Physi > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:35 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 20 que stions: 8 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Why is the term "cold-blooded" a misleading description of reptiles? (level 1). Your Answer: Reptiles often have very warm body temperatures, if they are in w arm environments. C orrect: Reptiles can bask in the Sun, w hich can elevate their body temperature substantially. 2. What developed along with internal organ systems in animals, to allow these organs to expand and contract without disrupting the activity of neighboring organs? (level Y our Register to View Answerlymphatic system Correct Register to View Answercoelom Incorrect: Review Section 25.3. 3. Which of the follow ing structures is NOT correctly paired w ith its tissue classification? (level 1). Y our Answer: skin // epithelial tissue Correct Answer: heart muscle // smooth muscle Incorrect: Skin is stratified epithelial tissue. 4. The extracellular matrix of w hich tissue is mineralized with hard calcium compounds? (level 1). Y our Answer: adipose tissue Correct Answer: bone wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P Incorrect: Review Section 25.8. 5. How is epithelial tissue different from connective tissue? (level 2). Y our Answer: There are different types of epithelial tissue, but only one type of connective tissue. Correct Answer: Epithelial tissue is composed mostly of cells, w hile connective tissues are embedded in a nonliving extracellular substance. Incorrect: Bone, cartilage, and blood are different types of connective tissue. Review Section 25.4. 6. Which tissue type makes up glands that secrete hormones? (level 1). Y our Answer: nervous tissue Correct Answer: epithelial tissue Incorrect: Review Section 25.4 on the four basic types of tissue. 7. Which substance produced by animal epithelium is analogous to the w axy cuticle produced by plant epithelium? (level 2). Y our Answer: sebum Correct Answer: keratin Incorrect: This is secreted by sebaceous glands, and inhibits bacterial growth in hair follicles. 8. In which of the follow ing is stratified epithelium found? (level 1). Y our Answer: lining the stomach Correct Answer: skin Incorrect: Simple columnar epithelium lines the small intestines. 9. Which of the follow ing organ systems is incorrectly matched w ith one of its functions? (level 2). Your Answer: integumentary system // movement C orrect: The integumentary system is comprised of the skin and associated structures. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P 10. Which of the follow ing is NOT associated w ith the integumentary system? (level 1). Y our Answer: subcutaneous layer Correct Answer: cartilage Incorrect: Review Section 25.7 on the integumentary system. 11. Which of the follow ing is NOT a characteristic of human anatomy or physiology? (level 1). Y our Answer: coelom Correct Answer: radial symmetry Incorrect: Humans have both a dorsal and ventral coelom. 12. Which of the follow ing is NOT a function of adipose tissue? (level 1). Y our Answer: insulates the body Correct Answer: produces hormones Incorrect: Adipose tissue is found under the skin, w here it helps regulate body temperature. 13. Cartilage and bone are alike in many ways. Which of the follow ing characteristics is true for bones but is NOT true for cartilage? (level 2). Y our Answer: contains a dense ground substance Correct Answer: contains numerous blood vessels Incorrect: Bone's ground substance is only slightly denser than cartilage. 14. All of the living cells in the body are constantly bathed by fresh interstitial fluid. Where does this fluid come from and w here does it return? (level 2). Y our Answer: It comes from the lymphatics, and is collected by other lymphatics that carry it to the kidneys for excretion. Correct Answer: It comes from the smallest blood vessels, and it is collected by lymphatics that carry it back to the blood. Incorrect: Review "Fluid Connective Tissue" in Section 25.4. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P 15. Which of the follow ing statements is true for skeletal and cardiac muscle but is NOT true for smooth muscle? (level 1). Your Answer: contains sarcomeres C orrect: Smooth muscle lacks sarcomeres, and that is why it appears smooth rather than striated. 16. Which of the follow ing organ systems has specialized organs that produce and support immune cells that kill disease-causing microorganisms? (level 1). Your Answer: lymphatic system C orrect: The thymus gland, tonsils, spleen, and lymph nodes are organs of the lymphatic system. 17. Which of the follow ing is NOT a function of the skin? (level 1). Your Answer: produces hormones C orrect: Although both glands and skin are types of epithelial tissue, they do not have the same functions. 18. In order to form a protective layer, a person's skin must resist being scraped or rubbed aw ay. Which of the follow ing skin characteristic prevents this from occurring? (level 2). Your Answer: The epidermis of the skin is a stratified squamous epithelium. C orrect: By having multiple layers of cells, a few of the outer layers can be lost and quickly replaced. 19. Due to a viral infection, a patient has a very low level of calcium in his interstitial fluids. Which of the follow ing cells would be the most useful in rectifying this patient's condition? (level 2). Your Answer: osteoclasts C orrect: Osteoclasts break dow n bone matrix, w hich contains a lot of calcium in its ground substance. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 20. Introduction to Animal Anatomy and P In order for muscles to contract, w hich of the follow ing must occur? (level 2). Your Answer: Myosin heads must be able to pivot at their bases. C orrect: This is w hat allow s the myosin filament to pull the actin tow ard the center of the sarcomere. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms 5. Which of the following drugs would seem most likely to cause muscle spasms (uncontrolled contractions)? . Answer: one that prevents attachment of myosin heads to actin 10. Which type of bone cell would you expect would be most active in a female with osteoporosis: . Answer: osteocytes wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Site: Physiology: The Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:44 PM (EDT) 16% Correct of 45 questions 7 correct: 38 incorrect: 1 6% 8 4% More information about scoring 1. An extreme loss of homeostasis would result in ______. ( Body Regulate Itself? ) Your Answer: grow th Correct Answer: death 2 6.2 How Does the Incorrect. Read about how essential homeostasis is to life in section 26.2. 2. What developed along with internal organ systems in animals to provide the organs with flexibility without disrupting the activity of neighboring organs? ( 26.2 How Does the Body Regulate Itself?) Your Register to View Answercirculatory system Correct Answer: body cavities Incorrect. Read about the body cavities in section 26.2. 3. Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of most animals (made up of primarily one 26.2 How Does the phyla) but is never part of human anatomy or physiology? ( Body Regulate Itself? ) Your Answer: cranial cavity Correct Answer: external skeleton Incorrect. Read about the skeleton in section 26.2. 4. Which of the follow ing structures is incorrectly paired with its tissue classification? ( 2 6.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Y our Answer: biceps and striated muscle Correct Answer: heart muscle and smooth muscle Incorrect. Read about heart muscle in section 26.4. 5. Blood is an important fluid in the body. What are the main components of blood? ( 2 6.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Correct Answer: w ater with electrolytes and proteins Incorrect. Read about blood in section 26.4. 6. Which tissue type makes up glands that secrete hormones? ( Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: fluid connective tissue Correct Answer: epithelial tissue Incorrect. Read about epithelial tissue in section 26.4. 26.4 The Human 7. Which of the follow ing statements is true for skeletal and cardiac muscle but is NOT 26.9 The Muscular System) true for smooth muscle? ( Your Answer: It contains a nucleus. Correct Answer: It contains sarcomeres. Incorrect. Read about sarcomeres in section 26.9. 8. To form a protective layer, a person's skin must resist being scraped or rubbed away. Which of the following skin characteristic prevents this from occurring? ( 26.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) ( 2 6.7 The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) Your Answer: The dermis of the skin is filled w ith hair follicles and sweat glands. Correct Answer: The epidermis of the skin is a composed of many layers of cells. Incorrect. Read about the many layers of the epidermis in section 26.7. 9. What constitutes an organ system? ( Systems ) Your Answer: tissues Correct Answer: organs and tissues 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Incorrect. Read about organ systems in section 26.6. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Which of the follow ing systems forms a tube within our body? ( Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: urinary Correct Answer: digestive Incorrect. Read about the digestive system in section 26.6. 2 6.6 Organs and 10. 11. Which of the follow ing organ systems is incorrectly matched w ith one of its 2 6.5 Organs Are Made of Several Kinds of Tissue ) ( 2 6.6 Organs functions? ( and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: skeletal system and protection of some internal organs Correct Answer: integumentary system and movement Incorrect. Read about the integumentary system in section 26.6. 12. Which of the follow ing organ systems has specialized organs that produce and 2 6.6 Organs support immune cells that kill disease-causing microorganisms? ( and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: integumentary system Correct Answer: lymphatic system Incorrect. Read about the lymphatic system in section 26.6. 13. Which of the follow ing is NOT associated w ith the integumentary system? ( The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) Your Answer: cartilage C orrect. Cartilage is part of the skeletal system. 2 6.7 14. Which system in the body drains fluid from around the cells and returns the fluid to the blood? ( 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: endocrine system Correct Answer: lymphatic system Incorrect. Read about the lymphatic system in section 26.6. 15. A viral infection has left a patient w ith a very low level of calcium in the interstitial fluids. Which of the following cells w ould be the most useful in remedying this patient's condition? ( 2 6.8 The Skeletal System) Your Answer: osteoclasts C orrect. Osteoclasts break dow n bone matrix, w hich contains a large amount of calcium in its ground substance. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an When levels of calcium in the blood drop, how does the body respond? ( How Does the Body Regulate Itself? ) Your Answer: It reduces muscle activity to conserve calcium. Correct Answer: It causes the bones to release calcium. Incorrect. Read about bones releasing calcium in section 26.2. 2 6.2 16. 17. In a hinge joint such as the knee, w hat connects bone to bone? ( Skeletal System) Your Answer: cartilage Correct Answer: ligament Incorrect. Read about ligaments in section 26.8. 2 6.8 The 18. The thick myofibril filament is the ______. ( Your Answer: actin filament Correct Answer: myosin filament 2 6.9 The Muscular System) Incorrect. Read about muscle filaments in the sarcomere in section 26.9. 19. For muscles to contract, w hich of the following must occur? ( System) 2 6.9 The Muscular Your Answer: Actin filaments must be able to stretch and elongate. Correct Answer: Myosin heads must be able to pivot at their bases. Incorrect. Look at the function of the muscle filaments in the sarcomere in Figure 26.14. 20. The regulation of calcium levels in the blood is an example of ______________. ( 2 6.2 How Does the Body Regulate Itself? ) Your Answer: positive feedback Correct Answer: negative feedback Incorrect. Read about negative feedback in section 26.2. 21. Cells of a similar type that act together to perform a common function make up __________. ( 2 6.3 Levels of Physical Organization) Your Answer: organs Correct Answer: tissues Incorrect. Read about tissues in section 26.3. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Which tissue in the body covers surfaces exposed to the external environment? ( 2 6.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: connective tissue Correct Answer: epithelial tissue Incorrect. Read about epithelial tissue in section 26.4. 22. 23. The brain is largely made up of ________. ( Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: nervous tissue 2 6.4 The Human Body Has Four C orrect. The brain is primarily made up of nerves, which are part of the nervous system. 24. Tissue that stabilizes and supports other tissue is known as ________ tissue. ( 26.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: epithelial Correct Answer: connective Incorrect. Read about connective tissue in section 26.4. 25. Muscle that is under voluntary control is ________. ( Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: skeletal muscle C orrect. This is voluntary muscle. 2 6.4 The Human Body Has 26. The tissue that sends rapid electrical messages is ____________ tissue. ( The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types ) Your Answer: nervous C orrect. Nervous tissue conducts electrical messages. 2 6.4 27. The skin, hair, glands, and nails make up the ______ system. ( Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: skeletal Correct Answer: integumentary Incorrect. Read about the integumentary system in section 26.6. 26.6 Organs and 28. Most of the heat that warms our bodies is produced by the ______________ system. ( 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Y our Answer: integumentary Correct Answer: muscular Incorrect. Read about the muscular system in section 26.6. 29. Which tw o organ systems are concerned with sending messages? They may not send these messages at the same pace or speed. ( 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: skeletal and integumentary Correct Answer: endocrine and nervous Incorrect. Read about the endocrine and nervous systems in section 26.6. 30. An individual is involved in a car accident. The doctors tell the patient the spinal cord is severed at the waist. Why w ould the individual lose feeling below the severed point? ( 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: Muscles are severed. Correct Answer: The severed spinal cord effectively cuts communication between the brain and the muscles. Incorrect. Read about the nervous system in section 26.6. 31. If you have a disease of the liver, w hich organ system will be most affected? ( 26.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: cardiovascular Correct Answer: digestive Incorrect. Read about the digestive system in section 26.6. 32. When you are sick, your doctor will typically feel your lymph nodes. Why? ( Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) 2 6.6 Your Answer: The lymph nodes sw ell when your body is fighting an infection. C orrect. Lymph nodes are part of the immune system and sw ell, forming a lump on the surface, if you have an infection. 33. Imagine that you are in a desert and have no access to water. Which two organ systems are most involved in absorbing and conserving water in the body? ( 26.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: digestive and cardiovascular Correct Answer: digestive and urinary Incorrect. Read about the digestive and urinary systems in section 26.6. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Which of the follow ing statements about the muscle organ system is true? ( Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: It includes all three types of muscles. Correct Answer: It includes only voluntary muscle, not smooth or cardiac muscle. Incorrect. Read about the muscular system in section 26.6. 2 6.6 34. 35. Which tw o organ systems are principally involved in supplying oxygen to the body 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make Up Organ Systems ) cells? ( Your Answer: respiratory and nervous systems Correct Answer: respiratory and cardiovascular systems Incorrect. Read about the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in section 26.6. 36. Damage to the gonads w ould obviously affect the reproductive system. Which 2 6.6 Organs and Tissues Make other organ system would be directly affected? ( Up Organ Systems ) Your Answer: immune system Correct Answer: endocrine system Incorrect. Read about the endocrine system in section 26.6. 37. One of the side effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment can be hair loss. 2 6.7 The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) Why? ( Your Answer: Chemotherapy cuts off the blood supply to the skin, so the hair dies from lack of nutrients. Correct Answer: Chemotherapy kills dividing cells, and the cells in the hair follicle divide rapidly. Incorrect. Read about the integumentary system in section 26.7 and look at Figure 26.7. 38. If you accidentally w rite w ith permanent marker on your skin, the resulting mark is 2 6.7 not actually permanent. Why does the mark disappear w ithin a few days? ( The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) Your Answer: Permanent ink gradually dissolves in the secretions from the apocrine glands. Correct Answer: The mark is on the epidermis, w hich is gradually w orn aw ay and new unmarked cells are grown. Incorrect. Read about the dermis and hypodermis in section 26.7. 39. Why are medicines injected into the hypodermis? ( System: Skin and Its Accessories ) 2 6.7 The Integumentary Your Answer: It is the outermost layer of skin, so it is easy to reach. Correct Answer: It has a poor blood supply, so it ensures that the medicine enters the circulation slow ly a nd steadily. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an y y Incorrect. Read about the poor blood supply of the hypodermis in section 26.7. 40. How can you sense w hen something touches your hair, yet cutting your hair does 2 6.7 The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) not hurt? ( Your Answer: Both the hair and the hair follicles contain nerve endings. Correct Answer: The hair follicles have nerve endings, but the hair does not. Incorrect. Read about the nerves in the hair follicles in section 26.7. 41. Which glands in the skin produce an oily liquid to lubricate the hair and inhibit 2 6.7 The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories ) bacteria? ( Your Answer: sweat glands Correct Answer: sebaceous glands Incorrect. Read about sebaceous glands in section 26.7. 42. When you break a bone, why is it very painful? ( 2 6.8 The Skeletal System) Your Answer: Nerves are found throughout the bones in the central canals of each osteon. C orrect. Bones are permeated with canals, each w ith its ow n nerve in the center. 43. If you fall and break a bone, which bone cells will increase in activity to help heal 26.8 The Skeletal System) the break? ( Your Answer: osteons Correct Answer: osteoblasts Incorrect. Read about osteoblasts in section 26.8. 44. Which of the follow ing increases the risk of osteoporosis? ( System) Your Answer: taking calcium supplements 2 6.8 The Skeletal Correct Answer: hormonal changes in women during menopause Incorrect. Read about osteoporosis in section 26.8. 45. Why are marathon runners usually not very good short-distance sprinters? ( 26.9 The Muscular System) Your Answer: Marathon runners have smaller legs muscles to decrease wind resistance over long distances. Correct Answer: Marathon runners have few er fast-tw itch fibers in their muscles. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Incorrect. Read about slow-tw itch and fast-twitch fibers in section 26.9. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 26. Introduction to Human Anatomy an Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Communication and Control: Site: The Nervous a > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:41 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 10 que stions: 4 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made up of Y our Answer: the brain and spinal cord Correct Answer: sensory organs and all of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord 2. A nervous-system cell capable of responding to a sound and sending a message about that sound to the brain w ould be both a _____ and _____. Your Answer: sensory neuron; an afferent neuron 3. An action potential is possible because Your Answer: There is a charge difference across the outer membranes of resting neurons 4. A neurotransmitter Y our Answer: can sometimes be taken back up by a sending cell Correct Answer: all of the above 5. In the brain, the site of our higher thought processes is the Y our Answer: thalamus Correct Answer: cerebrum 6. All sensory rece p tors _____ and _____ wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 6. Communication and Control: The Nerv Y our Answer: respond to neurotransmitter stimulation; turn that stimulation into a neural signal Correct Answer: respond to stimulation; transform that stimulation into a neural signal 7. Several of the senses work by means of Your Answer: the brain analyzing the pattern of input from many sensory receptors 8. Cells in different tissues and organs respond to the same hormone if these cells have the same kind of _____ molecules. Y our Answer: lipid Correct Answer: receptor 9. What is the ultimate source of control over the release of most hormones? Your Answer: negative feedback 10. The hypothalamus directly controls hormone release through Y our Answer: the adrenal glands and the posterior pituitary, but not the anterior pituitary Correct Answer: the adrenal glands, the anterior pituitary, and the posterior pituitary E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 H e lp Communication and Control: The Nerv E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Communication and Control: Site: The Nervous a > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:41 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 20 que stions: 6 corre ct: 14 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. What is true of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the nervous system? (level 2). Your Answer: They are similar in that neurons from each division influence many of the same organs. C orrect: Both divisions influence many of the same organs, but the effects are opposite to one another. 2. Of the signaling molecules listed below , how would you classify chemical signaling molecules that are transported to their target cells through the bloodstream? (level 2). Y our Answer: neurotransmitters Correct Answer: hormones Incorrect: These molecules relay the impulse across the synapse of adjacent neurons. 3. A large portion of the endocrine system w orks as a hierarchy with one key endocrine structure that coordinates the action of all the other endocrine structures. Which of the following structures sits at the top of the endocrine hierarchy? (level 1). Your Answer: hypothalamus C orrect: The hypothalamus is sometimes referred to as a "neuroendocrine" structure, because it is a component of the brain w ith many endocrine functions as w ell. 4. Drugs can affect the nervous system in different w ays. Some drugs are know n as stimulants, because they seem to make the nervous system much more active, allow ing many more action potentials to fire. How might a stimulant of the somatic nervous system cause this increase in action potentials? (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Y our Answer: It might block Na + ion channel proteins. Correct Answer: It might inhibit the activity of the enzyme that removes neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. Incorrect. Review Section 26.3 on action potentials and synapses. 5. In order for a nerve impulse to travel from one neuron to another, a chemical called a neurotransmitter is used to cross a synaptic cleft and carry the impulse to the next cell. Which of the following is the correct physiological means of releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft? (level 1). Y our Answer: Membrane-bound enzymes quickly construct neurotransmitters from the raw materials located in the synaptic cleft. Correct Answer: Synaptic vesicles fuse w ith the cell membrane and release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. Incorrect: Review the animation for neurotransmitter release. 6. Observe the following list of structures in the anatomy of the eye: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. lens vitreous humor cornea aqueous humor pupil In order to see, light must pass through all of these structures in order to strike the retina. Which of the follow ing lists has the correct order that the light path must take to strike the retina? (level 1). Y our Answer: 3, 2, 5, 1, 4 Correct Answer: 3, 4, 5, 1, 2 Incorrect: Review Section 26.12 7. Observe the following list of structures and events that are involved in a classic reflex response: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. response stimulus motor neuron effector sensory neuron receptor Which of the follow ing is the correct order of structures and events in reflex response? (level 1). Y our Answer: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Correct Answer: 2, 6, 5, 3, 4, 1 Incorrect: Review Section 26.3 and the Figure 26.7. 8. The disease know n as multiple sclerosis results in slower than normal impulse conduction along the axons of motor neurons. This disease is probably the result of the deterioration of w hich of the follow ing tissues? (level 2). Y our Answer: gray matter Correct Answer: myelin sheath Incorrect. Review Sections 26.1 and 26.4 on neuroglia. 9. The pituitary gland releases a multitude of hormones that have a variety of different target cells. How ever, quite a few of the hormones released by the pituitary gland function in regulating the reproductive system. Which of the pituitary hormones in the list below is NOT somehow responsible for regulating some function of the reproductive system? (level 1). Y our Answer: luteinizing hormone Correct Answer: antidiuretic hormone Incorrect: This hormone induces ovulation of the female gamete. 10. The propagation of an action potential dow n a neuron's membrane involves the opening of certain protein channels that allow the flow of ions in and out of the cell. Which of the follow ing ion movements actually occur during an action potential? (level 2). Your Answer: protein channels open to allow K+ to flow out of the cell C orrect: This actually occurs during the repolarization phase of the action potential. 11. Vision is a very complex function of the nervous system. However, the process of vision can be broken down into three tasks. Which of the following is NOT one of the tasks of vision? (level 2). Your Answer: record each visual image for future reference C orrect: Recording information, w hether it is visual, aural (sense of hearing), taste, smell, or touch, is a task of the memory centers in the brain, not specifically a visual task. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Which of these structures is NOT found in the brain stem? (level 1). Y our Answer: pons Correct Answer: cerebellum Incorrect: The pons is in the middle of the brain stem. 12. 13. If a researcher w ere trying to entice a cell to become a neuron, the best candidate cell to start with would be: (level 1). Your Register to View Answerpluripotent cell C orrect. Pluripotent cells are not yet differenciated. 14. Several suspects of a crime have bitten parts of their tongue off (completely). The frontal portion of the tongue is found at the crime scene. Which of the following foods would you give each suspect to narrow down w ho that actual criminal might be? Assume you cannot see the suspects tongues due to legal injunction. (level 2) Y our Answer: aspirin Correct Answer: white chocolate Incorrect. Review the specific taste regions of the tongue. Section 26.10 15. The rate of the beating in the human heart is inherent in the heart tissue. (In other words, the heart muscle does not need nerve stimulation to contract.) However, the heart must also be able to speed up and slow down to accommodate a person's activity level. Which of the following controls the rate of the human heartbeat? (Pick the most complete and specific answ er.) (level 2). Y our Answer: sympathetic nervous system Correct Answer: autonomic nervous system Incorrect: Stimulation of the heart by this division would just increase heart rate. 16. What is a biological interpretation of "love at first sight"? (level 2). Y our Answer: The person is your destiny and you see that in their face. Correct Answer: Your biological receptors in your nose are being stimulated by the person's non-smelling chemicals. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 Communication and Control: The Nerv Incorrect. Review Section 26.9 on smell and pheromones. 17. Where w ould you expect to find the greatest number of touch receptors? Y our Answer: in your hands Correct Answer: in your groin Incorrect. Review Section 26.8. Think about w here touch is MOST important and w hy! 18. Which of the follow ing organs functions only as an endocrine gland, and has no other functions in the human body? (level 2). Your Answer: pituitary C orrect. The pituitary makes no other substances. 19. Which of the follow ing parts of the brain is responsible for coordination of movement? (level 1). Y our Answer: thalamus Correct Answer: cerebellum Incorrect: This is the processing center for sensory information. 20. Which part of the brain functions as a "relay station" for information that is on its w ay to the cerebrum? (level 1). Y our Answer: hypothalamus Correct Answer: thalamus Incorrect: This controls autonomic functions and hormone production. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Send as: Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 I nstructor: T A: O the r: He lp Communication and Control: The Nerv Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Nervous system" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 27. Communication and Control: The Site: Nervous and Endocrine Systems > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Nervous system Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:45 PM (EDT) 17% Correct of 12 questions 2 correct: 10 incorrect: 1 7% 8 3% More information about scoring 1. The _____________ of one nerve cell receives impulses from the ____________ of another nerve cell. Y our Answer: axon, cell body Correct Answer: dendrite, synaptic terminal Incorrect. Axons do not directly receive impulses. 2. During a resting potential: Y our Answer: the electrical charges are approximately equal on either side of the membrane Correct Answer: sodium is found in high concentration outside the membrane Incorrect. There is not an equal charge on both sides of the membrane during resting potential. 3. How does an action potential get transferred to a post-synaptic neuron? Y our Register to View Answerneurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft C orrect. Neurotransmitters pass messages to other neurons. 4. Which of the follow ing is not involved in a typical reflex arc? Y our Register to View Answermotor neuron Correct Answer: the brain Incorrect. A motor neuron is needed. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N 5. Neurotransmitters are: Y our Answer: electrical stimuli located at the synapse Correct Answer: chemicals found in vesicles at the presynapatic cell Incorrect. Neurotransmitters are not electrical stimuli. 6. What is the function of the sodium/potassium pump? Y our Answer: to pump excess sodium into the axon Correct Answer: to remove excess sodium from the axon Incorrect. The sodium/potassium pump does not pump sodium into the axon. 7. What portion of the neuron carries nerve impulses tow ards the cell body? Y our Answer: axon Correct Answer: dendrites Incorrect. Axons do not pass messages towards the cell body. 8. Cells of different tissues and organs respond to the same hormone if they have the same kind of ___________ molecules. Y our Answer: steroid Correct Answer: receptor Incorrect. Steroids are a type of hormone. 9. A steroid hormone is different from other types of hormones in that: Y our Answer: the steroid hormone usually does not enter target cells Correct Answer: the steroid hormone binds to a receptor in the cytoplasm of the target cell Incorrect. Steroid hormones do not enter cells. 10. A female athlete eliminates lipids from her diet in an attempt to lower her body fat percentage. Which of the follow ing could be affected by her diet? Y our Answer: the function of all of her hormones Correct Answer: the function of her sex hormones like estrogen Incorrect. Not all horomones are produced from lipid precursors. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Which set of hormones are responsible for the negative feedback loop to control the level of sugar in the blood? Y our Answer: insulin and glucagon C orrect. Insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar. 11. 12. Which of the follow ing is not true concerning homeostasis? Y our Answer: it is used to regulate body conditions such as calcium and glucose levels Correct Answer: it allow s for major fluctuations in body conditions Incorrect. This is a true statement. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 27. Communication and Control: The Site: Nervous and Endocrine Systems > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:45 PM (EDT) 27% Correct of 45 questions 12 corre ct: 33 incorre ct: 2 7% 7 3% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing would be part of the efferent division of the peripheral 2 7.1 Structure of the Nervous System) nervous system? ( Your Answer: pain receptors Correct Answer: nerves that move the jaw bone Incorrect. Read how nerves in the efferent division carry impulses from the brain, not to the brain, in section 27.1. 2. Which part of the nervous system controls the beating of the heart? ( Structure of the Nervous System) Your Answer: central nervous system Correct Answer: autonomic nervous system Incorrect. Read about the autonomic nervous system in section 27.1. 2 7.1 3. Interneurons are unique because they ______. ( System) Your Answer: receive impulses Correct Answer: connect one neuron to another Incorrect. Read about interneurons in section 27.2. 2 7.2 Cells of the Nervous 4. The disease known as multiple sclerosis results in slower-than-normal impulse conduction along the axons of motor neurons. This disease is probably the result 2 7.2 Cells of the Nervous of the deterioration of which of the follow ing tissues? ( System) Your Answer: lymp h vessels wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Correct Answer: myelin sheath Incorrect. Read about the myelin sheath in section 27.2. 5. The propagation of an action potential down a neuron's membrane involves the opening of certain protein channels that allow the flow of ions in and out of the cell. Which of the following ion movements actually occur during an action 2 7.3 How Nervous System Communication Works ) potential? ( Your Answer: Protein channels open to allow K+ to flow into the cell. Correct Answer: Protein channels open to allow K+ to flow out of the cell. Incorrect. Study the movement of K+ through protein channels as depicted in Figure 27.4. 6. How does an action potential get transferred to a post-synaptic neuron? ( How Nervous System Communication Works ) Your Answer: ATP is released into the synaptic cleft. Correct Register to View Answerneurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft. Incorrect. Read about neurotransmitters in section 27.3. 2 7.3 7. What is the function of the sodium-potassium pump? ( System Communication Works ) Your Answer: to pump sodium into the axon Correct Answer: to remove sodium from the axon 2 7.3 How Nervous Incorrect. Study the movement of sodium as shown in Figure 27.4. 8. Which of the follow ing is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid? ( Cord ) Your Answer: supplies nutrients to the CNS Correct Answer: conducts neural signals through the CNS Incorrect. Read about the cerebrospinal fluid in section 27.4. 27.4 The Spinal 9. Which spinal nerves control the muscles of the chest? ( Your Answer: thoracic C orrect. Thoracic nerves control the chest organs. 27.4 The Spinal Cord ) 10. In a reflex arc, w here does the signal from the receptor reach the sensory neuron cell body? ( 2 7.4 The Spinal Cord ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Y our Answer: in the ventral root ganglion Correct Answer: in the dorsal root ganglion Incorrect. Notice the role of the dorsal root ganglion in the reflex arc depicted in Figure 27.7. 11. The autonomic nervous system controls all the following EXCEPT _________. ( 27.5 The Autonomic Nervous System) Your Answer: speech C orrect. Speech is under voluntary control. 12. Which of the follow ing is under the control of the parasympathetic division? ( 27.5 The Autonomic Nervous System) Your Answer: constricting breathing C orrect. The parasympathetic division has this effect on the respiratory system. 13. Which of the follow ing is under the control of the sympathetic division? ( The Autonomic Nervous System) Your Answer: stimulating digestion Correct Answer: accelerating the heart 2 7.5 Incorrect. Note the effects of the autonomic nervous system on the heart as shown in Figure 27.8. 14. What of the follow ing statements about the parasympathetic and sympathetic 27.5 The Autonomic Nervous System) divisions of the nervous system is true? ( Your Answer: They are similar in that neurons from each division influence many of the same organs. C orrect. Both divisions influence many of the same organs, but the effects of on division are the opposite of the other's effects. 15. Which of the follow ing parts of the brain is responsible for coordination of 2 7.6 The Human Brain ) movement? ( Your Answer: thalamus Correct Answer: cerebellum Incorrect. Read about the brain and the functions of each part in section 27.6. 16. Which of the follow ing parts of the brain is responsible for conscious thought? ( 27.6 The Human Brain ) Your Answer: medulla oblongata wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Correct Answer: cerebrum Incorrect. Read about the cerebrum in section 27.6. 17. Which of the follow ing parts of the brain relays messages betw een the cerebrum 2 7.6 The Human Brain ) and cerebellum? ( Your Answer: hypothalamus Correct Answer: pons Incorrect. Read about the pons in section 27.6. 18. What are the functions of the medulla oblongata? ( Your Answer: It is used in arithmetic calculations. 2 7.6 The Human Brain) Correct Answer: It regulates breathing, digestion, and blood pressure. Incorrect. Read about the medulla oblongata in section 27.6. 19. A frontal lobotomy impairs the cerebrum. Why would a physician recommend this 27.6 The Human Brain ) type of extreme treatment? ( Your Answer: to control emotional well-being and conscious thoughts C orrect. This extreme treatment is used only w hen all other treatments have been exhausted. Common at the turn of the twentieth century it is rarely used today. 20. Which of the follow ing is NOT one of the traditional five senses? ( Nervous System in Action: Our Senses ) Your Answer: balance C orrect. This is not one of the "five senses." 2 7.7 The 21. Why are sensory receptors sometimes called transducers? ( System in Action: Our Senses ) Your Answer: They transduce signals that reach the brain. 27.7 The Nervous Correct Answer: They convert a signal from a different form into an electrical signal. Incorrect. Read about sensory receptors in section 27.7. 22. Which sensory receptors are simple nerve endings near the surface of the skin? ( 2 7.8 Our Senses of Touch) Your Answer: Meissener's corpuscles Correct Answer: thermal receptors wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Incorrect. Read about thermal receptors in section 27.8. 23. The Pacinian corpuscle in the skin responds to _______. ( Touch ) Your Answer: temperature Correct Answer: pressure and vibration Incorrect. Read about Pacinian corpuscles in section 27.8. 2 7.8 Our Senses of 24. Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have tremors and involuntary hand movements. Which part of the brain is mainly affected by this disease? ( 2 7.6 The Human Brain ) Your Answer: the cerebellum C orrect. The cerebellum refines movement, and any damage to it can cause jerky or uneven tremors. 25. What is unusual about the dendrites of the olfactory receptor cells in the nasal passages? ( 27.9 Our Sense of Smell) Your Answer: They are shorter than normal dendrites. Correct Answer: They have hairlike extensions called cilia. Incorrect. Read about the cilia in section 27.9. 26. Why does the skin have five types of touch and pressure receptors? ( Senses of Touch ) 27.8 Our Your Answer: The brain contains five special areas to detect pressure. Correct Answer: The various receptors enable the brain to distinguish betw een light and heavy pressure, and between brief and permanent pressure. Incorrect. Read about the touch and pressure receptors in section 27.8. 27. Which of the follow ing statements about taste is true? ( Taste ) 2 7.10 Our Sense of Your Register to View Answertaste cell can respond to only one type of tastant, such as salty or sw eet molecules. Correct Answer: To taste something, it must be dissolved. Incorrect. Read how chemicals dissolve on taste buds in section 27.10. 28. Some people can taste certain chemicals, such as PTC, that other people cannot 2 7.10 Our Sense of Taste ) taste. Why? ( Your Answer: Taste cells vary from one p erson to another. You must have the wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N y p correct gene for a particular taste cell protein to be able to taste that chemical. C orrect. Your genes dictate w hich tastants you have receptors for. 29. The sense of hearing depends on ________, ( 2 7.11 Our Sense of Hearing ) Your Answer: individual air molecules moving in the exact shape of a wave to hit the outer ear Correct Answer: w aves of air molecules that vary in their compression on the eardrum Incorrect. Read about the compression of air molecules in section 27.11. 30. Loud music or other loud noises damage the ______. ( Hearing ) Your Answer: bones in the middle ear Correct Answer: hair cells in the inner ear Incorrect. Read about the hair cells in section 27.11. 2 7.11 Our Sense of 31. Which of the follow ing has the correct sequence of events for detecting sound in 2 7.11 Our Sense of Hearing ) the ear? ( Your Answer: The basilar membrane vibrates first, then the tympanic membrane, and finally the tectorial membrane. Correct Answer: The tympanic membrane vibrates first, and then the basilar membrane pushes against the hair cells. Incorrect. Read about how the ear works in section 27.11, and study Figure 27.14. 32. Vision is a very complex function of the nervous system. However, the process of vision can be broken down into three tasks. Which of the following is NOT one of 2 7.12 Our Sense of Vision ) the visual tasks? ( Your Answer: Capture light and focus it on the retina. Correct Answer: Record each visual image for future reference. Incorrect. Read about the sense of sight in section 27.12. 33. When you are outside in moonlight, w ith no artificial light, why do trees look black 2 7.12 Our Sense of Vision ) and w hite, almost gray, instead of green? ( Your Answer: The cones that detect color cannot work at low light intensity. C orrect. Rods provide vision at low light intensity, and they only give black-andwhite vision. 34. A nearsighted person w ould need corrective glasses designed to _____. ( 27.12 wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N O ur Sense of Vision) Your Answer: keep the incoming light rays exactly parallel to their original path Correct Answer: spread incoming light rays further apart Incorrect. Read about nearsightedness in section 27.12. 35. Of the follow ing signaling molecules, how w ould you classify chemical signaling 2 7.13 The molecules transported to their target cells through the bloodstream? ( Endocrine System) Your Answer: neurotransmitters Correct Answer: hormones Incorrect. Read about hormones in section 27.13. 36. What is the difference between a hormone and a paracrine? ( Endocrine System) 2 7.13 The Your Answer: Paracrines affect the cell that secretes them, whereas hormones affect cells different from those that secrete them. Correct Answer: Paracrines diffuse from a cell to a nearby cell, whereas hormones are spread through the bloodstream. Incorrect. Read about hormones and paracrines in section 27.13. 37. Which of the follow ing statements gives the correct information about the 2 7.13 The relationship betw een the endocrine and nervous systems? ( Endocrine System) Your Answer: Hormones are very different from neurotransmitters. Correct Answer: Signals from one system often affect the other. Incorrect. Read about the links betw een the two systems in section 27.13. 38. Which of the follow ing organs functions only as an endocrine gland and has no 2 7.14 Types of Hormones ) other functions in the human body? ( Your Answer: kidneys Correct Answer: pituitary Incorrect. Read about the pituitary gland in section 27.14. 39. A steroid hormone is different from other types of hormones in that the steroid 27.14 Types of Hormones ) hormone ______. ( Your Answer: binds to a receptor in the cytoplasm of the target cell C orrect. Steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cytoplasm. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N New nanofabricated membranes can be used to separate chemicals based on their molecular size, with the smallest chemicals separating out first. Which of the 2 7.14 following hormones w ould likely be the first to separate from a mixture? ( Types of Hormones ) Your Answer: peptide Correct Answer: amino-acid-based Incorrect. Read about amino-acid-based hormones in section 27.14. 40. 41. Although large amounts of cholesterol in the diet are harmful because it raises the risk of heart attack, w hy is it useful to include small amounts of cholesterol in the diet? ( 2 7.14 Types of Hormones ) Your Answer: Cholesterol is the chemical building block for making nucleic acid. Correct Answer: Cholesterol is the basic building block for making steroid hormones. Incorrect. Read about cholesterol in section 27.14. 42. A large portion of the endocrine system works as a hierarchy, w ith one key endocrine structure coordinating the action of all the other endocrine structures. Which of the follow ing structures sits at the top of the endocrine hierarchy? ( 27.15 How Is Hormone Secretion Controlled? ) Your Answer: hypothalamus C orrect. The hypothalamus controls many endocrine functions. 43. A w oman is having a problem becoming pregnant. Which hormone should she 2 7.15 monitor during her monthly cycle to estimate her time of peak fertility? ( How Is Hormone Secretion Controlled? ) Your Answer: ACTH Correct Answer: luteinizing hormone (LH) Incorrect. Read about luteinizing hormone in Figure 27.21. 44. Follow ing a stressful final exam w eek, you return home only to spend the next week sick. Which of the following hormones most likely reduced your immune system, making you vulnerable to illness? ( 2 7.16 Hormones in Action: Four Examples ) Your Answer: cortisol C orrect. Cortisol is a stress hormone that weakens the immune system. 45. What is unusual about the role of oxytocin during childbirth? ( in Action: Four Examples ) 2 7.16 Hormones Your Answer: It directly influences the release of several other hormones. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Correct Answer: It is an example of a positive-feedback loop. Incorrect. Read about oxytocin in section 27.16. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 27. Communication and Control: The N Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Defense: The Immune Site: System > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:42 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 0% Correct o f 10 que stions: 0 corre ct: 0 % 10 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 00% 1. An antigen is Y our Answer: the ultimate product of a vaccination Correct Answer: any foreign substance that elicits an immune-system response 2. Most of the cells active in the immune system are varieties of _____, one type of w hich are _____, which kill invading cells by ingesting them. Y our Answer: white blood cell; mast cells Correct Answer: white blood cell; phagocytes 3. All T and B cells of the immune system begin development in Y our Answer: the thymus Correct Answer: the bone marrow 4. What is the bodys first line of defense against infectious microbes? Y our Register to View Answercells Correct Answer: physical barriers 5. Once vaccinated, you have had a primary exposure to a specific antigen. If you ever encounter this antigen again, you w ill mount a more rapid immune response due to: Y our Answer: cytotoxic T cells Correct Register to View Answerand T memory cells wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System 6. The bodys specific defenses _____ and w ork through two major arms: _____ and _____. Y our Answer: will not work against w orms; inflammation; acquired immunity Correct Answer: operate against particular invaders; antibody-mediated; cellmediated immunity 7. An antibody is seen in two forms in immune-system functioning: as _____ and as ____. Y our Register to View Answerstretch of DNA in a T cell; a protein produced by a T cell Correct Answer: an antigen receptor on a B cell; a free-standing protein produced by a B cell 8. Cell-mediated immunity works primarily against _____ and primarily through _____. Y our Answer: bacterial and fungal cells; B cells Correct Answer: the bodys ow n infected cells; T cells 9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects _____, causing them to _____. Y our Register to View Answercells and macrophages; attack each other Correct Register to View Answercells; turn out more HIV copies 10. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system Y our Answer: uses only its nonspecific defenses Correct Answer: attacks the body, rather than invading microbes E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: Send as: Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 T A: O the r: He lp Defense: The Immune System Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Defense: The Immune Site: System > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:42 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 28% Correct o f 18 que stions: 5 corre ct: 13 incorre ct: 2 8% 7 2% More inform ation about scoring . 1. The disease AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One of the reasons why this disease has resisted a cure is because it attacks the body's immune system, the very system that is designed to resist viral infections. Which of the immune system cells does the AIDS virus specifically target for infection? (level 1). Your Answer: Helper T cells C orrect. This cell is susceptible to HIV infection because it carries on its surface CD4 and CCR5 receptors. The HIV virus must bind to these receptors before entering the cell. 2. Once vaccinated, you have had a primary exposure to specific antigens. If you ever encounter this antigen again, you w ill mount a rapid immune response due to: (level 2). Y our Answer: antibodies Correct Answer: memory cells Incorrect. These are molecules produced by B-cells. Memory cells can "remember" a pathogen by keeping a copy of a specific antibody (tow ard the pathogen in the vaccine). 3. If all of your cells are covered in antigens (and they are), w hy doesn't your immune system kill/attack all cells? (level 2). Y our Answer: because your immune system is dedicated to finding invaders. Correct Answer: because your immune system is very sophisticated Incorrect. Review section 27.3. 4. Why is it important to have suppressor T-cells as part of your immune system? (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System Y our Answer: to act as a global reactor cell to all invaders. Correct Answer: to act as a feedback mechanism to gear dow n the immune system Incorrect. Suppressor T cells are invovled in turning dow n specific immune responses, not the non-specific responses. 