CHAPTER 9
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CHAPTER 9

Course Number: MGT 3373, Spring 2010

College/University: Troy

Word Count: 8534

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CHAPTER 9: LAYOUT STRATEGY TRUE FALSE 1. McDonald's "Made for You" kitchen system represents a strategic layout decision even though an obvious benefit of the system is a dramatic reduction in the inventory of food prepared in advance. True (Global company profile, easy) The objective of layout strategy is to develop an effective and efficient layout that will meet the firm's competitive requirements....

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9: CHAPTER LAYOUT STRATEGY TRUE FALSE 1. McDonald's "Made for You" kitchen system represents a strategic layout decision even though an obvious benefit of the system is a dramatic reduction in the inventory of food prepared in advance. True (Global company profile, easy) The objective of layout strategy is to develop an effective and efficient layout that will meet the firm's competitive requirements. True (The strategic importance of layout decisions, easy) The work cell layout, a special arrangement of machinery and equipment to focus on the production of a single product or group of related products, is for manufacturing applications and has no relevance to services. False (Types of layout, moderate) The layout approach that addresses trade-offs between space and material handling is called the fixed position layout. False (Types of layout, moderate) Utilization of the total "cube" is the dominant consideration in office layout. False (Office layout, moderate) One guideline for a retail layout is to locate high-draw items around the periphery of the store. True (Retail layout, moderate) Category management is the use of computer software to evaluate the profitability of merchandising plans. True (Retail layout, moderate) Servicescape refers to the physical surrounding in which the service is delivered. True (Retail layout, moderate) One guideline for determining the arrangement and space allocation of a retail store is to place high-impulse and high-margin items such as housewares and beauty aids in prominent locations. True (Retail layout, moderate) Cross-docking processes items as they are received, rather than placing them in storage; this helps explain why "warehouses" are now called "distribution centers." True (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) The dominant problem associated with the fixed-position layout is that workers are fixed in position, and cannot be reassigned. False (Fixed-position layout, moderate) A process-oriented layout is the traditional way to support a product differentiation strategy. True (Process-oriented layout, easy) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Job lots are groups or batches of parts processed together. True (Process-oriented layout, easy) Process-oriented layouts typically have low levels of work-in-process inventory. False (Process-oriented layout, moderate) CRAFT is software for balancing assembly lines. False (Process-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Use of IT} The most common tactic to arrange departments in a process-oriented layout is to minimize material handling costs. True (Process-oriented layout, moderate) The work cell improves process layouts by reducing floor space and by reducing direct labor cost. True (Work cells, moderate) The balancing of work cells uses the same procedures as the balancing of an assembly line. False (Work cells, moderate) A focused work center is well suited to the production of a large family of products requiring similar processing, even if their demands are not very stable. False (Process-oriented layout, moderate) A fabrication line and an assembly line are both types of repetitive and product-focused layout, but only the fabrication line utilizes workstations. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) The biggest advantage of a product layout is its flexibility to handle a varied product mix. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) The minimum number of workstations depends upon the set of task times and the precedence chart, but not the number of units scheduled. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) A product requires 24 separate tasks, and the sum of those task times is 14 minutes; if the cycle time is 2 minutes, then at least 12 workstations will be needed. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} If the schedule calls for the production of 120 units per day and 480 minutes of production time are available per day, the cycle time should be 4 minutes. True (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Product-oriented layouts tend to have high levels of work-in-process inventories. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) One drawback of a product-oriented layout is that work stoppage at any one point ties up the whole operation. True (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) Cycle time is the maximum time that the product is allowed at each work station. True (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Heuristics are problem-solving procedures that mathematically optimize the solution. False (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) MULTIPLE CHOICE 29. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the following is not one of McDonald's "seven major innovations"? a. the Happy Meal b. drive-through windows c. breakfast menus d. play areas e. a kitchen system to facilitate mass customization a (Global company profile, moderate) 30. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The layout strategy that deals with low-volume, high-variety production is a. fixed-position layout b. retail layout c. warehouse layout d. office layout e. none of the above e (Types of layout, moderate) 31. "A special arrangement of machinery and equipment to focus on production of a single product or group of related products" describes what layout type? 1. a. fixed-position layout 2. b. intermittent production 3. c. focused factory 4. d. work cell 5. e. warehouse layout d (Types of layout, moderate) 32. A good layout requires determining 1. a. material handling requirements 2. b. capacity and space requirements 3. c. environment and aesthetics 4. d. cost of moving between various work areas 5. e. all of the above e (Types of layout, moderate) 33. The fixed-position layout would be most appropriate in which of the following settings? 1. a. a fast-food restaurant 2. b. a doctor's office 3. c. a casual dining restaurant 4. d. a cruise ship assembly facility 5. e. none of the above 34. d (Fixed-position layout, moderate) For which of the following operations would a fixed-position layout be most appropriate? 1. a. assembling automobiles 2. b. producing TV sets 3. c. constructing a highway tunnel or bridge 4. d. refining of crude oil 5. e. running an insurance agency c (Fixed-position layout, difficult) 35. Because the fixed-position layout problem is so difficult to solve on-site, operations managers 1. a. virtually never employ this layout strategy 2. b. utilize this approach only for construction projects such as bridges and office towers 3. c. increase the size of the site 4. d. often complete as much of the project as possible off-site 5. e. utilize this layout only for defense contractors d (Fixed-position layout, moderate) 36. One factor impacting the fixed-position layout strategy is 1. a. minimizing difficulties caused by material flow varying with each product 2. b. requiring frequent contact close to one another 3. c. the provision of low-cost storage with low-cost material handling 4. d. the movement of material to the limited storage areas around the site 5. e. balancing product flow from one work station to the next d (Fixed-position layout, moderate) 37. The type of layout which features departments or other functional groupings in which similar activities are performed is 1. a. process-oriented 2. b. product-oriented 3. c. fixed-position 4. d. mass production 5. e. unit production a (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 38. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. One of the major advantages of process-oriented layouts is a. high equipment utilization b. large work-in-process inventories c. flexibility in equipment and labor assignment d. smooth and continuous flow of work e. none of the above c (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 39. The main issue in designing process layouts concerns the relative positioning of 1. a. safety devices 2. b. departments 3. c. raw materials 4. d. entrances, loading docks, etc. 5. e. supervisors to their employees b (Process-oriented layout, moderate) Which of the following is not an information requirement for solving a load-distance problem? 1. a. a list of departments or work centers 2. b. a projection of work flows between the work centers 3. c. the distance between locations 4. d. a list of product cycle times 5. e. the cost per unit of distance to move loads d (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 40. 41. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The major problem addressed by the process-oriented layout strategy is a. the movement of material to the limited storage areas around the site b. requiring frequent contact close to one another c. the provision of low-cost storage with low-cost material handling d. minimizing difficulties caused by material flow varying with each product e. balancing product flow from one work station to the next d (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 42. The most common tactic followed in process-layout planning is to arrange departments or work centers so they 1. a. minimize the cost of skilled labor 2. b. maximize the machine utilization 3. c. allocate the available space equally to all the departments 4. d. minimize the costs of material handling 5. e. none of the above d (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 43. Which type of layout is specifically designed to encourage employees to interact? 1. a. warehouse 2. b. job shop 3. c. open office 4. d. retail 5. e. repetitive/continuous c (Types of layout, easy) {AACSB: Communication} 44. Which of the following is true for process layouts, but false for product-oriented layouts? 1. a. low in-process inventories 2. b. flexibility in equipment and labor assignments 3. c. low variety of products 4. d. high volume of output 5. e. often solved by assembly line balancing b (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 45. A big advantage of a process-oriented layout is 1. a. its flexibility in equipment and labor assignments 2. b. its low cost 3. c. the simplified scheduling problem presented by this layout strategy 4. d. the ability to employ low-skilled labor 5. e. its high equipment utilization a (Process-oriented layout, moderate) One disadvantage of process-oriented layouts arises from 1. a. the use of special purpose equipment 2. b. machine maintenance, which tends to seriously degrade the capacity of the entire system 3. c. the use of specialized material handling equipment 4. d. the need for stable demand 5. e. the use of the general purpose machines and equipment e (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 47. 46. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The typical goal used when developing a process-oriented layout strategy is to a. minimize the distance between adjacent departments b. minimize the material handling costs c. maximize the number of different tasks which can be performed by an individual machine d. minimize the level of operator skill necessary e. maximize job specialization b (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 48. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the following is true of a focused factory? a. It may be focused in ways other than by product or layout. b. It may be focused only by processing requirements. c. It is much like a product facility within an otherwise process facility. d. All of the above are true. e. None of the above is true. a (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 49. In the Office Relationship Chart, which rating reflects the highest importance for two departments' closeness to each other? 1. a. A 2. b. E 3. c. I 4. d. O 5. e. X a (Office layout, moderate) 50. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the statements below best describes office layout? a. groups workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information b. addresses the layout requirements of large, bulky projects such as ships and buildings c. seeks the best personnel and machine utilization in repetitive or continuous production d. allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior e. deals with low-volume, high-variety production a (Office layout, moderate) 51. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 52. Which of the following constitutes a major trend influencing office layouts? a. downsizing b. globalization c. environmental issues d. off-site employees e. health issues d (Office layout, moderate) Which of the following does not support the retail layout objective of maximizing customer exposure to products? 1. a. locate high-draw items around the periphery of the store 2. b. use prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items 3. c. maximize exposure to expensive items 4. d. use end-aisle locations 5. e. convey the store's mission with the careful positioning of the lead-off department c (Retail layout, moderate) 53. Ambient conditions, spatial layout and functionality, and signs, symbols, and artifacts are all 1. a. indicators of imbalance on an assembly line 2. b. indicators that cross-docking has been successful 3. c. elements of customization in a warehouse layout 4. d. elements of servicescapes 5. e. elements of successful office layouts d (Retail layout, moderate) 54. Balancing low-cost storage with low-cost material handling is important in a(n) 1. a. fixed-position layout 2. b. process-oriented layout 3. c. office layout 4. d. repetitive and product-oriented layout 5. e. warehouse layout e (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) 55. Which of the following requires an information system that provides inbound product identification, its destination, and routing of the product to the designated outbound vehicle? 1. a. phantom-docking 2. b. random stocking 3. c. ASRS 4. d. customizing 5. e. cross-docking e (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) 56. The major problem addressed by the warehouse layout strategy is 1. a. minimizing difficulties caused by material flow varying with each product 2. b. requiring frequent contact close to one another 3. c. addressing trade-offs between space and material handling 4. d. balancing product flow from one work station to the next 5. e. none of the above c (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) 57. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 58. The concept of customizing in a warehouse layout a. is possible, but causes serious loss of oversight of the quality function b. cannot be considered seriously in today's high efficiency factories c. is theoretically sound, but several years away in practice d. is a new trend in value-added activities in warehouses e. none of the above d (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) Which one of the following is not common to repetitive and product-oriented layouts? 1. a. a high rate of output 2. b. specialization of labor 3. c. ability to adjust to changes in demand 4. d. low unit costs 5. e. All are common to product-oriented layouts. c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 59. Which of the following is not an advantage of work cells? 1. a. reduced direct labor cost 2. b. decreased use of equipment and machinery 3. c. heightened sense of employee participation 4. d. reduced raw material and finished goods inventory 5. e. reduced investment in machinery and equipment b (Work cells, moderate) 60. Balancing a work cell is done 1. a. before the work cell equipment is sequenced 2. b. as part of the process of building an efficient work cell 3. c. before takt time is calculated 4. d. so that each assembly line workstation has exactly the same amount of work 5. e. to minimize the total movement in a process layout b (Work cells, moderate) 61. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Takt time is a. the total work time available divided by units required by the consumer b. the units required divided by workers required c. a fictional time increment similar to a therblig d. the same thing as cycle time in a process layout e. an important consideration in balancing an assembly line a (Work cells, moderate) 62. A process layout problem consists of 4 departments, each of which can be assigned to one of four rooms. The number of different solutions to this problem is _____, although not all of them may have different material handling costs. 1. a. 1 2. b. 4 3. c. 16 4. d. 24 5. e. unknown d (Process-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 63. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 64. Solving a load-distance problem for a process-oriented layout requires that a. the difficulty of movement be the same for all possible paths b. pickup and setdown costs vary from department to department c. the cost to move a load be the same for all possible paths d. takt time be less than 1 e. CRAFT software examine all possible department configurations a (Process-oriented layout, moderate) Which of the following layouts generally has the best machine utilization? 1. a. fixed-position layout 2. b. repetitive and product-oriented layout 3. c. process-oriented layout 4. d. office layout 5. e. warehouse layout b (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 65. Which of the following is not one of the requirements of cellular production? 1. a. test (poka-yoke) at each station in the cell 2. b. adequate volume for high equipment utilization 3. c. a high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment of employees 4. d. being self-contained, with its own equipment and resources 5. e. identification of families of products, often through the use of group technology codes b (Work cells, moderate) 66. The assumption of stability of demand is important for justifying which of the following layout types? 1. a. fixed-position layout 2. b. product-oriented layout 3. c. process-oriented layout 4. d. all of the above 5. e. none of the above b (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 67. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which layout type assumes an adequate volume for high equipment utilization? a. product-oriented layout b. process-oriented layout c. fixed-position layout d. retail layout e. warehouse layout a (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 68. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A product-oriented layout would be most appropriate for which one of the following businesses? a. fast food b. steel-making c. insurance sales d. clothing alterations e. a grocery store b (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 69. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The assumptions necessary for a successful product layout include all of the following except a. adequate volume for high equipment utilization b. standardized product c. volatile product demand d. All of the above are appropriate assumptions. e. None of the above is an appropriate assumption. c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 70. Which of these layouts is most suitable for processing sugar from sugar beets or sugar cane? 1. a. process-oriented layout 2. b. fixed-position layout 3. c. focused factory 4. d. product-oriented layout 5. e. work cell layout d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 71. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the following is true regarding fabrication lines? a. They are the same thing as assembly lines. b. They are the same thing as focused factories. c. They are a special type of process-oriented layout. d. Balancing their assembly line is more technological than worker oriented. e. None of the above is true. d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 72. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The central problem in product-oriented layout planning is a. minimizing material handling within workstations b. minimizing labor movement between workstations c. equalizing the space allocated to the different workstations d. maximizing equipment utilization e. minimizing the imbalance in the work loads among workstations e (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 73. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A disadvantage of product-oriented layout is that a. there is a lack of flexibility in handling a variety of products or production rates b. high volume is required because of the large investment needed to set up the process c. work stoppage at any one point ties up the whole operation d. All of the above are disadvantages of product-oriented layouts. e. None of the above is a disadvantage of product-oriented layouts. d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 74. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The main advantage of a product-oriented layout is typically a. low raw material cost b. employability of highly skilled labor c. high flexibility d. low capital cost e. low variable cost per unit e (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 75. In a product-oriented layout, the process of deciding how to assign tasks to workstations is referred to as 1. a. station balancing 2. b. process balancing 3. c. task allocation 4. d. line balancing 5. e. work allocation d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) In assembly line balancing, the minimum number of workstations is 1. a. the ratio of the sum of all task times to cycle time 2. b. always (when a fraction) rounded upward to the next larger integer value 76. 3. c. not always possible to reach when tasks are actually assigned to stations 4. d. all of the above 5. e. none of the above d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 77. In assembly line balancing, cycle time (the ratio of available production time to scheduled production) is the 1. a. minimum time that a product is allowed at each workstation 2. b. maximum time that a product is allowed at each workstation 3. c. optimum time that a product is allowed at each workstation 4. d. desired cycle time that a product is allowed at each workstation 5. e. all of the above b (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 78. A production line is to be designed to make 500 El-More dolls per day. Each doll requires 11 activities totaling 16 minutes of work. The factory operates 750 minutes per day. The cycle time for this assembly line is 1. a. one-half minute 2. b. one and one-half minutes 3. c. two minutes 4. d. 5,500 minutes 5. e. cannot be determined from the information given b (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 79. A production line is to be designed for a job with four tasks. The task times are 2.4 minutes, 1.4 minutes, 0.9 minutes, and 1.7 minutes. The maximum cycle time is ______ and the minimum cycle time is ______ minutes. 1. a. 1.8; 1.4 2. b. 1.6; 0.9 3. c. 6.4; 2.4 4. d. 2.4; 0.9 5. e. none of these c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 80. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 81. Cycle time is computed as a. desired output divided by the daily operating time b. daily operating time divided by the product of desired output and the sum of job times c. the product of desired output and the sum of job times divided by daily operating time d. daily operating time divided by the scheduled output e. 1.00 minus station time d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) Daily capacity of a product layout is determined by 1. a. operating time divided by cycle time 2. 3. 4. 5. b. cycle time divided by operating time c. operating time divided by total task time d. total task time divided by cycle time e. cycle time divided by total task time a (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 82. Four hundred and eighty minutes of production time are available per day. Scheduled production is 120 units per day. What is the cycle time? 1. a. 4 minutes 2. b. 5 minutes 3. c. 6 minutes 4. d. 7 minutes 5. e. 8 minutes a (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 83. A production line is to be designed for a product whose completion requires 21 minutes of work. The factory works 400 minutes per day. Can an assembly line with five workstations make 100 units per day? 1. a. yes, with exactly 100 minutes to spare 2. b. no, but four workstations would be sufficient 3. c. no, it will fall short even with a perfectly balanced line 4. d. yes, but the line's efficiency is very low 5. e. cannot be determined from the information given c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 84. Four hundred and eighty minutes of production time are available per day. The schedule calls for the production of 80 units per day. Each unit of the product requires 30 minutes of work. What is the theoretical minimum number of workstations? 1. a. 2 2. b. 3 3. c. 4 4. d. 5 5. e. 6 d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 85. Which of the following is not a heuristic rule for assigning tasks to workstations in a product layout? 1. a. longest tasks first 2. b. in order of most number of following tasks 3. c. median tasks first 4. d. shortest tasks first 5. e. in accordance with positional weight c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 86. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. If a layout problem is solved by use of "heuristics," this means that a. there was no other way to solve the problem b. no computer software was available c. the problem has only a few alternatives to evaluate d. no optimum solution exists e. a "satisfactory" solution is acceptable e (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 87. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the following is a common heuristic for assembly line balancing? a. debits near the windows, credits near the door b. manufacturers locate near materials, retailers locate near customers c. earliest due date first d. ranked positional weight e. none of the above d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 88. An assembly line consists of 21 tasks grouped into 5 workstations. The sum of the 21 task times is 85 minutes. Cycle time for the line is 20 minutes. The efficiency of this line is 1. a. 4.2 percent 2. b. 17 percent 3. c. 85 percent 4. d. 100 percent 5. e. none of the above c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 89. An assembly line consists of 158 tasks grouped into 32 workstations. The sum of all task times is 105 minutes. Cycle time for the line is 4 minutes. The efficiency of this line is approximately 1. a. 8 percent 2. b. 21 percent 3. c. 82 percent 4. d. 100 percent 5. e. none of the above c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} FILL-IN-THE BLANK 90. 