5. The surface of bacterial cells is covered w ith proteins that the human body can recognize as belonging to a foreign, invading microorganism. These molecules are collectively referred to as ... (level 1). Your Answer: antigens. C orrect: Antigens are not only proteins but can also be smaller polypeptide chains or large carbohydrates. 6. What is an allergy, in physiological terms? (level 2). Y our Answer: an overreaction to a pathogen Correct Answer: an overreaction to antigens Incorrect. Allergies are overreactions to antigens, not pathogens. 7. Why is it important to have lymph nodes--immunologically? Y our Answer: to house the fluid in your blood Correct Answer: Both B and C are correct. Incorrect. Refer to 27.4 for information about the cells of the specific immune system. 8. Mary as a young girl had chicken pox. Her brother Terry never seemed to come dow n w ith the itchy disease. After ten years time, what do you know about Mary relative to her brother--when they meet someone w ith visible chicken pox? (level 2). Your Answer: Terry w ill get the disease but not Mary. C orrect. Terry does not have any protection against the pathogen, while Mary does. 9. In an effort to combat AIDS and the HIV virus , researchers are focusin g o n wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 9. Defense: The Immune System protein inhibitors. How does this research assist in the management of those HIV positive? (level 2). Y our Answer: without proteins, viruses can't multiply their DNA Correct Answer: without proteins, HIV viruses cannot assemble the protein coats Incorrect. Viruses rely on host cell mechanisms to relicate their genetic material. 10. Antibodies are powerful weapons in the body's defense against microorganisms. However, there are limits to w hat an antibody can actually do. Which of the follow ing is NOT an action that an antibody can actually accomplish? (level 1). Y our Answer: attach to a bacterial cell antigen, preventing the bacterium from attaching to anything else Correct Answer: poke microscopic "holes" in a bacterial cell membrane, causing it to die Incorrect: Blocking the antigen sites prevents the bacterium from spreading. 11. What is the function (physiologically) for the heat produced in a cut or sore? Your Answer: to assist in the heat killing of pathogens C orrect, heat kills most pathogens. 12. What is your ultimate (and interestingly your first) protection against external pathogens and invaders? (level 2). Y our Answer: your skin Correct Answer: all of the above are correct Incorrect. This is the largest non-specific barrier to infection. Is this the only non-specific defense listed? 13. Why is histamine a good thing...despite the mass sales of anti-histamine drugs like Benadryl? Y our Answer: histamine encourages blood flow and fluid movement Correct Answer: all of the above are correct Incorrect. This one response to the production of histamine. Is it the only one? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System How is it a mother w ho is breast feeding positively affects her baby's immune system? (level 2). Your Answer: she gives her baby antibodies she has produced in her breast milk C orrect. Passively acquired immunity is immunity from antibodies produced by another individual. Mothers pass antibodies to children w hile still in the womb. 14. 15. A very sick patient is given antibodies directly via intravenous fluids. What time of immunity w ill this person receive? (level 1). Y our Answer: temporary immunity that w ill be short-lived Correct Answer: innate immunity Incorrect: Review Section 27.3 on acquired immunity. 16. Antigen presenting cells are important in that they: (level 1). Y our Answer: allow B-cells to recognize a viral invader Correct Answer: allow helper T-cells to recognize a viral invader Incorrect. B-cell recognition occurs directly w ith the antigen on the surface of the pathogen. 17. What is the source of control on the immune system? (level 1). Y our Answer: B-cells Correct Answer: suppressor T-cells Incorrect. B-cells carry antibodies on their surface and thus act w ithin the antibody mediated response system. 18. Why is it people who get bone marrow transplants are immunologically compromised? Y our Answer: because the bone marrow is w here bone cells are made Correct Answer: because the bone marrow is w here the immune cells are derived Incorrect. Bone marrow is where immune cells originate. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Defense: The Immune System E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: HIV replication" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 28. Defending the Body: The Immune Site: System > Student Home > Animation Quiz: HIV replication Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:02 PM (EDT) 25% Correct of 4 questions 1 corre ct: 3 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. In w hich w ay does HIV kill its host? Your Answer: It attacks the tissue within the body, halting the function of vital organs. Correct Answer: It kills them indirectly. 2. What does reverse transcriptase do? Y our Answer: It synthesizes tRNAs from DNA. Correct Answer: It synthesizes DNA from RNA. 3. Why is it difficult to design a vaccine for viruses w ith high mutation rates, such as HIV and the cold and flu viruses? Y our Answer: New mutations constantly change viral proteins. 4. When do virus particles acquire a membrane-like envelope, including a lipid bilayer? Y our Answer: during entry Correct Answer: during budding wps.aw.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 28. Defending the Body: The Immune Site: System > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:02 PM (EDT) 27% Correct of 45 questions 12 corre ct: 33 incorre ct: 2 7% 7 3% More information about scoring 1. The surface of bacterial cells is covered w ith proteins that the human body can recognize as belonging to a foreign, invading microorganism. These molecules are 28.1 Tw o Types of Immune Defense ) collectively referred to as ______. ( Your Answer: antiseptics Correct Answer: antigens Incorrect. Read about antigens in section 28.1. 2. Which of the follow ing immune-system cells can differentiate into a memory cell? ( 2 8.1 Tw o Types of Immune Defense ) Your Answer: lymphocytes C orrect. B cells are lymphocytes that can form memory cells. 3. Mast cells produce ________. ( Your Answer: antigens Correct Answer: histamine 28.1 Tw o Types of Immune Defense ) Incorrect. Read about mast cells in section 28.1a. 4. Which of the follow ing immune-system cells can differentiate into a regulatory cell? ( 2 8.1 Tw o Types of Immune Defense ) Your Answer: eosinophils Correct Answer: lymphocytes wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Incorrect. Read about lymphocytes in Table 28.1a. 5. Which immune-system cells present antigens on their surfaces? ( Types of Immune Defense ) Your Answer: mast cells Correct Answer: dendritic cells Incorrect. Read about dendritic cells in Table 28.1a. 2 8.1 Two 6. Which of the follow ing immune-system cells produce antibodies? ( Types of Immune Defense ) Your Answer: eosinophils Correct Register to View Answercells Incorrect. Read about B cells in Table 28.1a and b. 28.1 Tw o 7. What nonspecific protection against external pathogens and invaders does the 2 8.2 human body have on any surface exposed to the outside w orld? ( Nonspecific Defenses ) Your Answer: mucus Correct Answer: skin Incorrect. Read about the role the skin plays in the immune system in section 28.2. 8. After getting bitten by an insect, you notice that your skin has become red and sw ollen, has a localized fever, and is painful. Most of these symptoms are caused 2 8.2 Nonspecific Defenses ) by the release of ______. ( Your Answer: histamine C orrect. Histamine causes the inflammatory response. 9. Which of the follow ing cells would engulf bacteria that enter your finger through a cut by a kitchen knife? ( 2 8.2 Nonspecific Defenses ) Your Answer: mast cells Correct Answer: neutrophils Incorrect. Read about neutrophils in section 28.2. 10. How are dead or damaged body cells removed? ( Your Answer: They are ingested by phagocytes. C orrect. Phagocytes ingest dead cells. 2 8.2 Nonspecific Defenses ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S 11. Which of the follow ing cells is a phagocyte that also presents fragments of bacteria to other immune-system cells? ( 28.2 Nonspecific Defenses ) Your Answer: neutrophils Correct Answer: macrophages Incorrect. Read about macrophages in section 28.2 and Table 28.1a. 12. Which proteins in the immune system can cut holes in the cell membrane of 2 8.2 Nonspecific Defenses ) invading bacterial pathogens? ( Your Answer: lysozymes Correct Answer: complement proteins Incorrect. Read about complement proteins in section 28.2 and Table 28.1b. 13. Which protein in the immune system seals off the site of infection? ( Nonspecific Defenses ) Your Answer: lysozyme Correct Answer: fibrin Incorrect. Read about fibrin in section 28.2. 28.2 14. Which of the follow ing is an example of passively acquired immunity? ( Specific Defenses ) Your Answer: Lysozymes in saliva kill bacteria in the mouth. 2 8.3 Correct Register to View Answerperson receives an injection of antibodies before traveling overseas. Incorrect. Read about passively acquired immunity in section 28.3. 15. How does a mother who is breast breast-feeding positively affect her baby's 2 8.3 Specific Defenses ) immune system? ( Your Answer: She gives her baby the antibodies she has produced in her breast milk. C orrect. Passively acquired immunity is immunity from antibodies produced by another individual. Mothers also pass antibodies to children w hile still in the womb. 16. What is the function of cell-mediated immunity? ( 28.3 Specific Defenses ) Your Answer: It removes cells infected by pathogens. C orrect. This is cell-mediated immunity. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Where do all white blood cells originally form in the body? ( Defenses ) Your Answer: bone marrow C orrect. White cells form in the bone marrow. 2 8.3 Specific 17. 18. What type of immunity is a vaccination? ( Your Answer: artificial passive immunity Correct Answer: induced active immunity 2 8.3 Specific Defenses ) Incorrect. Read about induced active immunity in section 28.3 and Figure 28.1. 19. Which gland in the body produces the lymphocytes involved in cell-mediated 2 8.3 Specific Defenses ) immunity? ( Your Answer: adrenal gland Correct Answer: thymus gland Incorrect. Read about the thymus gland in section 28.3, and study Figure 28.2. 20. Which tw o parts of the body store B cells and T cells and contain interstitial fluid? ( 2 8.3 Specific Defenses ) Your Answer: kidneys and spleen Correct Answer: lymph nodes and spleen Incorrect. Read about the lymph nodes and spleen in section 28.3, and study Figure 28.3. 21. Antibodies are powerful w eapons in the body's defense against microorganisms. However, there are limits to w hat an antibody can actually do. Which of the following is NOT an action that an antibody can accomplish? ( 2 8.4 AntibodyMediated Immunity) Your Answer: poke microscopic "holes" in a bacterial cell membrane, causing it to die C orrect. Although complement proteins can do this, antibodies themselves cannot. 22. Which cells are found in lymph nodes? ( Your Answer: stem cells 2 8.3 Specific Defenses ) Correct Answer: mature B cells and T cells Incorrect. Read about T cells and B cells in section 28.3, and study Figure 28.2. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Why is it important immunologically to have lymph nodes? ( Defenses ) Your Answer: to house the fluid in your blood Correct Answer: to remove pathogens from interstitial fluid before it returns to the blood Incorrect. Read about lymph nodes in section 28.3, and study Figure 28.3. 2 8.3 Specific 23. 24. If all of your cells are covered in antigens (and they are), w hy doesn't your immune 2 8.4 Antibody-Mediated Immunity) system kill/attack all cells? ( Your Answer: Your immune system is dedicated to finding invaders. Correct Answer: Your immune system is very sophisticated in that it can differentiate betw een pathogens and you. Incorrect. Read about antibody-mediated immunity in section 28.4. 25. Once vaccinated, you have had a primary exposure to specific antigens. If you ever encounter that antigen again, you w ill mount a rapid immune response because of 2 8.4 Antibody-Mediated Immunity) ______. ( Your Answer: cytotoxic T cells Correct Answer: memory cells Incorrect. Read about memory cells in section 28.4, and study Figure 28.5. 26. Why are people w ho get bone marrow transplants immunologically compromised? ( 2 8.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity) Your Answer: the new bone marrow has no time to develop Correct Answer: the bone marrow is w here the immune cells are derived Incorrect. Read about bone marrow and immune cells in section 28.5. 27. The surfaces of bacterial cells are covered w ith proteins that the human body can recognize as belonging to a foreign, invading microorganism. These protein 2 8.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity) molecules are collectively referred to as ______. ( Your Answer: antiseptics Correct Answer: antigens Incorrect. Read about antigens in section 28.5. 28. Why is it important to have regulatory T cells as part of your immune system? ( 28.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity) Your Answer: to lower the defenses of the invaders Correct Answer: to act as a feedback mechanism to gear down the immune system wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Incorrect. Read about the actions of regulatory T cells in section 28.5. 29. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are important in that they allow ______. ( Cell-Mediated Immunity) Your Answer: helper T cells to recognize a viral invader 2 8.5 C orrect. Without the APC function, a helper T cell cannot recognize a pathogenic antigen. 30. When a dendritic cell presents viral fragments as antigens, to w hich cell does it 2 8.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity) then bind? ( Your Answer: helper T cell C orrect. These two cells work together. 31. Antigen-presenting cells include all the cells below EXCEPT __________. ( Cell-Mediated Immunity) Your Answer: helper T cells C orrect. These cells do not present antigen. 2 8.5 32. Why is cell-mediated immunity required, w hen your immune system can produce 2 8.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity) antibodies? ( Your Answer: The body can produce a very limited number of different antibodies. Correct Answer: Viruses and other pathogens can invade the body's own cells. Incorrect. Read the first paragraph in section 28.5. 33. The disease AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One reason this disease has resisted a cure is that it attacks the body's immune system, the very system that is designed to resist viral infections. Which of the 2 8.6 immune-system cells does the AIDS virus specifically target for infection? ( AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) Your Answer: memory cells Correct Answer: helper T cells Incorrect. Read about helper T cells in section 28.6. 34. Why is it difficult to design a vaccine for viruses such as HIV and flu viruses? ( 28.6 AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) Your Answer: The vaccines tend to be unstable and deteriorate over time. Correct Answer: New mutations constantly change viral proteins, making them hard to recognize. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Incorrect. Read about the mutation rate of HIV in section 28.6. 35. The disease AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). What 2 8.6 AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) genetic material does HIV have? ( Your Answer: DNA Correct Answer: RNA Incorrect. Read about HIV in section 28.6. 36. Why is it difficult to slow or stop the replication of HIV? ( the Defenders ) Your Answer: HIV can infect any cell in the body. 2 8.6 AIDS: Attacking Correct Answer: It copies its RNA into the T cell's DNA, and many virus particles then bud off from a single infected cell. Incorrect. Read about HIV in section 28.6. 37. A very low CD4 count for an HIV-positive patient suggests that ________. ( AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) Your Answer: the patient's body contains very few HIV viruses 2 8.6 Correct Answer: the patient's immune system has been badly damaged by HIV Incorrect. Read about CD4 counts in section 28.6. 38. How does the polio vaccine w ork? ( 28.6 AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) Your Answer: It allows T cells to produce antibodies against polio. Correct Answer: It slows the replication of the virus so that it never reaches the spinal cord. Incorrect. Read about the polio vaccine in section 28.6. 39. One potential w ay to stop HIV from infecting helper T cells is to block the attachment of HIV to surface receptors on the cells. Which two receptors are the 2 8.6 AIDS: Attacking the Defenders ) principal targets of this w ork? ( Your Answer: CD5 and CCR4 Correct Answer: CD4 and CCR5 Incorrect. Read about HIV receptors in section 28.6. 40. What does reverse transcriptase do in the HIV virus? ( Defenders ) Your Answer: It synthesizes proteins from mRNA. 2 8.6 AIDS: Attacking the wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Correct Answer: It synthesizes DNA from RNA. Incorrect. Study the process of HIV infection depicted in Figure 28.8. 41. What is an allergy, in physiological terms? ( Trouble ) Your Answer: an overreaction to antigens 2 8.7 The Immune System Can Cause C orrect. An allergy is a response to an antigen that in most people is harmless. 42. When do T cells learn to distinguish self from nonself? ( System Can Cause Trouble ) Your Answer: betw een age 5 and puberty Correct Answer: in the w omb and as a newborn baby Incorrect. Read about T cells in section 28.7. 2 8.7 The Immune 43. Where in the body do immune-system cells learn to distinguish between self and 2 8.7 The Immune System Can Cause Trouble ) nonself? ( Your Answer: thymus C orrect. The T cells in the thymus gland learn to distinguish self from nonself. 44. Why do allergy medicines contain antihistamines? ( Can Cause Trouble ) 2 8.7 The Immune System Your Answer: Histamines prevent antibodies from functioning. Correct Answer: Histamines cause inflammation, which is the main problem in allergic reactions. Incorrect. Read about histamine and allergic reactions in section 28.7. 45. Some people are allergic to peanuts. What organic compound in the peanut causes 2 8.7 The Immune System Can Cause Trouble ) this allergic reaction? ( Your Answer: nucleic acids Correct Answer: proteins Incorrect. Read about the causes of allergies in section 28.7. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 28. Defending the Body: The Immune S Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Transport, Nutrition, and Site: Exchange > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:44 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 10 que stions: 3 corre ct: 7 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Many poor college students get paid to donate plasma. Which of the follow ing substances is not donated when the plasma is removed? Y our Answer: antibodies Correct Answer: red blood cells 2. What transports oxygen w ithin the blood? Your Answer: hemoglobin in red blood cells 3. Which of the follow ing w ould have the same oxygen content? Y our Answer: blood entering the lungs, blood leaving the lungs Correct Answer: blood entering the left side of the heart, blood leaving the left side of the heart 4. A heart attack can best be described as Y our Answer: an invasion of heart tissue by pathogens such as bacteria Correct Register to View Answerdeath of cells in the heart brought about by blockage of a coronary artery 5. The small size of alveoli, coupled with their large numbers, provide the lungs w ith w hat critical quality for gas exchange? Y our Register to View Answersmall surface area Correct Register to View Answerlarge surface area wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange The movement of oxygen into capillaries at the lungs and the movement of carbon dioxide into capillaries from the interstitial fluid is driven by Y our Answer: ventilation Correct Answer: concentration gradients 6. 7. The essential function of the digestive system is to Y our Answer: remove microorganisms from the digestive tract Correct Answer: get food into a form that can move into the circulatory system 8. Most of the nutrients in the food we eat make the transition out of the digestive system in Y our Answer: the liver Correct Answer: the small intestine 9. In addition to filtering w aste from the body, what are two other critical functions of the kidneys? Your Answer: regulation of blood volume, conservation of useful materials 10. In the loop of Henle and the collecting duct, _____ is/are returned to circulation primarily through the force of _____. Your Answer: w ater, osmosis E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 H e lp Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Transport, Nutrition, and Site: Exchange > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:43 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 20 que stions: 8 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing describes the correct exchange of materials between a capillary and surrounding fluid under normal operating conditions? (level 1). Your Answer: glucose, amino acids, and lipids diffuse into the capillaries of the small intestine C orrect: Capillaries in the small intestine absorb nutrients released by the digestive process. 2. Which of the follow ing represents the correct sequence of blood flow ? (level 1). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. right atrium left atrium valve betw een atrium and ventricle valve betw een ventricle and large artery pulmonary artery pulmonary vein aorta right ventricle left ventricle Y our Answer: 1, 4, 7, 4, 6, lungs, 5, 2, 9, 3, 8, 3, body Correct Answer: 9, 4, 7, body, 1, 3, 8, 4, 5, lungs, 6, 2, 3 Incorrect: Review the section on heart circulation. 3. Oxygenation of blood is low est in which of the chambers or blood vessels below ? (level 1). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. right atrium left atrium pulmonary artery pulmonary vein right ventricle left ventricle aorta wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange Y our Answer: 7 Correct Answer: 5 Incorrect: Review Section 28.3 on heart circulation. 4. Which of the chambers or vessels below has the most powerful contractions in a normal human heart? (level 1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. right atrium left atrium pulmonary artery pulmonary vein right ventricle left ventricle aorta Your Answer: 6 C orrect: This chamber must pump blood to the entire body. 5. Capillaries flow into very small veins that usually merge w ith larger and larger veins until finally reaching the heart. In a few cases, capillaries flow into a small vein that travels a short distance and then branches into a second group of capillaries. This is called a portal system. Which of the follow ing circulatory structures is comparable to a portal system? (level 2). Your Answer: circulation betw een the glomerulus and the capillaries that surround the loop of Henle C orrect: The ball of capillaries within the Bow man's capsule, know n as the glomerulus, is directly connected to those surrounding the nephron tubules. 6. What is the significance of the direct connection betw een the capillaries of the small intestine and those infiltrating the liver? (level 1). Y our Answer: Blood w hich lost w ater during digestion travels directly to the liver, w here the water is replaced. Correct Answer: This connection allow s ingested toxic materials to travel directly to the liver, where they are detoxified. Incorrect: Review Section 28.9 and 28.10 on the function of the liver. 7. How would hyp ertension affect w ater reabsorp tion in ca p illary b eds? (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 7. Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange Your Answer: Blood pressure on the arterial side w ould increase, resulting in increased fluid loss from the blood. C orrect: Higher blood pressure would cause more water to be filtered out of capillaries. This water w ould collect in surrounding interstitial fluid. 8. A researcher extracted blood from both the arterial side and the venous side of a capillary bed. She then measured the concentration of O2 a nd CO 2 from both types of blood. Here are her results. Venous Arterial Side Side of Capillary of Capillary Bed Bed Concentration of O2 Concentration of CO2 40 45 104 40 The capillary bed that this researcher is w orking w ith is most likely found in the ... (level 2) Y our Answer: cardiac muscle tissue. Correct Answer: alveoli. Incorrect: The cells in the heart w ould consume oxygen. 9. What is the lymphatic system's function, in addition to its role in the immune system? (level 1). Y our Answer: maintaining body temperature Correct Answer: maintaining fluid level in the blood Incorrect: Review capillary exchange. 10. In what form is most of the CO 2 b eing transferred to alveoli transported as? (level 2). Y our Answer: CO 2 b ound to hemoglobin Correct Answer: bicarbonate Incorrect: Review Section 28.6 and 28.7 on carbon dioxide transport. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange 11. Which of the follow ing correctly describes the movement of the ribs and diaphragm necessary to cause an inhalation of air? (level 2). Y our Answer: rib cage is depressed and the diaphragm contracts Correct Answer: rib cage is elevated and the diaphragm contracts Review the animation on breathing/ventilation. 12. Which of the follow ing is NOT a function of the liver? (level 1). Y our Answer: produces bile Correct Answer: produces and secretes proteases Incorrect: This is one of the primary liver functions. 13. Myocardial infarction is usually caused by ... (level 1). Y our Answer: failure of hemoglobin to release CO 2 in the lungs. Correct Register to View Answerblocked coronary artery. Incorrect: Review Section 28.4. 14. A heart murmur indicates a problem w ith ... (level 1). Y our Answer: ventricular contraction. Correct Answer: heart valves. Incorrect: Review the way that blood flow s through the heart in Section 28.3.. 15. The layer of the alimentary canal that is primarily responsible for a peristaltic contraction is the ... (level 1). Y our Answer: serosa. Correct Answer: muscularis externa. Incorrect: This is a layer of connective tissue incapable of producing muscle contractions. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 16. Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange Technically, the digestive system can be divided into the alimentary canal, in w hich digested food material moves, and a series of accessory structures that aid in the process of digestion. Which of the follow ing is an accessory structure? (level 1). Your Answer: pancreas C orrect: The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes for digestion, but no food material passes through the pancreas. 17. Which of the follow ing alimentary canal structures DOES NOT play a role in the digestion of food material? (level 1). Y our Answer: stomach Correct Answer: cecum Incorrect: This is the second most important site of food digestion. 18. Where specifically is urine made? Be sure to be specific! (level 1). Your Answer: collecting ducts C orrect. The collections ducts is where urine is established and made. 19. What is the effect of ADH on the nephron of the kidney? (level 2). Your Answer: It increases the w ater permeability of the nephron's distal tubule and collecting duct. C orrect: By increasing permeability, the w ater is saved in the body and returned to the blood. 20. Which of the follow ing structure/function associations are paired incorrectly? (level 1). Your Answer: urethra // urine transport from kidney to bladder C orrect: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside body. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: The cardiovascular system" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood and Site: Breath > Student Home > Animation Quiz: The cardiovascular system Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:04 PM (EDT) 17% Correct of 12 questions 2 correct: 10 incorrect: 1 7% 8 3% More information about scoring 1. Many poor, starving college students get paid to donate plasma. Which of the following substances is not donated w hen the plasma is removed? Y our Answer: electrolytes Correct Answer: w hite blood cells Incorrect. Electrolytes are part of the plasma. 2. Which statement is correct concerning blood? Y our Answer: blood is less viscous than water Correct Answer: the pH of blood is slightly basic Incorrect. Blood is more viscous than water. 3. If the pulmonary arteries became blocked so that blood wasn't flow ing w ell to the lungs, w hich chamber of the heart w ould become backed up? Your Answer: right atrium Correct Answer: right ventricle Incorrect. What is the last chamber the blood w ould flow to before entering the lungs? 4. Which of the follow ing vessels would carry oxygenated blood? Y our Answer: vena cava Correct Answer: the aorta wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Incorrect. Veins do not carry oxygenated blood. 5. Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart? Y our Answer: vein Correct Answer: artery Incorrect. Capillaries do not carry blood aw ay from the heart. 6. In humans, what chamber of the heart pumps blood into the aorta? Y our Answer: right atrium Correct Answer: left ventricle Incorrect. The right atrium does not pump blood to the aorta. 7. Which of the follow ing does not occur during inhalation: Y our Answer: the diaphragm moves down Correct Answer: the volume of the chest cavity decreases Incorrect. The diaphragm does move dow n. 8. How does blood get oxygenated in the lungs? Y our Answer: via internal respiration Correct Answer: by diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the capillaries Incorrect. Internal respiration does not oxygenate blood. 9. How can carbon dioxide be transported? Y our Answer: it can be dissolved in the plasma Correct Answer: any of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 10. In humans, gas exchange actually occurs in w hat specific structure? Y our Answer: alveolus C orrect. Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli. 11. The pH in the region of the tissues where oxygen is released from hemoglobin is low er (more acidic) due to the accumulation of: wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Y our Answer: red blood cells Correct Answer: carbonic acid Incorrect. Red blood cells do not alter pH. 12. Oxygen attaches by w eak bonds to _________molecules located in the red blood cells. Your Answer: hemoglobin C orrect. Oxygen attaches to hemoglobin. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood and Site: Breath > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:03 PM (EDT) 24% Correct of 45 questions 11 correct: 34 incorrect: 2 4% 7 6% More information about scoring 1. Which statement is the most accurate description of the cardiovascular system? ( 2 9.1 The Cardiovascular System) Your Answer: The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels, and bone marrow. C orrect. All of these are included in the cardiovascular system. 2. Apart from the blood cells, the "formed elements" of the blood consist of 29.2 The Composition of Blood ) ________. ( Your Answer: w ater Correct Answer: platelets Incorrect. Read about platelets in section 29.2. 3. What w ould be the result of a disease that destroyed the platelets in the blood? ( 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: The blood w ould no longer clot. C orrect. Platelets help in clotting the blood. 4. What is the main result of the lack of a cell nucleus in red blood cells? ( Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: Red blood cells do not contain any protein. Correct Answer: Red blood cells only live for a few months. 2 9.2 The Incorrect. How does the lack of a nucleus affect the lifes p an of the cell? See section wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a 2 9.2 for more information. 5. What is a leukocyte? ( 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) Your Register to View Answerred blood cell Correct Register to View Answerw hite blood cell Incorrect. Read about leukocytes in section 29.2. 6. During and after organ transplants, patients are given the immune-suppressing 2 9.2 The drug cyclosporin. Which type of blood cell does cyclosporin affect? ( Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: leukocytes C orrect. Leukocytes are part of the immune system. 7. Athletes sometimes train at high altitudes before an important race. Why might this help their performance? ( 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: High altitudes have more exposure to ultraviolet light, w hich increases vitamin production. Correct Answer: The atmosphere at high altitudes is thinner, so the athletes' bodies respond by making more red blood cells. Incorrect. Read about the effect of altitude on the red blood cells in section 29.2. 8. Which part of the blood can be described as an "enzyme-bearing packet?" ( The Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: erythrocyte Correct Answer: platelet Incorrect. These packets help in clotting the blood. See section 29.2 for more information. 2 9.2 9. Which proteins in the blood plasma are made in the liver and help to transport 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) hormones and fatty acids? ( Your Answer: fibrinogens Correct Answer: albumins Incorrect. These do not transport fatty acids. See section 29.2 for more information. 10. Which of the follow ing is a red blood cell? ( Your Answer: platelet Correct Answer: erythrocyte 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Incorrect. Read about erythrocytes in section 29.2. 11. What is the function of low -density lipoproteins (LDLs)? ( of Blood ) 2 9.2 The Composition Your Answer: They reduce the density of the blood to allow it to flow more smoothly. Correct Answer: They carry cholesterol from the liver to the tissues. Incorrect. LDLs transport cholesterol. See section 29.2 for more information. 12. For a patient with liver damage, what are the medical consequences of no longer 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) being able to produce fibrinogen? ( Your Answer: The patient's blood will not clot. C orrect. Fibrinogen is a protein that is important in blood clotting. 13. What ratio of LDLs to HDLs would give a person the lowest risk of heart attack? ( 2 9.2 The Composition of Blood ) Your Answer: high levels of both LDLs and HDLs Correct Answer: low levels of LDLs and high levels of HDLs Incorrect. LDLs increase heart attack risk, and HDLs lower the risk. See section 29.2 for more information. 14. Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart? ( Vessels ) Your Answer: lymph vessels Correct Answer: arteries Incorrect. Read about arteries in section 29.3. 2 9.3 Blood 15. In general, w here do you find the largest blood vessels in the body? ( Blood Vessels ) Your Answer: veins and arteries leading to and from the brain Correct Answer: veins and arteries next to the heart 2 9.3 Incorrect. Blood vessels get smaller as they get further from the heart. See section 29.3 for more information. 16. In a blood vessel, which layer of cells is in direct contact w ith the blood? ( Blood Vessels ) Your Answer: epithelium 2 9.3 wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a C orrect. Epithelium is the inner layer of a blood vessel. 17. What is the cause of hypertension (high blood pressure)? ( 2 9.3 Blood Vessels ) Your Answer: an excessive concentration of electrolytes in the blood Correct Answer: constriction of the smooth muscles in the arteries Incorrect. Read about the causes of hypertension in section 29.3. 18. Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls? ( Your Answer: venules Correct Answer: capillaries Incorrect. Read about capillaries in section 29.3. 2 9.3 Blood Vessels ) 19. If you bump your arm and get a bruise, w hich blood vessels in the skin have been broken? ( 2 9.3 Blood Vessels ) Your Answer: arteries Correct Answer: capillaries Incorrect. Capillaries are found all over the body and break easily. See section 29.3 for more information. 20. A heart murmur indicates a problem w ith ______. ( Circulation ) Your Answer: the coronary arteries Correct Answer: heart valves 29.4 The Heart and Blood Incorrect. Read the discussion of heart valves and blood flow in section 29.4. 21. If the pulmonary arteries become blocked so that blood does not flow well to the 2 9.4 The Heart and lungs, w hich chamber of the heart w ill become backed up? ( Blood Circulation) Your Answer: left ventricle Correct Answer: right ventricle Incorrect. Study Figure 29.5 to find the last chamber the blood flows through before entering the lungs. 22. Which of the follow ing vessels carry oxygenated blood? ( Blood Circulation) Your Answer: the pulmonary arteries Correct Answer: the pulmonary veins 2 9.4 The Heart and wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Incorrect. Read how oxygenated blood is pumped to the heart from the lungs in section 29.4, and study Figure 29.5. 23. Which of the follow ing represents the correct sequence of blood flow ? I. right atrium II. left atrium III. valve between atrium and ventricle IV. valve between ventricle and large artery V. pulmonary artery VI. pulmonary vein VII. aorta VIII. right ventricle IX. left ventricle ( 2 9.4 The Heart and Blood Circulation) Your Answer: IX, IV, VII, body, I, III, VIII, IV, V, lungs, VI, II, III C orrect. This is the correct pattern of circulation through the human heart. 24. Oxygenation of blood is lowest in w hich of the follow ing chambers or blood vessels? I. right atrium II. left atrium III. pulmonary artery IV. pulmonary vein V. right ventricle VI. left ventricle VII. aorta ( 2 9.4 The Heart and Blood Circulation) Your Answer: VI Correct Answer: V Incorrect. The lowest oxygenation is on the right side of the heart. See section 29.4 for more information. 25. Blood returning from the body enters the heart at which chamber? ( Heart and Blood Circulation ) Your Answer: left atrium Correct Answer: right atrium 2 9.4 The Incorrect. Read about heart circulation in section 29.4, and study Figure 29.5. 26. Which blood vessel connects to the left ventricle of the heart? ( and Blood Circulation ) Your Answer: pulmonary artery Correct Answer: aorta Incorrect. Read about heart circulation in section 29.4. 2 9.4 The Heart wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Unlike humans, fish have only two chambers to the heart and single circulation. Blood in the fish enters the atrium, goes to the ventricle, and is pumped to the gills and around the body before returning to the heart. What is the advantage of 2 9.4 The humans having four chambers to the heart and double circulation? ( Heart and Blood Circulation ) Your Answer: Blood slow s dow n in the lungs, and double circulation keeps it moving more quickly to the body. C orrect. In fish, the blood moves more slow ly through their bodies. 27. 28. When you donate blood, the blood comes out dark red, yet w hen you look at the 2 9.4 The Heart and Blood Circulation ) veins in your skin, they look blue. Why? ( Your Answer: Veins carry deoxygenated blood, w hich is blue. Correct Answer: The blood is always red, but the veins themselves are blue. Incorrect. Read about the veins in section 29.4. 29. Why are the atria in the heart smaller than the ventricles? ( Blood Circulation) 2 9.4 The Heart and Your Answer: The atria pump blood only to the lungs, w hereas the ventricles pump blood all around the body. Correct Answer: The atria only pump blood into the ventricles, whereas the ventricles pump blood to the lungs or around the body. Incorrect. Read about the atria in section 29.4. 30. How many coronary arteries branch off from the aorta? ( Attack) Your Answer: 4 Correct Answer: 2 29.5 What is a Heart Incorrect. Read about the coronary arteries in section 29.5, and study Figure 29.6. 31. Roughly what percentage of deaths in the United States are caused by heart 2 9.5 What is a Heart Attack) attacks? ( Your Answer: 50% C orrect. Roughly half of deaths in the United States result from heart attacks. 32. LDLs carry cholesterol to the tissues. Where do they collect the cholesterol? ( 29.5 What is a Heart Attack) Your Answer: from the stomach Correct Answer: from the liver and small intestine Incorrect. Read about cholesterol in section 29.5. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a 33. Once LDLs start building up in the coronary arteries, what damage occurs to the 2 9.5 What is a Heart Attack) LDLs and causes the immune system to react? ( Your Answer: conversion to HDLs Correct Answer: oxidation Incorrect. It is similar to the process that causes metal to rust. See section 29.5 for more information. 34. What is one way to raise the level of low -density lipoproteins (LDLs) in the blood? ( 2 9.5 What is a Heart Attack) Your Answer: losing excess w eight Correct Answer: eating more red meat Incorrect. Remember that raising LDLs raises the risk of heart attack. See section 29.5 for more information. 35. Which of the follow ing describes the correct exchange of materials between a capillary and surrounding fluid under normal operating conditions? ( 2 9.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) Your Answer: diffusion of CO 2 from the water into the gill capillaries of fish Correct Answer: diffusion of glucose, amino acids, and lipids into the capillaries of the small intestine Incorrect. Remember that solutes diffuse from an area of higher concentration to one of low er concentration. See section 29.6 for more information. 36. A researcher extracted blood from both the arterial side and the venous side of a capillary bed. She then measured the concentration of O 2 a nd CO 2 from both types of blood. Here are her results: The capillary bed that this researcher is working w ith is most likely found in the 2 9.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) ______. ( Your Answer: stomach and small intestine Correct Answer: alveoli Incorrect. The cells in this area w ill consume oxygen. See section 29.6 and Figure 29.7 for more information. 37. The interstitial fluid contains all the substances listed below EXCEPT _________. ( 2 9.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Y our Answer: glucose Correct Answer: erythrocytes Incorrect. Cells are too big to leave the capillary and get into the interstitial fluid. See section 29.6 and Figure 29.7 for more information. 38. If you could separate out all the arteries, veins, and capillaries from the body, which type of blood vessel w ould cover the longest total distance? ( 2 9.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) Your Answer: any of the three types Correct Answer: capillaries Incorrect. Read about the capillaries in section 29.6. 39. What force returns materials from the interstitial fluid to the capillaries at the venous end of the capillary bed? ( 29.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) Your Answer: osmotic pressure C orrect. The osmotic pressure of proteins pulls materials back into the capillary. 40. Which of the follow ing gives the correct movement of air during exhalation? ( 29.7 The Respiratory System) Your Answer: alveoli, bronchiole, bronchus, trachea, pharynx, larynx Correct Answer: alveoli, bronchiole, bronchus, trachea, larynx, pharynx Incorrect. Read about the respiratory system in section 29.7 and Figure 29.9. 41. The main advantage of alveoli being very small and numerous is ________. ( 29.6 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds ) Your Answer: Alveoli give the lungs a very large total surface area for gas exchange. C orrect. Small objects have a large ratio of surface area to volume. 42. In what form is most of the CO 2 transferred to alveoli? ( System) Your Answer: organic molecules Correct Answer: bicarbonate in blood plasma 2 9.7 The Respiratory Incorrect. Most carbon dioxide moves in the blood plasma. See section 29.7 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Which of the follow ing occurs during inhalation? ( Your Answer: Air leaves the chest cavity. Correct Answer: The muscles of the rib cage contract. Incorrect. The muscles of the rib cage are very important. See section 29.8 and Figure 29.10 for more information. 2 9.8 Steps in Respiration ) 43. 44. What is the main way that carbon dioxide is transported in the blood? ( Steps in Respiration ) Your Answer: bound to w hite blood cells Correct Answer: dissolved in the plasma 2 9.8 Incorrect. Read about the role of plasma in transferring carbon dioxide to the lungs in section 29.8. 45. Oxygen attaches by w eak bonds to _________ molecules located in the red blood 2 9.8 Steps in Respiration ) cells. ( Your Answer: hemoglobin C orrect. Oxygen attaches to hemoglobin. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 29. Transport and Exchange 1: Blood a Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Amazingly Detailed Script: Site: Animal Dev > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:45 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 14% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 1 4% 8 6% 1 que stions conta in m ultiple pairs, score d for a total of 5 que stions. More inform ation about scoring . 1. Match each of the following developmental steps with its order from first to last Option Your Answer A. 5 A. 5 A. 5 A. 5 A. 5 Correct Answer D. 1 C. 2 B. 3 E. 4 A. 5 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 fertilization morula formation blastula formation gastrulation organogenesis 2. The process of gastrulation involves Y our Answer: cell enlargement Correct Answer: cell reorganization and movement 3. In early embryonic development of the frog, the pieces of tissue that will form the backs of the eyes bulge from the growing brain. If one of these bits of tissue is removed and transplanted into the area that should become the frogs stomach, an eye develops there. This shows the importance of _____ in embryonic development. Y our Answer: differentiation Correct Answer: induction 4. The cells that migrate from the developing neural tube and eventually form different organs and tissues throughout the body are Y our Answer: mesenchyme cells Correct Answer: neural crest cells wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D 5. Substances called _____ affect development by diffusing from one group of cells to another, thereby prompting the production of transcription factors in the latter cells. Y our Answer: mRNAs Correct Answer: morphogens 6. An individual is born missing parts of the epidermal layer as well as portions of the nervous system. The problem began during development w ith w hich of these germ layers? Y our Answer: mesoderm Correct Answer: ectoderm 7. A DNA sequence such as the homeobox is said to be _____ because _____ . Your Answer: highly conserved, it has changed little over evolutionary time 8. A stem cell is valuable because it has not yet undergone _____ and can _____. Y our Answer: programmed cell death; still function Correct Answer: commitment; give rise to specialized cells 9. A breakthrough occurred with human embryonic stem cells in 1998 w hen scientists Y our Answer: got them to fuse w ith each other Correct Answer: cultured them in a laboratory setting 10. The ethical controversy over embryonic stem cells exists because Y our Answer: These cells are pluripotent, rather than totipotent. Correct Answer: These cells are derived from human embryos, w hich are destroyed in the research process. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Amazingly Detailed Script: Site: Animal Dev > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:44 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 25% Correct o f 20 que stions: 5 corre ct: 15 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. What does the distribution of yolk in the egg give the early zygote? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerblastocoel Correct Answer: polarity Incorrect: Review Section 29.1 and 29.2 on the phases of embryonic development. 2. What is the first large-scale movement of cells during embryonic development called? (level 1). Y our Answer: organogenesis Correct Answer: gastrulation Incorrect: Review Section 29.1 and 29.2 on the phases of embryonic development. 3. Which of the follow ing germ layers is correctly matched w ith its fate in development? (level 1). Y our Answer: mesoderm // digestive tract lining Correct Answer: ectoderm // nervous tissue Incorrect: This is derived from endoderm. 4. Sometimes it is easier to visualize a complicated process by comparing it to something more familiar. In echinoderm blastulas, the process of gastrulation w ould be most similar to ... (level 1). Y our Answer: inflating a balloon. Correct Answer: pushing your finger into an inflated balloon. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D Incorrect: For a visual representation of gastrulation, review the animation for Figure 26.2. 5. A team of researchers w orking w ith embryos has determined that a certain cell, if left undisturbed, w ill become part of the hind limb. However, this same cell, if moved to a more anterior position in the embryo, w ill become part of the forelimb. This cell could be classified as ... (level 2). Y our Answer: having been reversed. Correct Answer: having been determined. Incorrect: Review Section 29.4 and 29.5 on stem cells. 6. Why is the research being done on embryonic stem cells so controversial? (level 2). Your Answer: Embryonic stem cells must be harvested from discarded embryos. C orrect: Usually these embryos are from fertility clinics that have created many embryos for implantation in infertile women. How ever, only a few of the embryos may be needed to produce a pregnancy. Then the question becomes, "What should happen to the other embryos?" 7. Which developmental tool is not exhibited at gastrulation? (level 2). Y our Answer: cell movement Correct Answer: programmed cell death Incorrect: This is the first large-scale movement of cells during development. 8. What is the bicoid protein an example of? (level 1). Your Register to View Answermorphogen C orrect: A morphogen is a substance that exists in a concentration gradient that establishes positional information in the embryo. 9. What is true of morphogens? (level 1). Y our Answer: They are transcription factors that control development by turning genes on or off. Correct Answer: All of the above are true. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only true statement about morphogens? 10. The human hand first develops as a webbed, paddle-like structure. How ever, by the time the baby is born, the hand has developed individual fingers (if the developmental process proceeds correctly). Which of the developmental tools is used to remove the "w ebbing" from between the baby's fingers? (level 2). Y our Answer: gastrulation Correct Answer: programmed cell death Incorrect: Review the different tools for sculpting the body in Section 29.4. 11. For the process of development, the instructions are all stored in the maternal and paternal DNA. How ever, these are only the instructions. Where do the "tools" come from that actually start the developmental process after fertilization? (level 2). Y our Answer: from the cytoplasm of the paternal sperm Correct Answer: from the cytoplasm of the maternal egg Incorrect: Remember that sperm are basically small packages of DNA with very little else inside of them. You can review sperm development in Chapter 10. 12. Which of the follow ing are "diploid"? (level 1). Y our Answer: zygote Correct Register to View Answerand B are correct. Incorrect: Although this is correct, is this the only structure in the list that is diploid? 13. Which of the follow ing developmental stages has a hollow fluid-filled cavity surrounded by one or more layers of cells? (level 1). Y our Answer: zygote Correct Answer: blastula Incorrect: A zygote is a single cell, so it could not be comprised of one or more layers of cells! 14. Which of the follow ing is NOT one of the "germ" layers in a developing embryo? (level 1). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D Y our Answer: placoderm C orrect: There is no such germ layer. 15. Which of the follow ing statements concerning sea urchin gastrulation is true? (level 2). Your Answer: The archenteron forms at the vegetal pole, stretches to the animal pole, and eventually meets w ith the mouth. C orrect: If you recall from Chapter 21, this is what distinguishes these organisms as deuterostomes. 16. Which of the follow ing structures is NOT derived from the tissue known as neural crest cells? (level 1). Y our Answer: ganglia in the peripheral nervous system Correct Answer: rods and cones in the retina Incorrect: Review Figure 27.4. 17. In Chapter 21, we discussed the fact that many animals show the derived feature of segmentation (repeated segments of tissue, such as in an earthw orm or millipede). In which structure do developing vertebrates display the feature of segmentation? (level 2). Your Answer: somites C orrect: This repeated sequence of mesodermal blocks gives rise to the skeletal muscles and the vertebral bones that enclose the spinal cord. 18. Fill in the blanks in the follow ing statement to make it read correctly. The notochord, which is derived from _(germ layer 1)_, induces the _(germ layer 2)_ to form the neural tube. (level 2). Y our Answer: germ layer 1 = mesoderm // germ layer 2 = endoderm Correct Answer: germ layer 1 = mesoderm // germ layer 2 = ectoderm Incorrect: Review organogenesis in Section 29.1 and the animation of Figure 27.3. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 19. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal D The process of development is of great interest to many researchers. One research organism has been used more than any other to decipher the mysteries of development. Which of these organisms is it? (level 1). Y our Answer: Delphinus delphis Correct Answer: Drosophila melanogaster Incorrect: This is the dolphin. 20. Stem cells hold the promise of repairing damaged tissues due to a heart attack, stroke, or even a spinal cord injury. Stem cells are the critical step in this potential healing breakthrough because they are pluripotent. What does this mean? (level 1). Y our Answer: These cells can proceed through an unlimited number of cell divisions. Correct Answer: These cells have the potential to develop into any kind of specialized cell or tissue. Incorrect: This sounds more like cancer cells than pluripotent cells. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Water, pH, and Biological Site: Molecules > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:55 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 0% Correct o f 9 que stions: 0 corre ct: 0 % 9 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 00% 1. Near an ocean or other large body of water, air temperatures do not vary as much with the seasons as they do in the middle of a continent. This tendency of water to resist changes in temperature is the result of water's Your Answer: low density Correct Answer: high specific heat 2. A frog survives a freezing-cold w inter on the bottom of a pond because Your Answer: The surface tension of w ater protects the frog's body. Correct Answer: Ice, w hich floats on w ater, insulates the water beneath it. 3. Janine has dry skin, so she uses body oil every morning. The oil seals in some of the water on her skin, so that it doesn't get as dry. This is possible because oils: Your Answer: are more dense than w ater Correct Answer: are hydrophobic 4. Detergent added to w ater disrupts the network of hydrogen bonds betw een water molecules. One w ay entomologists (biologists w ho study insects) trap bees for population surveys is to place a tray of sugar w ater in the field to w hich they add a few drops of detergent. The bees are attracted to the sugar w ater and they land on its surface. Why do these investigators bother adding detergent when they know its sugar that bees are attracted to? Your Answer: The detergent w orks with sugar to make the trays more attractive. Correct Answer: Bees will sink into w ater with fewer hydrogen bonds, and so cannot escape. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 5. Water, pH, and Biological Molecules When you eat starch such as spaghetti, an enzyme in your mouth breaks it dow n to maltose. Eventually, the maltose enters your small intestine, w here it is broken down to glucose, w hich you can absorb into your bloodstream. The starch is a _____, the maltose is a _____, and the glucose is a(n) _____. Your Answer: amino acid dipeptide protein monosaccharide Correct Answer: polysaccharide disaccharide 6. In some vintage science fiction movies space travelers find themselves on a planet orbiting a distant star in w hich there are curious forms of life based on silicon instead of carbon. Although the story clearly is sci-fi, there is an aura of plausibility in the choice of silicon, an atom with 14 protons, in place of carbon as this alien life-form's central atom. This is because silicon: Your Answer: is lighter than carbon. Correct Answer: has 4 electrons in its outer-most shell. 7. The myoglobin protein, w hich carries oxygen in muscle cells, has only the first three levels of protein structure. In other w ords, it lacks a quaternary level. From this you can conclude that myoglobin Your Answer: is made of nucleic acids Correct Answer: is made of only one polypeptide chain 8. You received your genetic information from your parents in the form of DNA. This DNA carried the instructions for making Your Answer: fatty acids Correct Answer: proteins 9. John is lactose intolerant. The -ose e nding indicates that John cannot digest a certain Your Answer: polysaccharide Correct Answer: sugar E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Send as: wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Water, pH, and Biological Site: Molecules > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:55 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 35% Correct o f 20 que stions: 7 corre ct: 13 incorre ct: 3 5% 6 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. The w ater molecule has the ability to dissolve many substances. What characteristic makes it such a versatile solvent? (level 1). Your Answer: The w ater molecule is polar. C orrect. Polar water molecules can surround other polar or charged solutes forming a "hydration sphere" around these solutes. This is how w ater can dissolve many types of solutes. 2. Which of the follow ing diagrams best represents the temperature vs. depth in a frozen mountain lake? (level 2). Your Register to View Answerorrect. Water is most dense at 4C, and least dense as ice. 3. If three molecules of a fatty acid, each having the formula C 16 H22 O 2 , w ere joined to a molecule of glycerol (C 3 H8 O 3 ), the resulting molecule would have the formula ... (level 2) Your Register to View Answer51 H68 O 6 C orrect. For each chemical reaction linking a fatty acid to a glycerol, a w ater molecule is lost. 4. Which of the follow ing is true of the fatty acid C 16 H22 O 2 ? (level 1). Y our Answer: It is a polymer. Correct Answer: It is unsaturated. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Incorrect. Lipids do not exist as polymers and monomers. 5. Why are most organic molecules based on the carbon atom? (level 2). Your Answer: Carbon can form covalent bonds w ith four other atoms; therefore, organic molecules can be very complex. C orrect. Reveiw Section 3.3. 6. Which level of protein structure is ultimately responsible for the shape of a protein? (level 2). Y our Answer: tertiary Correct Answer: primary Incorrect. This level of structure depends on the primary and secondary levels. 7. Acid rain affects the pH of freshw ater streams and creeks far more than it does the saltw ater marsh creeks. What might account for this difference? (level 2) Y our Answer: the presence of pH buffers in freshwater streams Correct Answer: the presence of pH buffers in saltwater marshes Incorrect. If freshw ater streams had pH buffers in them, would they be affected as strongly? 8. What is the highest level of protein structure exhibited by the functional hemoglobin molecule, a molecule composed of four separate protein chains? (level 1). Y our Answer: secondary Correct Answer: quaternary Incorrect. This refers only to folding into alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets. 9. Which of the follow ing complex carbohydrates is a form of stored energy in plants? (level 1.) Your Answer: starch C orrect. Starch is the w ay that plants store the high-energy molecule glucose. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules 10. Which of the follow ing lipid molecules is NOT a steroid? (level 1). Y our Answer: estrogen Correct Answer: stearic acid Incorrect. Cholesterol has the typical four interlocked ring structure that is characteristic of steroids. 11. Which of the follow ing have the carboxyl (carboxylic acid) functional group as part of their chemical structure? (level 1). Y our Answer: amino acids Correct Answer: both A & B Incorrect. Amino acids do have the carboxylic acid group as part of their structure, but are they the only one? 12. A chemical "buffer" ... (level 2). Y our Answer: can absorb a H+ w hen the solution becomes too acidic. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct. Incorrect. This is true, but is this the only thing that a buffer can do? 13. Which of the follow ing is NOT part of a nucleotide's molecular structure? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answersugar Correct Register to View Answerbuffer Incorrect. A sugar is part of a nucleotide. 14. Which of the follow ing terms refers to a sequence of amino acids coiling into a helix or folding into pleats as a result of electrochemical bonding and repulsion forces operating on the amino acids? (level 1). Your Answer: secondary structure C orrect. Forces acting primarily on the R-groups push the amino acid sequence into these common shapes. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Of the follow ing numbers, which w ould indicate the highest concentration of H+? (level 1). Y our Answer: pH 7 Correct Answer: pH 1 Incorrect. The pH scale is based on the inverse logarithm of the H+ concentration; thus, the low er the pH, the higher the H+ concentration. 15. 16. Hydrophilic molecules are attracted to water because ... (level 1). Y our Answer: they have a lot of C atoms in their structure. Correct Answer: they have atoms with charges on them. Incorrect. Having a lot of carbon does not necessarily make a molecule attractive to water. 17. Which of the major types of biological molecules does NOT consist of monomers and polymers? (level 2). Your Answer: lipids C orrect. Although some lipids are created by the combination of similar molecules (triglycerides), others are not (steroids). 18. When amino acids are joined together to form a polypeptide chain, a w aste molecule is given off as a result of this chemical reaction. What is this "waste" molecule? (level 2). Y our Answer: lipid Correct Answer: water Incorrect. Review Section 3.4, "The Molecules of Life" and the animation of Figure 3.22. 19. Why are phospholipids said to have a "dual nature"? (level 2). Y our Answer: because they are part lipid and part carbohydrate Correct Answer: because they are part hydrophilic and part hydrophobic Incorrect. Molecules that are part lipid and part carbohydrate are called glycolipids, not phospholipids. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Water, pH, and Biological Molecules Nucleotides are used for several functions in cells. Which of the following is NOT a correct function for a nucleotide? (level 1). Y our Answer: used to build deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Correct Answer: used to build plant cell walls Incorrect. Nucleotides are a monomer for RNA. 20. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: The Chemistry of Carbon" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 3. Life's Components: Biological Site: Molecules > Student Home > Animations Quiz: The Chemistry of Carbon Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:00 PM (EDT) 29% Correct of 21 questions 6 corre ct: 15 incorre ct: 2 9% 7 1% More information about scoring 1. Carbon tends to form large molecules because of its capability to form ______ bonds w ith several other atoms. Your Answer: Covalent C orrect. Carbon tends to bond covalently w ith other atoms. 2. Of the choices listed, you w ould expect to find the largest amount of this element in the human body. Your Answer: Carbon C orrect. Of the choices listed, carbon is most common. 3. Glucose is considered an organic molecule because it contains: Your Answer: Oxygen Correct Answer: Carbon Incorrect. Review the definition of the term organic. 4. Which of the follow ing statements is true concerning carbon? Your Answer: Its outer electron shell is not complete Correct Answer: All of the above statements are correct Incorrect. Is this the only correct answ er? wps.aw.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Propanol and isopropanol are isomers. This means that they have: Your Answer: The same molecular formula but one is a gas and the other is a liquid Correct Answer: The same chemical formula but different spatial arrangements Incorrect. Propanol and isopropanol are both in the same form. 5. 6. Which of the follow ing polymers on the left is not matched w ith an appropriate monomer subunit at its right? Your Answer: DNA - nucleotide Correct Answer: Amino acid - protein Incorrect. This is an appropriate match. 7. Nucleotides are to DNA as ________are to _________. Your Answer: Glycogen; starch Correct Answer: Amino acids; proteins Incorrect. Look for a match of a monomer w ith the appropriate polymer. 8. If your diet w as deficient in glucose it would be hard for you to make: Your Answer: Nucleic acids Correct Answer: carbohydrates Incorrect. Glucose is not needed to make nucleic acids. 9. Foods that are high in fiber (cellulose) are most likely to be derived from: Your Answer: Bacteria Correct Answer: Plants Incorrect. Fiber is only produced by plants. 10. Many plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of a polysaccharide called: Your Answer: chitin Correct Answer: starch Incorrect. Chitin is not made by plants. 11. The breakdown of glycogen into glucose molecules that can be used by the body is considered to be what typ e of reaction? wps.aw.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Y our Answer: Hydrolysis C orrect. Hydrolysis is used to break down a polymer. 12. Sucrose is composed of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose. What type of carbohydrate is sucrose? Your Answer: Monosaccharide Correct Answer: Disaccharide Incorrect. A monosaccharide is a simple sugar. 13. Your roommate does not believe that it is possible to turn liquid oil into solid margarine. Explain to him how this can be done based on your knowledge of the chemistry of lipids. Your Answer: Put the oil in the refrigerator because unsaturated fats are solid w hen they are cooled Correct Answer: Change the double bonds in the fatty acids of the oil into single bonds by adding more hydrogen atoms Incorrect. Unsaturated fats are not solid when refrigerated. 14. Which of the follow ing is not a correct statement concerning the differences betw een saturated and unsaturated fats? Your Answer: Saturated fats are solid at room temperature whereas unsaturated fats are liquid Correct Answer: Saturated fats are a form of cholesterol whereas unsaturated fats are not Incorrect. This statement is accurate. 15. Which of the follow ing macromolecules function in energy storage? Your Answer: Only carbohydrates Correct Answer: Both fats and carbohydrates Incorrect. Is this the only possible choice? 16. Your doctor has told you to limit your intake of saturated fats. As an expert in biology you know that you should: Your Answer: Cut down on oils Correct Answer: Eat mostly fats from plant products Incorrect. Oils are typically unsaturated fats. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Proteins differ from one another because: Your Answer: The peptide bonds linking amino acids differ from protein to protein Correct Answer: The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein Incorrect. There is only one type of peptide bond. 17. 18. Proteins are polymers of: Your Answer: Amino acids C orrect. Proteins are made of amino acids. 19. The color of your hair is determined by a _________ made based on instructions provided by _________. Your Answer: Protein; DNA C orrect. DNA provides the instructions needed for a cell to make proteins. 20. Nucleic acids function in: Your Answer: Hereditary information C orrect. DNA is the source of hereditary information. 21. The components of nucleic acids are: Your Register to View Answer6 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base Correct Register to View Answer5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base Incorrect. A nucleotide does not contain a 6 carbon sugar. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 3. Life's Components: Biological Site: Molecules > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 2:59 PM (EDT) 26% Correct of 43 questions 11 corre ct: 32 incorre ct: 2 6% 7 4% More information about scoring 1. Carbon tends to form large molecules because of its capability to form ______ 3.1 Carbon Is Central to the Living World ) bonds w ith several other atoms. ( Your Answer: (blank) 2. Which of the follow ing statements is (are) true about carbon? ( Central to the Living World ) 3 .1 Carbon Is Your Answer: It can covalently bond with up to four other atoms. Correct Answer: All the above statements are correct. This and what else? 3. Which of the major types of biological molecules does NOT consist of monomers 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) ( 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 and polymers? ( Proteins ) ( 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: carbohydrates Correct Answer: lipids Incorrect. Recall that polymers are large "chainlike" molecules composed of smaller "linklike" monomers. 4. Which functional group is found in amino acids? ( Your Answer: amino only Correct Answer: both carboxyl and amino 3.5 Proteins ) Incorrect. Amino acids important functional group. Review section 3.5 and Figure 3.17 for more information. ( 3 .5 Proteins ) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec 5. If you are able to isolate a molecule with a phosphate group, the molecule is most likely a(n) ____________. ( 3 .2 Functional Groups ) Your Answer: amino acid Correct Answer: RNA Incorrect. Phosphate groups are not in this type of molecule. 6. Many plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of a polysaccharide called 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) ______. ( Your Answer: glucose Correct Answer: starch Incorrect. Organisms use many types of polysaccharides to store carbohydrates, but animals and plants use different polysaccharides. For more information, review section 3.3. ( 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) 7. If your diet is deficient in glucose, it will be hard for you to make ______. ( The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) ( 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: proteins Correct Answer: glycogen 3 .3 Incorrect. It w ill be hard for you to make polymers of glucose. What are they? 8. Which of the follow ing macromolecules function in energy storage? ( Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) ( 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: both fats and carbohydrates 3 .3 The C orrect. Both carbohydrates and lipids can be used for energy storage. 9. Which of the follow ing is a polymer? ( Your Answer: glucose Correct Answer: chitin 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) Incorrect. Remember polymers are multiple covalently attached monomers. 10. Chitin is most similar to __________. ( Your Answer: testosterone Correct Answer: cellulose 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) Incorrect. Chitin is a type a polysaccharide. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Phospholipids are said to have a dual nature because they are ______. ( Lipids ) Your Answer: part lipid and part protein Correct Answer: part hydrophilic and part hydrophobic Incorrect. What are two opposing natures discussed in section 3.4? 3 .4 11. 12. Your doctor has told you to limit your intake of saturated fats. As an expert in 3 .4 Lipids ) biology you know that to have a healthier diet you should ______. ( Your Answer: eat only fats from animal products Correct Answer: eat mostly fats from plant products Incorrect. Think about the effect of the fats on LDL and HDL levels. 13. If you isolate a fatty acid with one double bond, you know the fatty acid is a 3.4 Lipids ) ________. ( Your Answer: saturated fat Correct Answer: monounsaturated fat Incorrect. To be saturated means that the carbon is bonded to as many hydrogen molecules as possible. 14. You eat a very large meal with lots of glucose. What will your body do with the 3 .4 Lipids ) glucose you do not require to meet your energy needs? ( Your Answer: polymerized the glucose into proteins Correct Answer: polymerize the glucose into glycogen Incorrect. Animals store excess glucose as a polysaccharide. 15. You eat a carrot for lunch. What is the primary biological molecule group you will be 3 .4 Lipids ) eating? ( Your Answer: glucose C orrect. Carrots contain starch, w hich is made up of glucose. 16. You eat a steak for lunch. What is the primary molecule you w ill be eating? ( Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: lipids Correct Answer: protein Incorrect. Steak is like most meat, but not composed of this molecule. 3 .4 wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Your friend Paula tells you that her doctor said she needs more of the principal 3 .4 Lipids ) female steroid. The physician is referring to ___________. ( Your Answer: cholesterol Correct Answer: estrogen Incorrect. Steroids are lipid hormones. Both men and women have female and male steroids but in significantly different ratios. 17. 18. Which of the follow ing statements about steroids is true? ( Your Answer: Cholesterol is not a steroid. Correct Answer: Estrogen is made by both men and w omen. 3 .4 Lipids ) Incorrect. Steroids are lipid hormones. Both men and women have female and male steroids but in significantly different ratios. 19. DNA is to nucleic acid as wax is to__________. ( Acids ) Your Answer: cholesterol Correct Answer: lipid Incorrect. What kind of biological molecule is wax? 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .6 Nucleic 20. While studying various cells under a microscope, you see one with very fragile membranes. This fragility is probably caused by a deficiency in the production of 3 .4 Lipids ) ______________. ( Your Answer: phospholipids C orrect. Phospholipids are the principal components in cell membranes. 21. You isolate a new protein composed of four separate protein chains. What level of protein structure would you say this protein achieves? ( 3.5 Proteins ) Your Answer: secondary Correct Answer: quaternary Incorrect. Protein shape is determined by the amino acid sequence, which will dictate the way the protein w ill fold. Individual polypeptides may associate to create the final protein. For more information, see section 3.5 and Figure 3.20. ( 3.5 Proteins ) Try Animation: Animation: Proteins 22. You isolate a protein in w hich a change in the amino acids causes the protein to fold into pleats rather than coil into a helix. What level of protein structure has changed as a result of the amino acid change? ( 3.5 Proteins ) Your Answer: tertiary structure Correct Answer: secondary structure wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Incorrect. Protein shape is determined by the amino acid sequence, which will dictate the way the protein w ill fold. Individual polypeptides may associate to create the final protein. For more information, see section 3.5 and Figure 3.20. ( 3.5 Proteins ) Try Animation: Animation: Proteins 23. Which of the follow ing statements about proteins is correct? ( Your Answer: Proteins and enzymes are not related. 3 .5 Proteins ) Correct Answer: All enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes. Incorrect. Enzymes are by definition proteins, think about those proteins that are not enzymes-like muscle tissue. 24. Which of the follow ing statements about hormones is true? ( Proteins ) Your Answer: All steroids are hormones. 3.4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Correct Answer: Some hormones are proteins and some are steroids. Incorrect. Read the options carefully. 25. Four is to nucleic acids as ___________ is to proteins. ( Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: 2 Correct Answer: 20 3.5 Proteins ) ( 3 .6 Incorrect. Think about the number of nucleotides found in nucleic acids and the number of amino acids found in proteins. 26. Proteins differ from one another because ______. ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: the peptide bonds linking amino acids differ from protein to protein Correct Answer: the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein Incorrect. Protein shape is determined by the amino acid sequence, which will dictate the way the protein w ill fold. For more information, see Figure 3.20. 27. You have a friend w ho lives on french fries eats almost nothing else. Realizing that french fries are mostly starch, you warn your friend that he might __________ as a 3 .3 The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates ) ( 3 .4 Lipids ) ( result of this diet. ( 3.5 Proteins ) ( 3.6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: not be able to make DNA Correct Answer: not be able to make proteins Incorrect. What important biological molecule is missing from his diet? wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Nucleotide is to nucleic acid as amino acid is to __________. ( 3.6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: protein C orrect. Protein is a polymer of amino acids. 3 .5 Proteins ) ( 28. 29. Which of the follow ing is an example of secondary structure of a polypeptide? ( 3.5 Proteins ) Your Answer: the formation of a beta pleated sheet C orrect. A beta pleated sheet is an example of secondary structure. 30. HDL is to LDL as testosterone is to _______. ( Your Answer: cholesterol 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) C orrect. Testosterone and cholesterol are both steroids. 31. Which of the follow ing statements about HDL and LDL is true? ( 3.5 Proteins ) 3.4 Lipids ) ( Your Answer: It is better to have higher levels of HDL than of LDL. C orrect. HDL carries cholesterol aw ay from the heart. 32. Consumption of what type of fats helps you obtain a healthy ratio of LDL to HDL? ( 3 .4 Lipids ) ( 3 .5 Proteins ) Your Answer: monounsaturated fats Correct Answer: polyunsaturated fats w ith omega-3s Incorrect. Remember, the types of lipids in the diet will affect the ratio of LDL to HDL, and that ratio can affect your heart. 33. Nucleotides are to DNA as ________ are to _________. ( Life: Carbohydrates ) ( 3.6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: amino acids; proteins 3 .3 The Molecules of C orrect. This is an appropriate match of a monomer to a polymer. 34. Nucleotides are used for several functions in cells. Which of the follow ing is NOT a correct function for a nucleotide? ( 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: serving as a chemical carrier of energy Correct Answer: building plant cell walls wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Incorrect. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids made up of nucleotides. Think about the jobs these biological molecules provide. 35. The color of your hair is determined by a _________, which is made based on 3 .5 Proteins ) ( 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) instructions provided by _________. ( Your Answer: carbohydrate; DNA Correct Answer: protein; DNA Incorrect. Your hair color is determined by proteins coded for by nucleic acids. 36. You isolate a cell that cannot make RNA. The cell w ill therefore not be able to make 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) _______. ( Your Answer: DNA Correct Answer: nucleotides Incorrect. RNA is a nucleic acid. For more information on w hat RNA does, see section 3.6. 37. Cigarette smoke is said to be carcinogenic because it causes mutations to form in the DNA. If DNA has a mutation, what other molecules will also become mutated? ( 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: phospholipids and proteins Correct Answer: RNA and proteins Incorrect. DNA is a nucleic acid. For more information on what DNA does, see section 3.6. 38. If you isolate a polymer of nucleotides, the polymer is most likely ___________. ( 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: nucleic acids C orrect. Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides. 39. If a cell is unable to make RNA it w ill also be unable to make ___________. ( Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: triglycerides Correct Answer: protein 3 .6 Incorrect. RNA is a specific molecule as it contains directions to make a specific type of molecule. Find that molecule product. 40. ATP is the energy unit of cells. Specifically, w hat biological molecule is it? ( Nucleic Acids ) Your Answer: nucleotide 3 .6 wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec C orrect. ATP is a nucleotide that is used to store energy in three high-energy phosphate bonds. 41. You isolate a polymer that contains adenine, guanine, and cytosine. What type of 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) molecule could it be? ( Your Answer: DNA only Correct Answer: either RNA or DNA Incorrect. These polymers are the fundamental building blocks of "information" molecules. 42. You isolate a cell that cannot bring information from the DNA to the ribosomes. 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) What molecule is probably deficient in this cell? ( Your Answer: protein Correct Answer: RNA Incorrect. Ribosomes are made up of polymers of nucleotides. 43. Nucleotides share structural similarity to _______. ( Your Answer: glycogen C orrect. Both contain carbohydrate sugars. 3 .6 Nucleic Acids ) wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 3. Life's Components: Biological Molec Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: The urinary system" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestion, Site: Nutrition, and Elimination > Student Home > Animation Quiz: The urinary system Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:06 PM (EDT) 20% Correct of 5 questions 1 correct: 4 incorrect: 2 0% 8 0% More information about scoring 1. Where is urine formed? Y our Answer: in the bladder Correct Answer: in the kidneys Incorrect. Urine is not formed in the bladder. 2. Which of the following is not a function of the urinary system? Y our Answer: the release of nutrients from body fluids C orrect. The urinary system prevents the release of nutrients from body fluids. 3. During a routine urinalysis, it is determined that the patient's urine has a large concentration of glucose present. What nephron structure has malfunctioned? Y our Answer: the collecting duct Correct Answer: the proximal tubule Incorrect. The collecting duct is not the site of glucose reabsorption. 4. Most of urine concentration takes place in the: Y our Answer: Bowman's capsule Correct Answer: loop of Henle Incorrect. The Bow man's capsule is not the site of most concentration. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Which of the following is not a part of the kidney? Y our Answer: cortex Correct Answer: ureter Incorrect. This is a part of the kidney. 5. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestion, Site: Nutrition, and Elimination > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:05 PM (EDT) 24% Correct of 49 questions 12 correct: 37 incorrect: 2 4% 7 6% More information about scoring 1. Technically, the digestive system can be divided into the alimentary canal, in which digested food material moves, and a series of accessory structures that aid in the 3 0.1 The process of digestion. Which of the following is an accessory structure? ( Digestive System) Your Answer: pancreas C orrect. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes for digestion, but no food material passes through the pancreas. 2. What is the pathway for carbohydrates and proteins from the alimentary canal to 3 0.1 The Digestive System) the cells in the body? ( Your Answer: stomach to the capillaries to the duodenum to the blood to the cells Correct Answer: small intestine to the capillaries to the liver to the blood to the cells Incorrect. Read about carbohydrates and proteins in section 30.1. 3. Why do lipids take a different digestive pathway from that taken by carbohydrates 3 0.1 The Digestive System) and proteins? ( Your Answer: Digestive enzymes cannot break dow n lipids. Correct Answer: Lipids do not dissolve well in water and thus are not absorbed by the capillaries in the small intestine. Incorrect. Read about lipids in section 30.1. 4. Some diet pills consist of chitin and other indigestible material. How do the makers of these diet pills claim that they help in w eight loss? ( 30.1 The Digestive System) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Y our Answer: The makers claim that as the indigestible chitin is eliminated from the body, it carries fats and other nutrients w ith it. C orrect. However, the quantity of nutrients removed in this way is probably very small. 5. The layer of the alimentary canal primarily responsible for a peristaltic contraction is the ______. [Structure of the Digestive System] ( 3 0.2 Structure of the Digestive System) Your Answer: muscularis externa C orrect. These two layers of smooth muscle create the w aves of muscle contraction that propel chyme down the alimentary canal. 6. Which part of the top of the alimentary canal is under voluntary control? ( The Digestive System) Your Answer: esophagus Correct Answer: tongue Incorrect. Read about the mouth in section 30.1 and Figure 30.1. 3 0.1 7. The layer of the alimentary canal that contains microvilli is the ______. ( Structure of the Digestive System) Your Answer: serosa Correct Answer: epithelium Incorrect. Read about the epithelium in section 30.2 and Figure 30.2. 3 0.2 8. Which tw o parts of the villus absorb digested nutrients? ( Digestive System) Your Answer: capillary network and lymphatic vessel 3 0.2 Structure of the C orrect. These carry nutrients to the liver and around the body. 9. Which tw o layers of the alimentary canal are connective tissues? ( Structure of the Digestive System) Your Answer: submucosa and mucosa Correct Answer: serosa and submucosa 3 0.2 Incorrect. Read about connective tissue in the digestive tract in section 30.2 and Figure 30.2. 10. Which passagew ay links the digestive system and respiratory system? ( Ste p s in Dig estion) 3 0.3 wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Y our Answer: esophagus Correct Answer: pharynx Incorrect. Read about the pharynx in section 30.3. 11. What is the function of the epiglottis? ( Your Answer: It helps in peristalsis. 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion) Correct Answer: It prevents food from entering the lungs. Incorrect. Read about the epiglottis in section 30.3. 12. How does the Heimlich maneuver stop a person from choking? ( Digestion ) Your Answer: It pushes food into the trachea. 3 0.3 Steps in Correct Answer: It increases pressure in the lungs, forcing the food back up the throat. Incorrect. The Heimlich maneuver presses on the diaphragm. See section 30.3 for more information. 13. Chyme is produced in the _________. ( Your Answer: stomach 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion) C orrect. The stomach produces chyme from the food and gastric juices. 14. The pyloric sphincter is between two organs. These organs are the _______ and 30.3 Steps in Digestion) the_______. ( Your Answer: duodenum; jejunum Correct Answer: stomach; duodenum Incorrect. Read about the pyloric sphincter in section 30.3, and study Figure 30.3. 15. Damage to w hich part of the digestive system w ould be most likely to interfere 30.3 Steps in Digestion) with digestion and nutrient absorption? ( Your Answer: large intestine Correct Answer: jejunum Incorrect. Read about the jejunum in section 30.3 and Figure 30.4. 16. Which three organs secrete digestive juices into the duodenum? ( Digestion ) 3 0.3 Steps in wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Y our Answer: pancreas, liver, and kidneys Correct Answer: liver, pancreas, and gall bladder Incorrect. Read about the duodenum in section 30.3. 17. Which of the follow ing is the correct arrangement of the parts of the small intestine, from longest to shortest? ( 30.3 Steps in Digestion) Your Answer: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum Correct Answer: ileum, jejunum, and duodenum Incorrect. Read about the small intestine in section 30.3. 18. Which endocrine gland produces the hormone insulin? ( Your Answer: pancreas C orrect. The pancreas produces insulin. 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion ) 19. What is the effect of the chemical buffers produced by the pancreas? ( Steps in Digestion) Your Answer: They remove water from the chyme. Correct Answer: They make the chyme less acidic. Incorrect. Read about the pancreas in section 30.3. 3 0.3 20. Which tw o chemicals are essential for the effective digestion of lipids? ( Steps in Digestion) Your Answer: lipase and pepsin Correct Answer: lipase and bile Incorrect. Read about the gallbladder in section 30.3. 30.3 21. Which type of diet w ould be best for a patient w ho has had the gallbladder 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion ) removed? ( Your Answer: low-protein diet Correct Answer: low-fat diet Incorrect. Read about the gallbladder in section 30.3. 22. What is the difference between passing a gallstone and passing a kidney stone? ( 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion ) ( 3 0.12 Structure of the Urinary System) Your Answer: The kidney stone passes through the bile duct to the urethra, w hereas the g allstone p asses dow n the ureter to the wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio intestines. Correct Answer: The kidney stone passes through the ureter to the urethra, w hereas the gallstone passes dow n the bile duct to the intestines. Incorrect. Read about the gallbladder in section 30.3 and the kidneys in section 30.12, and look at Figure 30.17. 23. When the appendix is removed, which organ system in the body is slightly reduced 3 0.3 Steps in Digestion) in function? ( Your Answer: digestive system Correct Answer: immune system Incorrect. Read about the appendix in section 30.3. 24. Which vitamin is absorbed by the large intestine and is produced by bacteria? ( 30.3 Steps in Digestion) Your Answer: vitamin B12 Correct Answer: vitamin K Incorrect. Read about the large intestine in section 30.3. 25. The following are functions of nutrients EXCEPT ______. ( Your Answer: providing antigens for the body 3 0.4 Human Nutrition) C orrect. Antigens are foreign substances attacked by the immune system. 26. A w oman recently died in a competition w here she w as encouraged to drink very large amounts of water. How can a rapid intake of w ater kill you? ( 3 0.5 Water, Minerals, and Vitamins ) Your Answer: Too much water causes kidney failure. Correct Answer: Osmotic pressure causes water to enter cells, which sw ell up and burst. Incorrect. Cells in the blood and tissues swell up if exposed to too much w ater. See sections 30.5 for more information. 27. A deficiency of which major mineral can cause irregular heartbeat, muscle cramps, and seizures? ( 3 0.5 Water, Minerals, and Vitamins ) Your Answer: phosphorus Correct Answer: magnesium Incorrect. Read about magnesium in section 30.5 and Table 30.1. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio You see a commercial for a manganese supplement that says that manganese is important for enzyme activation. Why should you be suspicious of the company that is trying to sell you this supplement? ( 3 0.5 Water, Minerals, and Vitamins ) Your Register to View Answerdeficiency of manganese has never been observed in humans. C orrect. You do not need to take manganese supplements because it is found in many different foods. 28. 29. Why is a deficiency of iron (anemia) more common in w omen than in men? ( Water, Minerals, and Vitamins ) 3 0.5 Your Answer: Iron is used by the brain, and men generally use less of their cognitive function. Correct Answer: Iron is used in making hemoglobin in red blood cells, and w omen lose small amounts of blood during menstruation. Incorrect. Read about iron in section 30.5 and Table 30.1. 30. Why was scurvy a big problem on many ships used for long-distance explorations 3 0.5 Water, Minerals, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? ( Vitamins ) Your Answer: Exposure to sea spray dehydrates the body and causes scurvy. Correct Answer: Scurvy is a deficiency of vitamin C, which is obtained from citrus fruits. Citrus fruits were not available on most ships. Incorrect. Read about vitamin C in section 30.5 and Table 30.1. 31. How many calories are in a 12-ounce glass of w ater? ( Energy-Yielding Nutrients ) Your Answer: 45 Correct Answer: 0 30.6 Calories and the Incorrect. Water has no calories. See section 30.6 for more information. 32. A single calorie is defined as the amount of energy needed to ________. ( Calories and the Energy-Yielding Nutrients ) Your Answer: raise the temperature of 1 ounce of w ater by 1C. Correct Answer: raise the temperature of 1,000 gram of w ater by 1C. Incorrect. Read about calories in section 30.6. 3 0.6 33. Approximately how many calories a day does a sedentary woman aged 19-30 need each day? ( 3 0.6 Calories and the Energy-Yielding Nutrients ) Your Answer: 1,200 Correct Answer: 2,000 Incorrect. Read about calorie requirements in section 30.6 and Table 30.3. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio 34. Why can the body produce tens of thousands of proteins but a much few er number 3 0.7 Proteins ) of carbohydrates? ( Your Answer: Proteins are often used for energy. Correct Answer: Proteins are long chains of up to 20 amino acids, but carbohydrates are typically chains of the same monosaccharide. Incorrect. Read about proteins in section 30.7. 35. Why is it good to have some protein in the diet regularly? ( 3 0.7 Proteins ) Your Answer: Protein should make up the majority of the diet. Correct Answer: The body has no reservoir of stored protein. Incorrect. Read about proteins in section 30.7. 36. How many amino acids can the body manufacture? ( Your Answer: 9 Correct Answer: 11 Incorrect. Read about amino acids in section 30.7. 3 0.7 Proteins ) 37. What percentage of the required protein does the typical American male eat? ( 30.7 Proteins ) Your Answer: 100% Correct Answer: 200% Incorrect. Read about proteins in section 30.7. 38. Table sugar is ___________. ( 3 0.8 Carbohydrates ) Your Register to View Answerdisaccharide made of tw o glucose units Correct Register to View Answerdisaccharide made of glucose and fructose Incorrect. Read about sucrose in section 30.8. 39. Which simple sugar is most commonly added to carbonated soda drinks? ( Carbohydrates ) Your Answer: high-fructose corn syrup C orrect. This is one of the main ingredients in many sodas. 30.8 wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Wheat germ is made from the ________. ( Your Answer: endosperm of a seed Correct Answer: embryo of a seed Incorrect. Read about wheat germ in section 30.8. 3 0.8 Carbohydrates ) 40. 41. Which food below has the low est glycemic load? ( Your Register to View Answercan of regular soda Correct Answer: w hole wheat bread Incorrect. Read about glycemic load in section 30.8. 3 0.8 Carbohydrates ) 42. Which of the follow ing is w ay to reduce blood levels of cholesterol? ( Carbohydrates ) Your Answer: increasing the amount of beef in the diet Correct Answer: eating more fiber Incorrect. Read about fiber in section 30.8. 3 0.8 43. Which type of fat is the most healthy? ( 3 0.9 Lipids ) Your Answer: polyunsaturated fat with omega-7 fatty acids Correct Answer: polyunsaturated fat with omega-3 fatty acids Incorrect. Read about fats in section 30.9. 44. Which of the follow ing should make up the largest portion of the diet? ( Elements of a Healthy Diet) Your Answer: fish, nuts, fruit, and milk Correct Answer: w hole-grain foods and plant oils Incorrect. Read about the food pyramid in section 30.10 and Figure 30.16. 3 0.10 45. Which tw o organ systems have the most direct control over blood volume? ( 30.11 The Urinary System in Overview ) Your Answer: urinary and endocrine systems Correct Answer: digestive and urinary systems Incorrect. Read about the urinary system in section 30.11. 46. Which of the follow ing is NOT a function of the urinary system? ( Urinary System in Overview ) 3 0.11 The wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Y our Answer: the release of nutrients from body fluids C orrect. The urinary system prevents the release of nutrients from body fluids. 47. What is the function of the renal pelvis? ( 3 0.12 Structure of the Urinary System) Your Answer: It collects urine and channels it to the ureter. C orrect. This is the function of the renal pelvis. 48. During a routine urinalysis, it is determined that the patient's urine has a large concentration of glucose present. What nephron structure has malfunctioned? ( 30.13 How the Kidneys Function ) Your Answer: distal tubule Correct Answer: proximal tubule Incorrect. Read about the proximal tubule in section 30.13. 49. What is the effect of ADH on the nephron of the kidney? ( Kidneys Function ) 3 0.13 How the Your Answer: It increases the water permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct of the nephron. C orrect. By increasing permeability, the w ater is saved in the body and returned to the blood. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 30. Transport and Exchange 2: Digestio Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > How the Baby Came to Be: Site: Human Reproduct > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:46 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 10 que stions: 1 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. The precursors of the eggs produced by females are referred to as Your Answer: oocytes 2. The structure in w hich sperm are stored and complete their maturation is the Y our Answer: vas deferens Correct Answer: epididymis 3. The tertiary follicle ruptures midway through the menstrual cycle, expelling Y our Answer: tw o oocytes along w ith some accessory cells Correct Answer: one oocyte along with some accessory cells 4. The fingerlike fimbriae near the ovary act to Y our Answer: protect the oocyte from premature fertilization Correct Answer: move the oocyte into the uterine tube 5. The natural degeneration of follicles during a w omans lifetime is referred to as Y our Answer: apoptosis Correct Answer: atresia 6. Which statement is correct concerning gamete production? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep Y our Answer: Sperm cells are produced daily, w hereas egg cells can be produced only at certain points in the reproductive cycle. Correct Answer: All of the above are correct statements. 7. A fertility doctor is trying to determine why a couple is infertile. It has been determined that the w oman is fertile, so the problem must be w ith the man. In analyzing the mans semen, the doctor notices that it seems to be lacking in proper nutrients for the sperm. The malfunctioning structure must be the: Y our Answer: seminiferous tubules Correct Answer: seminal vesicles 8. The portion of the sperm that contains the enzymes used to degrade materials found on the outside of the egg is the Y our Answer: tail Correct Answer: acrosome 9. The portion of the blastocyst called the trophoblast eventually helps form the Y our Answer: nervous system of the baby Correct Answer: placenta 10. Birth of identical tw ins results from unusual events during Y our Answer: sperm production Correct Answer: early cell divisions after fertilization E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 H e lp How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > How the Baby Came to Be: Site: Human Reproduct > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:46 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 20 que stions: 8 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which statement is correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Birth control pills are composed of prolactin and prevent pregnancy by fooling the body into "thinking" it's pregnant. Correct Answer: Birth control pills are composed of estrogen and synthetic progesterone and prevent pregnancy by preventing follicle development and ovulation. Incorrect: Review the essay on hormones and the female reproductive cycle. 2. Why can't a woman get pregnant again during pregnancy? (level 1). Your Answer: High levels of estrogen and progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum or placenta during pregnancy, inhibit the secretion of gonadotropins and prevent ovulation. C orrect: Pregnancy acts much like the birth control pill to prevent follicle development and ovulation. 3. What is the earliest point in development in w hich all the major organs are formed in a human fetus? (level 1). Your Answer: 20 weeks C orrect: In addition to organ formation, blood cells form, head and body hair appear, and the mother can begin to feel fetal movement. 4. Which of the follow ing events occurs at the same time that menstruation is beginning? (level 1). Y our Answer: The levels of LH and FSH are "spiking." Correct Answer: The corpus luteum is degenerating. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep Incorrect: Review the essay on hormones and the female reproductive cycle. 5. Which of the follow ing is true of oogenesis in humans? (level 1). Your Answer: The period of time from formation of the oogonium to ovulation of an oocyte may be 40 years. C orrect: Each month, after the onset of puberty, only a few of the oocytes complete cell division. Thus, the oocyte that is ovulated when the female is 40 years old began the process when she w as still a fetus. 6. What might explain the fact that chromosomal abnormalities that result in conditions such as Dow n's Syndrome are more common in oocytes that are ovulated late in a woman's life? (level 2). Your Answer: The oocytes are older and have an increased risk of having accumulated detrimental genetic anomalies. C orrect: As cells age, they are exposed to chemicals and other factors that may result in genetic defects. 7. Which portion of the blastocyst is responsible for the formation of the placenta? (level 1). Y our Answer: the inner cell mass Correct Answer: the trophoblast Incorrect: These cells form the fetus. 8. Once fertilization occurs, w here does the embryo become implanted? (level 1 Y our Answer: fallopian tube Correct Answer: endometrium Incorrect: Review Section 30.5. 9. Which of the follow ing statements concerning mature sperm is correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Sperm are nonmotile. Correct Answer: Sperm are produced continuously from the onset of puberty. Incorrect: Sperm are flagellated. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep 10. As many as half of the sperm produced by males are malformed. What may be the reason for this? (level 2). Your Answer: The malformed sperm act to block or destroy potential sperm from other males. C orrect: This is one hypothesis as to w hy males ejaculate so many sperm. 11. At which point during reproduction does the acrosome of the sperm become capacitated? (level 1). Your Answer: w hen the acrosome encounters the accessory cells surrounding an oocyte C orrect: This allow s the acrosomal enzymes to break down the barriers betw een the egg and sperm. 12. Which of the follow ing events occurs w ithin the uterine tubes? (level 1). Y our Answer: oogenesis Correct Register to View AnswerB and C are all correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only event in this list that occurs in the uterine tubes? 13. At which stage of follicle maturation does ovulation occur, transforming the follicle into the corpus luteum? (level 1). Your Answer: tertiary follicle C orrect: These follicles are also referred to as Graafian follicles. 14. Which of the follow ing statements concerning menopause is correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Menopausal symptoms are a result of a decrease in the production of FSH and LH. Correct Answer: The onset of menopause is primarily due to follicle atresia. Incorrect: The symptoms are actually a result of a decline in estrogen. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 15. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep Observe the following anatomical structures: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. epididymis prostate gland urethra seminiferous tubule vas deferens Which of the follow ing is the correct order that sperm and semen must travel in order to exit the penis? (level 1). Y our Answer: 2, 4, 5, 3, 1 Correct Answer: 4, 1, 5, 2, 3 Incorrect: Review Figure 30.6 and Section 30.3 on the male reproductive system. 16. Of the different means of contraception, w hich one has the highest ranking of effectiveness? (level 1). Your Answer: vasectomy C orrect: This method is 99.9 percent effective. The 0.01 percent of ineffectiveness results when the severed vas deferens actually grow s back together. 17. Out of all of the sexually transmitted diseases listed below , w hich one is not incurable or does not include antibiotic-resistant strains? (level 1). Y our Answer: AIDS Correct Answer: chlamydia Incorrect: There is no know n cure for the AIDS virus. 18. Premature babies that w ere born before their 28th w eek of development often died. How ever, in the 1980s a medical researcher named John Clements developed a treatment for premature babies. His procedure decreases the number of deaths of premature babies in half, saving the lives of thousands of premature babies. What did Dr. Clements develop? (level 1). Y our Answer: artificial blood replacement Correct Answer: artificial lung surfactant Incorrect: Review the section on premature babies in Section 30.6. In order to prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing an egg, there exists a cellular p rocess know n as the "fast block to p olys p ermy." How does this fast block wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 19. 9/14/2010 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Rep y p p yp w ork? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerhardening of the membranes of the accessory cells surrounding the oocyte Correct Register to View Answerchange in the oocyte's membrane potential due to an influx of sodium ions Incorrect: You can review the polyspermy block in Section 30.4. 20. Which of the follow ing statements about fraternal tw ins is true? (level 2). Y our Answer: These tw ins form w hen the tw o-celled embryo gives rise to tw o babies. Correct Answer: Genetically, fraternal tw ins are the same as any other brother or sister. Incorrect: This w ould produce identical tw ins. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Print this page Your Results for "Animation Quiz: Embryonic development" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal Site: Development > Student Home > Animation Quiz: Embryonic development Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:07 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 6 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 6 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. A child is born without a fully developed bladder. This problem most likely began early in development. The most likely time the original error occurred is during the: Y our Answer: mesoderm formation Correct Answer: endoderm formation Incorrect. This is not the stage at which the error occurred. 2. A blastula is: Y our Register to View Answerfertilized egg Correct Register to View Answerlarge cluster of cells with a fluid-filled cavity Incorrect. A fertilized egg is termed a zygote. 3. Which of these events occurs first in organogenesis? Y our Answer: neural fold development Correct Answer: gastrulation Incorrect. This is not the first event in organogenesis. 4. The developing notochord stimulates the overlying ectoderm to thicken forming the: Y our Answer: neural groove Correct Answer: neural tube Incorrect. The neural g roove is not formed in res p onse to stimulation b y the wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 n otochord. 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim 5. Which of the following develops primarily from endoderm? Y our Answer: the brain and spinal cord Correct Answer: the lining of the digestive tract Incorrect. The brain and spinal cord are not derived from endoderm. 6. Which of the following is not one of the 3 phases of embryonic development? Y our Answer: cleavage Correct Answer: fertilization Incorrect. This is a phase of embryonic development. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal Site: Development > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:07 PM (EDT) 27% Correct of 48 questions 13 corre ct: 35 incorre ct: 2 7% 7 3% More information about scoring 1. What is the first large-scale movement of cells during embryonic development 31.1 General Processes in called? [General Processes in Development] ( Development) Your Answer: induction Correct Answer: gastrulation Incorrect. Read about embryonic development in section 31.1. 2. Which of the follow ing structures is NOT derived from the tissue know n as neural 3 1.1 General Processes in crest cells? [General Processes in Development] ( Development) Your Answer: cells in the adrenal medulla Correct Answer: rods and cones in the retina Incorrect. These cells are derived from neural crest cells. See section 31.1 and Figure 31.4 for more information. 3. A blastula is ______. [General Processes in Development] ( Processes in Development) Your Register to View Answerzygote 31.1 General Correct Register to View Answerlarge cluster of cells w ith a fluid-filled cavity Incorrect. See section 31.1 and Figures 31.1 and 31.2 for more information. 4. The developing notochord stimulates the overlying ectoderm to thicken, forming 3 1.1 General Processes in the ______. [General Processes in Development] ( Development) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Y our Answer: neural plate C orrect. The neural plate is formed in response to stimulation by the notochord. 5. Which of the follow ing is not one of the three phases of embryonic development? 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) [General Processes in Development] ( Your Answer: fertilization C orrect. Fertilization is not a stage of embryonic development. 6. A zygote turns into an embryo when it ___________. [General Processes in 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Development] ( Your Answer: divides C orrect. This is a critical step in development. 7. The first stage of embryonic development is _______. [General Processes in Development] ( 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Your Answer: gastrulation Correct Answer: cleavage Incorrect. This is not the first stage. See section 31.1 for more information. 8. During cleavage, w hat happens to the size of the cells? [General Processes in 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Development] ( Your Answer: The cells stay the same size. Correct Answer: The cells get smaller. Incorrect. Read about the process of cleavage in section 31.1. 9. The blastocoel is filled with ____________. [General Processes in Development] ( 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Your Answer: air Correct Answer: liquid Incorrect. Read about the blastocoel in section 31.1 and Figure 31.1. 10. Spinal cord injuries could potentially be cured using __________. [General 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Processes in Development] ( Your Register to View Answerzygote Correct Answer: embryonic stem cells wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Incorrect. Which cells have some differentiation but not much? See section 31.1 for more information. 11. Which pole of a fertilized egg contains most of the yolk? [General Processes in 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Development] ( Your Answer: north Correct Answer: vegetal Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 12. Gastrulation involves _________. [General Processes in Development] ( General Processes in Development) Your Answer: development Correct Answer: cell movement Incorrect. Read about gastrulation in section 31.1. 3 1.1 13. The lungs and liver are made from w hich of the follow ing tissues? [General 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Processes in Development] ( Your Answer: epidermis Correct Answer: endoderm Incorrect. Read about gastrulation in section 31.1. 14. In the sea urchin, the archenteron first forms the ________. [General Processes in 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Development] ( Your Answer: anus C orrect. The archenteron moves from the anus to the mouth. 15. The dorsal side of a frog forms its _____________. [General Processes in Development] ( 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Your Answer: head Correct Answer: back Incorrect. Read about organogenesis in section 31.1. 16. The brain and spinal cord form from the _________. [General Processes in Development] ( 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Your Answer: endoderm Correct Answer: neural tube wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 17. Cleft lip is caused by a failure of cells to develop and meet in the upper lip from the 3 1.1 General Processes in __________. [General Processes in Development] ( Development) Your Answer: ectoderm Correct Answer: neural crest Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 18. The archenteron is ________. [General Processes in Development] ( General Processes in Development) Your Register to View Answerprimitive heart Correct Register to View Answerprimitive digestive system Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 3 1.1 19. The reproductive organs of an animal derive from __________. [General Processes 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) in Development] ( Your Answer: ectoderm Correct Answer: mesoderm Incorrect. Read about the germ layers in section 31.1 and Table 31.1. 20. During gastrulation, the digestive system is lined by __________. [General 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Processes in Development] ( Your Answer: ectoderm Correct Answer: endoderm Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 21. One organ made from migrating neural crest cells is the ____________. [General 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Processes in Development] ( Your Answer: skin Correct Answer: adrenal glands Incorrect. Read about organogenesis in section 31.1. 22. The vertebrae in our spine are made from _______. [General Processes in Development] ( 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Your Answer: epidermis Correct Answer: somites wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Incorrect. See section 31.1 for more information. 23. The skeleton and muscles in a sea urchin are made from __________. [General 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Processes in Development] ( Your Answer: skin Correct Answer: mesoderm Incorrect. See section 31.1 and Table 31.1 for more information. 24. In which part of the body does the neural tube develop? [General Processes in 3 1.1 General Processes in Development) Development] ( Your Answer: posterior Correct Answer: dorsal Incorrect. Read about organogenesis and the neural tube in section 31.1. 25. The bicoid protein is an example of ______. [What Factors Underlie Development?] 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) ( Your Register to View Answermorphogen C orrect. A morphogen is a substance that exists in a concentration gradient that establishes positional information in the embryo. 26. The process of development is of great interest to many researchers. Which of the following research organism has been used more than any other to decipher the 3 1.2 mysteries of morphogenesis? [What Factors Underlie Development?] ( What Factors Underlie Development? ) Your Answer: Canis lupus Correct Answer: Drosophila melanogaster Incorrect. Read about fruit flies in section 31.2. 27. Which group of cells in the chick induces the formation of a wing? [What Factors 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) Underlie Development?] ( Your Answer: ZPA C orrect. The cells in the zone of polarizing activity induce the formation of a wing. 28. In the early stage of development, all vertebrate embryos, including those of 3 1.2 What humans, have _____. [What Factors Underlie Development?] ( Factors Underlie Development? ) Your Answer: four obvious limbs Correct Register to View Answertail wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Incorrect. See section 31.2 and Figure 31.6 for more information. 29. In the chick embryo, the ZPA is a group of cells in the ______. [What Factors 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) Underlie Development?] ( Your Answer: mesoderm C orrect. The ZPA forms in the mesoderm. 30. The ventral portion of a fly embryo will eventually develop into its ___________. [What Factors Underlie Development?] ( 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development? ) Your Answer: head Correct Answer: belly Incorrect. See section 31.2 for more information. 31. The "nurse cells" in a fly embryo produce _________. [What Factors Underlie 31.2 What Factors Underlie Development? ) Development?] ( Your Answer: carbohydrates Correct Answer: bicoid protein Incorrect. See section 31.2 and Figure 31.8 for more information. 32. Bicoid protein in a fruit fly embryo is least concentrated in _________. [What Factors Underlie Development?] ( 31.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) Your Answer: the anterior end Correct Answer: the posterior end Incorrect. See section 31.2 and Figure 31.8 for more information. 33. If cells filled w ith bicoid protein are put in the center of a fruit fly embryo, that area will eventually develop into ________. [What Factors Underlie Development?] ( 31.2 What Factors Underlie Development? ) Your Answer: reproductive organs Correct Register to View Answerhead Incorrect. Think about what high levels of bicoid protein produce. See section 31.2 and Figure 31.8 for more information. 34. Morphogens affect development by influencing __________. [What Factors 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) Underlie Development?] ( Your Answer: transcription factors wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim C orrect. Morphogens cause the production of transcription factors. 35. Which morphogen is produced by ZPA cells to induce limb formation? [What Factors 3 1.2 What Factors Underlie Development?) Underlie Development?] ( Your Answer: sonic boom Correct Answer: sonic hedgehog Incorrect. Read about morphogens in section 31.2. 36. Why do scientists deliberately cause mutations in fruit flies? [Unity in Development: 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Homeobox Genes] ( Your Answer: to w ork out which gene causes a particular developmental effect C orrect. This is one way to pinpoint developmental genes. 37. If scientists discovered a species that had homeobox genes completely different from those of fruit flies, the scientists w ould conclude that their discovery ________. [Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes] ( 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Your Answer: w as a species of plant Correct Answer: w as not closely related to animals, plants or fungi Incorrect. Read about homeobox genes in section 31.3. 38. Roughly how many base pairs are in a homeobox sequence? [Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes] ( 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Your Answer: 46 Correct Answer: 180 Incorrect. Read about homeobox base pairs in section 31.3. 39. When did scientists discover homeobox sequences in fruit flies? [Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes] ( 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Your Answer: 1980s C orrect. This is when homeobox genes were first identified. 40. The common ancestor of both a fruit fly and a mouse was probably a type of _______. [Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes] ( 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Your Answer: insect wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Correct Answer: w orm Incorrect. See section 31.3 for more information. 41. How long ago did the evolutionary lines of flies and mammals separate? [Unity in 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Development: Homeobox Genes] ( Genes ) Your Answer: 50 million years ago Correct Answer: 550 million years ago Incorrect. Flies and mammals diverged longer than that. See section 31.3 for more information. 42. The difference betw een a centipede with many legs and a fly w ith six legs is the result of _______. [Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes] ( 3 1.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes ) Your Answer: the environment during egg development Correct Register to View Answersingle homeobox gene Incorrect. See section 31.3 for more information. 43. Which part of the cell is most important in cell movement? [Developmental Tools: 3 1.4 Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body) Sculpting the Body] ( Your Answer: microtubules Correct Answer: microfilaments Incorrect. Read about cell movement and microfilaments in section 31.4. 44. Where are cell adhesion proteins found? [Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body] ( 3 1.4 Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body) Your Answer: on the outer surface of the plasma membrane C orrect. This is how one cell attaches to its neighbor. 45. The cell adhesion molecules on the surface of liver and skin cells of one person are 3 1.4 likely to be ______. [Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body] ( Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body) Your Answer: haploid Correct Answer: different Incorrect. See section 31.4 for more information. 46. Cell adhesion molecules are typically __________. [Developmental Tools: Sculpting 3 1.4 Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body) the Body] ( wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Y our Answer: proteins C orrect. Cell adhesion molecules are proteins. 47. Spaces in the embryo that define shapes are produced by ________. 31.4 Developmental Tools: Sculpting [Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body] ( the Body) Your Answer: air bubbles Correct Answer: cell death Incorrect. Read about cell death in section 31.4. 48. Development is a process that _________. [Development through Life] ( Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body) Your Answer: continues throughout life C orrect. Development never stops throughout an organism's lifespan. 31.4 wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 31. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Anim Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Interactive Living World: Site: Populations > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:47 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 10 que stions: 2 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. A(n) _____ consists of members of a single species that live in a specific geographic region, w hile a(n) _____ consists of the populations of all species that live in a single region. Y our Answer: ecological dominant; biosphere Correct Answer: population; community 2. A community and all the nonliving elements that interact with it (sunlight, nutrients, soil, etc.) is called Y our Register to View Answerbiome Correct Answer: an ecosystem 3. When population grow th increases in proportion to the number of members of a population, _____ grow th is said to have occurred. Y our Answer: density-independent Correct Answer: exponential 4. The use of pesticides in many agricultural communities has led to a great reduction in many targeted insects. How ever, many other nontarget insects have declined as w ell. In particular, ecologists and fruit grow ers have noticed that certain species of bees that pollinate valuable plants have declined, leading to a decrease in many bee-pollinated species. In communities where great change has occurred due to the decline in this ecosystem function, bees may be Your Answer: keystone species 5. An interaction betw een tw o species in which one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor help ed is called wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population Y our Answer: parasitism Correct Answer: commensalism 6. In the process of nitrogen fixation, plants contribute food to bacteria that are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen gas, and the bacteria can supply the plants w ith a usable form of nitrogen. This is an example of Y our Answer: cooperation Correct Answer: mutualism 7. The process by which one species evolves to resemble another species is called Y our Answer: natural deception Correct Answer: mimicry 8. The largest scale of life, w hich can be thought of as the interaction of all of Earths ecosystems, is called Your Answer: the biosphere 9. In communities undergoing succession Y our Answer: the general trend is tow ard less species diversity Correct Answer: the general trend is tow ard longer-lived species 10. In primary succession, pioneer species w ill predominately be _____ because they _____. Your Answer: trees; can run roots deep into the soil for w ater Correct Answers: migratory animals; can go elsew here for their food p hotosynthesizing organisms; can make their ow n food E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Send as: wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp An Interactive Living World: Population Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Interactive Living World: Site: Populations > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:47 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 20% Correct o f 20 que stions: 4 corre ct: 16 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which statement about ecology is NOT correct? (level 1). Y our Answer: Ecologists may study populations and communities of organisms. Correct Answer: Ecology is a movement by scientists and others to try and save the environment. Incorrect: Review Section 31.1. 2. Refer to the following diagram representing the logistic model of population grow th. (N = number of individuals in the population) At which point in time is the population's intrinsic rate of increase closest to zero? (level 2). Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View Answer Incorrect: At this point in time, "r" has declined, but it is still not as close to zero as another point. 3. At which point on the timeline is the population's birthrate the highest compared to the population's death rate? wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population (level 1). Your Register to View Answer C orrect: At this point in time, the population is undergoing exponential growth, an indication that the birthrate far exceeds the death rate. 4. Which is NOT true of an r-selected (opportunistic) species? (level 1). Y our Answer: They invest little energy in parental care of young. Correct Answer: Density dependent factors (such as competition for food, disease) control population size and grow th. Incorrect: Review Section 31.3. 5. Which is NOT true of a K-selected (equilibrial) species? (level 1). Your Answer: They produce large numbers of relatively small offspring. C orrect: K-selected species produce only a few well-developed offspring. 6. Under w hich of the age/sex distributions below w ould this population of monogamous primates have the fastest grow th rate? (level 2). Y our Answer: Correct Answer: Incorrect: The age distribution of this population is heavily w eighted with individuals that are of post-reproductive age. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population 7. American dune grass thrives better w hen other dune grasses are nearby. Therefore, w hen population numbers are low , dune grasses suffer higher mortality than w hen there is a lot of dune grass nearby. Which of the following graphs best represents the likely grow th of dune grasses over time? (level 2). Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View Answer Incorrect: This population never reaches a limit to grow th (carrying capacity). 8. Which of the follow ing species w ould be considered the most opportunistic (rselected) species? (level 1) Y our Answer: mountain lions Correct Answer: Pacific salmon Incorrect: Most large mammals are more K-selected. 9. Which of the follow ing is NOT a correct definition of biodiversity? (level 1). Y our Answer: the distribution of the variety of species across the w orld Correct Answer: the number of individuals w ithin a population Incorrect: Although not as common, this is also a definition of biodiversity. 10. One important factor involved in population grow th is generation time (how long a time span exists betw een the birth of one generation and the birth of the next). Which of the following statements concerning generation time is a true statement? (level 2). Y our Answer: Generation time generally increases as the size of the organism decreases. Correct Answer: Generation time generally increases as the size of the organism increases. Incorrect: Review the information on exp onential g rowth curves in Section 31.2, wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population a nd also Figure 29.7. 11. In any community, there will alw ays be a few species that are the ecological dominants. What is the most important characteristic that distinguishes a species as being an ecological dominant? (level 2). Y our Answer: the kingdom of the organism Correct Answer: the number of individuals Incorrect: Most ecological dominants are plants, but they could be members of any of the other kingdoms. 12. Which of the follow ing metaphors most accurately describes what an organism's habitat is? (level 2). Y our Register to View Answerspecies-preferred occupation Correct Register to View Answerspecies-preferred neighborhood Incorrect: Review Section 31.6 concerning community interactions. 13. The competitive exclusion principle introduced by G. F. Gause w ould apply to w hich of the follow ing? (level 2). Y our Answer: snapping turtles and dragonflies on a pond Correct Answer: kudzu and pine trees in a forest Incorrect: The turtle and the dragonfly w ould not be competing for the same resources. 14. Which of the follow ing w ould NOT be considered a type of predation? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answersea otter eating sea urchins Correct Answer: All of the above ARE types of predation. Incorrect: Review Section 31.6 concerning predation. 15. Observe the collected and plotted data for tw o species of fish w ithin one medium-sized pond. Bass are the top predators in the pond, w hile the bluegill consume primarily insects. (level 2). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population Based on previous studies of predatorprey dynamics, what prediction w ould be the most accurate concerning the population growth of the bass in the pond from time x into the future? Y our Answer: It is impossible to predict what will happen to the bass population. Correct Answer: The bass population w ill decline as the population of bluegill continues to decline. Incorrect: Predatorprey dynamics are moderately predictable. 16. Which of the follow ing is a true statement concerning parasites? (level 1). Y our Answer: Parasites feed on their host. Correct Register to View AnswerB, and C are all correct. Incorrect: Although this is correct, is this the only true statement concerning parasites? 17. Which of the follow ing is NOT an example of mimicry? (level 1). Y our Register to View Answerclearw ing moth that has no stinger but has the coloration of a yellow jacket wasp Correct Register to View Answerfrogfish's worm-like appendage that is used to lure prey in close enough to capture it Incorrect: This is a classic example of Batesian mimicry. 18. Corals belong to the animal phylum Cnidaria that also includes jellyfish and sea anemones. Coral polyps generally have a brow n coloration that is the result of single-celled algae that live inside the cells of the coral animal. The algal cells are protected and relatively safe inside the coral polyps. The algal cells also get plenty of light and lots of carbon dioxide inside the host cell, allow ing them to undergo a lot of photosynthesis. Some of the food produced by the algal cells is transferred to the coral host cell, giving them nutrients. This type of interaction betw een algae and coral w ould be considered ... (level 1). Your Answer: mutualism. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population C orrect: Both the algal cell and the coral cell are receiving benefit from this association. 19. Bromeliads are flow ering plants that live in the canopy of the rain forest. These plants have leaves that collect water, forming small pools next to the stem of the plant. Tree frogs, w hich must lay their eggs in w ater, w ill use the w ater in the bromeliads as a nursery for their tadpoles. The w ater in the bromeliads enables the frogs to have pools of water up in the canopy. The interaction betw een the tree frogs and the bromeliads w ould best be described as ... (level 1). Y our Answer: mutualism. Correct Answer: commensalism. Incorrect: The frogs receive benefit from the bromeliads, but the bromeliads are unaffected by the tree frogs. 20. After the eruption of Mount St. Helens, it w as discovered that some organisms actually survived. Gophers that lived primarily underground, and seeds and spores in the soil w ere still viable after the blast. Other remnants of living things, such as dead trees and overturned tree roots also remained. These organisms or remnants of organisms w ere so important to the primary succession of the area that a new ecological term w as coined for them. What w ere they called? (level 1). Your Answer: biological legacies C orrect: These organisms provide the foundation for the development of an entirely new ecosystem after a major ecological disaster. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/7 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Population Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 7/7 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: The Female Reproductive System" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Site: Reproduction > Student Home > Animations Quiz: The Female Reproductive System Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:09 PM (EDT) 25% Correct of 16 questions 4 correct: 12 incorrect: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. Progestins are found in the highest concentration: Your Answer: on day 10 of the cycle Correct Answer: follow ing ovulation Incorrect. Progestins are not found at high levels during day 10 of the cycle. 2. Ovulation is triggered by a large surge of: Y our Answer: progestins Correct Answer: LH Incorrect. A progestin surge does not trigger ovulation. 3. The uterine lining is released during the ______________ w eek of the reproductive cycle. Y our Answer: first C orrect. Menstruation occurs during the first w eek of the cycle. 4. After the egg is released during ovulation the remaining follicle cells develop into the: Y our Answer: fetus Correct Answer: corpus luteum wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Incorrect. The remains of the follicle do not develop into the fetus. 5. The corpus luteum secretes _________ w hich is important for building and maintaining the uterine lining. Y our Answer: FSH Correct Answer: progestins Incorrect. The corpus luteum does not secrete FSH. 6. If a doctor notices that a man's semen seems to be lacking in the nutrient rich secretions that help the sperm survive outside the male body, the structure malfunctioning must be: Y our Answer: the urethra Correct Answer: one of the accessory glands Incorrect. The urethra does not produce secretions to help the sperm survive outside the male body. 7. How does sperm production differ from egg production? Y our Answer: sperm are produced in much higher numbers than eggs Correct Answer: all of the above are differences betw een sperm and egg production Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 8. Which of the follow ing is the correct pathway of sperm as they leave the body? Y our Answer: vas deferens --> epididymis --> testes --> urethra Correct Answer: testes --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> urethra Incorrect. Sperm do not begin their pathw ay in the vas deferens. 9. Development of sperm in humans requires: Y our Register to View Answerhigher temperature than the body Correct Register to View Answerlower temperature than the body Incorrect. Sperm do not require a higher temperature than the body. 10. What part of the sperm cell contains digestive enzymes which aid in penetration of the egg? Your Answer: acrosome C orrect. The acrosome contains digestive enzymes. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Which of the follow ing is correct concerning sperm and fertilization? Y our Answer: the first sperm that approaches the egg is the one to fertilize the egg Correct Answer: only the sperm that binds with the egg's receptor first w ill fertilize the egg Incorrect. The first sperm that approaches the egg is not necessarily the one to fertiize the egg. 11. 12. The human heart is functioning by which point in development? Y our Answer: 2 months Correct Answer: 4 w eeks Incorrect. The human heart is functioning earlier than this time. 13. A pregnant w oman is worried that she w ill deliver prematurely. Her doctor tells her that if she delivers before a certain point, the odds of the baby surviving are extremely small. If she can avoid delivery until after that point, the odds of the baby surviving w ill be greatly increased. That time is: Y our Answer: 6 months Correct Answer: 7 months Incorrect. This time is considered too early. 14. How long does it take for an embryo to begin implantation in the uterus? Y our Answer: 24 hours Correct Answer: 7 days Incorrect. Implantation occurs at a later time. 15. What cells are responsible for implantation in the uterus? Y our Answer: trophoblast C orrect. The trophoblast cells facilitate implantation. 16. The linkage between the _____ and _____ eventually becomes the placenta. Your Answer: trophoblast; uterine w all C orrect. This is the appropriate linkage. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Site: Reproduction > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:09 PM (EDT) 29% Correct of 45 questions 13 corre ct: 32 incorre ct: 2 9% 7 1% More information about scoring 1. Why can't a w oman get pregnant again during pregnancy? ( Reproductive System) 3 2.2 The Female Your Answer: High levels of estrogen and progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum or placenta during pregnancy, inhibit the secretion of gonadotropins and prevent ovulation. C orrect. Pregnancy acts much like the birth control pill to prevent follicle development and ovulation. 2. Which of the follow ing statements about oogenesis in humans is true? ( The Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: Oocytes develop within the corpus luteum. 3 2.2 Correct Answer: The period from formation of the oogonium to ovulation of an oocyte may be 40 years. Incorrect. This is not applicable to oogenesis. See section 32.2 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing statements about menopause is correct? ( Female Reproductive System) 3 2.2 The Your Answer: Menopause will occur when a female has only about 250,000 follicles left in her ovaries. Correct Answer: The onset of menopause is primarily a result of follicle degeneration. Incorrect. This is not a true statement regarding menopause. See section 32.2 for more information. 4. Progestins are found in the highest concentration _______. ( 3 2.2 The Female wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Reproductive System) Your Answer: on day 10 of the cycle Correct Answer: follow ing ovulation Incorrect. This is not the time of the reproductive cycle when progestins are at their highest concentration. See section 32.2 for more information. 5. The uterine lining is released during the ______________ w eek of the 32.2 The Female Reproductive System) reproductive cycle. ( Your Answer: first C orrect. Menstruation occurs during the first w eek of the cycle. 6. The corpus luteum secretes _________, important for building and maintaining the 32.2 The Female Reproductive System) uterine lining. ( Y our Answer: FSH Correct Answer: progestins Incorrect. This hormone is not secreted by the corpus luteum. See section 32.2 for more information. 7. As many as half of the sperm produced by males are malformed. What might be 3 2.3 The Male Reproductive System) the reason for this? ( Your Answer: The malformed sperm prevent multiple fertilizations of a single egg. Correct Answer: The malformed sperm block or destroy potential sperm from other males. Incorrect. See section 32.3 for more information. 8. If a doctor notices that a man's semen seems to be lacking in the nutrient-rich secretions that help the sperm survive outside the male body, the structure malfunctioning must be ______. ( 3 2.3 The Male Reproductive System) Your Answer: the urethra Correct Answer: one of the accessory glands Incorrect. This is not the source of nutrient-rich seminal secretions. See section 32.3 and Figure 32.6 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing is the correct pathway of sperm as they leave the body? ( 32.3 The Male Reproductive System) Your Answer: vas deferens --> epididymis --> testes --> urethra Correct Answer: testes --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> urethra Incorrect. This is not the correct pathw ay. See section 32.3 and Figure 32.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human 10. At which point during reproduction does the acrosome of the sperm release its 3 2.4 The Union of Sperm and Egg ) enzymes? ( Your Answer: when the acrosome encounters the accessory cells surrounding an oocyte C orrect. This allow s the acrosomal enzymes to break dow n the barriers between the egg and sperm. 11. Which of the follow ing sexually transmitted diseases is likely to lead to death? ( 32.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) Your Answer: syphilis Correct Answer: AIDS Incorrect. This STD usually does not result in death. See the essay "Sexually Transmitted Diseases" for more information. 12. Which portion of the blastocyst is responsible for the formation of the placenta? ( 3 2.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) Your Answer: the inner cell mass Correct Answer: the trophoblast Incorrect. This is not the portion of the blastocyst that contributes to formation of the placenta. See section 32.5 and Figure 32.8 for more information. 13. Once fertilization occurs, w here does the embryo normally become implanted? ( 32.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) Your Answer: corpus luteum Correct Answer: endometrium Incorrect. This is not the normal site of implantation. See section 32.5 and Figure 32.8 for more information. 14. A pregnant w oman is worried that she w ill deliver prematurely. Her doctor tells her that if she delivers before a certain point, the odds of the baby surviving are extremely small. If she can avoid delivery until after that point, the odds of the 32.5 baby surviving w ill be greatly increased. That point in time is ______. ( Human Development Prior to Birth ) Your Answer: 5 months Correct Answer: 7 months Incorrect. This is not the critical developmental time for survival of a premature fetus. See section 32.5 for more information. 15. What cells are responsible for implantation in the uterus? ( Development Prior to Birth) 3 2.5 Human wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Y our Answer: yolk sac Correct Answer: trophoblast Incorrect. These are not the embryonic cells that accomplish implantation. See section 32.5 and Figure 32.8 for more information. 16. Premature babies born before their 28th w eek of development often died because of poor lung function. What condition in the lungs is responsible for this condition? 3 2.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) ( Your Answer: insufficient lung surfactant C orrect. The production of lung surfactant does not begin until the 28th w eek of development. 17. What is the function of an ovarian follicle? ( Reproduction and Development) 32.1 Overview of Human Your Answer: It nourishes a developing oocyte. C orrect. The ovarian follicle nourishes and protects the developing oocyte. 18. How often is a follicle-oocyte complex brought to a state of maturity? ( Overview of Human Reproduction and Development) Your Answer: 7 days Correct Answer: 28 days 3 2.1 Incorrect. This is not the time frame for producing mature oocytes. See section 32.1 for more information. 19. What is the process that releases an oocyte from a follicle? ( Human Reproduction and Development) Your Answer: fertilization Correct Answer: ovulation 3 2.1 Overview of Incorrect. This is not the term used to describe the release of an oocyte. See section 32.1 for more information. 20. Which female reproductive organ receives an oocyte that is released from a mature 3 2.1 Overview of Human Reproduction and Development) follicle? ( Your Answer: uterine tube C orrect. The uterine tube receives an oocyte during ovulation. 21. What is the result of the fusion of a sperm with a secondary oocyte? ( Overview of Human Reproduction and Development) 3 2.1 wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Y our Answer: ovulation Correct Answer: fertilization Incorrect. This is not what happens when a sperm fuses with an egg. See section 32.1 for more information. 22. Which of the follow ing ducts carries the complete seminal mixture? ( Male Reproductive System) Your Answer: epididymis Correct Answer: urethra 3 2.3 The Incorrect. This duct does not contain the entire mixture of seminal fluid. See section 32.3 for more information. 23. Approximately how many sperm are contained in a typical ejaculation? ( Overview of Human Reproduction and Development) Your Answer: 1 million Correct Answer: 200 million 3 2.1 Incorrect. Each ejaculation contains much more than this number. See section 32.1 for more information. 24. What is the typical cycle of sperm production in a male? ( Reproductive System) Your Answer: 24 hours Correct Answer: sperm production in males is not cyclical 3 2.3 The Male Incorrect. This is not an accurate statement for sperm production in males. See section 32.3 for more information. 25. Which of these structures serves as the entrance to the uterus for sperm? ( 32.2 The Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: fimbriae Correct Answer: cervix Incorrect. This is not where sperm enter the uterus. See section 32.2 and Figure 32.1 for more information. 26. During menstruation, material from the _______ is lost from a woman's body. ( 32.2 The Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: vagina Correct Answer: endometrium Incorrect. This is not the location of material that is lost during menstruation. See section 32.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Which stage of follicle is present in the greatest numbers in a woman? ( The Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: primary follicles C orrect. A woman has more primary follicles than any other stage of development. 3 2.2 27. 28. Which stage of follicle ruptures and releases an oocyte at ovulation? ( Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: primary follicle Correct Answer: tertiary follicle 3 2.2 The Incorrect. This is not the stage of follicle that contains a mature oocyte. See section 32.2 for more information. 29. The fingerlike projections that guide an oocyte into the uterine tube are called 3 2.2 The Female Reproductive System) _________. ( Your Answer: endometrium Correct Answer: fimbriae Incorrect. This is not the structure that surrounds the opening of the uterine tube. See section 32.2 for more information. 30. If a blood sample of a woman revealed a very high level of luteinizing hormone 32.2 The Female Reproductive System) (LH), w hat is her reproductive state? ( Your Answer: She is pregnant. Correct Answer: She is in the ovulatory phase of her reproductive cycle. Incorrect. A high level of LH does not indicate this condition. See the essay "Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle" for more information. 31. A blood sample from a w oman shows a high level of progestins. What is her 3 2.2 The Female Reproductive System) reproductive state? ( Your Answer: Her uterus is in its proliferative phase. Correct Answer: She has already ovulated. Incorrect. This condition is not associated with a high level of progestins. See the essay "Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle" for more information. 32. A blood sample from a w oman shows a high level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). What is her reproductive state? ( 3 2.2 The Female Reproductive System) Your Answer: She is in menopause. Correct Answer: She is in the ovulatory phase. Incorrect. This situation is not associated w ith a peak of FSH level. See the essay "Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle" for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Estrogen is a hormone that is produced by the _____. ( Reproductive System) Your Answer: posterior pituitary gland Correct Answer: ovarian follicle Incorrect. Estrogen is not produced by this structure. See the essay "Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle" for more information. 3 2.2 The Female 33. 34. Both FSH and LH are released by the ________. ( System) Your Answer: anterior pituitary gland 3 2.2 The Female Reproductive C orrect. The anterior pituitary is the gland that produces both of these hormones. 35. The tube that carries mature sperm out of the epididymis is the _________. ( 32.3 The Male Reproductive System) Your Answer: seminiferous tubules Correct Answer: vas deferens Incorrect. This is not the duct that carries sperm from the epididymis. See section 32.3 and Figure 32.6 for more information. 36. Where are sperm stored while they complete development and mature? ( The Male Reproductive System) Your Answer: epididymis C orrect. The epididymis is where the sperm mature. 3 2.3 37. Which of the follow ing is considered an accessory gland? ( Reproductive System) Your Answer: prostate gland 3 2.3 The Male C orrect. The prostate gland is an accessory gland in the male reproductive system. 38. Where w ould you look to find spermatogonia in a male? ( Reproductive System) Your Answer: bulbourethral glands Correct Answer: seminiferous tubules 3 2.3 The Male Incorrect. Spermatogonia are not normally found in this area. See section 32.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human What is the function of the Leydig cells in the testes? ( Reproductive System) Your Answer: production of testosterone C orrect. These are the cells that secrete testosterone. 3 2.3 The Male 39. 40. Which cells give rise to primary spermatocytes? ( System) Your Answer: secondary spermatocytes Correct Answer: spermatogonia 32.3 The Male Reproductive Incorrect. Primary spermatocytes are not produced by these cells. See section 32.3 for more information. 41. Which of the follow ing methods of contraception has the greatest effectiveness? ( 3 2.3 The Male Reproductive System) Your Register to View Answerdiaphragm Correct Answer: vasectomy Incorrect. This is not the most effective method. See the essay "Methods of Contraception" for more information. 42. How many sperm w ould need to enter an egg to produce identical quadruplets? ( 3 2.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) Your Answer: one C orrect. Only one sperm is ever allowed to enter an egg for normal development to proceed. 43. How old must an embryonic human organism be before it is referred to as a fetus? 3 2.5 Human Development Prior to Birth) ( Your Answer: 1 w eek Correct Answer: 9 w eeks Incorrect. This is not the stage of development at w hich an embryo becomes a fetus. See section 32.5 for more information. 44. Which part of the blastocyst gives rise to the embryo? ( Development Prior to Birth) Your Answer: inner cell mass 3 2.5 Human C orrect. This is the specific area of the blastocyst that produces the embryo. 45. Which hormone triggers the process of labor? ( 3 2.6 The Birth of the Baby) wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Y our Answer: luteinizing hormone Correct Answer: oxytocin Incorrect. This is not the hormone that triggers labor contractions. See section 32.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 32. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Interactive Living World: Site: Ecosystems > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:48 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 22% Correct o f 9 questions: 2 corre ct: 7 incorre ct: 2 2% 7 8% More inform ation about scoring . 1. In nature, it is _____ that are primarily responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that living things can use. Y our Answer: bacteria 2. In recent years there has been substantial concern about global warming, w hich is caused to a great extent by the build-up of the heat-trapping gas Y our Answer: carbon dioxide 3. You w alk in on the middle of a nature program on television and see aerial shots of huge expanses of one or two types of coniferous trees. The type of biome you are looking at probably is Your Answer: tundra Correct Answer: taiga 4. There is a simple food chain in an eastern Oregon desert grassland: Mice are consumed by several species of snakes, w hich themselves are consumed by hawks. The hawk is a _____ and occupies the _____ trophic level in this ecosystem. Your Answer: secondary consumer; third Correct Answer: tertiary consumer; fourth 5. A dung beetle (can you guess what it eats?) is an example of a Your Answer: carnivore Correct Answer: detritivore wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem 6. The greenhouse effect is caused by Your Answer: heat that is stored as short-w ave radiation by rough surfaces of the Earth and then re-radiated as long-w avelength light Correct Answer: short-wavelength light that is re-radiated as long-w ave radiation and is trapped by certain gases 7. Donna is measuring rainfall over a large elevation gradient in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. As she walks up the west side, she notices that rainfall increases, and that w hen she reaches the top and w alks dow n the east side, it is much drier. This is because Your Answer: Dry air from the equator flow s east at this latitude, dropping moisture on the w est side. Correct Answer: Air is flow ing from the w est and drops moisture as it rises and cools, then absorbs moisture from the land as it descends and w arms. 8. Microscopic floating photosynthesizers such as algae that are the base producers in the oceans are known as Your Answer: secondary producers Correct Answer: phytoplankton 9. A lake affected by high levels of artificial eutrophication will have Your Answer: low nutrient levels, low phytoplankton populations, and high oxygen levels at depth Correct Answer: high nutrient levels, large phytoplankton populations, and low oxygen levels at depth E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 O the r: He lp An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > An Interactive Living World: Site: Ecosystems > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:48 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 15% Correct o f 20 que stions: 3 corre ct: 17 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 5% 8 5% 1. Which of the follow ing is NOT an organism that converts atmospheric CO 2 into organic molecules? (level 1) Y our Answer: kelp Correct Answer: nitrogen-fixing bacteria Incorrect: Kelp is a type of algae. 2. Why is the practice of rotating soybean crops in place of corn crops done? (level 1) Y our Answer: Soybean is a heartier plant. Correct Answer: Soybean replaces fixed nitrogen to the soil. Incorrect: Review Section 32.2 on the nitrogen cycle. 3. The atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen gas. How ever, this nitrogen is not useful to most life until it is converted into ______, through the action of soil-dw elling bacteria. (level 1). Y our Answer: N2 Correct Answer: NO 3 Incorrect: This is atmospheric nitrogen. 4. If a large comet struck the Earth and caused its axis to become perpendicular to the line between the Earth and the Sun, w hat w ould the effect of this change be? (level 2). Y our Answer: an increase in the length of night Correct Answer: the elimination of seasonal variation that occurs betw een the hemispheres wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Incorrect: To do this, the Earth's rotation must slow dow n. 5. Which of the follow ing is paired correctly w ith its description? (level 1). Your Answer: photic zone // zone w hich light penetrates C orrect: This is approximately 100 meters. 6. In which of the follow ing biomes w ould the grow ing season typically be shortest? (level 1). Y our Answer: temperate grassland Correct Answer: tundra Incorrect: Biomes closer to the poles w ould have the shortest growing seasons. 7. For most ecosystems, energy pyramids are similar (i.e., broad at the base and narrow at the top). What is the primary reason for this pattern? (level 2). Your Answer: Within each trophic level, some of the energy acquired is used for metabolism or is lost as litter or feces. This makes this energy unavailable to the next trophic level. C orrect: As little as 10% of the energy that a given trophic level receives is passed to the next level. 8. Which of the follow ing might substantially increase the carrying capacity of the w orld for the human population? (level 2). Y our Answer: grow corn to feed livestock, w hich w ill be used to provide fresh meat to people Correct Answer: everyone becomes a vegetarian Incorrect: Review Section 32.3 on how energy flow s through the ecosystems. 9. What is the portion of the energy assimilated by phytoplankton that is available to primary consumers called? (level 1). Y our Answer: assimilated energy Correct Answer: net primary productivity wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Incorrect: Review Section 32.3 on energy flow through ecosystems. 10. Where do the deserts of the world tend to be located? (level 1). Y our Answer: at about 60 latitude Correct Answer: at 30 north and south latitude w here cool air descends Incorrect: This is a region w here moist air rises, often precipitating out as rain. 11. Within an ecosystem, the largest amount of nitrogen is alw ays found in ... (level 1). Y our Answer: the soil. Correct Answer: the atmosphere. Incorrect: Nitrogen will only stay in the soil a short period of time before it is absorbed into living organisms. 12. If a bowl of corn contains 2,000 kilocalories of energy, how much of that energy is transferred to the person w ho eats the corn? (level 1). Y our Answer: 3%, or 60 kilocalories Correct Answer: 10%, or 200 kilocalories Incorrect: Review how energy flows through an ecosystem in Section 32.3. 13. An ecological food web ... (level 1). Your Answer: is made up of several interlocking food chains. C orrect: The food web, compared to a food chain, is much more of a realistic understanding of how energy and materials move through the trophic levels. 14. Which of the follow ing w ould be considered a biotic factor in its particular environment? (level 2). Y our Answer: high rainfall in a Brazilian rain forest Correct Answer: soil bacteria in a deciduous forest Incorrect: Biotic factors include all the living organisms. Rainfall levels are not living. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem 15. Somewhere around 9597.5% of all the w ater on Earth is salt or ocean water. That means that between 2.55% of the w ater is fresh. How ever only a fraction of this, 0.5%, is available for use. Why? (level 1). Y our Answer: Most of the freshwater is locked up in underground aquifers. Correct Answer: Most of the freshwater is locked up in glaciers and icebergs. Incorrect: The aquifers do contain lots of freshw ater, but still not the most massive amounts. 16. Although matter such as carbon and nitrogen atoms and water are continuously recycled in an ecosystem, energy is not. A constant, new supply of energy must be added in order to sustain the biotic portion of the ecosystem. What fundamental law of nature requires this new supply of energy? (level 2). Y our Answer: First Law of Thermodynamics Correct Answer: Second Law of Thermodynamics Incorrect: This is the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms. 17. Which of the follow ing taxonomic groups does not have a single organism that belongs in the first trophic level? (level 2). Y our Answer: kingdom Protista Correct Answer: kingdom Fungi Incorrect: Phytoplankton is part of kingdom Protista and is the producer of marine ecosystems. 18. A black bear, in preparation for a long winter's hibernation, will consume massive quantities of food. Mushrooms, fish, termites, apples, blackberries, w ild straw berries, and even carrion (meat from a dead animal) are all menu items for the bear. A black bear w ould thus be considered to be a (an) ... (level 1). Y our Answer: herbivore. Correct Answer: omnivore. Incorrect: This term is used for organisms that eat only plant material. 19. Which area of a freshwater lake is the most productive? (level 1). Y our Answer: profundal zone Correct Answer: littoral zone wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystem Incorrect: This is the perpetually dark, deep part of the lake w here no photosynthesis can occur. 20. Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of the biome know n as tundra? (level 1). Y our Answer: permafrost Correct Register to View Answerand B are both correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only characteristic of the tundra in this list? E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Population Growth" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Site: Populations in Ecology > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Population Growth Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:11 PM (EDT) 25% Correct of 4 questions 1 corre ct: 3 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. Which of the following w ould be an example of an organism that shows exponential growth? Y our Answer: insects Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only correct answer? 2. Exponential population growth is characterized by: Your Answer: an S shaped curve Correct Register to View AnswerJ shaped curve Incorrect. S shaped curves do not characterize exponential growth. 3. A population's intrinsic rate of increase is calculated by: Your Answer: subtracting the death rate from the birth rate C orrect. This is how the intrinsic rate of increase is calculated. 4. The number of individuals the environment can support based on food, space, and other resources is called: Y our Answer: population dynamics Correct Answer: carrying capacity Incorrect. Population dynamics is not the number of individuals the environment can support based on resources. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Site: Populations in Ecology > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:10 PM (EDT) 29% Correct of 45 questions 13 corre ct: 32 incorre ct: 2 9% 7 1% More information about scoring 1. Ecologists put life into the follow ing categories. 1. Biosphere 2. Population 3. Ecosystem 4. Organism 5. Community Order the categories from largest to 3 3.1 The Study of Ecology) smallest: ( Your Answer: (blank) 2. At which point on the Graph is the population's birth rate the highest compared 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) with the population's death rate? ( Your Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View AnswerIncorrect. This point does not represent greatest grow th rate. See section 33.2 for more information. 3. Which of the follow ing w ould be an examp le of an org anism that show s wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 3. 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul exponential grow th? ( Your Answer: insects C orrect. Insects usually show exponential growth. 33.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) 4. A population's intrinsic rate of increase is calculated by ______. ( Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Y our Answer: adding the birth rate to the death rate Correct Answer: subtracting the death rate from the birth rate 33.2 Incorrect. This is not the method to calculate the intrinsic rate of increase. See section 33.2 for more information. 5. The number of individuals the environment can support based on food, space, and 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) other resources is called _____. ( Your Answer: death rate Correct Answer: carrying capacity Incorrect. This is not the term used for this concept. See section 33.2 for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing statements about a K-selected (equilibrium) species is true? 3 3.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) ( Your Answer: They produce large numbers of relatively small offspring. Correct Answer: They are primarily regulated by density-dependent factors. Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of a K-selected species. See section 33.3 for more information. 7. Which of the follow ing statements about human population growth is true? ( 33.4 Thinking about Human Populations ) Your Answer: The human population has been w ell over 1 billion for 500 years. Correct Answer: Improved sanitation and medical care allowed the human population to grow. Incorrect. This does not apply to human population grow th. See section 33.4 and Figure 33.11 for more information. 8. What kinds of information w ould be included in a study of population dynamics? ( 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Answer: the size of the individuals Correct Answer: the number of individuals Incorrect. This is not an important component of population dynamics. See section 33.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul 9. If a population of 100 lions were to increase by 10 lions every year, that would be 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) called ______. ( Your Answer: an arithmetic increase C orrect. This is a simple arithmetic increase in numbers. 10. If a population of 100 lions were to increase by 10% of the entire population each 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) year, that would be called _________. ( Your Answer: an exponential increase C orrect. This is an exponential grow th rate. 11. At which point on the graph is the population's birth rate the lowest and the 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) population's death rate the highest? ( Your Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View AnswerIncorrect. This is not the point w hen birth rate is lowest compared with death rate. See section 33.2 for more information. 12. At which point on the graph is the population's death rate the same as its birth rate? ( 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Y our Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View AnswerIncorrect. Death rate is not approaching birth rate here. See section 33.2 for more information. 13. Which of the follow ing would you include under the general group of factors known as environmental resistance? ( 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Answer: amount of food available C orrect. The amount of food in an area will limit population growth. 14. What does the letter " r" denote in population studies? ( and Dynamics ) Your Answer: intrinsic rate of decrease Correct Answer: intrinsic rate of increase 3 3.2 Populations: Size Incorrect. This is not the population parameter denoted by r. See section 33.2 for more information. 15. What should you expect in population with an r value of 0? ( Size and Dynamics ) Your Register to View Answerlow intrinsic rate of increase Correct Answer: no population growth at all 3 3.2 Populations: Incorrect. This is not a good interpretation of an r value of 0. See section 33.2 for more information. 16. What should you expect in a population w ith an r value of 0.09? ( Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Register to View Answerlow rate of grow th Correct Register to View Answerpopulation w ith a very high growth rate 3 3.2 wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Incorrect. This is not expected in a population with this r value. See section 33.2 for more information. 17. What should you expect in a population w ith an r value of -0.09? ( Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Register to View Answerrelatively stable population Correct Register to View Answerpopulation that is decreasing in numbers 33.2 Incorrect. This is not expected in a population with this r value. See section 33.2 for more information. 18. What is the effect of environment resistance on a population? ( Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Answer: It has no effect on population size. Correct Answer: It limits population size. 3 3.2 Incorrect. This is not an effect of environmental resistance. See section 33.2 for more information. 19. How does the phenomenon of carrying capacity affect a population? ( Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Answer: It limits the numbers in a population. 3 3.2 C orrect. Carrying capacity limits the number of a species that can exist in a particular environment. 20. In population ecology, the symbol r is related to grow th. What is the symbol K 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) related to? ( Your Answer: intrinsic growth rate Correct Answer: carrying capacity Incorrect. The symbol K d oes not relate to this factor. See section 33.2 for more information. 21. What w ould you expect if a population exceeds the K o f an environment for that species? ( 3 3.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics ) Your Answer: There w ill be no change in population numbers. Correct Answer: The population will decrease in numbers. Incorrect. This is not the expected response of the population in this situation. See section 33.2 for more information. 22. Which tw o species lie at opposite ends of the spectrum of reproductive strategies? ( 3 3.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: salmon and sardines wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Correct Answer: guppies and penguins Incorrect. These two species share the same reproductive strategy. See section 33.3 for more information. 23. Which tw o species share the same reproductive strategy? ( K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: guppies and walruses Correct Answer: grasshoppers and salmon 3 3.3 r-Selected and Incorrect. These two organisms do not share the same reproductive strategy. See section 33.3 for more information. 24. Which of the follow ing species could be recognized as an equilibrium species? ( 33.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: grasshoppers Correct Answer: penguins Incorrect. This is not an equilibrium species. See section 33.3 for more information. 25. Which of the follow ing species is limited by density-dependent forces? ( Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: lions 3 3.3 r- C orrect. Lions tend to have a stable population based on the food available. 26. Certain organisms are limited by density-dependent factors in the environment. 3 3.3 rWhich of the follow ing would be considered density dependent? ( Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: number of mates C orrect. The number of mates is completely dependent on the size of the population. 27. Which characteristic would you expect to find in a K-selected species? ( Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: relative stable population C orrect. K-selected species have stable populations. 3 3.3 r- 28. Why are K-selected species also called equilibrium species? ( and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: They maintain a relatively stable population. 33.3 r-Selected wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul C orrect. These species have relatively stable populations. 29. Which term best describes an r-selected species? ( Selected Species ) Your Answer: at equilibrium Correct Answer: opportunistic 33.3 r-Selected and K- Incorrect. This does not describe an r-selected species. See section 33.3 for more information. 30. Which of the follow ing features is characteristic of an r-selected species? ( r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: low population grow th rate Correct Answer: high population grow th rate 33.3 Incorrect. This is not a characteristic of an r-selected species. See section 33.3 for more information. 31. Organisms that provide little or no parental care are classified as ________. ( 33.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: r-selected C orrect. R-selected species provide little parental care. 32. Which of the follow ing limiting factors w ould be classified as density independent? ( 3 3.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: food supply Correct Answer: rainfall Incorrect. This is not a density-independent factor. See section 33.3 for more information. 33. Which of the follow ing would be classified as a K-selected species of plant? ( 33.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: ragw eed Correct Answer: oak trees Incorrect. This is not a K-selected plant. See section 33.3 for more information. 34. Which of the follow ing would be classified as an r-selected plant? ( Selected and K-Selected Species ) Your Answer: Douglas fir trees Correct Answer: sunflowers 3 3.3 r- wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Incorrect. This is not an r-selected species of plant. See section 33.3 for more information. 35. Life tables are based on w hich feature in an organism's life? ( about Human Populations ) Your Answer: w hen the organism was born Correct Answer: how long the organism is likely to live 3 3.4 Thinking Incorrect. This is not the chief feature recorded in life tables. See section 33.4 for more information. 36. Which type of information could you predict from a life table? ( about Human Populations ) Your Answer: your probable remaining lifetime 3 3.4 Thinking C orrect. Life tables predict the average remaining lifetimes for age groups in a population. 37. What can you predict from a population pyramid? ( Populations ) 3 3.4 Thinking about Human Your Answer: the proportion of teenagers in a population C orrect. A population pyramid sorts out the population by ages. 38. Which feature can be deduced from a population pyramid? ( Human Populations ) 3 3.4 Thinking about Your Answer: the proportion of the population that is past the reproductive age C orrect. This feature can be deduced from a population pyramid. 39. Which tool would you use to predict the ratio of males to females in the human 3 3.4 Thinking about Human Populations ) population 50 years in the future? ( Your Register to View Answerlife table Correct Register to View Answerpopulation pyramid Incorrect. This is not the type of tool you w ould use. See section 33.4 for more information. 40. When did the human population begin its tremendous rise? ( about Human Populations ) Your Answer: 2,000 B.C. Correct Answer: 1,800 A.D. 3 3.4 Thinking wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul Incorrect. This was not w hen the human population explosion began. See section 33.4 and Figure 33.11 for more information. 41. When did the human population first pass the 1 billion mark? ( about Human Populations ) Your Answer: 1,000 B.C. Correct Answer: 1,800 A.D. 3 3.4 Thinking Incorrect. The population had not reached 1 billion by this date. See section 33.4 and Figure 33.11 for more information. 42. The average number of children born to each woman in a population is the 33.4 Thinking about Human Populations ) ________. ( Your Answer: average survival rate Correct Answer: total fertility rate Incorrect. This is not the term used to describe this feature. See section 33.4 for more information. 43. In developed countries, the replacement fertility rate is _________. ( Thinking about Human Populations ) Your Answer: 3.0 children per w oman Correct Answer: 2.1 children per w oman 33.4 Incorrect. This is not the replacement fertility rate. See section 33.4 for more information. 44. What is the present global human fertility rate for Earth? ( Human Populations ) Your Answer: 2.0 children per w oman Correct Answer: 2.6 children per w oman 3 3.4 Thinking about Incorrect. This is not the current global fertility rate. See section 33.4 for more information. 45. Which developing country is quickly approaching the United States in total CO2 production because of rapid industrialization? ( 3 3.4 Thinking about Human Populations ) Your Answer: Canada Correct Answer: China Incorrect. This is not the country. See section 33.4 for more information. Copyright 1995 - 2010 P earson Education . A ll rights reserved. P earson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of P earson . wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 Legal Notice 33. An Interactive Living World 1: Popul | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Animal Behavior > End of Site: Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:50 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 30% Correct o f 10 que stions: 3 corre ct: 7 incorre ct: 3 0% 7 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Animal behavior research asks: Y our Register to View AnswerHow can the behavior of living things be changed? Correct Register to View AnswerBoth c and d. 2. In animal behavior a proximate cause is _____; an ultimate cause is _____. Y our Answer: one that may be true; one that has been proven to be true Correct Answer: one that is a triggering and physiological cause; one that is linked to survival and reproduction 3. What generally lies at the root of ultimate causes? Y our Answer: learning Correct Answer: natural selection 4. A(n) _____ is stereotyped, meaning that _____. Y our Answer: ant colony; all members are genetically identical Correct Answer: reflex; all members of a species perform it the same w ay 5. Which of the follow ing is true? Y our Register to View AnswerA circadian rhythm is an internal biological cycle that lasts about a day. Correct Answer: g. Both a and b. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 6. Animal Behavior Konrad Lorenzs geese followed him because: Y our Answer: He provided the right cue for their circadian rhythms. Correct Answer: They had imprinted upon him after hatching. 7. Pavlovs dog learned to associate food with the sound of a bell, w hile a bird will learn to associate trying to eat a wasp w ith getting stung. What type of learning is represented in each instance? Your Answer: classical conditioning, operant conditioning 8. Male songbirds generally: Your Answer: memorize their species songs months before first performing them 9. Animals are social to the degree that: Y our Answer: They can share equally in all resources. Correct Answer: The benefits of social living outw eigh its costs. 10. Much of the altruism displayed among animals probably can be explained as: Your Answer: the reproductive benefits that can come through aiding relatives E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Animal Behavior > Chapter Site: Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 2:49 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 40% Correct o f 20 que stions: 8 corre ct: 12 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Male w olves will often lift their hind leg and urinate on an object (rock, tree, etc.). Which of the following is a "proximate" cause for this behavior? (level 2). Your Answer: to release urine from the urinary bladder C orrect: A proximate cause involves the physical functioning or physiology of an organism. 2. The human circadian rhythm that controls the aw ake versus sleepy cycle is not set in stone. Instead, external cues can cause an alteration in this rhythm. What is the primary cue used to alter or alternatively reinforce this circadian rhythm? (level 1). Y our Answer: changes in the gravitational pull of the Earth Correct Answer: changes in sunlight patterns (from dawn until dusk) Incorrect: Humans do not have enough sensitivity to actually feel any gravitational changes. 3. During the mating season, male three-spined stickleback fish will take on an aggressive posture whenever they see the red head and underbellies of other male stickleback fish. How ever, they w ill also adopt this aggressive posture if they see a red pencil or a red oatmeal box. For this aggressive posturing, the color red would be considered a (an) ... (level 1). Y our Answer: inducer. Correct Answer: releaser. Incorrect: This is a developmental term. It refers to a chemical that stimulates a certain type of development. 4. Humpback w hales are known to make an annual north and south migration to move from food-rich northern latitudes to w armer southern w aters for calving. However, the o p en ocean has no landmarks or cues to lead the whales back wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior a nd forth. What is the most likely explanation for the w hales' behavior? (level 1). Y our Answer: circadian rhythms Correct Answer: taxis to Earth's gravitational field Incorrect: Circadian rhythms can only influence behaviors over a 24-hour period of time. Review Section 31.3. 5. Goslings w ill follow any large object that w as near them early in life and exhibited some specific behaviors. This learned behavior has specific survival advantages if the object the goslings follow is their parent. However, researchers have show n that the goslings w ill also learn to follow a person, another bird, or even a toy balloon. This learned behavior is called ... (level 1) Y our Answer: taxis. Correct Answer: imprinting. Incorrect: Taxis is not a learned response. 6. In order for researchers to study animals in the wild, it is often necessary to build a "blind." This is an enclosed shelter that will allow the researcher to observe the animals, but not allow the animals to observe them. Once a blind is in place, it is often disturbing to the animal because it is a new and unusual object in their territory. How ever, after a short time the animals w ill begin to act as if the blind didn't even exist and go on about their normal routines. This is a classic example of the learned behavior know n as ... (level 1). Y our Answer: reflexes. Correct Answer: habituation. Incorrect: Reflexes are not learned. 7. A lab rat is placed in a box that contains a lever. In moving around the box, the rat accidentally bumps into the lever, causing a food pellet to drop into the box. Soon the rat is purposely pushing the lever to receive the food. This type of learned response is an example of ... (level 1). Y our Answer: imitation. Correct Answer: operant learning. Incorrect: This occurs when one organism observes the behavior of another and mimics it. A researcher studying a pack of w olves noted that a certain male and a certain female alw ays ate first after a prey animal w as killed. He also noted that this p air of wolves w as the only p air to mate and p roduce young . The wolves w ere wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 8. 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior d isplaying a social behavior called ... (level 1). Y our Answer: insight learning. Correct Answer: dominance hierarchy. Incorrect: This is the ability to reason out an answ er to a complex problem. 9. Glands and the hormones they produce are know n to affect behaviors. In humans, w hich gland and hormone are responsible for controlling the active versus sleepy circadian rhythm? (level 1). Your Answer: pineal gland and melatonin C orrect: The effect of melatonin is to make a person drow sy, so they can fall asleep. 10. Male silverback gorillas are known to come to the defense of members of their group. In some cases, the large silverbacks will lose their own lives in the defense of a group member. This is an example of ... (level 1). Your Answer: altruism. C orrect: Although this behavior seems counter to natural selection, most researchers believe that just the opposite is true. By helping a group member, the silverback is increasing the chance that his offspring will survive and reproduce. 11. Scientific studies seem to indicate that males are naturally promiscuous, while females are more reserved. Which of these hypotheses would best explain this phenomenon? (level 2). Your Answer: Because of the long-term commitment w omen make in childbirth and childrearing, they must be extremely selective in w hom they w ill mate with. C orrect: Natural selection could select for female qualities that increase survivorship of the baby, such as being selective about mating partners. 12. Human circadian rhythms are controlled primarily by cells in the ... (level 1). Your Answer: hypothalamus. C orrect: Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are principally responsible for this human ability. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior Which of the follow ing is true of a eusocial species of animal? (level 2) Y our Answer: There is a clearly defined division of labor in the colony. Correct Register to View AnswerB, and C are all correct. Incorrect: Although this is true, is this the only characteristic of eusocial animals in this list? 13. 14. Which of the follow ing behaviors would be classified as a reflex? (level 2) Y our Register to View Answerspider spinning a w eb Correct Answer: blinking the eyes as an insect flies tow ard your face Incorrect: There are many internal influences on this intricate behavior. Review Section 33.3. 15. Dolphins and w hales in marine parks are taught to perform a certain number of behaviors for the entertainment of the parks' visitors. Many times these captive animals w ill give birth in the park and keep and nurse their young in the very pools in which they perform. Before long, one can see the baby dolphin or w hale keeping up w ith his mother, performing all the same behaviors as she, w ithout any input or teaching by the park staff. The baby's learned behavior is an example of ... (level 2) Y our Answer: imprinting. Correct Answer: imitation. Incorrect: Imprinting specifically refers to an animal's learning who is "mine" (my mother, my child) in a time-sensitive period. 16. Which of these organisms w ould be most likely to accomplish a task involving insight learning? (level 2) Your Answer: gorilla C orrect: Because insight learning requires the ability to reason, it also requires a certain level of brain and nervous system development. This type of development is found in the primates. 17. Why is the behavior called a fixed action pattern considered to be "fixed"? (level 2). Your Answer: Once the animal begins the behavior, it will complete it even if the stimulus that caused the behavior is removed. C orrect: Gre yla g g eese w ill continue to p ull an e gg into its nest, e ven if the e gg wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 Animal Behavior is removed halfway through the process. 18. A researcher studying the learned behavior know n as imprinting collects a group of duck eggs and places them in an incubator. He also provides w ater and nourishment inside the incubator. On his way home, he is in an auto accident that leaves him incapacitated for tw o days. When he finally makes it back to the lab, he finds that all of the eggs have hatched, and all the ducklings are w addling around inside. He removes them from the incubator and then attempts to get them to follow him. How ever, no matter how many attempts he makes, the ducklings seem to w addle aimlessly around. What is the most likely explanation for the ducklings' behavior? (level 2) Y our Answer: The fact that the ducklings could get food and w ater on their ow n caused them to learn that they did not need to follow anyone to get the necessities of life. Correct Answer: The researcher missed the sensitive period in w hich imprinting could occur in the ducklings. Incorrect: Review imprinting in Section 33.3. 19. Pavlov found that if he w ould ring a bell just before he fed his dog some meat, he could get his dog to salivate just by ringing the bell. This type of learned response on the part of the dog is an example of ... (level 1). Your Answer: classical conditioning. C orrect: Classical conditioning involves the association of tw o previously unrelated stimuli. 20. Which of the follow ing statements concerning reciprocal altruism is incorrect? (level 2). Y our Answer: Reciprocal altruism w ill be seen only in organisms that live in social groups. Correct Answer: Reciprocal altruism w ill be seen only in organisms that undergo imprinting. Incorrect: This is necessary in order to return favors to those w ho are deserving and to deny favors to cheaters. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Send as: wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Animal Behavior Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Site: Communities in Ecology > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:12 PM (EDT) 20% Correct of 45 questions 9 corre ct: 36 incorre ct: 2 0% 8 0% More information about scoring 1. Tw o species of crabs live in the same area. One eats living algae, and the other 3 4.2 feeds on dead fish. These animals obviously have different ________. ( Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: niches C orrect. These two species have different occupations. 2. Many animals are territorial. What does that mean? ( among Community Members ) 34.2 Types of Interaction Your Answer: They can locate their territory in the dark. Correct Answer: They w ill defend an area against members of their own species Incorrect. This is not what it means to be territorial. See section 34.2 for more information. 3. What type of species was first used to study the competitive exclusion principle? ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: kudzu vines Correct Answer: Paramecium Incorrect. This was not the type of organism used in these experiments. See section 34.2 for more information. 4. Lions and hyenas are predators on the African savanna. How are they able to 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) coexist? ( Your Answer: They live in different habitats. Correct Answer: They have slightly different niches. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Incorrect. This is not the mechanism that allows them to coexist. See section 34.2 for more information. 5. One organism eating another organism, is a type of interaction called _______. ( 34.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: mutualism Correct Answer: predation Incorrect. This is not the correct interaction. See section 34.2 for more information. 6. A form of community interaction in which one organism feeds on another but usually does not kill it is called __________. ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: commensalism Correct Answer: parasitism Incorrect. This is not the type of community interaction described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 7. In any community, a few species will be the ecological dominants. What is the most important characteristic that distinguishes a species as being an ecological 3 4.1 Structure in Communities ) dominant? ( Your Answer: the size of the individuals Correct Answer: the number of individuals Incorrect. This is not the most important characteristic of an ecological dominant. See section 34.1 for more information. 8. Three species of warblers all feed on caterpillars in trees, but one feeds in tree tops, another feeds in the middle branches, and the third feeds on the main trunk. 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community This is an example of ________. ( Members ) Your Answer: parasitism Correct Answer: resource partitioning Incorrect. This is not the type of interaction described here. See section 34.2 and Figure 34.6 for more information. 9. The competitive exclusion principle introduced by G. F. Gause applies to which of the follow ing? ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: kudzu and pine trees in a forest C orrect. Kudzu, an imported plant, grow s so quickly that it w ill overgrow a pine tree and thus deprive the tree of sunlight needed for photosynthesis. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Examine Figure 34.8. If in 2004, the lemming population sharply decreased, based on previous studies of predator and prey dynamics and analyzing trends in this graph, what prediction is most accurate concerning the population growth of the 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) stoat population? ( 10. Your Register to View AnswerThe stoat population w ill rapidly increase as the population of lemmings continues to decline. Correct Register to View AnswerThe stoat population w ill continue to decline soon after the decline in the lemming population. Incorrect. This is not a likely direction of stoat population growth. See section 34.2 for more information. 11. Which of the follow ing is an example of mimicry? ( among Community Members ) 34.2 Types of Interaction Your Answer: the bright banded color pattern on a stinging wasp Correct Answer: the clearwing moth that has no stinger but does have the coloration of a yellow jacket w asp Incorrect. This is not an example of mimicry. See section 34.2 for more information. 12. Bromeliads are flow ering plants that live in the canopy of the rain forest. These plants have leaves that collect water, forming small pools next to the stem of the plant. Tree frogs, which must lay their eggs in water, will use the water in the bromeliads as a nursery for their tadpoles. The w ater in the bromeliads enables the frogs to have pools of w ater up in the canopy. The interaction betw een the 34.2 Types of tree frogs and the bromeliads is best described as ______. ( Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: commensalism C orrect. The frogs receive benefit from the bromeliads, but the bromeliads are unaffected by the tree frogs. 13. Why is an appropriate balance needed between predators and prey? ( Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: to promote overpopulation Correct Answer: to avoid running out of food sources 3 4.2 Incorrect. This is not the reason for the need of a balance. See section 34.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Mathematical predator-prey models must assume that ______. ( Interaction among Community Members ) 3 4.2 Types of 14. Your Answer: prey numbers decline based on environmental factors Correct Answer: the predators eat only prey Incorrect. This is not the correct assumption. See section 34.2 for more information. 15. Which phrase best describes a climax community? ( Communities ) 3 4.3 Succession in Your Answer: grass that invades a new ly tilled field Correct Answer: the forested areas previously destroyed by the eruption of Mount St. Helens Incorrect. This does not describe a climax community. See section 34.3 for more information. 16. According to a study done in England, domestic cats were very efficient in killing 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) _________. ( Your Answer: snakes Correct Answer: birds Incorrect. This was not the preferred prey of the house cats. See the essay "Purring Predators: House Cats and Their Prey" for more information. 17. The most important predator of lemmings in Greenland is _________. ( Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: w olves Correct Answer: stoats 3 4.2 Incorrect. This is not the chief predator of lemmings. See section 34.2 and Figure 34.8 for more information. 18. One of the results of the predator-prey interaction among organisms is ________. 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) ( Your Register to View Answerdecrease in size in both predators and prey Correct Answer: an "arms race" in adaptations in both predators and prey Incorrect. This is not a direct result of predator-prey interactions. See section 34.2 for more information. 19. The development of camouflage is a direct result of w hich community interaction? ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: mutualism Correct Answer: predator-prey interactions Incorrect. This interaction does not result in camouflage. See section 34.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com 20. The evolution of one species to resemble a dangerous species is called 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) _________. ( Your Answer: Mllerian mimicry Correct Answer: Batesian mimicry Incorrect. This is not the type of adaptation described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 21. The evolution of several species that have protection against predators is called 34.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) ________. ( Your Answer: Mllerian mimicry C orrect. This type of mimicry is widespread in nature. 22. A special form of adaptation in which one species has evolved to assume the 34.2 Types of Interaction among appearance of another is called _______. ( Community Members ) Your Answer: parasitism Correct Answer: mimicry Incorrect. This is not the type of adaptation described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 23. What kind of a relationship exists between a flea and a dog? ( Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: mutualism Correct Answer: parasitism 3 4.2 Types of Incorrect. This is not the type of relationship that exists betw een these tw o species. See section 34.2 for more information. 24. Tw o moths look very similar, and both have a nasty taste to birds. This is a case of 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) _________. ( Your Answer: mutualism Correct Answer: Mllerian mimicry Incorrect. This is not the evolutionary adaptation describe here. See section 34.2 for more information. 25. A "walking stick" is so named because one could mistake it for a twig. This is an 34.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) example of _____. ( Your Answer: Batesian mimicry Correct Answer: camouflage wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Incorrect. This is not the type of adaptation described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 26. A common resident of coral reefs is the cleaner fish, which picks parasites off large 34.2 Types of Interaction fish for a meal. What kind of relationship is this? ( among Community Members ) Your Answer: mutualism C orrect. This mutualistic relationship benefits both species. 27. A community relationship in w hich both species benefit and neither is harmed is 34.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) called ________. ( Your Answer: mutualism C orrect. This mutualistic relationship benefits both species. 28. A relationship is w hich one species benefits and the other species is unaffected is called _________. ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: parasitism Correct Answer: commensalism Incorrect. This is not the type of relationship described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 29. Many large sharks carry around "shark-suckers," small fish that hitch a ride on the shark's back, w aiting to snap up remnants from the shark's next meal. This type of 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community interaction is called ________. ( Members ) Your Answer: competition Correct Answer: commensalism Incorrect. This is not the type of interaction described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 30. The interdependent evolution of two or more species is referred to as ________. ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: coevolution C orrect. Coevolution of tw o or more species is common in communities. 31. Which type of community interaction results in both species being harmed? ( 34.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: commensalism Correct Answer: comp etition wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Incorrect. This is not the type of interaction described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 32. Which type of interaction results in one species being harmed w hile another species benefits? ( 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: commensalism Correct Answer: predation Incorrect. This is not the type of interaction described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 33. Which relationship results in a beneficial effect for both organisms? ( of Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: competition Correct Answer: mutualism 3 4.2 Types Incorrect. This is not that type of relationship. See section 34.2 for more information. 34. Which type of relationship results in one organism gaining w hile the other is 3 4.2 Types of Interaction among Community Members ) unaffected? ( Your Answer: competition Correct Answer: commensalism Incorrect. This is not the type of interaction described here. See section 34.2 for more information. 35. The phenomenon of a series of communities replacing each other at a given 3 4.3 location until a relatively stable final state is reach is called _________. ( Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: coevolution Correct Answer: succession Incorrect. This is not the correct term to describe this phenomenon. See section 34.3 for more information. 36. The showy colors of flow ers are probably a result of _______. ( Interaction among Community Members ) Your Answer: commensalism Correct Answer: coevolution 34.2 Types of Incorrect. This is not the reason flow ers are show y. See section 34.2 for more information wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Succession that proceeds from a starting state w here there is little or no life is classified as ______. ( 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: tertiary succession Correct Answer: primary succession Incorrect. This is not the correct type of succession in this situation. See section 34.3 for more information. 37. 38. One of these days, a new Haw aiian Island w ill emerge from the Pacific Ocean. The colonization of that island by plants and animals w ill be an example of ______. ( 34.3 Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: coevolution Correct Answer: primary succession Incorrect. This is not the correct type of succession involved here. See section 34.3 for more information. 39. In many places in the eastern United States, abandoned farms have returned to 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) forest. This is an example of ___________. ( Your Answer: competition Correct Answer: secondary succession Incorrect. This is not the community interaction involved here. See section 34.3 for more information. 40. The relatively stable community that develops at the end of any process of 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) succession is called a ______. ( Your Answer: persistent community Correct Answer: climax community Incorrect. This is not the type of stable community that develops. See section 34.3 for more information. 41. The first species that appear in a primary succession sequence are called 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) ____________. ( Your Answer: primitive organisms Correct Answer: pioneer organisms Incorrect. This is not the term for the first organisms that invade an area. See section 34.3 for more information. 42. Which types of organisms w ould you expect to be typical of pioneer species on bare soil? ( 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: lichens and mosses C orrect. These organisms do not require a rich soil to begin growth. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com 43. In an area such as Alaska or Canada, w hich type of community would you expect 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) to be a typical climax community? ( Your Answer: oak woodland Correct Answer: spruce and hemlock Incorrect. These plants are not typical climax plants in the northern forests. See section 34.3 for more information. 44. The actions of some early-arriving species during succession enable the success of later-arriving species. This phenomenon is called __________. ( 3 4.3 Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: facilitation C orrect. Early-arriving species facilitate the success of later-arriving species. 45. Living things that survive a major ecological disturbance are called ________. ( 34.3 Succession in Communities ) Your Answer: survivors Correct Answer: biological legacies Incorrect. This is not the term used to identify those living species. See section 34.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 34. An Interactive Living World 2: Com Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: The carbon cycle" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Site: Ecosystems and Biomes > Student Home > Animations Quiz: The carbon cycle Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:14 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 13 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 13 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing gases plays a large role in the greenhouse effect and possible global warming? Your Answer: oxygen Correct Answer: carbon dioxide Incorrect. Oxygen does not play a large role in the greenhouse effect. 2. The primary biological process that removes carbon from the atmosphere and places it in the biosphere is _______. Your Answer: burning fossil fuel Correct Answer: photosynthesis Incorrect. Burning fossil fuels does not place carbon in the biosphere. 3. Fossil fuels are derived from: Your Answer: photosynthesis Correct Answer: the burial of plants for millions of years Incorrect. Fossil fuels are not dervied from photosynthesis. 4. How can carbon be transferred between reservoirs? Your Answer: land clearing Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy 5. The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is ___. Your Answer: oxygen Correct Answer: nitrogen Incorrect. Oxygen is not the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. 6. The conversion of nitrogen to a form that is usable by living things is carried out primarily by ___. Your Answer: plant roots Correct Answer: bacteria Incorrect. Plant roots do not convert nitrogen to a usable form. 7. Which of the follow ing molecules does not contain nitrogen? Your Answer: DNA Correct Answer: carbohydrates Incorrect. DNA does contain nitrogen. 8. As animals, we get our nitrogen from: Your Answer: the atmosphere Correct Answer: eating plants Incorrect. Animals do not get nitrogen from the atmosphere. 9. The type of nitrogen found in the atmosphere is: Your Answer: nitrate Correct Answer: dinitogen Incorrect. Nitrate is not found in the atmosphere. 10. _____ is (are) the source of fresh w ater provided by w ells. Your Answer: ice Correct Answer: aquifers Incorrect. Ice is not the source of fresh water provided by wells. 11. What percentage of w ater vapor returns to the land? wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Y our Answer: 50% Correct Answer: 10% Incorrect. 50% of w ater vapors do not return to land. 12. How is groundw ater formed? Your Answer: by evaporation of ocean water Correct Answer: by the seepage of precipitation into aquifers Incorrect. Groundwater is not formed by evaporation of ocran w ater. 13. Which of the follow ing forms of precipitation return water to the land? Your Answer: fog Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible choice? wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Site: Ecosystems and Biomes > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:14 PM (EDT) 18% Correct of 45 questions 8 correct: 37 incorrect: 1 8% 8 2% More information about scoring 1. What is gained by rotating soybean crops in place of corn crops? ( Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: The soybean requires less water. Correct Answer: The soybean replaces fixed nitrogen to the soil. 3 5.2 Abiotic Incorrect. Soybeans contain bacteria in root nodules. See section 35.2 for more information. 2. Around 95% to 97.5% of all the water on Earth is salt or ocean w ater. That means betw een 2.5% to 5% of the w ater is fresh, but only a fraction of that, 0.5%, is 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Component of Any available for use. Why? ( Ecosystem) Your Answer: Most of the freshwater is locked up in the Great Lakes. Correct Answer: Most of the freshwater is locked up in glaciers and icebergs. Incorrect. This does not contain the largest amount of freshwater. See section 35.2 and Figures 35.5 and 35.6 for more information. 3. Fossil fuels are derived from ______. ( Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: mining of carbon 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Correct Answer: the burial of plants for millions of years Incorrect. Fossil fuels are not derived from this. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.1 for more information. 4. _____ is (are) the source of freshwater provided by w ells. ( Are a Ma jor Comp onent of Any E cos ystem) 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Y our Answer: Ocean w ater Correct Answer: Aquifers Incorrect. This is not the source of freshw ater provided by w ells. See section 35.2 for more information. 5. How is groundw ater formed? ( Any Ecosystem) 35.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Component of Your Answer: by evaporation of ocean water Correct Answer: by the seepage of precipitation into aquifers Incorrect. This is not how groundwater is formed. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.5 for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing would be considered a biotic factor in its particular environment? ( 35.1 The Ecosystem) Your Answer: low oxygen levels on the top of a mountain Correct Answer: soil bacteria in a deciduous forest Incorrect. This is an abiotic factor. See section 35.1 for more information. 7. What is the portion of the energy assimilated by phytoplankton that is available to 3 5.3 How Energy Flow s through Ecosystems ) primary consumers called? ( Your Answer: net primary productivity C orrect. This is gross primary productivity minus energy for metabolism and energy lost as heat. 8. An ecological food w eb _______. ( 3 5.3 How Energy Flows through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: always has primary consumers at the first trophic level Correct Answer: is made up of several interlocking food chains Incorrect. See section 35.3 and Figure 35.12 for more information. 9. A black bear, in preparation for a long w inter's hibernation, will consume massive quantities of food. Mushrooms, fish, termites, apples, blackberries, w ild straw berries, and even carrion (meat from a dead animal) are all menu items for 3 5.3 the bear. A black bear would thus be considered to be a (an) ______. ( How Energy Flows through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: carnivore Correct Answer: omnivore Incorrect. Bears eat plant and meat. See section 35.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Although matter such as carbon and nitrogen atoms and w ater are continuously recycled in an ecosystem, energy is not. A constant, new supply of energy must be added to sustain the biotic portion of the ecosystem. What fundamental law of 35.3 How Energy Flows through nature requires this new supply of energy? ( Ecosystems ) Your Answer: law of ecosystem dynamics Correct Answer: second law of thermodynamics Incorrect. This is not the correct law . See section 35.3 for more information. 10. 11. Which of the follow ing might substantially increase the carrying capacity of the 3 5.4 Earth's Physical Environment) world for the human population? ( Your Answer: using chicken as the primary meat source Correct Answer: everyone becoming a vegetarian Incorrect. The lower on the food chain that humans consume energy, the more carrying capacity w ill increase. See the essay "A Cut for the Middleman: Livestock and Food" for more information. 12. The reason for the seasons on Earth is primarily the ______. ( Climate ) Your Answer: tilt of the rotation axis relative to the orbit C orrect. This is the primary reason for the seasons. 3 5.6 Earth's 13. A greenhouse gas ______. ( 3 5.5 Global Warming ) Your Answer: has not been generated by the Industrial Revolution Correct Answer: traps low -energy electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere Incorrect. Greenhouse gases trap energy close to Earth's surface. See section 35.5 and Figures 35.18 and 35.19 for more information. 14. Which of the follow ing can act as greenhouse gases? ( 3 5.5 Global Warming ) Your Answer: water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide C orrect. All of these are appropriate choices. 15. Where do the deserts of the w orld tend to be located? ( Your Answer: at the equator 3 5.7 Earth's Biomes ) Correct Answer: at 30 north and south latitude where cool air descends Incorrect. This is not the region on Earth w here deserts tend to be located. See section 35.7 and Figure 35.27 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of the biome know n as tundra? ( Earth's Biomes ) Your Answer: permafrost Correct Answer: both permafrost and 25 centimeters (10 inches) of rain per year Incorrect. Is this the only characteristic of the tundra? See section 35.7 for more information. 3 5.7 16. 17. Which area of a freshw ater lake is the most productive? ( Aquatic Ecosystems ) Your Answer: intertidal zone Correct Answer: littoral zone 3 5.8 Life in the Water: Incorrect. It is the zone of shallow w ater near the shoreline. See section 35.8 and Figure 35.36 for more information. 18. Which of the follow ing are considered nutrients? ( Major Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: iron Correct Answer: iron, iodine, oxygen, and carbon 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Incorrect. Is this the only answ er? See section 35.2 for more information. 19. Which of the follow ing compounds can be assimilated by plants? ( Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: N2 Correct Answer: NO 3 - 35.2 Abiotic Incorrect. This cannot be taken up by plants. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.2 for more information. 20. An aquifer that receives w ater directly from a large surface area is called 35.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem) ________. ( Your Answer: runoff Correct Answer: unconfined Incorrect. This does not receive w ater directly from a large surface area. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.7 for more information. 21. How much freshwater is found in the atmosphere? ( Major Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: 0.5% Correct Answer: 0.001% 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Incorrect. This is not the amount. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy 22. A fox that feeds on rabbits and mice is a(n) ____________. ( Flows through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: producer Correct Answer: carnivore 3 5.3 How Energy Incorrect. This does not eat meat only. See section 35.3 for more information. 23. A fungus is a(n) ________. ( Your Answer: producer Correct Answer: decomposer 3 5.3 How Energy Flow s through Ecosystems ) Incorrect. This does not feed on dead material. See section 35.3 for more information. 24. A shark is a(n) ________. ( Your Answer: carnivore C orrect. Sharks feed on meat. 3 5.3 How Energy Flow s through Ecosystems ) 25. A deer is a(n) __________. ( Your Answer: herbivore 3 5.3 How Energy Flows through Ecosystems ) C orrect. Herbivores feed on plants. 26. The total amount of material produced by a plant is called ________. ( Energy Flows through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: kilocalories Correct Answer: gross primary production 3 5.3 How Incorrect. This is not the correct term. See section 35.3 and Figure 35.14 for more information. 27. How much energy is lost betw een each trophic level? ( through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: 50% Correct Answer: 90% 3 5.3 How Energy Flow s Incorrect. This percentage is not high enough. See section 35.3 and Figure 35.14 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy The ozone is in w hich layer of the atmosphere? ( Environment) Your Answer: transitional Correct Answer: stratosphere Incorrect. The ozone does not occur in this layer of the atmosphere. See section 35.4 and Figure 35.17 for more information. 35.4 Earth's Physical 28. 29. How many of the 110 species of harlequin frogs have disappeared since 1998? ( 35.6 Earth's Climate ) Your Answer: 1/4 Correct Answer: 3/4 Incorrect. Review the essay "Global Warming and the Harlequin Frogs" for more information. 30. In southern Oregon, the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains are a desert. 3 5.6 Earth's Climate ) This is an example of __________. ( Your Answer: Earth's tilt Correct Answer: rain shadow Incorrect. Air loses its moisture as it rises. See section 35.6 and Figure 35.25 for more information. 31. Which biome exists only in the Northern Hemisphere? ( Y our Answer: tundra 3 5.7 Earth's Biomes ) C orrect. The tundra and taiga occur only in the Northern Hemisphere. 32. Which biome gets less than 10 inches of rainfall each year? ( Biomes ) Your Answer: grassland Correct Answer: desert 3 5.7 Earth's Incorrect. This biome receives more than 10 inches of rainfall per year. See section 35.7 for more information. 33. Which areas of the oceans have abundant life? ( Ecosystems ) Your Answer: coastal and pelagic zones Correct Answer: coastal and photic zones 3 5.8 Life in the Water: Aquatic Incorrect. Both of these areas are not abundant w ith life. See section 35.8 and Figure 35.34 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy What is the most productive marine ecosystem? ( Ecosystems ) Your Answer: coastal zone Correct Answer: coral reef Incorrect. This is not the most productive marine ecosystem. See section 35.8 for more information. 35.8 Life in the Water: Aquatic 34. 35. Zooplankton are ________. ( Your Answer: omnivores Correct Answer: herbivores 3 5.8 Life in the Water: Aquatic Ecosystems ) Incorrect. Zooplankton feed on algae. See section 35.8 for more information. 36. Phytoplankton are the _______ of the marine ecosystem. ( Water: Aquatic Ecosystems ) Your Answer: decomposers Correct Answer: producers 3 5.8 Life in the Incorrect. Phytoplankton photosynthesize their food. See section 35.8 for more information. 37. The area of freshw ater w here plants root themselves is called ___________. ( 35.8 Life in the Water: Aquatic Ecosystems ) Your Answer: pelagic Correct Answer: littoral Incorrect. Plants cannot root themselves in this area. See section 35.8 and Figure 35.36 for more information. 38. A freshwater lake that is nutrient poor is called _________. ( Water: Aquatic Ecosystems ) Your Answer: oligotrophic C orrect. This is the correct term. 3 5.8 Life in the 39. Which of the follow ing gases plays a large role in the greenhouse effect and possible global warming? ( 3 5.5 Global Warming ) Your Answer: carbon dioxide C orrect. This gas plays a large role in global warming. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy In which of the following biomes is the growing season typically the shortest? ( 35.7 Earth's Biomes ) Your Answer: grassland Correct Answer: taiga Incorrect. Biomes closer to the poles would have the shortest grow ing seasons. See section 35.7 for more information. 40. 41. The atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen gas. How ever, this nitrogen is not useful to most life until it is converted into NO 3 - through the action of soil-dwelling 3 5.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem) _______. ( Your Answer: fungi Correct Answer: bacteria Incorrect. This organism cannot change nitrogen into a usable form. See section 35.2 and Figure 35.2 for more information. 42. How much energy is transferred to the next trophic level of a food web? ( How Energy Flows through Ecosystems ) Your Answer: 50% Correct Answer: 10% 3 5.3 Incorrect. This is not the correct amount. See section 35.3 and Figure 35.15 for more information. 43. The motion of the air on Earth (w ind) is driven primarily by ______. ( Earth's Climate ) Your Answer: the rotation of Earth Correct Answer: solar energy 3 5.6 Incorrect. This does not drive the wind. See section 35.6 and Figure 35.23 for more information. 44. In which of the following biomes is the growing season typically longest? ( Earth's Biomes ) Your Answer: desert Correct Answer: rain forest 3 5.7 Incorrect. This is not where the growing seasons are the longest. See section 35.7 for more information. 45. What biological process is responsible for water loss in plants? ( Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem) Your Answer: defecation Correct Answer: transpiration 35.2 Abiotic wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Incorrect. This is not how plants lose water. See section 35.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 35. An Interactive Living World 3: Ecosy Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Behavioral biology" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Site: Behavior > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Behavioral biology Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:16 PM (EDT) 25% Correct of 8 questions 2 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. In the digger wasp experiment, the conclusion w as that these wasps __. Your Answer: locate their nests by recognizing geometrical patterns C orrect. This was the conclusion of this experiment. 2. The w aggle dance of bees is hypothesized to __. Your Answer: convey information about the location of the hive Correct Answer: convey information about sources of food more distant from the hive Incorrect. This is not the hypothesized purpose of the waggle dance. 3. Which of the following can contribute to the behavior of an animal? Your Answer: learning Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible choice? 4. Tinbergen's experiments w ith digger w asps show ed: Your Answer: how important memory is Correct Answer: how important environmental clues are Incorrect. This w as not the conclusion of Tinbergen's study. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Whether a bee uses a round dance or a w aggle dance to indicate the location of a food source is dependent on: Your Answer: how much food is present Correct Answer: how far away the food is from the hive Incorrect. This is not what determines w hether the rounds dance or waggle dance is used. 5. 6. Which of the following is an example of a proximate level of behavior? Your Register to View Answerpenguin is startled, causing increased neural activity leading to spasms in the sphincter muscle, resulting in the release of stool. 7. In male canaries, the capacity to sing results from interactions betw een environmental cues, hormonal signals, and the nervous system. Observe the figure and determine which of the follow ing is NOT considered a factor that increases male singing. Y our Answer: The amount of sunlight increases. Correct Answer: The amount of food in the birds territory increases. 8. When researchers w anted to determine if cell division events had created new neurons in the song centers of bird brains, they used radioactive thymidine molecules as a marker for DNA synthesis. Why w as thymidine an excellent choice? Y our Answer: Other nucleotides cannot be radioactively labeled. Correct Answer: It is found only in DNA, not RNA. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Site: Behavior > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 4:15 PM (EDT) 29% Correct of 41 questions 12 corre ct: 29 incorre ct: 2 9% 7 1% More information about scoring 1. Which of the follow ing is an example of a proximate level of behavior? ( Field of Animal Behavior) 36.1 The Your Answer: Workers w ithin an ant colony tend to the needs of the queen. Correct Register to View Answerpenguin is startled, causing increased neural activity that lead to spasms in the sphincter muscle, resulting in the release of stool. Incorrect. This is an ultimate cause. See section 36.1 for more information. 2. In the digger w asp experiment, the conclusion was that these w asps ______. ( 36.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: locate their nests by the stars Correct Answer: locate their nests by recognizing visual landmarks Incorrect. This was not the conclusion of this experiment. See section 36.3 for more information. 3. During the mating season, male three-spined stickleback fish w ill take on an aggressive posture w henever they see the red head and underbellies of other male stickleback fish. How ever, they w ill also adopt this aggressive posture if they see a red pencil or a red oatmeal box. For this aggressive posturing, the color red 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) would be considered ______. ( Your Register to View Answerreleaser C orrect. The releaser provokes the appropriate behavioral response. 4. Glands and the hormones they produce are known to affect behaviors. In humans, which g land and hormone are res p onsible for controllin g the active-versus-slee py wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 circadian rhythm? ( 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: pineal gland and melatonin C orrect. The effect of melatonin is to make a person drow sy, so they can fall asleep. 5. Which of the follow ing behaviors would be classified as a reflex? ( Influences on Behavior) 36.3 Internal Your Answer: aggressive posturing of male sticklebacks in response to another male Correct Answer: blinking your eyes as an insect flies toward your face Incorrect. This is not a reflex. See section 36.3 for more information. 6. Birds are know n to migrate great distances and to do so usually at night. What controls the migratory behavior of birds? ( 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: circadian rhythm Correct Answer: annual clock Incorrect. This does not control annual migrations. See section 36.3 for more information. 7. For researchers to study animals in the w ild, it is often necessary to build a blindan enclosed shelter that w ill allow the researcher to observe the animals but prevents the animals from observing them. Once a blind is in place, it is often disturbing to the animals because it is a new and unusual object in their territory. However, after a short time, the animals w ill begin to act as if the blind did not exist and go on about their normal routines. This is a classic example of the 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) learned behavior known as ______. ( Your Answer: habituation C orrect. Once the organisms are habituated to the blind, the researchers can move in and start recording data. 8. Dolphins and w hales in marine parks are taught to perform a certain number of behaviors for the entertainment of the parks' visitors. Often these captive animals will give birth in the park and keep and nurse their young in the very pools in w hich they perform. Before long, one can see the baby dolphin or whale keeping up with the mother, performing all the same behaviors as she, w ithout any input or teaching by the park staff. The baby's learned behavior is an example of ______. ( 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) Your Answer: fixed action pattern Correct Answer: imitation Incorrect. This is not the correct learned behavior. See section 36.4 for more information. 9. A researcher studying the learned behavior known as imprinting collects a group of duck eggs and places them in an incubator. He also provides w ater and nourishment inside the incubator. On his w a y h ome , h e is in an auto accident that wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal leaves him incapacitated for tw o days. When he finally makes it back to the lab, he finds that all of the eggs have hatched, and all the ducklings are w addling around inside. He removes them from the incubator and then attempts to get them to follow him. However, no matter how many attempts he makes, the ducklings seem to waddle aimlessly around. What is the most likely explanation for the ducklings' 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) behavior? ( Your Answer: The researcher does not look like or act like a mother duck, so the ducklings naturally w ould not follow him. Correct Answer: The researcher missed the sensitive period in w hich imprinting could occur in the ducklings. Incorrect. The researcher missed a critical period. See section 36.4 and Figure 36.8 for more information. 10. Pavlov found that if he would ring a bell just before he fed his dog some meat, he could get his dog to salivate just by ringing the bell. This type of learned response 36.4 Learning and Behavior) on the part of the dog is an example of ______. ( Your Answer: imprinting Correct Answer: classical conditioning Incorrect. This is not the correct learned behavior. See section 36.4 for more information. 11. Defense of an area where important resources for survival are located is termed 3 6.6 Social Behavior) ______. ( Your Answer: territoriality C orrect. Territoriality is a defense mechanism. 12. Which of the follow ing is NOT an advantage of being a social animal? ( Social Behavior) Your Answer: conservation of energy Correct Answer: all of the above 3 6.6 Incorrect. This is a true statement, but it is not the only true statement. See section 36.6 for more information. 13. Defense of an area where important resources for survival are located is termed 3 6.6 Social Behavior) ______. ( Your Answer: territoriality C orrect. Territoriality is a defense mechanism. 14. Which of the follow ing statements about reciprocal altruism is NOT correct? ( 36.7 Altruism in the Animal Kingdom) Your Answer: Reciprocal altruism will be seen only in organisms that undergo imprinting. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal C orrect. Imprinting is not a prerequisite for reciprocal altruism. 15. Ultimate causes of behavior are generally linked to ______. ( Animal Behavior) Your Answer: physical parameters Correct Answer: natural selection 3 6.1 The Field of Incorrect. This is not the ultimate cause. See section 36.1 for more information. 16. Which of the follow ing can contribute to the behavior of an animal? ( Web of Behavioral Influences ) Your Answer: society Correct Answer: all of the above 3 6.2 The Incorrect. This statement is true, but it is not the only true statement. See section 36.2 for more information. 17. The human circadian rhythm that controls the awake-versus-sleepy cycle is not set in stone. Instead, external cues can alter this rhythm. What is the primary cue used to change or, alternatively, reinforce the circadian rhythm? ( 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: changes in food availability Correct Answer: changes in sunlight patterns (from dawn until dusk) Incorrect. This is not a primary cue. See the essay "Biological Rhythms and Sports" for more information. 18. Human circadian rhythms are controlled primarily by cells in the ______. ( Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: cerebral hemisphere Correct Answer: hypothalamus Incorrect. This is not the correct area of the brain. See the essay "Biological Rhythms and Sports" for more information. 3 6.3 19. Which of the follow ing behaviors is a fixed action pattern? ( Influences on Behavior) Your Register to View Answerbird singing Correct Answer: greylag geese pulls an egg into its nest 36.3 Internal Incorrect. This is not a reflex that is performed every time the exact same w ay. See section 36.3 for more information. 20. Humpback w hales are know n to make an annual north and south migration to move from food-rich northern latitudes to w armer southern waters for calving . wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal W hat type of behavior is this? ( Your Answer: altruism Correct Answer: migration Incorrect. This is not the correct term. See section 36.3 for more information. 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) 21. Goslings will follow any large object that was near them early in life and exhibited some specific behaviors. This learned behavior has specific survival advantages if the object the goslings follow is their parent. How ever, researchers have shown that the goslings will also learn to follow a person, another bird, or even a toy 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) balloon. When is this behavior set? ( Your Answer: sensitive period C orrect. The animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz was the first to show that imprinting occurred in goslings. 22. A lab rat is placed in a box that contains a lever. In moving around the box, the rat accidentally bumps into the lever, causing a food pellet to drop into the box. Soon the rat is purposely pushing the lever to receive the food. What type of reinforcement is this? ( 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) Your Answer: habitual reinforcement Correct Answer: positive reinforcement Incorrect. This is not the correct reinforcement. See section 36.4 for more information. 23. Which of these organisms is most likely to accomplish a task involving insight learning? ( 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) Your Answer: butterfly Correct Answer: chimpanzee Incorrect. This organism does not have the ability to reason. See section 36.4 and Figure 36.11 for more information. 24. A w hite-crowned sparrow raised in isolation w ill produce a characteristic song, 3 6.5 even though it has never heard one. What type of behavior is this? ( Behavior in Action: How Birds Acquire Their Songs ) Your Answer: instinct C orrect. White-crowned sparrows are genetically predisposed to sing a certain song. 25. Peahens (female peafowl) generally selectively breed with males of the species (peacocks) with the largest tails. However, the larger the peacock's tail, the less well he can fly and the more likely he is to be eaten by tigers and other predators. 3 6.6 Social Behavior) This is because of _______. ( Your Answer: natural selection wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal C orrect. This is true. 26. Elephants are known to come to the defense of members of their group. In some cases, the elephant will lose its ow n life in the defense of a group member. This is an example of ______. ( 3 6.7 Altruism in the Animal Kingdom) Your Answer: territoriality Correct Answer: altruism Incorrect. The costly behavior described is carried out by one animal to benefit another. See section 36.7 for more information. 27. During the fall, elk begin to look for mates as a result of changes in the levels of various hormones. This explanation for mate searching is classified as __________. ( 3 6.1 The Field of Animal Behavior) Your Answer: ultimate Correct Answer: proximate Incorrect. This is not the cause. See section 36.1 for more information. 28. Which of the follow ing influences behavior? ( Your Answer: society Correct Answer: all of the above 36.1 The Field of Animal Behavior) Incorrect. This is true but not the only correct answ er. See section 36.1 for more information. 29. Turning you head aw ay from a loud noise is called ________. ( Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: taxis C orrect. Taxis is the movement toward or aw ay from a noise. 36.3 Internal 30. Male gypsy moths travel thousands of meters to reach female gypsy moths. This 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) behavior is a response to ________. ( Your Answer: auditory signals Correct Answer: pheromones Incorrect. This is not the reason for this behavior. See section 36.3 for more information. 31. Male gypsy moths travel thousands of meters to reach female gypsy moths. What 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) type of behavior is that? ( Your Register to View Answersearch pattern Correct Answer: instinct wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Incorrect. This is not the behavior. See section 36.3 for more information. 32. When your dog no longer barks at your mailman, the behavior it is displaying is 36.4 Learning and Behavior) ________. ( Your Answer: reflex Correct Answer: habituation Incorrect. It is not this behavior. See section 36.4 for more information. 33. The formation of a connection between objects and events that w ere formerly 3 6.4 Learning and Behavior) unconnected is called ________. ( Your Answer: imitation Correct Answer: insight Incorrect. This is not the correct term. See section 36.4 for more information. 34. A clow n fish guarding its sea anemone is an example of ________. ( Behavior) Your Answer: altruism Correct Answer: territoriality 3 6.6 Social Incorrect. This is not the term used when an animal is guarding their home. See section 36.6 for more information. 35. Auditory communication is found mostly in _____. ( Your Answer: bee Correct Answer: w olf 3 6.6 Social Behavior) Incorrect. This is an organism that does not use sound as a means of communication. See section 36.6 for more information. 36. Which of the follow ing is a drawback of sociality? ( Your Answer: reduction in disease levels C orrect. This is not a positive aspect of sociality. 36.6 Social Behavior) 37. Elephants returning to the same watering hole each year is an example of 36.4 Learning and Behavior) ________. ( Your Answer: operant conditioning C orrect. By receiving this positive reinforcement, they return each year for water. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal 38. When a person changes time zones suddenly, as in jet travel, the circadian rhythm 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) __________. ( Your Answer: is destroyed temporarily Correct Answer: needs entrainment Incorrect. This does not reset the circadian rhythm. See section 36.3 for more information. 39. The circadian rhythm characteristic of some organisms is most likely influenced by 36.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) ________. ( Your Answer: the sun Correct Answer: amount of darkness Incorrect. This does not influence the circadian rhythm. See section 36.3 for more information. 40. Turning your head aw ay from a loud noise is know n as taxis. What would w e call the noise? ( 3 6.3 Internal Influences on Behavior) Your Answer: stereotyped pattern Correct Answer: releaser Incorrect. This is not what the stimulus is called. See section 36.3 for more information. 41. In the fall, male bighorn sheep start to ram each other. Which of the following 3 6.1 The Field of Animal would be an ultimate cause for this behavior? ( Behavior) Your Answer: Changes in day length stimulate aggressiveness. Correct Answer: Ramming is a w ay of determining w ho mates with females. Incorrect. This is not the ultimate cause. See section 36.1 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 36. Animals and Their Actions: Animal Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Structure of Cells" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 4. Life's Home: The Cell > Student Home Site: > Animations Quiz: Structure of Cells Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:02 PM (EDT) 40% Correct of 5 questions 2 corre ct: 3 incorre ct: 4 0% 6 0% More information about scoring 1. Pancreatitis is a disorder that causes human pancreas cells to break dow n all of their ow n contents and die w hen a certain type of organelle ruptures. This disorder w ould involve a problem w ith w hich of these organelles? Your Answer: ribosomes Correct Answer: lysosomes Incorrect. Ribosomes are used for protein synthesis. 2. Muscle cells require large amounts of energy in order to produce movement. You w ould expect muscle cells to contain a large number of: Your Answer: mitochondria C orrect. The mitochondria are involved with energy production. 3. Cyanide poisoning is lethal because it interrupts the major function of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. This would mean that it interferes w ith: Your Answer: sorting proteins Correct Answer: energy production Incorrect. The mitochondria do not sort proteins. 4. Which of these structures would never be found in an animal cell? Y our Answer: plasma membrane Correct Answer: central vacuole Incorrect. All cells have a plasma membrane. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Many antibiotics kill bacteria because they alter the functioning of their ribsomes. Which of the following cellular processes would be directly altered by antibiotics? Your Answer: Production of proteins C orrect. The ribosomes are involved w ith protein synthesis. 5. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 4. Life's Home: The Cell > Student Home Site: > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:01 PM (EDT) 18% Correct of 44 questions 8 correct: 36 incorrect: 1 8% 8 2% More information about scoring 1. All cells arise from ______. ( 4 .1 Cells Are the Fundamental Units of Life ) Your Answer: components of dead cells Correct Answer: preexisting cells Incorrect. The cell theory describes how new cells are produced. See section 4.1 for more information. 2. What is the primary reason that most cells are small? ( Your Answer: for protection 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) Correct Answer: to maximize the surface-area-to-volume ratio Incorrect. Cells need to import and export materials to survive. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. 3. Which organelle lacks a membrane and can be found in prokaryotic cells? ( The Eukaryotic Cell) Y our Answer: nucleus Correct Answer: ribosome 4 .3 Incorrect. This protein and RNA aggregate is responsible for producing proteins. See section 4.3 for more information. 4. Your 7-year-old brother has bet you that the w ater in the pond behind your house does not have anything living in it. You disagree w ith him and pull out your microscope to show him the types of eukaryotic cells in the pond w ater. Which of the follow ing items w ould be present in eukaryotic cells and not in prokaryotic 4 .2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) cells? ( Your Answer: ribosomes wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Correct Answer: chloroplast Incorrect. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. See section 4.2 for more information. 5. Which of the follow ing would always be associated w ith eukaryotic cells? ( Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) Your Register to View Answersingle-celled organism Correct Answer: the presence of membrane-bound organelles 4 .2 All Incorrect. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. See section 4.2 and Figure 4.2 for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing statements about a typical animal cell is true? ( Eukaryotic Cell) Your Answer: It usually depends on oxygen. C orrect. Animal cells require oxygen to generate cellular energy in the mitochondria. 4 .3 The 7. Many antibiotics kill bacteria because they hamper the function of prokaryotic ribosomes. Which of the following cellular processes is directly altered by 4 .4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein Production Path) antibiotics? ( Y our Answer: formation of the cell wall Correct Answer: synthesis of proteins Incorrect. Ribosomes can be free floating or attached to the ER in a eukaryotic cell. See section 4.4 for more information. 8. The membrane of w hich organelle is perforated with pores that regulate the 4 .4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the passage of large molecules like mRNA? ( Protein Production Path) Your Answer: rough ER Correct Answer: nucleus Incorrect. Messenger RNA is a copy of DNA that must be transported from its site of production to a ribosome. See section 4.4 and Figure 4.5 for more information. 9. The primary function of the nucleolus is ______. ( Along the Protein Production Path ) 4 .4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Your Answer: to protect proteins and make them Correct Answer: to produce ribosomes Incorrect. The nucleolus resides within the nucleus. See section 4.4 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell A cell lacking the ability to convert food to cellular energy w ould be lacking w hich 4 .5 Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures ) organelle? ( Your Answer: chloroplast Correct Answer: mitochondrion Incorrect. This organelle has tw o membranes. See section 4.5 for more information. 10. 11. Cyanide poisoning is lethal because it interrupts the major function of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. This w ould mean that it interferes with ______. ( 4 .5 Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures ) Your Answer: protein synthesis Correct Answer: energy production Incorrect. Mitochondria convert food molecules into useful products for the cell. See section 4.5 for more information. 12. Which of these cytoskeletal filaments is primarily responsible for anchoring the 4 .6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal organelles inside the cell's cytoplasm? ( Scaffolding ) Your Answer: microtubules Correct Answer: intermediate filaments Incorrect. These filaments are the most permanent of the cytoskeletal elements. See section 4.6 for more information. 13. Which of the follow ing structures w ould never be found in an animal cell? ( The Plant Cell) Your Answer: Golgi complex Correct Answer: central vacuole Incorrect. Three organelles are unique to plants. See section 4.7 for more information. 4 .7 14. Which of the follow ing cell structures is absent from animal cells? ( Cell) Your Answer: Golgi complex Correct Answer: cell wall 4 .7 The Plant Incorrect. This is the structure that makes plants stiff and allow s trees to grow tall. See section 4.7 for more information. 15. What special structure forms the communication channel between animal cells? ( 4.8 Cell-to-Cell Communication ) Your Answer: nerve cells Correct Answer: gap junctions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Incorrect. These structures form protein channels. See section 4.8 and Figure 4.19 for more information. 16. Which of the follow ing structures is the smallest? ( Y our Answer: virus Correct Answer: protein 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) Incorrect. Nonliving materials form living organisms. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. 17. Which of the follow ing statements concerning prokaryotes and eukaryotes is true? 4 .2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) ( Your Answer: They both often exist in an environment w ithout oxygen. Correct Register to View Answermitochondrion is about the same size as a prokaryotic cell. Incorrect. This is not a valid statement. See section 4.2 for more information. 18. If you have no other information about an organism other than the fact that it is 4.2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or single celled, what can you conclude? ( Eukaryotic) Your Answer: It is eukaryotic. Correct Answer: It could be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Incorrect. Single-celled organisms exist as two types. See section 4.2 for more information. 19. Which of the follow ing correctly describes the path of protein production and 4 .4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein secretion in a eukaryotic cell? ( Production Path ) Your Answer: ribosome, nucleus, rough ER, Golgi complex Correct Answer: ribosome, rough ER, Golgi complex, plasma membrane Incorrect. Protein production w ithin a eukaryotic cell requires the coordination of many different organelles. See section 4.4 for more information. 20. Which of the follow ing pairs correctly matches the organelle w ith its function? ( 4.4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein Production Path) ( 4 .5 Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures ) ( 4 .7 The Plant Cell) Your Answer: chloroplast and production of glucose C orrect. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis within a plant cell. 21. What benefit is derived from the mitochondria having a set of internal membranes? 4 .5 Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures ) ( wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Y our Answer: It can convert more food to energy. C orrect. With increased surface area within the organelle, mitochondria can convert more cellular energy. 22. How does the function of a chloroplast impact the life of an animal? ( Plant Cell) Your Answer: It allows animals to process food into energy. Correct Answer: It provides animals w ith oxygen and food. 4 .7 The Incorrect. Chloroplasts allow plants to harness energy from the sun. See section 4.7 for more information. 23. If given the following description of a cell, what can you conclude? The cell contains internal compartments, one of which takes up most of the volume of the cell, 4 .7 The Plant Cell) pushing the other organelles toward the membrane edge. ( Your Answer: This cell is viral. Correct Answer: This cell is a plant cell. Incorrect. Each type of cell has certain unique features. See section 4.7 for more information. 24. Which of the follow ing is absent from animal cells? ( Your Answer: mitochondria Correct Answer: central vacuole 4.7 The Plant Cell) Three organelles are specific to the plant cell. See section 4.7 for more information. 25. What is the difference between the cytoplasm and the cytosol? ( Eukaryotic Cell) Your Answer: The cytoplasm is a solid and the cytosol is fluid. Correct Answer: The cytoplasm contains the cytosol. 4 .3 The Incorrect. This is not the difference between the tw o. See section 4.3 for more information. 26. Eukaryotic cells can form multicelled organisms because __________. ( Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) Your Answer: they can specialize in function C orrect. 4 .2 All 27. Which of the follow ing lists is in the correct order, from the largest to the smallest? 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) ( wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Y our Answer: human egg cell, mitochondria, lipid , atom C orrect. 28. Which of the follow ing describes something larger than the average bacterial cell? ( 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) Your Answer: the entire DNA genome of a eukaryotic cell Correct Answer: an individual sperm Incorrect. Think of w hat is necessary to make a cell. Items that can be found w ithin a cell will be smaller than the cell. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. 29. Which of the follow ing characteristics must be fulfilled for an object to be 4.1 Cells Are the Fundamental Units of Life ) considered living? ( Your Answer: It must contain at least a single cell. C orrect. A cell is the basic unit of life. 30. What structure do a prokaryotic cell, a plant cell, and an animal cell have in 4.2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) common? ( Your Answer: mitochondria Correct Answer: plasma membrane Incorrect. Every cell w ill contain three items. See section 4.2 for more information. 31. You have isolated a mutant corn plant in w hich the leaf contains white stripes. 4 .7 The Plant Cell) Which organelle w ould be affected in such a plant? ( Your Answer: chloroplast C orrect. The chloroplast contains the chlorophyll pigment. 32. If a human sperm is unable to move through the female body to reach the site of the egg, the sperm could have a defect in which of the follow ing structures? ( 4.6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding ) Your Answer: the cell w all Correct Answer: the flagella Incorrect. Sperm cells contain a cytoskeletal projection that moves the cell through its environment. See section 4.7 for more information. 33. You are looking at a cell under a microscope. The presence of which organelle 4 .7 The would determine if you are viewing a plant cell and not an animal cell? ( Plant Cell) wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 Y our Answer: nucleus 4. Life's Home: The Cell Correct Answer: chloroplast Incorrect. Plant cells contain three unique organelles. See section 4.6 for more information. 34. Which of the follow ing is equal to a measurement of 1 mm? ( Cell) Your Answer: 1 centimeter Correct Answer: 1,000 micrometers 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Incorrect. Eukaryotic cells range in size from 100 micrometers to 10 micrometers, only a fraction of a millimeter. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. 35. Which organelle is believed to have been an ancient symbiont of an ancient cell? ( 4 .6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding ) Y our Answer: central vacuole Correct Answer: chloroplast Incorrect. Two organelles are believed to be descendants of bacteria. See the essay "The Stranger Within: Endosymbiosis" for more information. 36. According to the endosymbiotic theory, what benefit have cells derived from the 4 .6 The Cytoskeleton: transition of mitochondria into the eukaryotic cell? ( Internal Scaffolding ) Y our Answer: the ability to reproduce Correct Answer: the ability to use oxygen in metabolism Incorrect. Remember the function of mitochondria. See the essay "The Stranger Within: Endosymbiosis" for more information. 37. Which of the follow ing ratios of surface area to volume in a cell will be the most successful? ( 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) Y our Answer: 6:24 Correct Answer: 8:1 Incorrect. The more surface area per unit of volume, the better a cell is able to function. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. 38. You have isolated an organism that is 50 micrometers in size. This organism is most likely a ________. ( 4 .3 The Eukaryotic Cell) Y our Answer: protein Correct Answer: animal cell Incorrect. Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells. See the essay "The Size of Cells" for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Microtubules __________. ( 4 .6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding ) 39. Your Answer: are long filaments made from actin Correct Answer: determine cell shape Incorrect. The cytoskeleton is composed of three elements. See section 4.6 for more information. 40. When cells form tissues, the cells within the tissues must be able to communicate. Which of the follow ing statements describes how cells communicate with each other? ( 4 .8 Cell-to-Cell Communication ) Your Answer: Cells pass DNA material through channels betw een the cells. Correct Answer: Cells send chemical signals to each other through channels. Incorrect. Both plant and animal cells can communicate w ith other cells. See section 4.8 for more information. 41. A fungal organism like mold is _____________. ( Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) Your Answer: prokaryotic because it lacks DNA 4.2 All Cells Are Either Correct Answer: eukaryotic because it contains organelles Incorrect. Read the definition of a prokaryotic cell in section 4.2. 42. A defect in the nucleolus w ould affect the ability of the cell to _________. ( Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein Production Path) Your Answer: produce lipids Correct Answer: produce proteins Incorrect. The nucleolus is a portion of the nucleus and is involved in the production of a type of nucleic acid. See section 4.4 for more information. 4 .4 A 43. If a defect occurs within the Golgi complex of a cell, w hat problem might arise? ( 4.4 A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein Production Path) Your Answer: DNA w ould be destroyed. Correct Answer: Proteins w ould be sent in the w rong directions. Incorrect. The Golgi complex has many functions but receives material from the ER. See section 4.4 for more information. 44. Both cilia and flagella _________. ( 4 .6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding ) Your Answer: are composed of protein C orrect. Both structures are composed of microtubules. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 4. Life's Home: The Cell Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Life's Home: The Cell > End of Site: Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:56 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 11% Correct o f 9 questions: 1 corre ct: 8 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 1% 8 9% 1. Jerome has strep throat, a bacterial infection. The cause of the infection is Your Answer: the grow th of a virus Correct Answer: prokaryotic cells 2. Where would you expect to find a cytoskeleton? Your Answer: betw een bacterial cells Correct Answer: throughout the cytosol 3. Suppose Dr. Hyde found a cell that had many mitochondria, a nucleus, a cell w all made of cellulose, and an endoplasmic reticulum, as w ell as many other parts. He might assume that he has found Your Answer: an animal cell Correct Register to View Answerplant cell 4. Cells in the pancreas manufacture large amounts of protein. Which of these would you expect to find a large amount of, or number of, in pancreatic cells? Your Answer: chloroplasts Correct Answer: rough endoplasmic reticulum 5. Suppose that a cell could be seen to lack intermediate filaments. Which of these would be the most likely effect of this condition? Your Answer: an inability to move proteins from one part of the cell to another Correct Register to View Answertendency for the nucleus and organelles in the cell to drift around inside the cell wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell 6. Heart muscle cells have a number of gap junctions connecting them to their adjoining cells. From this you can conclude that heart muscle cells Your Answer: lack the ability to divide Correct Answer: communicate frequently 7. Which is the correct ranking of these small things, from smallest to largest? (Use typical sizes.) Your Answer: atoms < proteins < amino acids < animal cells < bacteria infection Correct Answer: atoms < amino acids < proteins < bacteria < animal cells 8. Cells need large amounts of ribosomal RNA to make proteins. The ribosomal RNA is made in a specialized structure know n as _____, w hich is found in _____. Your Register to View Answerribosome the cytosol Correct Answer: the nucleolus the nucleus 9. Many antibiotics w ork by blocking the function of ribosomes. Therefore, these antibiotics w ill: Y our Answer: block protein synthesis E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Life's Home: The Cell > Site: Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:56 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 25% Correct o f 20 que stions: 5 corre ct: 15 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More inform ation about scoring . 1. Which of the follow ing statements concerning prokaryotes and eukaryotes is probably valid? (level 2). Y our Answer: Prokaryotes lack DNA, w hile eukaryotes possess DNA. Correct Answer: Mitochondria are about the same size as a prokaryotic cell. Incorrect. Review the characteristics of life from Chapter 1. 2. Which of the follow ing cell structures is NOT an extension of the cell's cytoskeleton? (level 1). Y our Answer: flagella Correct Answer: All of the above ARE extensions of the cell's cytoskeleton. Incorrect. Recall that flagella are cytoskeletal extensions composed primarily of microtubules. 3. Which of these organisms usually requires oxygen to live? (level 1). Y our Answer: both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Correct Answer: eukaryotes Incorrect. Review Section 4.2 on prokaryotic and eukaryotic differences. 4. Which w ere probably the first living cells to appear on Earth? (level 1). Y our Answer: eukaryotes Correct Answer: prokaryotes Incorrect. Eukaryotes, w ith their internal organelles, are far too complex to have been the first living cells. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/5 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell 5. Which of these organisms can be unicellular? (level 2). Your Answer: both prokaryotes and eukaryotes C orrect. Both of these groups can contain some unicellular organisms. 6. Which of the follow ing best summarizes the movement of a protein molecule from the time it is formed until it is secreted from the cell? (level 1). Y our Answer: ribosome --> smooth ER --> nucleoli --> transport vesicle --> plasma membrane Correct Answer: ribosome --> rough ER --> Golgi body --> transport vesicle -> plasma membrane Incorrect. What is the function of nucleoli? 7. Many antibiotics kill bacteria because they hamper the function of prokaryotic ribosomes. Which of the follow ing cellular processes is directly altered by antibiotics? (level 2). Y our Answer: intracellular digestion Correct Answer: synthesis of proteins Incorrect. Lysosomes perform this function. 8. The cells of the pancreas secrete large amounts of insulin into the bloodstream. Where are these proteins synthesized? (level 1). Your Answer: rough ER C orrect. Secretory proteins are synthesized on ribosomes attached to the ER. 9. The membrane of which organelle is perforated w ith pores that regulate the passage of large molecules such as mRNA? (level 1). Y our Answer: rough ER Correct Answer: nucleus Incorrect. Proteins are synthesized in the cell's cytoplasm. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/5 9/14/2010 10. Life's Home: The Cell Which organelles are very prevalent in cells that secrete steroid sex hormones such as cells of the ovaries and testes? (level 2). Y our Answer: golgi bodies Correct Answer: smooth ER Incorrect: The golgi apparatus is in the business of sorting and shipping proteins. 11. The primary function of the nucleolus is to ... (level 2). Y our Answer: protect the DNA and produce lipids. Correct Answer: protect the DNA and produce ribosomes. Incorrect. Lipid production takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 12. The organelle that is responsible for sorting and shipping proteins to the appropriate places in the cell is the ... (level 1). Y our Answer: mitochondrion. Correct Answer: Golgi apparatus. Incorrect. The mitochondria are responsible for energy production in the cell. 13. The organelle responsible for energy production is the ... (level 1). Y our Answer: smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Correct Answer: mitochondrion. Incorrect. The endoplasmic reticulum is used to produce lipids. 14. Which of the follow ing organelles is NOT found in plant cells? (level 2). Y our Answer: mitochondrion Correct Answer: lysosome P lant cells also need a lot of cellular energy, and could not survive w ithout mitochondria. 15. Which of the follow ing cell structures is NOT found in animal cells? (level 1). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/5 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell Y our Answer: smooth endoplasmic reticulum Correct Answer: cell wall Incorrect. Although there is some variation in how much of this organelle is present, most animal cells contain smooth ER. 16. Which of the follow ing organelles contains digestive enzymes? (level 1). Your Answer: lysosome C orrect. This organelle is used to digest foreign invaders and old worn-out organelles. 17. What is the primary reason that most cells are small? (level 2) Y our Answer: so that unicellular organisms can live undetected Correct Answer: to maximize the surface-area-to-volume ratio Incorrect. Unicellular organisms can live undetected because of their size, but this is not the primary reason they are small. 18. Which of these molecules is a product o f photosynthesis that occurs inside plant chloroplasts? (level 2) Your Answer: oxygen C orrect. Oxygen is actually a waste product of plants but a necessity for animals. 19. Which of these cytoskeletal filaments is primarily responsible for anchoring the organelles inside the cell's cytoplasm? (level 1). Y our Answer: cilia Correct Answer: intermediate filaments Incorrect. Recall that cilia are cytoskeletal extensions composed primarily of microtubules. 20. In the following list, w hich is the smallest structure? (level 2). Your Answer: protein C orrect. Most p roteins rang e betw een 510 nm (1 nanometer = 10-9 meters ). wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/5 9/14/2010 Life's Home: The Cell E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/5 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Print this page Your Results for "Animations quiz: Plasma membranes" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane > Site: Student Home > Animations quiz: Plasma membranes Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:03 PM (EDT) 50% Correct of 4 questions 2 corre ct: 2 incorre ct: 5 0% 5 0% More information about scoring 1. The glycocalyx is an important structure in the plasma membrane because it is used to: Your Answer: Assist in communication and recognition C orrect. The glycocalyx is important in cell recognition. 2. Which of the following is not a component of the plasma membrane? Your Answer: glycocalyx Correct Answer: DNA Incorrect. The glycocalyx is found on the surface of the plasma membrane. 3. The main lipid component of plasma membranes is ____________ . Your Answer: steroids Correct Answer: phospholipids Incorrect. Steroids are not found in the plasma membrane. 4. If the _____________________ of the plasma membrane is (w ere) damaged, the cell might have problems w ith transporting substances through the membrane. Your Answer: proteins C orrect. Proteins are involved in membrane transport. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane > Site: Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:03 PM (EDT) 35% Correct of 43 questions 15 corre ct: 28 incorre ct: 3 5% 6 5% More information about scoring 1. In the figure show n here, which molecule might serve as the basic molecule of the bilayer of a 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) membrane ? ( Your Answer: phospholipids C orrect. Phospholipids form a bilayer, which is the basis of the membrane. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane 2. In the figure show n here, which molecule w orks to keep the membrane at optimal fluidity? ( 5.1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: peripheral protein Correct Answer: cholesterol Incorrect. This molecule is able to bind w ith the nonpolar tails of the phospholipids. See section 5.1 for more information. 3. In the figure show n here, which molecule may function in facilitated diffusion? ( 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: peripheral protein Correct Answer: integral protein Incorrect. Remember the two things necessary for facilitated diffusion to occur. See sections 5.1 and 5.3 for more information. 4. In general, w hich of the follow ing is largely responsible for moving substances across the plasma membrane, communicating with other cells, and identifying the cell? ( 5 .1 The Nature wps.aw.com//index.html 2/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane o f the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: carbohydrates Correct Answer: proteins Incorrect. There exist two general categories of this type of molecule: integral and peripheral. See section 5.1 and Figure 5.3 for more information. 5. Like most liquids, the fluid lipid bilayer can solidify and freeze at very cold temperatures. However, certain kinds of fish live in very cold w ater. The cell membranes of these fish are likely to have more of w hich of the follow ing membrane components than would a fish that occupies 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) warmer w aters? ( Your Answer: cytoskeleton Correct Answer: cholesterol Incorrect. Which of the membrane components is primarily responsible for maintaining membrane fluidity? See section 5.1 for more information. 6. How are plasma membranes best described? ( 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: double layer of phospholipid molecules with hydrophobic tails oriented tow ard each other C orrect. The hydrophobic ends point tow ard each other in the center of the membrane. 7. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that leads to the production of very thick mucus in the respiratory tract, causing frequent and serious respiratory infections. The defect is the result of the production of a faulty membrane protein for the transport of the chloride ion. The protein is still in the membrane; it just does not function normally. What type of membrane protein is being affected in this case? ( 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: transport protein C orrect. Transport proteins move materials in and out of the cell. 8. In the process of diffusion, ______. ( 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) Your Answer: molecules concentrate, but energy is required Correct Answer: molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration Incorrect. Diffusion is a manner in w hich molecules move. See section 5.2 for more information. 9. Carbon dioxide crosses the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. What determines the rate at 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) ( 5 .2 which carbon dioxide enters the cell? ( Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) Your Answer: the amount of energy being produced by the cell Correct Answer: the concentration of carbon dioxide on each side of the membrane Incorrect. "Simple diffusion" is the key phrase in the question. See sections 5.1 and 5.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane 10. When tw o solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allow ed to occur, w hich of the follow ing w ill happen? 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( Your Answer: Water w ill move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. C orrect. Water will move from the side of the membrane with more water (and less solute) to the side w ith less water (and more solute). 11. The activity of the sodium-potassium pump is critically important in maintaining proper ion concentrations across the cell membrane. This pump is similar to the glucose pump discussed in 5 .3 Moving the text. Given that, w hat can you conclude about the sodium-potassium pump? ( Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: Sodium and potassium are always at equilibrium w ith the outside environment. Correct Answer: The pumping mechanism requires energy. Incorrect. See section 5.3 for more information on the different mechanisms molecules use to pass through a membrane. 12. Which of the follow ing types of transport does not require the use of a transport protein? ( 5.3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: active transport Correct Answer: simple diffusion Incorrect. Remember that transport proteins span the entire width of the membrane. See section 5.3 for more information. 13. The concentration of calcium in a cell is 0.3%. The concentration of calcium in the fluids surrounding the cell is 0.1%. How could the cell obtain more calcium? ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: active transport C orrect. Active transport moves a substance from a low concentration to a high concentration. 14. Which of the follow ing statements about the movement of charged ions through a membrane is 5.3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) correct? ( Your Answer: Ions are brought into the cell via endocytosis. Correct Answer: Movement of ions requires a protein passage through the membrane. Incorrect. See section 5.3 for more information on the different mechanisms molecules use to pass through a membrane. 15. Large food particles, or perhaps w hole organisms, can be engulfed and pulled into the cell by the process of ______. ( 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) wps.aw.com//index.html 4/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Y our Answer: phagocytosis C orrect. Only a few specialized types of cells in the human body are able to do this. 16. Coated pits are required for w hich type of membrane transport? ( and Out) Your Answer: phagocytosis Correct Answer: clathrin-mediated endocytosis 5.4 Getting the Big Stuff In Incorrect. Coated pits result in a type of vesicle used for transport. See section 5.4 for more information. 17. What is the primary factor that determines if endocytosis or exocytosis w ould be needed to move a substance across the cell membrane, as opposed to diffusion or osmosis? ( 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Your Answer: the size of the molecules being moved C orrect. Items that are too large must be moved by endocytosis or exocytosis. 18. The proteins found embedded within the plasma membrane must _________. ( Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: must be able to dissolve in w ater 5 .1 The Correct Answer: have nonpolar residues on the outside to associate with the interior of the membrane Incorrect. Proteins may have areas that have different chemical properties based on the side chains. See section 5.1 for more information. 19. Which of the follow ing processes uses a difference in concentration (or concentration gradient) to transport molecules across the cell membrane? ( 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) ( 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Your Answer: osmosis C orrect. It is the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low er solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. 20. Which of the follow ing pieces of evidence w ould suggest that a substance entered a cell via 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and active transport as opposed to passive transport? ( Out) Your Answer: The substance moved from a high concentration to a low concentration. Correct Answer: ATP was required for transport. Incorrect. Both active and passive transport occur with small molecules. See section 5.3 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 5/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane The rate of facilitated diffusion of a molecule across a membrane w ill increase as the concentration difference of the molecule across the membrane increases to a certain point. Eventually, an increase in the concentration of the molecule w ill not cause any further increase in facilitated diffusion. This is because ______. ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: the number of carrier proteins in the membrane is limited C orrect. A finite number of carrier proteins exist, and w hen they are all full, the rate slow s to the turnover rate of the protein molecules. 21. 22. Which of the follow ing molecules or ions would normally need to use a membrane protein to 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) move through the cell membrane? ( Your Answer: Na + C orrect. The nonpolar tails w ill effectively keep out any polar or charged molecules or ions. 23. You are comparing a 25% salt solution to a 5% salt solution. Which of the follow ing statements 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, correctly describes the difference betw een these tw o solutions? ( and Osmosis ) Your Answer: The 5% salt solution is hypertonic compared w ith the 25% hypotonic solution. Correct Answer: The 25% salt solution is said to be hypertonic compared w ith the 5% hypotonic solution. Incorrect. Read the descriptions of hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions in section 5.2. 24. Exocytosis would move _________. ( 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Your Answer: waste materials out of the cell via a vesicle C orrect. In exocytosis, the vesicle membrane fuses w ith the plasma membrane and export material. 25. In endocytosis, a transport vesicle is derived from the _____. ( and Out) Your Answer: Golgi complex Correct Answer: plasma membrane 5.4 Getting the Big Stuff In Incorrect. If materials are too large to move through the membrane or through transport proteins, the cell has other transport mechanisms available. See section 5.4 and Figure 5.10 for more information. 26. What w ould happen if you tossed a beaker full of phospholipids into a beaker of oil? ( The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) 5 .1 Your Answer: You would expect the fatty acid tails to point out toward the oil and the head groups to point in toward each other. C orrect. Like dissolves like. wps.aw.com//index.html 6/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane On each side of a semipermeable membrane is a 5% sugar solution. Which of the follow ing 5 .2 Diffusion, statements correctly describes the movement of material in this system? ( Gradients, and Osmosis ) Your Answer: Sugar molecules move in only one direction through the membrane, causing an increase of sugar on one side and a decrease of sugar on the other. Correct Answer: Movement of water is equal between the tw o sides. Incorrect. Determine if the sugar can move? Can the w ater move? See section 5.2 for more information. 27. 28. On side A of a semipermeable membrane is a 5% glucose solution, and on side B is a 0.2% glucose solution. Which of the follow ing statements correctly describes the movement of glucose in this cellular system? ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: No movement occurs with the glucose. Moving glucose requires ATP. Correct Answer: Sugar molecules move from side A to side B through a glucose channel. Incorrect. Review the issue of tonicity. The diffusion of molecules is important in the answ er. See section 5.3 for more information. 29. Which of the follow ing statements correctly describes the difference between an integral and a 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) peripheral protein? ( Your Answer: An integral protein binds to the hydrophobic membrane, w hereas a peripheral protein associates more with one side of the membrane than with the other. C orrect. Integral proteins can sometimes span the entire width of the membrane. 30. Why are ions unable to move freely through the membrane? ( Membrane ) 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Your Answer: Ions are hydrophilic, so they cannot move through the hydrophilic core of the membrane. Correct Answer: Ions are charged, so they cannot diffuse through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Incorrect. Remember the chemical characteristics of ions. See section 5.1 for more information. 31. Which of the follow ing items would more likely exist within the glycocalyx? ( the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: phospholipids Correct Answer: carbohydrates 5 .1 The Nature of Incorrect. What is the basic composition of the glycocalyx? See section 5.1 for more information. 32. Which of the follow ing correctly matches a membrane component w ith its membrane function? ( 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) Your Answer: glycocalyx and transport of materials wps.aw.com//index.html 7/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Correct Answer: proteins and transport Incorrect. Four basic molecule types are found w ithin the membrane, each w ith specific functions. See section 5.1 for more information. 33. The plasma membrane is considered a _________. ( Y our Answer: gas Correct Answer: fluid material 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Incorrect. The membrane is very flexible, w hich allow s the fusion of vesicles to occur. See the essay on the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane for more information. 34. Which of the follow ing characteristics of the plasma membrane allows endocytosis and 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) exocytosis to occur? ( Y our Answer: It is a fluid mosaic. C orrect. This allow s other membranes made of the same basic materials to fuse w ith the plasma membrane or to pull aw ay from the plasma membrane and create a vesicle. 35. Which type of mechanism relies on the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane? ( Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Your Answer: osmosis Correct Answer: exocytosis 5 .4 Incorrect. Vesicles are small membrane enclosures that can be used to move material around the cell. See section 5.4 for more information. 36. Which of the follow ing statements about phagocytosis is true? ( and Out) 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In Your Answer: Phagocytosis can occur in every type of human body cell. Correct Answer: Phagocytosis brings materials into the cell. Incorrect. Endocytosis can occur in two ways. See section 5.4 for more information. 37. You are comparing transport mechanisms betw een tw o different types of cells. If you find that cell A requires ATP for transport and cell B requires phospholipids, w hich cell would also require a concentration gradient for transport? ( 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) ( 5 .4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) Your Answer: both cells Correct Answer: neither cell Incorrect. Each type of transport mechanism differs from the other because of specific characteristics. See sections 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4 for more information. 38. Which type of transport could not occur if the cell w as inhibited in the production of protein? ( wps.aw.com//index.html 8/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( Your Answer: facilitated diffusion C orrect. This type of transport requires the use of protein channels. 5.4 Getting the Big Stuff In and Out) 39. Which type of transport could not occur if the cell w as inhibited in the production of ATP? ( 5.2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) ( 5.3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) Your Answer: phagocytosis Correct Answer: active transport Incorrect. ATP is necessary if materials are to be moved against the concentration gradient. See sections 5.2 and 5.3 for more information. 40. A flaccid plant cell could occur because ________. ( 5 .2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis ) Your Answer: The extracellular environment has a lower salt concentration than does the interior of the cell. Correct Answer: The extracellular environment has a higher salt concentration than does the interior of the cell. Incorrect. Osmosis is the movement of w ater caused by the concentration gradient. See section 5.2 for more information. 41. Steroid hormones move directly through the cell membrane. Why? ( Substances In and Out) 5 .3 Moving Smaller Your Answer: The molecules are very small, and all small molecules can move through the membrane. Correct Answer: These molecules are nonpolar, so they can diffuse through the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane. Incorrect. Steroid hormones are lipids. See section 5.3 for more information. 42. If the protein required to move glucose into a cell is damaged, w hat w ould you expect to occur? 5 .3 Moving Smaller Substances In and Out) ( Your Answer: The cell would begin to transport glucose directly through the plasma membrane w ithout the protein. Correct Answer: The cell would be unable to transport glucose into the cell. Incorrect. Transporter proteins are specific to certain types of molecules. See section 5.3 for more information. 43. The head groups of the phospholipids are found on the exterior and the cytoplasmic side of the 5 .1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane ) membrane because ________. ( Your Answer: They are bound to ATP. Correct Answer: They are hydrophilic. Incorrect. Phospholipids arrange themselves into a bilayer because of the chemical differences betw een the head group and the fatty acid tails. See section 5.1 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane wps.aw.com//index.html 10/11 9/14/2010 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 11/11 1. I f t he p lasma m embrane l acked a g lycocalyx, t he cell w ould h ave d ifficulty C orrect A nswer: a dhering t o o ther c ells 2. You e at s paghetti f or d inner a nd d igest t he s tarch in i t t o g lucose. T he g lucose is n ow in h igh c oncentration in t he cells o f y our s mall i ntestine, r elative t o i ts c oncentration in y our b loodstream. P redictably, t he g lucose d iffuses a cross t he p lasma m embrane o f y our i ntestinal c ells, i nto y our b loodstream. Y our A nswer: T rue. 3. W hen a h uman cell is p laced i nto w ater, i t s wells. T his is s aid t o b e d ue t o o smosis. W hat's h appening t o m ake t he cell s well? C orrect A nswer: W ater is d iffusing a cross t he p lasma m embrane f rom a r egion o f l ower s olute c oncentration ( outside t he c ell) t o a r egion o f h igher s olute c oncentration ( inside t he c ell). 4. T yrone g ave L akeisha a r ose f or t he a nniversary o f t heir f irst d ate. N ow t he r ose h as w ilted, b ecause C orrect A nswer: T he p lant's cells h ave i nsufficient w ater in t hem t o p ush a gainst t heir cell w alls.< 5. T he p rotein t hat f unctions in t he s odium-potassium p ump is a n integra/ p rotein. T he w ord i ntegra/tells y ou t hat t his p rotein Y our A nswer: is c onnected t o t he h ydrophobic i nterior o f t he p lasma m embrane 6. You g et a c ut o n y our f inger a nd s ome b acteria e nter. Y our i mmune-system c ells kill o ff t he i nvaders b y i ngesting t hem. T his is a n e xample o f C orrect A nswer: p hagocytosis 7. A ccording t o t he f luid-mosaic m odel o f m embrane s tructure, t he m embrane is m ade u p o f a C orrect A nswer: b ilayer o f p hospholipids w ith p roteins i nterspersed in i t t hat h ave f airly f ree l ateral m ovement 8. C alcium i ons ( Ca++) a re p resent in t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum a t lOOO-fold h igher c oncentrations t han in t he c ytosol ( the g el-like m aterial o f t he cell o utside o f o rganelles). O ne p rotein o n t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum m embrane is d evoted t o a llowing C a++ t o m ove f rom t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum t o t he c ytosol a nd a nother p rotein m oves C a++ f rom t he c ytosol t o t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum. T hese p rocesses a re n ot t rivial, a s C a++ r eleased i nto t he c ytosol a llows s uch t hings a s m uscle c ontraction a nd c ommunication b etween n erve cells. I n t his p air o f C a++ t ransport p roteins, y ou w ould p redict t hat t he p rotein m oving C a++ f rom t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum t o t he c ytosol _ ___ a nd t he p rotein t hat m oves C a++ f rom c ytosol t o t he e ndoplasmic r eticulum _ ___ . C orrect A nswer: w orks w ithout ATP; r equires ATP 9. E ndocytosis a nd e xocytosis a re s imilar in t hat b oth i nvolve t he u se o f C orrect A nswer: v esicles t hat c arry m aterials i nto a nd o ut o f t he cell 1 0. O smosis r efers t o t he n et m ovement o f a cross a C orrect A nswer: w ater ... s emipermeable m embrane 1. Which of t he followino s tatements concernino m embrane proteins is incorrect? ( 18veI1), Y our A nswer: Th ey a re u suall y n ot p articuli>:" a oo u t w h cJ:. t )'p e s o f en e m ca Is t hey will allow t o crOS5 t he me rrn rane. 2. Refer t o t he illustration. Which molecule r epresents a olycoprotein t hat may function a s a cellular ID t ao, allowin o cells of t he immune s ystem t o reco onize a cell a s nati ve t o t he b ody? (level 2), C orrect A nswer: E 3. R efer t o t he i llustration, W hich m olecule m ay f unction in f acilitated d iffusion? (le vel 2) C orrect A nswer: B 4. Refer t o t he illustration. Which molecule is a p olysaccharide a ttached t o a p hospholipid? ( levei1). Y our A nswer: A s. Refer t o t he illustration. Which molecule mioht s erve a s a bindin o s ite for a h ormone, t hereb y elici ti no a r esponse in t he cell? (level 2). C orrect A nswer: D 6. ~' (lliL- ' Refer t o t he illustrati on. Which molecule works t o k eep t he m embrane a t optimal fiuidity? (leve l 2). C orrect A nswer: C 7. R efer t o t he i llustration. Which m olecule is b oth h ydrophobic a nd hydrophilic a nd a o oreoates a s a bilayer t o form t he "fabric" of t he m embrane? (le vel 1), Correct Register to View Answer 8. W ha t is t he si onificance of s electi ve permeability t o bioiooicai m embranes? (le vel 2 ), Correct Answer: All of t he a b ove a re c orrect. 9. The m ovement of m olecules acro ss a mem b rane a oainst t heir c oncentration o ra dient , a tthe e xp ense of ATP e neroy, is called '" (18 V811 ) Y our Register to View Answerctr.8 tr~spott, 1 0. J ust a s w ith m ost liqui ds, t he fiuid i pid b ilayer c an solidify a nd f reeze a t v er y cold t emp eratures. H owever, t here a re c ertain kinds o ffish t hat li ve in v er y cold w ate r. T he cell m embranes of t he se fish a re likely t o h ave m ore of wh ich 01 t he f ollo w in o m embrane c omponents t han w ould a fish t hat o ccupies w armer w ate rs? (level 2 ), Correct Register to View Answerholesrer d 1 1. T he a ctivity o f t he s odium/potassium p ump is c ritically i mportant in m aintaining p roper i on c oncentrations a cross t he cell m embrane. W hich o f t hese s teps is n ecessary in t he p umping a ctivity o f t his p rotein? ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: All o f t he a bove a re c ritical s teps in t he a ctivity o f t he p ump. 1 2. W hich o f t he f ollowing t ypes o f t ransport d oes NOT r equire t he u se o f a t ransport p rotein? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: s imple d iffusion 1 3. W hat d o y ou t hink w ould h appen t o a n a nimal cell t hat w as p laced i nto a d rop o f 1 00% p ure w ater? ( level 2 ) Y our A nswer: T he cell w ill s well u p a nd e ventually b urst. 14. I n t he p rocess o f d iffusion ... ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: m olecules m ove f rom a n a rea o f g reater c oncentration t o a n a rea o f l esser c oncentration. 15. M aterials t hat a re t oo l arge t o m ove o ut o f t he cell t hrough e ither t he l ipid b ilayer o r a t ransport p rotein m ust b e m oved o ut t hrough t he p rocess o f ... ( Ievel 1). Y our A nswer: e xocytosis. C orrect. F usion o f m aterial-containing v esicles w ith t he p lasma m embrane p ushes t he m aterial o ut o f t he cell. 1 6. L arge f ood p articles, o r p erhaps w hole o rganisms, c an b e e ngulfed a nd p ulled i nto t he cell b y t he p rocess o f ... ( level 1 ). Y our A nswer: p hagocytosis. 17. M any o f t he p roteins t hat a re a ssociated w ith t he cell m embrane a re s aid t o b e " integral" p roteins. An i ntegral p rotein is d efined a s a p rotein t hat is ... ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: b ound t o t he h ydrophobic p ortion o f t he l ipid b ilayer o f t he m embrane. 18. O f t he f our p rimary f unctions o f m embrane p roteins, w hich o ne d oes NOT r equire t hat t he p rotein b e in c ontact w ith t he e xtracellular f luid? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: s tructural p roteins 19. W hich o f t he f ollowing m olecules o r i ons w ould n ormally n eed t o u se a m embrane p rotein in o rder t o m ove t hrough t he cell m embrane? ( level 2). C orrect A nswer: H+ 2 0. W hich o f t he f ollowing p rocesses u ses a d ifference in c oncentration ( or c oncentration g radient) t o t ransport m olecules a cross t he cell m embrane? ( level 2) C orrect A nswer: a ll o f t he a bove 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Energy and biology" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Site: Energy > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Energy and biology Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:05 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 10 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 10 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. A child suddenly develops an extremely high fever. At the hospital, she is given an ice bath to low er her body temperature. The best explanation for w hy the doctor is attempting to lower her temperature is: Your Answer: an elevated temperature could directly prevent cellular reaction from happening Correct Register to View Answerhigh body temperature could cause denaturation to her enzymes which may prevent critical cell functions Incorrect. Temperatures do not prevent cellular respiration from happening. 2. According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy: Your Answer: is never lost Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 3. Energy conversions: Your Answer: decrease entropy Correct Answer: generate heat Incorrect. Energy conversions do not decrease entropy. 4. Enzymes are made from ________ Your Answer: carbohydrates Correct Answer: proteins wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Incorrect. Enzymes are not made from carbohydrates. 5. Select the correct statement: Your Answer: enzymes force chemical reactions to happen than would not otherw ise occur without enzyme assistance Correct Answer: enzymes are critical for the regulation of important metabolic pathways Incorrect. Enzymes do not force chemical reactions to occur. 6. The measure of the amount of disorder in a system is termed: Your Answer: kinetic energy Correct Answer: entropy Incorrect. Kinetic energy is not a measurement of disorder in a system. 7. When an enzyme changes its shape in response to a high level of a certain product: Your Answer: activation energy has been lowered Correct Answer: allosteric regulation is occurring Incorrect. Allosteric regulation slow s the activity of an enzyme. 8. Which law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another? Your Answer: Third law of thermodynamics Correct Answer: First law of thermodynamics Incorrect. Is there a third law of thermodynamics? 9. Which of the follow ing could affect how an enzyme functions? Your Answer: temperature Correct Answer: all of the above Incorrect. Is this the only possible answ er? 10. Which of the follow ing is not true concerning ATP? Your Answer: w hen utilized, ADP is the end product Correct Answer: w hen broken down the reaction is endergonic Incorrect. This is a true statement. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Site: Energy > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:04 PM (EDT) 23% Correct of 40 questions 9 corre ct: 31 incorre ct: 2 3% 7 8% More information about scoring 1. A lack of solar energy w ould ultimately affect all living things. However, the first 6 .1 Energy Is Central to Life ) organisms to be affected w ould be ________. ( Your Answer: bacteria Correct Answer: plants Incorrect. Plants directly harvest solar energy. See section 6.1 for more information. 2. A deficiency of B vitamins in your diet might cause _______. ( Activation Barrier through Enzymes ) Your Register to View Answerchange to the shape of your enzymes Correct Register to View Answerlack of coenzymes needed by cells 6 .6 Lowering the Incorrect. Vitamins serve as coenzymes for enzymes. See section 6.6 for more information. 3. A molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is derived from ATP and is an important messenger molecule in the endocrine system. To produce this 6 .4 The Energy Dispenser: ATP ) molecule, you w ould need to _____. ( Your Answer: remove a phosphate group from ATP Correct Answer: remove tw o phosphate groups from ATP Incorrect. What would be the difference betw een a triphosphate and a monophosphate? See section 6.4 for more information. 4. A ripped piece of paper will never spontaneously repair itself. The law of thermodynamics that explains w hy this is so is the _____ law of thermodynamics. ( 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Y our Answer: fourth Correct Answer: second Incorrect. How does entropy relate to this situation? See section 6.2 for more information. 5. According to the first and second laws of thermodynamics, w hat happens if the entropy in the universe increases? ( 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) Your Answer: Energy has been destroyed. Correct Register to View Answertransformation of energy has occurred. Incorrect. Increasing entropy is the result of energy transformations. See section 6.2 for more information. 6. According to the law s of thermodynamics, which of the following is impossible? ( 6.2 The Nature of Energy) Your Answer: creation of a system that couples an endergonic reaction to an exergonic reaction Correct Answer: creation of a system that is 100% energy efficient Incorrect. The second law of thermodynamics presented explains that energy conversions are never 100% efficient. See section 6.2 for more information. 7. Competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors differ with respect to ______. ( 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: their pH Correct Answer: the location on the enzyme to which they bind Incorrect. The difference between competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors relates to w here they bind on the enzyme. See section 6.7 for more information. 8. Individuals with the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) are lacking a single enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxylase, w hich converts the amino acid phenylalanine to the amino acid tyrosine. If this conversion does not happen, phenylalanine builds up and is toxic to the central nervous system, causing serious problems for the individual. Which of the following would be a reasonable 6 .6 Low ering the Activation Barrier through management for this disease? ( Enzymes ) Your Answer: Eat a normal diet and take tyrosine supplements. Correct Answer: Severely limit the amount of protein in the diet to avoid phenylalanine. Incorrect. If phenylalanine is toxic to a person with PKU, w hat w ould be the best way to avoid phenylalanine? See section 6.6 for more information. 9. It has been hypothesized that if the sun disappeared, all life would end. Other than the obvious drop in temperature, w hy w ould humans probably die if the sun suddenly stopped shining? ( 6 .1 Energy Is Central to Life ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Y our Answer: Humans would no longer be able to harvest solar energy. Correct Answer: Oxygen levels w ould drop. Incorrect. What is one of the major benefits that humans get from plants? See section 6.1 for more information. 10. Maltose is a disaccharide. Suppose someone had a hypothetical "maltose intolerance." Based on what you know about lactose intolerance, what would that 6 .5 Efficient Energy Use in Living Things: Enzymes ) mean? ( Your Answer: The person's cells cannot utilize maltose. Correct Answer: The person lacks the enzyme to break dow n maltose in the small intestines. Incorrect. An intolerance w ould indicate an inability to digest. See section 6.5 for more information. 11. Many types of "perpetual motion machines" have been invented, but none has worked. An example of a simple perpetual motion machine might be as follow s: a battery is hooked up to an electrical engine, causing the engine to turn a generator, which recharges the battery. In theory, the machine could be turned on and then run forever; however, in reality it w ill not. Why? ( 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) Your Answer: Some of the energy w ill be lost in all the energy transformations; thus, the battery will eventually run down. C orrect. This is in agreement w ith the second law of thermodynamics. 12. Metabolism is ___________. ( Enzymes ) 6 .5 Efficient Energy Use in Living Things: Your Answer: the sum of all the enzymes a cell contains Correct Answer: the sum of all the chemical reactions that a cell carries out Incorrect. Metabolism involves chemical reactions in a cell. See section 6.5 for more information. 13. People w ith high cholesterol levels often take drugs in an attempt to lower their cholesterol levels. One such drug is Lipitor. How does that drug work? ( 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: It prevents cholesterol from being absorbed in the small intestine. Correct Answer: It acts as a competitive inhibitor by binding to the active site of enzymes that normally produce cholesterol. Incorrect. Remember that the goal of statin drugs is to decrease cholesterol levels in the body. See section 6.7 for more information. 14. Shivering when you are cold can be helpful because _________. ( Nature of Energy) Your Answer: it decreases entropy in the cells 6 .2 The wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Correct Answer: it involves energy conversions in the muscles that generate heat Incorrect. What happens w hen energy is converted between forms? See section 6.2 for more information. 15. The drug Zocor is a statin that inhibits the production of cholesterol in the body. Although the drug can lower cholesterol levels, w hen a person stops taking the drug, the cholesterol level typically elevates again. The most likely reason for this is that Zocor ________. ( 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: increases the activation energy of the enzyme needed to produce cholesterol Correct Answer: acts as an allosteric regulator Incorrect. The effects of competitive inhibitors can be reversed w hen the inhibitor is removed. See section 6.7 for more information. 16. The enzyme lactase _________. ( Enzymes ) 6.6 Low ering the Activation Barrier through Your Answer: is overactive in people w ith a lactose intolerance Correct Answer: facilitates the breakdow n of lactose Incorrect. The lactase enzyme breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose. See section 6.6 and Figure 6.9 for more information. 17. The hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to all of the following except _________. ( How Is Energy Used by Living Things? ) ( 6 .4 The Energy Dispenser: ATP ) Your Answer: active transport of amino acids across a membrane Correct Answer: osmosis 6.3 Incorrect. Of the choices listed, all are endergonic except osmosis. See sections 6.3 and 6.4 for more information. 18. The hypothetical biochemical reaction A + B --> C + D requires 7.2 kcal/mole of energy to proceed. Could this reaction be coupled with the reaction ATP --> ADP + P (which releases 7.2 kcal/mole of energy)? ( 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) ( 6 .3 How Is Energy Used by Living Things? ) Your Answer: No, because some of the energy liberated in the reaction involving ATP is released as heat. C orrect. This is explained by the second law of thermodynamics. 19. The inhibitor of an enzyme is frequently a molecule that is produced at the end of a biochemical pathw ay in a cell. This inhibitor binds to the inhibitor site on an enzyme, causing a change in the shape of the active site enzyme. This prevents the normal substrate from binding to the active site. What process does this 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) describe? ( Your Answer: reaction coupling Correct Answer: allosteric regulation wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Incorrect. Allosteric regulation involves an inhibitor binding to a site on the enzymes, w hich leads to a change in the shape of the active site. See section 6.7 for more information. 20. The regulation of an enzyme's activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on 6.7 Regulating the enzyme other than its active site is called __________. ( Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: inhibition Correct Answer: allosteric regulation Incorrect. Which of the following involves binding to any site on the enzyme other than the active site? See section 6.7 for more information. 21. The substrate for the enzyme lactase is ________. ( Living Things: Enzymes ) Your Answer: lactose 6 .5 Efficient Energy Use in C orrect. Lactose is the substrate for the enzyme lactase. 22. What is the importance of coupled reactions? ( Things? ) 6.3 How Is Energy Used by Living Your Answer: Coupled reactions violate the second law of thermodynamics. Correct Answer: Coupled reactions allow exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions. Incorrect. Coupled reactions pair an energy-consuming reaction w ith an energyreleasing reaction. See section 6.3 for more information. 23. What kind of reaction w ill occur spontaneously? ( Living Things? ) Your Answer: endergonic reactions Correct Answer: exergonic reactions 6 .3 How Is Energy Used by Incorrect. Exergonic reactions can occur spontaneously. See section 6.3 for more information. 24. When a high-energy bond of ATP is broken, w hat happens to the released energy? 6 .4 The Energy Dispenser: ATP ) ( Your Answer: It polarizes the cell. Correct Answer: It drives endergonic reactions in the cell. Incorrect. ATP is used to power endergonic reactions in the cell. See section 6.4 for more information. 25. When bonding a phosphate group to ADP _________. ( 6.4 The Energy wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 Dispenser: ATP ) 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Your Answer: Energy w ill be consumed. C orrect. Bonding a phosphate group to ADP is an endergonic reaction. 26. When energy changes from one form to another, some of the energy that can be used to do work is always lost. The loss of this energy is mostly in the form of 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) _________. ( Your Answer: light energy Correct Answer: heat Incorrect. Energy conversions are never 100% efficient and always result in heat loss. See section 6.2 for more information. 27. Which of the follow ing is a characteristic of competitive inhibition? ( Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: It decreases the activity of an enzyme. 6 .7 C orrect. Competitive inhibition can decrease the activity of an enzyme. 28. Which of the follow ing is an example of kinetic energy? ( Energy) Your Register to View Answerlump of coal Correct Answer: w ater turning a w ater wheel 6 .2 The Nature of Incorrect. Kinetic energy is energy in motion. See section 6.2 for more information. 29. Which of the follow ing is the most critical in determining enzyme function? ( Low ering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes ) Your Answer: its overall shape Correct Answer: the shape of the active site 6 .6 Incorrect. Substrates bind to the active sites of enzymes, making the shape of the active site critical to functioning. See section 6.6 for more information. 30. Which of the follow ing might denature (change the shape) and prevent the 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) functioning of an enzyme? ( Your Answer: extreme heat C orrect. Extreme heat can denature an enzyme. 31. Which of the follow ing statements about allosteric enzymes is false? ( Re g ulatin g E nz ymatic Activity) 6.7 wps.aw.com//index.html 6/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Y our Answer: Their activity can be increased w hen the product binds the enzyme. C orrect. When the product binds to an allosteric enzyme, the activity of that enzyme decreases. 32. Which of the follow ing statements about ATP is false? ( Dispenser: ATP ) 6.4 The Energy Your Answer: The reaction ATP --> ADP + P is coupled with endergonic reactions in cells. Correct Answer: The reaction ATP --> ADP + P is an endergonic reaction. Incorrect. The hydrolysis of ATP is an exergonic reaction. See section 6.4 for more information. 33. Which of the follow ing statements about energy conversions is true? ( Nature of Energy) Your Answer: They make systems more ordered. Correct Answer: They generate heat. 6 .2 The Incorrect. Energy conversions alw ays result in the release of heat. Read section 6.2 for more information. 34. Which of the follow ing statements about energy s true? ( Energy) 6 .2 The Nature of Your Answer: Energy can be converted from one type to another with near 100% efficiency. Correct Answer: Energy cannot be created. Incorrect. According to the laws of thermodynamics, energy cannot be created. See section 6.2 for more information. 35. Which of the follow ing statements about enzymes is true? ( 6 .5 Efficient Energy Use in Living Things: Enzymes ) ( 6 .6 Lowering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes ) Your Answer: Enzymes force chemical reactions that w ould not otherw ise occur without enzyme assistance. Correct Answer: Enzymes are critical for the regulation of important metabolic pathways. Incorrect. Enzymes are critical regulators of metabolic pathw ays. See sections 6.5 and 6.6 for more information. 36. Which of the follow ing statements about enzymes is true? ( 6 .6 Lowering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes ) ( 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Answer: They are not reused. Correct Answer: Many enzymes utilize cofactors such as vitamins or metal ions. wps.aw.com//index.html 7/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Incorrect. See sections 6.6 and 6.7 for more information on the characteristics of enzymes. 37. Which of the follow ing statements about enzymes is true? ( Use in Living Things: Enzymes ) 6 .5 Efficient Energy Your Answer: They decelerate the rate of chemical reactions. Correct Answer: Many activities in living organisms require multiple enzymes. Incorrect. Recall that enzymatic pathways can be complex. See section 6.5 for more information. 38. Which of the follow ing statements represents a violation of the laws of thermodynamics? ( 6 .2 The Nature of Energy) Your Answer: Energy cannot be created. Correct Answer: Entropy decreases over time. Incorrect. See section 6.2 for more information on the law s of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. 39. Which organic molecule is sometimes required for the activity of certain enzymes? ( 6 .6 Low ering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes ) ( 6 .7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity) Your Register to View Answercoenzyme C orrect. Coenzymes facilitate the work of enzymes. 40. Which statement concerning the following chemical reaction is false? ADP + P + 6 .4 The Energy Dispenser: ATP ) energy --> ATP ( Your Answer: This is an exergonic reaction. C orrect. This is an endergonic reaction. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/9 9/14/2010 6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 9/9 1. A ccording t o t he f irst l aw o f t hermodynamics, e nergy C orrect A nswer: is n ever l ost o r g ained, b ut is o nly t ransformed 2. Each t ime t here is a c hemical r eaction, s ome e nergy is e xchanged. A ccording t o t he s econd l aw o f t hermodynamics, w ith e ach e xchange C orrect A nswer: S ome e nergy is t ransformed i nto h eat. 3. Y our c ar u ses g asoline t o f uel t he e ngine. Can y ou e xplain w hy y ou n eed a c oolant s ystem f or y ou car? C orrect A nswer: i t is r equired t o a bsorb t he h eat e nergy w hen t he f uel is c ombusted 4. ATP s tores e nergy in t he f orm o f C orrect A nswer: c hemical b ond e nergy 5. P eople w ho a re l actose i ntolerant l ack a c ompound c alled l actase in t heir d igestive t ract. You k now t hat t his c ompound, l actase, is p robably a (n) C orrect A nswer: e nzyme, b ecause i ts n ame e nds in -ase. 6. G lycolysis is a m etabolic p athway t hat h elps l iving t hings e xtract e nergy f rom f ood. F rom t his w e k now t hat g lycolysis C orrect A nswer: a ll o f t he a bove 7. Each r rolecule o f ATP s tores a g ood d eal o f e nergy b ecause Y our A nswer: ATP's t hird p hosphate g roup e xists in a h ighly e nergetic s tate 8. W hich o f t he f ollowing w ill l ower t he a ctivation e nergy o f a r eaction in a cell? Y our A nswer: u sing a n e nzyme 9. T he a ctive s ite o f e nzyme A is o ccupied b y a r rolecule o ther t han i ts s ubstrate. E nzyme B h as h ad i ts a ctivity r educed b y m eans o f a r rolecule b inding t o i t a t a s ite o ther t han i ts a ctive s ite. W hat is t aking p lace in c onnection w ith e nzyme A a nd t hen e nzyme B? C orrect A nswer: c ompetitive i nhibition, a llosteric r egulation 1 0. E nzymes C orrect A nswer: a ll o f t he a bove 1. T he h ypothetical b iochemical r eaction A + B - -> C + D r equires 7 .2 k cal/mole o f e nergy t o p roceed. C ould t his r eaction b e c oupled w ith t he r eaction ATP - -> ADP + P ( releases 7 .2 k cal/mole o f e nergy)? ( level 2). Y our A nswer: N o, b ecause s ome o f t he e nergy l iberated in t he r eaction i nvolving ATP is r eleased a s h eat. 2. C ells p robably r egulate e nzyme a ctivity in a ll o f t he f ollowing w ays e xcept ... ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: d enaturing a n e nzyme, t hereby s lowing d own o r s topping e nzyme a ctivity. 3. W hich o f t he f ollowing is i mportant in d etermining e nzyme f unction? ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: All o f t he a bove a re i mportant in d etermining f unction. 4. As b iological c atalysts, h ow d o e nzymes l ower t he a ctivation e nergy o f a r eaction? ( level 1 ) C orrect A nswer: b y b ringing t he r eactants i nto p roper o rientation f or t he r eaction t o t a ke p lace 5. T he i nhibitor o f a n e nzyme is f requently a m olecule t hat is p roduced a t t he e nd o f a b iochemical p athway in a cell. T his i nhibitor b inds t o t he i nhibitor s ite o n a n e nzyme w ith s everal a ctive s ites, c ausing a c hange in t he s hape o f t he e nzyme. T his p revents t he n ormal s ubstrate f rom b inding t o a ll a ctive s ites. W hat p rocess d oes t his d escribe? ( level 2 ) C orrect A nswer: a llosteric r egulation 6. A ccording t o t he l aws o f t hermodynamics, w hich o f t he f ollowing is NOT p ossible? ( level 2 ) Y our A nswer: t he c reation o f a s ystem t hat is 1 00% e nergy e fficient 7. W hich s tatements a bout ATP a re c orrect? 1. I I. I II. IV. ATP s erves a s a m ain e nergy s huttle i nside cells. T he r eaction ATP - -> ADP + P is c oupled t o e ndergonic r eactions in cells. T he r eaction ATP - -> ADP + P is a n e ndergonic r eaction. ATP d rives e ndergonic r eactions t hrough t he t ransfer o f a p hosphate g roup t o a nother m olecule. ( level 2 ) Y our A nswer: I , I I, a n d IV 8. I n a ny s ystem, w hat is t he t erm f or e nergy t hat is n ot a vailable f or d oing u seful w ork? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: h eat 9. T he h ydrolysis o f ATP is p robably c oupled t o a ll o f t he f ollowing e xcept ... ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: o smosis. 1 0. A ccording t o t he f irst a nd s econd l aws o f t hermodynamics, i f t he e ntropy in t he u niverse h as i ncreased, t hen w hat h as h appened? ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: A t ransfer o r t ransformation o f e nergy h as o ccurred. 1 1. W hen e nergy c hanges f rom o ne f orm t o a nother, s ome o f t he e nergy t hat c an b e u sed t o d o w ork is a lways l ost. T he l oss o f t his e nergy is m ostly in t he f orm o f ... ( Ievel 1 ). Y our A nswer: h eat e nergy. 1 2. M any t ypes o f " perpetual m otion m achines" h ave b een i nvented; h owever, n one o f t hem h ave e ver w orked. An e xample o f a s imple p erpetual m otion m achine m ight b e a s f ollows: a b attery is h ooked u p t o a n e lectrical e ngine, c ausing t he e ngine t o t urn a g enerator, w hich r echarges t he b attery. I n t heory, t he m achine c ould b e t urned o n, a nd i t w ould r un f orever; h owever, in r eality, i t w ill n ot. W hy? ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: S ome o f t he e nergy w ill b e l ost in a ll o f t he e nergy t ransformations; t hus, t he b attery w ill e ventually r un d own. 13. W hich k ind o f w ork is e xemplified b y t he c ontraction o f s keletal m uscles? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: m echanical w ork 1 4. W hich s tatement c oncerning t he f ollowing c hemical r eaction is NOT c orrect? ADP + P + e nergy - -> ATP ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: T his is a n e xergonic r eaction. 15. W hich o f t he f ollowing is NOT a n e xample o f p otential e nergy? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: w ater t urning a w ater w heel 16. E nzymes a re c ritical t o life. W hat is i t t hat e nzymes d o t hat is s o i mportant? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: E nzymes c ause c hemical r eactions t o o ccur q uickly, s o t hat n ecessary p roducts a re a vailable t o l iving t hings. 17. S ome e nzymes n eed a ssistance f rom o ther r rolecules ( such a s v itamins) in o rder t o f acilitate t he t ransformation o f c hemical r eactants i nto p roducts. T hese o ther r rolecules a re c ollectively r eferred t o a s ... ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: c oenzymes. 1 8. L iving t hings r ely o n a c onstant i nput o f e nergy in o rder t o s ustain life. W hat is t he u ltimate s ource o f e nergy f or l iving t hings o n E arth? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: t he S un 19. W hat is a ctivation e nergy? ( level 1 ). C orrect A nswer: t he e nergy r equired t o i nitiate o r b egin a c hemical r eaction 2 0. W hich o f t he f ollowing s tatements c oncerning m etabolic p athways is c orrect? ( level 2 ). C orrect A nswer: T he p roduct o f o ne e nzyme r eaction b ecomes t he s ubstrate o f t he n ext e nzyme in t he m etabolic p athway. 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Oxidation and reduction" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Site: Food > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Oxidation and reduction Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:06 PM (EDT) 0% Correct of 4 questions 0 corre ct: 0 % 4 incorre ct: 1 00% More information about scoring 1. The source of energy for most of the critical functions that occur in our cells is: Your Answer: ADP Correct Answer: ATP Incorrect. ADP is not a source of energy. 2. A molecule has just gained electrons. It: Your Answer: repels electrons Correct Answer: is reduced Incorrect. Molecules that gain electrons do not repel electrons. 3. Why does NAD+ pick up electrons and hydrogen ions? Your Answer: to directly produce ATP Correct Answer: to assist in energy transfer Incorrect. The electron carrier molecules indirectly participate in the process of ATP production. 4. The number of oxidation reactions that occur in cells is _____ the number of reduction reactions that occur in cells. Your Answer: it depends on the situation Correct Answer: equal to wps.aw.com//index.html 1/3 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Incorrect. Oxidation and reduction reactions are cyclical. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/3 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 3/3 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Site: Food > Student Home > Chapter PostTest Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:06 PM (EDT) 10% Correct of 40 questions 4 correct: 36 incorrect: 1 0% 9 0% More information about scoring 1. Many molecules are involved in the production of ATP from food (glucose, pyruvate, citric acid, NADH, etc.). What is the essential energy-carrying particle harvested 7 .2 Electrons Fall Down the from all these molecules and used to produce ATP? ( Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Answer: high-energy electrons C orrect. Eventually, the electrons are used to energize the electron transport chain. 2. The day after a strenuous workout, your muscles feel sore. The best explanation 7 .2 Electrons Fall Down the Energy Hill for this is that the muscle cells ______. ( to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Answer: produced too much ATP during aerobic respiration Correct Answer: w ere forced to produce lactic acid Incorrect. When animals perform anaerobic respiration, a toxic by-product is produced. See section 7.2 for more information. 3. Alcohol and lactic acid fermentation takes place under _____ conditions. ( 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: anabolic Correct Answer: anaerobic Incorrect. During anaerobic respiration, the process of glycolysis is followed by fermentation. See section 7.3 for more information. 4. The oxygen that organisms need to live is used exclusively in which of the following metabolic p athwa ys? I. Glycolysis II. Fermentation III. Krebs cycle IV. Electron wps.aw.com//index.html 1/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F transport chain ( 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: I only Correct Answer: IV only Incorrect. Oxygen is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. See section 7.3 for more information. 5. Which of the follow ing is the main ATP-producing pathw ay during aerobic cellular respiration? I. Glycolysis II. Fermentation III. Krebs cycle IV. Electron transport 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, chain ( and the Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: III only Correct Answer: IV only Incorrect. The majority of ATP produced during cellular respiration comes from electron transport. See section 7.3 for more information. 6. Alcoholic fermentation includes the process of glycolysis plus an additional step in which pyruvic acid is converted to alcohol and CO 2 . For a yeast cell, w hat w ould be the net gain of ATP if it fermented 10 molecules of glucose? ( 7 .2 Electrons Fall Down the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) Your Answer: 360 ATP Correct Answer: 20 ATP Incorrect. The only ATP made during anaerobic respiration is during glycolysis. See section 7.2 and the essay on fermentation for more information. 7. In cellular respiration, glucose, oxygen, and water are converted to ______. ( 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: carbon dioxide, starch, and light Correct Answer: carbon dioxide, water, and ATP Incorrect. Neither oxygen nor light is a product of cellular respiration. See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. 8. Most of the carbon dioxide that animals exhale comes from _______. ( Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) Your Answer: the electron transport chain Correct Answer: the Krebs cycle 7 .5 Incorrect. Carbon dioxide is released primarily during the Krebs cycle. See section 7.5 for more information. 9. Which of the follow ing molecules serve as intermediate electron carriers in the 7.2 Electrons Fall Dow n the Energy Hill to Drive process of cellular respiration? ( the Up hill Production of ATP ) wps.aw.com//index.html 2/10 9/14/2010 p 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F ) Your Answer: NAD+ Correct Answer: NAD+ a nd FAD Incorrect. ADP is not an electron carrier molecule. See section 7.2 for more information. 10. Electrons stripped from glucose during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are transported to the electron transport chain by ______. ( 7.2 Electrons Fall Dow n the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Answer: cytochromes Correct Answer: NADH Incorrect. The reduced NADH is capable of transporting high-energy electrons. See section 7.2 for more information. 11. At the end of the electron transport chain, the final acceptor of the electrons is 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: ______, w hich produces a molecule of ______. ( The Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: ADP; ATP Correct Answer: O 2 ; H2 O Incorrect. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. See section 7.6 for more information. 12. The final result of ATP production after complete aerobic respiration is ______. ( 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: low relative to the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration Correct Answer: high relative to the amount of ATP made in anaerobic respiration Incorrect. Read sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for a complete ATP count from each step of the process. 13. Someone who is extremely obese has successfully lost 100 pounds in one year by eating a low-fat diet and engaging in aerobic exercise. This person could have chosen an anaerobic exercise, such as w eight lifting, to try to lose weight. Why is 7.7 Other Foods, Other an aerobic exercise, such as bicycling, a better choice? ( Respiratory Pathw ays ) ( 7.7 Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathw ays ) Your Answer: Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, requires that the fat be converted to sugar before it can be used in the process of glycolysis, thus slowing the process of weight loss. Correct Answer: Bicycling requires that a higher percentage of ATP energy be produced by aerobic respiration; thus, fat molecules w ill be consumed by both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, resulting in more rapid weight loss. Incorrect. An increase in ATP demands w ill increase the amount of fuel (fats in this case) that is utilized in cellular respiration. See section 7.7 and the essay on energy and exercise for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Which of the follow ing would best represent the progression of energy 7 .2 Electrons Fall transformations that occur during aerobic cellular respiration? ( Down the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Answer: chemical energy stored in food --> chemical energy stored in ATP --> electrical energy established by a proton gradient Correct Answer: chemical energy stored in food --> potential energy stored in electrons --> electrical energy established by a proton gradient --> chemical energy stored in ATP Incorrect. The primary energy transfer in cellular respiration begins with the chemical energy stored in food, w hich is ultimately transferred to ATP. See section 7.2 for more information. 14. 15. What is the only benefit of fermentation? ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) Your Answer: that lactic acid is made Correct Answer: that it recycles NAD+ for use in glycolysis Incorrect. Fermentation is necessary for glycolysis to continue during anaerobic respiration. See section 7.4 and the essay on fermentation for more information. 16. Which of these statements best explains why your body prefers to perform aerobic respiration as opposed to anaerobic respiration? ( 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain) 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: ( The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: aerobic respiration requires less of an ATP investment than anaerobic respiration Correct Answer: aerobic respiration produces far more ATP than anaerobic respiration Incorrect. Aerobic cellular respiration allows for the electron transport chain to produce large amounts of ATP. See sections 7.3 through 7.6 for more information. 17. In aerobic cellular respiration, what is the "big picture" significance of the first tw o 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, steps of the process? ( the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain) ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7.6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: They produce oxygen needed for the electron transport chain. Correct Answer: They allow for high-energy electrons and hydrogen ions to be collected for use in the electron transport chain. Incorrect. The first steps of aerobic cellular respiration have the primary goal of collecting high-energy electrons as w ell as hydrogen ions for the electron transport chain. See sections 7.3 through 7.6 for more information. 18. You are trying to make wine by adding yeast and sugar to grape juice. A week later you notice that the sugar has been used up by the yeast but there is no alcohol (ethanol) in the mixture. The best explanation is ____________. ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) wps.aw.com//index.html 4/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Y our Answer: you should have low ered the oxygen supply to stimulate ethanol production C orrect. The yeast cells will not perform fermentation unless oxygen is not available. 19. Of the three steps in the cellular respiration process, glycolysis is assumed to be the oldest, having evolved early in the evolution of cells. The Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are thought to have evolved later. Which of the follow ing is a piece of evidence to support the idea that glycolysis is the oldest form of ATP 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs synthesis? ( Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria. Correct Answer: Glycolysis does not require any oxygen. Incorrect. Make sure to consider the accuracy of each statement. Glycolysis is an anaerobic pathw ay. See section 7.3 for more information. 20. The primary purpose of the electron transport chain is to ___________. ( Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: release CO 2 g as 7 .6 Correct Answer: phosphorylate ADP using power provided by the hydrogen ion gradient Incorrect. The electron transport chain uses high-energy electrons to help produce ATP. See section 7.6 for more information. 21. An individual is morbidly obese and decides to go on a massive diet and exercise program. After tw o years of conscientious dieting and grueling aerobic exercise, the person manages to lose more than 150 pounds. Of course, most of it was fat. What form did most of the carbon and oxygen (comprising the fat) take when 7.7 Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathw ays ) leaving the body? ( Your Answer: The carbon and oxygen molecules left the body as sugars in the feces. Correct Answer: The carbon and oxygen molecules left the body as CO 2 that w as exhaled from the lungs. Incorrect. Carbon and oxygen molecules will be released in the same form from fat as they are from glucose. See section 7.7 for more information. 22. Which step of cellular respiration produces no ATP? ( 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: the electron transport chain Correct Answer: fermentation Incorrect. All steps of aerobic respiration produce some ATP. See section 7.3 for more information. 23. The final result of ATP production after anaerobic respiration is ___________. ( 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) wps.aw.com//index.html 5/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Y our Answer: high relative to the amount of ATP made in aerobic respiration Correct Answer: low relative to the amount of ATP made in aerobic respiration Incorrect. Aerobic respiration is a fairly efficient means of producing ATP. See section 7.4 for more information. 24. Which of the follow ing occurs in glycolysis? ( Glycolysis ) 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Your Answer: oxidation of NAD+ Correct Answer: conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid Incorrect. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid. See section 7.4 for more information. 25. Which of the follow ing is an example of a molecule being reduced? ( 7.2 Electrons Fall Dow n the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Answer: pyruvate being converted into lactic acid Correct Answer: FAD being converted into FADH2 Incorrect. See section 7.2 for more information. 26. Which of the follow ing is true concerning oxidation and reduction reactions? ( Electrons Fall Dow n the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP ) Your Register to View Answermolecule that has lost electron has been reduced. Correct Answer: NADH is the reduced from of NAD+. Incorrect. See section 7.2 for more information. 7 .2 27. Which of the follow ing is characteristic of anaerobic respiration? ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7.5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: fermentation C orrect. Fermentation is part of anaerobic respiration. 28. Which of the follow ing is not an end product of aerobic cellular respiration? ( The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: oxygen gas C orrect. Oxygen is consumed during cellular respiration. 7.3 29. The net gain of ATP from glycolysis is ________. ( Glycolysis ) 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: wps.aw.com//index.html 6/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Y our Answer: 4 ATP Correct Answer: 2 ATP Incorrect. Recall that in addition to ATP being produced during glycolysis, ATP is also invested to begin the glycolysis. See section 7.4 for more information. 30. Consider a bacterial cell that performs anaerobic respiration. If that bacterial cell had access to four molecules of glucose to use, how many ATPs w ould it be able to produce? ( 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) Your Answer: 4 Correct Answer: 8 Incorrect. Remember that anaerobic respiration involves glycolysis and a fermentation step. See section 7.4 for more information. 31. A buildup of lactic acid is associated w ith an excessive amount of activity during 7.7 Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathw ays ) _____________. ( Your Answer: glycolysis Correct Answer: fermentation Incorrect. Is lactic acid produced during any steps of aerobic respiration? See section 7.7 for more information. 32. The carbon dioxide you are exhaling right now is produced during __________. ( 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: lactate fermentation Correct Answer: the Krebs cycle Incorrect. During w hich stage of cellular respiration are carbons removed from the remnants of glucose? See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. 33. Which of the follow ing processes does not occur in the mitochondria? ( 7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA Correct Answer: glycolysis Incorrect. Which process can occur in organisms that do not have mitochondria? See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. 34. During aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. This oxygen is used in which steps? 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7 .5 Second Stage of Respiration: ( The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: the Krebs cycle Correct Answer: the electron transport chain wps.aw.com//index.html 7/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Incorrect. Remember that oxygen is used as an electron acceptor. See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. 35. If protons are unable to form a gradient across the membrane of the mitochondria, 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( which process will be affected? ( 7.5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7.6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain ) Your Answer: glycolysis Correct Answer: the electron transport chain Incorrect. During w hich stage of cellular respiration are protons pumped across the mitochondrial membrane? See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. 36. If 20 NADHs are used in the electron transport chain, ATP synthase w ill produce ____ ATPs. ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: 40 Correct Answer: 60 Incorrect. Recall how many ATPs are produced for each NADH in the electron transport chain. See section 7.6 for more information. 37. Your cells' preferred source of fuel for cellular respiration is ________. ( Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathways ) Your Answer: protein Correct Answer: glucose 7 .7 Incorrect. Which of these items is the typical starting material for glycolysis? See section 7.7 for more information. 38. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is __________. ( Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: glucose Correct Answer: oxygen 7 .6 Incorrect. What molecule collects electrons at the end of the electron transport chain? See section 7.6 for more information. 39. Carbon monoxide poisoning causes major problems for cellular respiration in humans. Because carbon monoxide is delivered to cells instead of oxygen, the electron transport chain is essentially shut down. This means that which of the following steps w ould increase to try to keep the cells alive (at least for a brief 7 .4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis ) ( 7.5 Second Stage of period)? ( Respiration: The Krebs Cycle ) ( 7 .6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain) Your Answer: the Krebs cycle Correct Answer: the electron transport chain Incorrect. Which step would be affected by a lack of oxygen? See sections 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 8/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F 40. Which of the follow ing can never be used to fuel cellular respiration? ( Foods, Other Respiratory Pathways ) Your Answer: starch Correct Answer: cellulose 7.7 Other Incorrect. Which item is not digested by humans? See section 7.7 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 9/10 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from F Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 10/10 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food Print this page Your Results for "Understanding the Basics" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy Site: from Food > End of Chapter Quiz > Understanding the Basics Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:58 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 33% Correct o f 9 questions: 3 corre ct: 6 incorre ct: 3 3% 6 7% More inform ation about scoring . 1. You need energy to think, to keep your heart beating, to play a sport, and to study this book. This energy is directly supplied by _____, which is (are) produced in the process of cellular respiration. Y our Answer: ATP 2. Energy transfer in living things w orks through redox reactions, in w hich one substance is _____ by another substance, thereby _____. Your Answer: transported becoming more energetic Correct Answer: oxidized losing electrons to it 3. _____ and _____ are important not so much for the ATP produced in them, but for their _____. Your Answer: Glycolysis the ETC yield of electrons transported to the cytosol Correct Answer: Glycolysis the Krebs cycle yield of electrons transported to the ETC 4. What happens w hen a cell in your body momentarily has an abundance of ATP? Y our Answer: It stops oxidizing food and starts building up storage food molecules from smaller food molecules. 5. At most, how many molecules of ATP can be produced per glucose molecule in cellular respiration? Your Answer: 8 Correct Answer: 36 wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/2 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food 6. Where does the Krebs cycle occur in this model of a mitochondrion? Please refer to the figure in your textbook to help you answer this question. Your Register to View AnswerCorrect Register to View Answer 7. When NADH passes its electrons to the ETC, it is Your Answer: polarized Correct Answer: oxidized 8. We need to breathe because we need Your Answer: oxygen to donate phosphate groups to ADP, making it ATP Correct Answer: oxygen to act as the final acceptor of electrons in the ETC 9. Why is the Krebs Cycle so important for cells? Y our Answer: it is w here many of the NADH molecules are made that will be used later E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/2 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Review Quiz" Site Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 3rd Edition Book's Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book's Author: Krogh Location on Home > Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy Site: from Food > Chapter Review Quiz Date/Time September 14, 2010 at 1:58 AM (EDT) Submitted: Summary of Results 10% Correct o f 20 que stions: 2 corre ct: 18 incorre ct: More inform ation about scoring . 1 0% 9 0% 1. Which of the follow ing metabolic pathways results in a net gain of two ATP and zero NADH molecules per glucose molecule? (level 1) I. II. III. IV. Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Y our Answer: I and III Correct Answer: II only Incorrect. Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle produce more than tw o ATP and many NADH. 2. Which of the follow ing metabolic pathways occur(s) in the cytoplasm of the cell? (level 1) I. II. III. IV. Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Y our Answer: I only Correct Answer: I and II only Incorrect. Is this the only pathw ay that occurs in the cytoplasm? 3. The oxygen that organisms need to live is used exclusively in w hich of the metabolic pathways listed below ? (level 1). I. II. III. IV. Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Electron transport chain wps.prenhall.com//index.html 1/6 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food Y our Answer: II only Correct Answer: IV only Incorrect. Fermentation is an anaerobic process. 4. In which of the metabolic pathw ays (of cellular respiration) listed below does most of the oxidation of the molecules derived from glucose occur? (level 2) I. II. III. IV. Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Y our Answer: I and II only Correct Answer: III only Incorrect. There are only tw o redox reactions per glucose molecule in glycolysis. 5. Which of the follow ing is the main ATP-producing pathway during aerobic cellular respiration? (level 1) I. II. III. IV. Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Electron transport chain Y our Answer: III only Correct Answer: IV only Incorrect. This produces only 2 ATP (net) per glucose molecule. 6. Electrons stripped from glucose during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are transported to the electron transport chain by ... (level 2) Your Answer: NADH. C orrect. NAD is reduced to NADH in the Krebs cycle and transports high-energy electrons to the ETC. 7. What is g iven off as a b y-p roduct of cellular res p iration during the conversion o f wps.prenhall.com//index.html 2/6 9/14/2010 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food pyruvic acid (a three-carbon molecule) into acetyl-CoA (a tw o-carbon molecule)? (level 2). Y our Answer: sugar Correct Answer: CO 2 Incorrect. This is the starting product of cellular respiration. 8. Which of the follow ing w ould best represent the progression of energy transformations that occur during aerobic cellular respiration? (level 2) Y our Answer: chemical energy stored in food --> potential energy stored in electrons --> chemical energy stored in ATP --> electrical energy established by a proton gradient Correct Answer: chemical energy stored in food --> potential energy stored in electrons --> electrical energy established by a proton gradient --> chemical energy stored in ATP Incorrect. The purpose of cellular respiration is to produce ATP. 9. The Guinness Book of World Records' fattest man weighs over 1000 pounds, and decides to go on a massive diet and exercise program. After tw o years of eating low -fat everything and grueling aerobic exercise, he manages to lose over 600 pounds. Of course, most of it w as fat. What form did most of the carbon and oxygen (comprising the fat) take when leaving the body? (level 2). Y our Answer: The carbons and oxygens never left the body. Correct Answer: The carbons and oxygens left the body as CO 2 that was exhaled from the lungs. Incorrect. The fact that the man lost 600 lbs indicates that matter, in this case carbon and oxygen atoms, have indeed left the body. 10. The man in the previous question could have chosen an anaerobic exercise, such as w eight lifting, to try to lose w eight. Why is an aerobic exercise, such as bicycling, a better choice? (level 2) Y our Answer: Anaerobic exercise, such as w eight lifting, requires that the fat be converted first to sugar before it can be used in the process of glycolysis, thus slowing the process of weight loss. Correct Answer: Bicycling w ill require that a higher percentage of ATP energy be produced by aerobic respiration; thus, fat molecules w ill be consumed by both glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle, resulting in more-rapid w eight loss. Incorrect. Although fats can be converted to sugar, this is not required in order for fats to be processed in glycolysis. Review Section 7.7. wps.prenhall.com//index.html 3/6 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food At the end of the electron transport chain, the final acceptor of the electrons is ______, which produces a molecule of ______. (level 1). Y our Answer: ADP / ATP Correct Answer: O 2 / H2 O Incorrect. Although ADP is converted to ATP by the action of the ETC, ADP does not become ATP by a direct transfer of electrons. 11. 12. What is a "redox reaction"? (level 1) Y our Register to View Answerreaction in which one molecule is reduced and another molecule is oxidized Correct Answer: Both A and B are correct. Incorrect. Although this is true, is this the only definition of a "redox reaction"? 13. Although a lot of molecules are involved in the production of ATP from food (glucose, pyruvate, citric acid, NADH, etc.), what is the essential energy-carrying particle that is actually harvested from these molecules and used to produce ATP? (level 2). Y our Answer: carbon atoms Correct Answer: high-energy electrons Incorrect. Carbon atoms are not harvested in the energy processes. 14. Alcoholic fermentation includes the process of glycolysis plus a "last step" in w hich pyruvic acid is converted to alcohol and CO 2 . For a yeast cell, what would be the net gain of ATP if it fermented 10 molecules of glucose? (level 2) Y our Answer: 360 ATP Correct Answer: 20 ATP Incorrect. This is the amount of ATP that could be produced through aerobic respiration, not through fermentation. 15. Skeletal muscles can use both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to produce the ATP needed for muscle contractions. Skeletal muscles can also stockpile a small amount of ATP and another molecule, phosphocreatine (PCr), that can be used to convert ADP into ATP quickly w ithout having to use either forms of respiration. In prolonged exercise, such as sw imming, all three of these processes are utilized to supply ATP for muscle contraction. Which of the followin g re p resents the correct order in w hich these p rocesses are used in the wps.prenhall.com//index.html 4/6 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food muscle cells during a prolonged swim? (level 2) Y our Answer: aerobic respiration -----> anaerobic respiration -----> ATP/PCr Correct Answer: ATP/PCr -----> anaerobic respiration -----> aerobic respiration Incorrect. The stockpile of ATP/PCr is the first to go, then glycolysis supplies ATP until all of the aerobic respiration machinery is fully operational. 16. Although a lot of energy is needed to convert ADP back into ATP, the actual conversion takes place primarily through the work of one enzyme, ATP synthase. ATP synthase is energized to create ATP by w hat direct energy source? (level 2) Y our Answer: stockpile of ATP Correct Answer: proton gradient Incorrect. ATP energy cannot be used to create more ATP. The second law of thermodynamics states that the cell will quickly run out of energy. 17. Which of the follow ing molecules serves as an intermediate electron carrier in the process of respiration? (level 2). Y our Answer: NAD+ Correct Answer: both A and B Incorrect. Although this is an electron carrier, is it the only one in this list? 18. Of the three steps in the cellular respiration process, glycolysis is assumed to be the oldest, having evolved early in the evolution of cells. The Kreb's cycle and ETC are thought to have evolved later. Why do scientists believe that glycolysis is the oldest form of ATP synthesis? (level 2). Y our Answer: It is found in all kinds of living things. Correct Answer: All of the above are reasons w hy scientists think that glycolysis is ancient. Incorrect. Although this is true, is this the only evidence to w hich scientists point to support their hypothesis? 19. In the first few steps of glycolysis, two ATP molecules are actually "used-up" instead of produced. Why do you think that this energy must be added to the glucose molecule first before the ultimate harvest of 36 ATP molecules can be attained? (level 2) Y our Answer: Glucose really has no energy. All of the later ATP molecules that are harvested are actually a result of the energy a dded wps.prenhall.com//index.html 5/6 9/14/2010 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food to the molecule by these first tw o initial ATP molecules. Correct Answer: Glucose is a stable molecule. A certain amount of "activation" energy must be added before the molecule w ill release all of its stored energy. Incorrect. The second law of thermodynamics states that w hen energy is transferred, some of the energy is alw ays lost. Therefore, 36 ATP could not be produced from the energy contained in only two ATP. 20. The process of cellular respiration can be w ritten as a chemical equation. Which of these equations best represents the process of cellular respiration? (level 1). Your Register to View Answer6 H12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + ADP 6 C O 2 + 6 H2 O + ATP C orrect. Glucose and oxygen are used to create carbon dioxide and w ater, and to transfer energy to ADP to re-form ATP. E-mail Your Results My nam e is (first last): E-m ail m y re sults to: E-mail address: Me : Instructor: T A: O the r: He lp Send as: Te x t Te x t Te x t Te x t E-Ma il R e sults Copyright 1995-2010, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall | Legal and Privacy Terms wps.prenhall.com//index.html 6/6 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Print this page Your Results for "Animations Quiz: Properties of light" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 8. The Green World's Gift: Site: Photosynthesis > Student Home > Animations Quiz: Properties of light Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:08 PM (EDT) 25% Correct of 12 questions 3 corre ct: 9 incorre ct: 2 5% 7 5% More information about scoring 1. Within the visible spectrum (390-760 nm), ______light has the shortest wavelength and _______light the longest. Your Answer: violet; red C orrect. Violet light has the shortest w avelength and red has the longest. 2. Chlorophyll reflects ______light. Your Answer: blue Correct Answer: green Incorrect. The color of an object is based on the wavelength of light it reflects. 3. You just purchased a really cool lamp that has a green plastic shade that surrounds the light bulb. You put a plant under the lamp but it dies within a w eek. What has happened? Your Answer: Plants can't live under artificial light Correct Answer: The green light produced by the lamp is not utilized for photosynthesis Incorrect. Many plants can live in artificial light. 4. In the CAM pathway, carbon dioxide fixation occurs: Your Answer: both day and night w hen stomata are closed Correct Answer: only during the night when stomata are opened Incorrect. Can carbon fixation occur if the stomata are closed? wps.aw.com//index.html 1/4 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe 5. Which pathway is the primary method used by most plants to fix carbon dioxide into sugar molecules? Your Answer: C4 pathway Correct Answer: C3 pathway Inorrect. The C4 pathw ay is not the most common method used for carbon dioxide fixation. 6. Why does photorespiration pose a major problem for plants? Your Answer: it blocks the enzyme rubisco thus causing no glucose to be made for the plant C orrect. Photorespiration decreased glucose production for the plant. 7. What is a disadvantage of the C4 pathw ay? Your Answer: it makes less glucose than other pathw ays Correct Answer: it uses more ATP than other pathways Incorrect. The C4 pathway does not decrease the glucose yield. 8. Plants like cacti must conserve as much water as possible. The pathw ay needed for this is _____. Your Answer: C4 Correct Answer: CAM Incorrect. The C4 pathway requires high levels of water. 9. The radioactive isotope used in the Calvin experiments was ____. Your Answer: carbon-14 C orrect. Radioactive carbon was used in the Calvin experiments. 10. The Calvin cycle describes the conversion of ___. Your Answer: carbon dioxide to amino acids Correct Answer: carbon dioxide to carbohydrates Incorrect. The purpose of the Calvin cycle is to generate sugars for the plant. 11. Paper chromatography is used to _____. wps.aw.com//index.html 2/4 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Y our Answer: force photosynthesis to occur Correct Answer: separate components in a material of interest Incorrect. Chromatography is not able to force photosynthesis to occur. 12. What type of organism w as used in Calvin's experiments? Your Answer: diatoms Correct Answer: algae Incorrect. Calvin's experiments needed an organism that performed photosynthesis. wps.aw.com//index.html 3/4 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Copyright 1995 - 2010 Pearson Education . A ll rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson . Legal Notice | P rivacy Policy | P ermissions wps.aw.com//index.html 4/4 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Print this page Your Results for "Chapter Post-Test" Student results on this activity w ere sent to the Grade Tracker. Note that it may take a few moments for the score to appear. Go to Grade Tracker. Summary of Results for Angela Boulinger Site Title: Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 4e Book Title: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Book Author: Krogh Location on 8. The Green World's Gift: Site: Photosynthesis > Student Home > Chapter Post-Test Submitted: September 14, 2010 at 3:07 PM (EDT) 28% Correct of 40 questions 11 corre ct: 29 incorre ct: 2 8% 7 3% More information about scoring 1. What is the ultimate source of energy for living things on Earth? ( Photosynthesis and Energy) Your Answer: ATP Correct Answer: the sun 8 .1 Incorrect. Plants are able to harvest solar energy during the process of photosynthesis. See section 8.1 for more information. 2. The process of photosynthesis can be summarized and written as the following chemical equation: 6 CO 2 + 6 H2 O + ATP -----> C 6 H12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + ADP How is this 7.3 The Three Stages equation similar to the reactions of cellular respiration? ( of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain ) ( 8 .1 Photosynthesis and Energy) Your Answer: It is the same as the fermentation equation. Correct Answer: It is the reverse of the cellular respiration equation. Incorrect. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are cyclical processes. See Chapter 7 and section 8.1 for more information. 3. When sunlight strikes a photosystem, electrons in the pigments are initially moved 8.2 The Components of in tw o different w ays. How are the electrons moved? ( Photosynthesis ) Your Answer: They are moved from a primary electron carrier to a pigment, and they are moved down the energy hill. Correct Answer: They are moved from the pigments to a primary electron carrier, and they are moved up the energy hill. Incorrect. Electrons w ill alw ays move up the energy hill in the light reactions. See section 8.2 for more information. wps.aw.com//index.html 1/9 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Within the visible light spectrum (390-760 nm), ______ light has the shortest wavelength and _______ light the longest. ( 8 .2 The Components of Photosynthesis ) Your Answer: red; w hite Correct Answer: violet; red Incorrect. Violet light is at the end of the spectrum w ith the shortest wavelength. See section 8.2 and Figure 8.2 for more information. 4. 5. The principal raw materials for photosynthesis are ______________. ( Components of Photosynthesis ) Your Answer: carbon dioxide and oxygen Correct Answer: carbon dioxide and w ater 8.2 The Incorrect. Glucose and oxygen are products of photosynthesis. See section 8.2 for more information. 6. Which of the follow ing groups of organisms do not contain any species that can 8.1 Photosynthesis and Energy) undergo photosynthesis? ( Your Answer: plants Correct Answer: fungi Incorrect. Remember that photosynthesis requires that an organism contain the green pigment chlorophyll. See section 8.1 and Figure 8.1 for more information. 7. You just purchased a lamp that has a green plastic shade surrounding the light bulb. You put a plant under the lamp, but it dies within a week. What has 8 .3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) happened? ( Your Answer: The wavelength of green light is too short to drive photosynthesis. Correct Answer: The green light produced by the lamp is not used for photosynthesis. Incorrect. Green light is reflected by plants. See section 8.3 for more information. 8. Water provides the necessary _____________ to allow for the light reactions to 8.3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) occur. ( Your Answer: ATP Correct Answer: electrons Incorrect. Water is split in the light reactions to provide a source of electrons. See section 8.3 for more information. 9. The energy to run the Calvin cycle is produced _________. ( Steps of the Light Reactions ) Your Answer: inside the initial steps of the Calvin cycle 8 .3 Stage 1: The wps.aw.com//index.html 2/9 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Correct Answer: during the light reactions of photosynthesis Incorrect. The energy for the Calvin cycle is generated in an earlier step of photosynthesis. See section 8.3 for more information. 10. Which of the follow ing is the correct order of electron transport for the light 8 .3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) reactions of photosynthesis? ( Your Answer: photosystem II, NADP +, photosystem I Correct Answer: photosystem II, photosystem I, NADP + Incorrect. Remember that the function of photosystems in the light reactions is not in sequential order. See section 8.3 for more information. 11. Which of the follow ing statements about the differences betw een cellular 7 .3 The Three Stages of Cellular respiration and photosynthesis is true? ( Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain) ( Photosynthesis and Energy) 8 .1 Your Answer: During cellular respiration, electron carriers (i.e., NADH and FADH2 ) provide electrons for the electron transport chains; during photosynthesis, an electron carrier (i.e., NADP) carries electrons aw ay from the transport chains. C orrect. The electron carriers in cell respiration bring electrons to the ETC, whereas the electron carrier of photosynthesis is the final electron acceptor at the end of the ETC. 12. During the Calvin cycle, the enzyme rubisco is responsible for the splitting of the five-carbon compound RuBP (w hich has been combined with carbon dioxide) into two molecules of the three-carbon compound _____. ( 8.5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) Your Answer: PGA C orrect. PGA is the result of splitting the six-carbon compound in the Calvin cycle. 13. Which of the follow ing best represents the progression of energy transformations 8 .2 The Components of Photosynthesis ) that occur during photosynthesis? ( Your Answer: solar energy --> potential energy stored in electrons and ATP --> chemical energy stored in sugars C orrect. Light energy is transformed to energy stored in the electrons of NADPH and in ATP, w hich provides the energy to make sugars from CO 2 . 14. Which pathway is the primary method used by most plants to fix carbon dioxide 8 .5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) ( 8 .6 Photorespiration into sugar molecules? ( and the C 4 P athway) ( 8 .7 Another Photosynthetic Variation: CAM Plants ) Y our Answer: CAM pathway Correct Register to View Answer3 p athw ay wps.aw.com//index.html 3/9 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Incorrect. The C 4 a nd CAM pathways are less common than the C 3 p athway. See sections 8.5 through 8.7 for more information. 15. The primary w ay that the C 4 p hotosynthesizing plants are different from the C 3 plants is that the C 4 p lants _________. ( 8 .6 Photorespiration and the C 4 Pathw ay) Your Answer: do not use the enzyme rubisco C orrect. C 4 p lants use a different enzyme that is not susceptible to photorespiration. 16. What is a disadvantage of the C 4 p athway? ( Pathw ay) 8 .6 Photorespiration and the C 4 Your Answer: It causes extreme w ater loss in the plant. Correct Answer: It uses more ATP than do other pathways. Incorrect. While C 4 p lants can prevent photorespiration, they also consume more energy than other pathw ays. See section 8.6 for more information. 17. Plants like cacti must conserve as much water as possible. The pathw ay needed for this is _____. ( 8 .7 Another Photosynthetic Variation: CAM Plants ) Y our Answer: CAM C orrect. The CAM pathway conserves water. 18. Which of the follow ing is not a typical use of the carbohydrates produced during 8 .6 Photorespiration and the C 4 P athway) photosynthesis? ( Your Answer: Carbohydrates are used to fuel cellular respiration. Correct Answer: Carbohydrates can be broken dow n by the plant to provide energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Incorrect. This is a typical use of carbohydrates by plants. See section 8.6 for more information. 19. The synthesis portion of photosynthesis is sometimes referred to as "fixation"; that is, the gas CO 2 is "fixed" into an organic molecule. Of the four major types of 8 .5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) organic molecules, into w hich is CO 2 first fixed? ( Your Answer: protein Correct Answer: carbohydrate Incorrect. The ultimate goal of photosynthesis is to produce sugars for plants. See section 8.5 for more information. 20. A living plant is exposed to water labeled w ith 1 8 O (a radioactive isotope of oxyg en ) a nd exp osed to sunlig ht. The 1 8 O will end up in which of the followin g wps.aw.com//index.html 4/9 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe molecules at the end of photosynthesis? ( Reactions ) Your Answer: glucose Correct Answer: O 2 Incorrect. During the light reactions of photosynthesis, w ater molecules are split to release electrons. See section 8.3 for more information. 8 .3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light 21. Which of the follow ing substances could be totally eliminated and not interfere w ith 8 .2 The Components of Photosynthesis ) the process of photosynthesis? ( Your Answer: O 2 C orrect. Oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis. It is not required to keep photosynthesis operating. 22. Which of the follow ing is the final acceptor of the high-energy electrons after passing through both phases of photosynthesis, the light reactions, and the Calvin 8.3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) ( 8 .4 What Makes the cycle? ( Light Reactions So Important? ) ( 8 .5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) Your Answer: O 2 Correct Answer: CO 2 Incorrect. Carbon dioxide will ultimately accept these electrons during the Calvin cycle. See section 8.5 for more information on the Calvin cycle. 23. Why does photorespiration pose a major problem for plants? ( Photorespiration and the C 4 P athw ay) 8 .6 Your Answer: It blocks the enzyme rubisco, thus causing no glucose to be made for the plant. C orrect. Photorespiration decreases glucose production for the plant. 24. Light hits photosystem I, causing electrons to be excited to a high energy level. These electrons are picked up by an electron acceptor and passed through an electron transport chain where _____________ is made. ( 8.3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) Your Answer: NADPH C orrect. Electrons from photosystem I and donated to NADP + to form NADPH. 25. Why do plants split water molecules during the light reactions of photosynthesis? ( 8 .3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) Your Answer: to provide the oxygen necessary to convert solar energy to chemical energy Correct Answer: to provide electrons for the light reactions wps.aw.com//index.html 5/9 9/14/2010 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthe Incorrect. The splitting of w ater molecules is necessary to fuel the light reactions. See section 8.3 for more information. 26. Which of the follow ing is part of the Calvin cycle? ( 8.5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) Your Answer: converting solar energy to ATP and NADPH Correct Answer: carbon fixation Incorrect. One of the key events of the Calvin cycle is carbon fixation. See section 8.5 and Figure 8.7 for more information. 27. A leaf on a plant is photosynthesizing rapidly, capturing sunlight to perform the light reactions. Why will this plant also need to pass through the Calvin cycle? ( 8.5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) Your Answer: to release ATP to the environment Correct Answer: to make glucose for the plant Incorrect. The primary purpose of the Calvin cycle is to produce sugars for the plant. See section 8.5 for more information. 28. Suppose an experiment is performed in which plant #1 is supplied with normal CO 2 but w ith w ater that is labeled with radioactive oxygen atoms. Plant #2 is supplied with normal w ater but w ith CO 2 that contains radioactive oxygen atoms. Each plant is allowed to perform photosynthesis, and the oxygen gas and G3P (or glucose) molecules are analyzed for the presence of radioactive oxygen. Plant #___ w ill produce radioactive oxygen gas, and plant #___ will produce radioactive G3P. ( 8 .3 Stage 1: The Steps of the Light Reactions ) ( 8 .5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) Your Answer: Both will produce radioactive oxygen gas. Correct Answer: 1; 2 Incorrect. Remember that water molecules are split in the light reactions and that carbon dioxide molecules are fixed in the Calvin cycle. See sections 8.3 and 8.5 for more information. 29. Glucose is not directly made in the light reactions or the Calvin cycle. Where does it 8 .5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle ) come from? ( Your Answer: It is made by combining the products of photosystem I and photosystem II. Correct Answer: It is made from joining tw o G3P molecules made during the Calvin cycle. Incorrect. Remember that the Calvin cycle releases one G3P per turn. See section 8.5 and Figure 8.7 for more information. 30. Which of the follow ing is an end