91. McDonald's "Made for You" kitchen system represents a ___________ use of layout decisions. strategic (Global company profile, easy) ___________ layouts deal with low-volume, high-variety production with like machines and equipment grouped together. Process-oriented (Process-oriented layout, easy) 92. 93. A(n) __________ is a special product-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a process-oriented facility. work cell (Process-oriented layout, moderate) A(n) ___________ groups workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for comfort, safety, and movement of information. office layout (Office layout, moderate) The ____________ is a non-numeric method for determining which departments are located near one another, and which departments are kept further apart. office relationship chart or relationship chart (Office layout, moderate) A(n) ____________ addresses flow, allocates space, and responds to customer behavior. retail layout (Retail layout, moderate) __________ are fees manufacturers pay to get their products displayed. Slotting fees (Retail layout, moderate) __________ refers to the physical surroundings in which a service takes place, and how they affect customers and employees. Servicescape (Retail layout, moderate) ____________ avoids placing materials or supplies in storage by processing them as they are received for shipment. Cross-docking (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) The project remains in one place and workers and equipment come to that one work area in a __________ layout. fixed-position (Retail layout, moderate) 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. _______________ is the use of computer software to evaluate the profitability of merchandising plans in a retail layout. Category management (Retail layout, moderate) {AACSB: Use of IT} 101. __________ is that element of balancing a work cell that superficially resembles cycle time. Takt time (Work cells, moderate) 102. A(n) ________ line is a machine-paced product-oriented facility for building components. fabrication (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 103. ___________ is the maximum time that the product is available at each workstation. Cycle time (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) SHORT ANSWERS 104. Identify McDonald's "seven major innovations The seven major innovations are indoor seating, drive-through windows, breakfast menus, play areas, the "Made for You" kitchen system, the self-service kiosk, and the 21st century look. (Global company profile, moderate) 105. In what specific areas does the layout decision establish a firm's competitive priorities? Layout decisions establish a firms competitive priorities in the following areas: processes, flexibility, cost, capacity, and quality of work life. (The strategic importance of layout decisions, moderate) 106. To develop a good facility layout, what be must determined? You need to consider the following to determine a good layout: selection of material handling equipment, capacity and space requirements, environment and aesthetics, flows of information, and cost of moving between various work areas. (Types of layouts, moderate) 107. Identify the seven fundamental layout strategies. Describe the use of each one very briefly. 1. Office layout: Positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information. 2. Retail layout: Allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior. 3. Warehouse layout: Addresses trade-offs between space and material handling. 4. Fixed-position layout: Addresses the layout requirements of large, bulky projects such as ships and buildings 5. Process-oriented layout: Deals with low-volume, high-variety production. 6. Work cell layout: Arranges machinery and equipment to focus on the production of a single product or a group of related products 7. Product-oriented layout: Seeks the best personnel and machine utilization in repetitive or continuous production. (Types of layout, moderate) 108. What techniques can be used to overcome the inherent problems of fixed-position layouts? Some actions that can be taken to overcome the problems of a fixed-position layout are to develop good schedules, accurately define requirements, and take a rational approach to the layout, as opposed to politicizing the decision. (Fixed-position layout, moderate) 109. "Having a focused work center is like having a factory within a factory." Discuss. Include in your discussion what conditions make focused work centers appropriate. A focused work center is a permanent product-oriented set of equipment within a process-oriented facility. It requires group technology or equivalent, a high level of staff training and flexibility, and good support or imagination to get started. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 110. Why do work cells increase the use of equipment and machinery? Work cells increase the use of equipment and machinery because of better scheduling and faster material flow. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 111. What are the advantages of focused factories? Focused factories are better able to stay in tune with their customers, produce quality products, and operate at higher margins. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 112. Explain how a load-distance model helps solve problems in process layout. The problem in process layout is to hold down material movement and material handling. The load-distance model calculates these movements from department to department, and can find that set of departmental space assignments that minimize the aggregate material handling cost. This is an optimal layout for a process layout, given the pattern of loads and distances. (Processoriented layout, moderate) 113. Identify the four requirements for cellular production. (1) identification of families of products, often through the use of group technology codes or equivalents; (2) a high level of training, flexibility, and empowerment of employees; (3) being self-contained, with its own equipment and resources; and (4) test (poka-yoke) at each station in the cell. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) 114. A facilities manager at a company headquarters once said, "I'd like to use Muther's office relationship chart or the load-distance model to solve our layout problems, but neither tool can optimize. I want the best layout possible." Discuss. The manager should not be so quick to reject models that find satisfactory, but not necessarily optimal, solutions. The load-distance model can optimize relatively small problems, but large problems are beyond the explicit enumeration required for optimization. That's why CRAFT and other software seek "acceptable" solutions. The office relationship diagram is not an optimizing tool at all, as it uses labels, not numbers, to indicate desirability of closeness. (Office layout, moderate) {AACSB: Reflective Thinking} 115. What design guidelines help retail layouts to maximize customer exposure to products? Design guidelines that help retail layouts maximize customer exposure to products include: 1. locating the high-draw items around the periphery of the store 2. using prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items 3. distributing what are known in the trade as "power items" to both sides of an aisle, and dispersing them to increase the viewing of other items 4. using end aisle locations because they have a very high exposure rate 5. conveying the mission of the store by careful selection in the positioning of the lead-off department (Retail layout, moderate) 116. Consider the five ideas for determining the overall arrangement of most retail stores. How are these ideas implemented (a) in a supermarket, and (b) in a fine department store? (Please consider the entire store--not just the areas where merchandise is displayed.) (Suggested response) The five ideas are: 1. locating the high-draw items around the periphery of the store, 2. using prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items, 3. distributing what are known in the trade as "power items" to both sides of an aisle, and dispersing them to increase the viewing of other items, 4. using end aisle locations because they have a very high exposure rate, 5. conveying the image of the store by careful selection in the positioning of the lead-off department. Supermarkets make more use of aisles, where ideas 3 and 4 are featured. Department stores are meandering, so there's less use of end-caps. Both types of retail seem to follow ideas 1 and 5. Idea 2 seems to be implemented with impulse items near the checkouts for both retail types. The supermarket's straight lines convey its strategy of low cost; the department store's display areas convey its focus on image, browsing, etc. (Retail layout, difficult) {AACSB: Reflective Thinking} 117. Briefly explain what "slotting" is. Why is slotting considered a "controversial" practice? What ethical issues might arise with regard to slotting? Slotting is the practice of manufacturers paying for retail shelf space. It is controversial because some managers approve of the practice, but others do not. Ethical issues involved with slotting are (1) such payments might be considered bribery, (2) such payments cost consumers more, and (3) such payments may interfere with efficient and profitable use of retail space. (Retail layout, difficult) {AACSB: Ethical Reasoning} 118. What is a servicescape? How is it related to the retail layout problem? What are the three elements of servicescape for dealing with these human issues? Servicescape describes the physical surroundings in which a service takes place. Rather than design a retail space strictly for profitability, managers must consider how the surroundingsthe layouthave a humanistic effect on customers and employees. The three elements are ambient conditions, spatial layout/functionality, and signs, symbols, and artifacts. (Retail layout, moderate) 119. What is cross-docking? Why is it appropriate for some forms of warehouse layout? Cross-docking avoids placing materials or supplies in storage by processing them as they are received for shipment. It avoids storing the product, saves space and receiving time, and speeds up shipment to the ultimate destination. (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate) 120. What are the two basic types of product layouts? Explain how they are alike, and how they are different. The two types are fabrication lines and assembly lines. Fabrication lines build components on a series of machines, while assembly lines put the fabricated parts together at a series of workstations. Fabrication lines tend to be machine paced and require mechanical changes to facilitate balance, while assembly lines tend to be paced by work tasks assigned to individuals or to workstations and are therefore balanced by moving tasks from one individual to another. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, difficult) 121. Explain what the purpose of assembly line balancing is. Describe briefly how it is done. Explain how assembly line balancing supports the needs of product layout. Assembly line balancing attempts to put equal amounts of work into each of the workstations that assemble a product. The technique begins with a task list and precedence chart; to this is added demand data, from which cycle time can be computed. This is the speed at which the line must move. Then the theoretical number of stations is calculated. Each required task is then assigned into one workstation. This approach holds down the amount of idle time in a product layout, and leads to higher utilization of the plant, and to higher volume of output. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, difficult) 122. Define the following terms that occur in assembly line balancing: cycle time, minimum number of workstations, and efficiency. Cycle time is the ratio of allowed work time to units scheduled. The theoretical minimum number of workstations in an assembly line is determined by dividing the total task-duration time for the product by the cycle time. The efficiency of a line balance is determined by dividing the total task time assigned by the product of the number of workstations times the cycle time. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 123. What is the role of heuristics in solving layout problems? Provide a brief example, drawing from manufacturing situations, retailing situations, or other service situations. Heuristics are used in problems too complex to model explicitly, such as assembly line balancing problems, fixedposition layouts, office layouts, and retail layouts. All of these layout types are quite complex, featuring very large numbers of alternative solutions and no single numeric objective for evaluating them. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) 124. Assembly line balancing has just been used to solve a product layout problem. Two solutions look especially attractive to the plant managers. Both solutions make the same output per day, and both have the same number of workstations. The managers were going to break the tie by looking at line efficiency, but discovered that both lines had the same efficiency as well. Should they have been surprised at this? Explain. No, they should not be surprised. Efficiency is the ratio of actual work needed per unit to time available. Work needed is clearly the same in both cases as the product is the same. Work available is also the same, since both lines have the same number of stations and the same cycle time. Once cycle time and number of stations are known, so is efficiency, no matter what tasks are assigned to what stations within that framework. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, difficult) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 125. What are the advantages and disadvantages of product layouts? The advantages of a product layout are: The low variable cost per unit usually associated with high-volume, standardized products. Low material handling costs. Reduced work-in-process inventories. Easier training and supervision. Rapid throughput. The disadvantages are: The high volume required because of the large investment needed to establish the process. That work stoppage at any point ties up the whole operation. A lack of flexibility when handling a variety of products or production rates. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) PROBLEMS 126. Develop a solution for the following line balancing problem, allowing a cycle time of 5 minutes. 1. a. Draw the precedence diagram for the set of tasks. 2. b. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations. 3. c. Balance this line using the longest task time heuristic. 4. d. What tasks are assigned to which stations? 5. e. Does the solution have the minimum number of stations? Explain. 6. f. How much idle time is there, summed over all workstations? 7. g. What is the efficiency of this line? Work Task A B C D E F G Task Time (seconds) 70 60 120 60 240 100 190 Task Predecessor(s) A B C, D A E, F The minimum number of workstations is 3. Balance places ABDF in station 1, C in station 2, E in station 3, and G in station 4. The solution uses four stations, not three. The POM for Windows solution is shown below. Idle time is distributed 10, 180, 60, and 110 per station. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 127. An assembly line has been designed to make battery-powered beverage mixers. Task details are shown in the table below: Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 Task Assigned 1 3; 4 2; 5; 6 7 8 9; 10; 11 Task Time (minutes) 3.0 1.5; 2.0 1.5; 1.5; 1.0 3.0 2.5 2.0; 1.0; 1.0 1. 2. 3. 4. a. What is the assigned cycle time (in minutes)? b. What is the maximum output rate of this line in mixers per hour? c. What is the total idle time per cycle? d. What is the assembly line's efficiency? Cycle time is 4.0 minutes (governed by stations 3 and 6). Maximum output is 60/4 = 15.0 units per hour. Idle time is 1.0 + 0.5 + 0.0 + 1.0 + 1.5 + 0 = 4.0 minutes. Efficiency is 20.0/24.0 = 83.3%. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 128. Departments A, B, C, and D need to be assigned to four rooms 1, 2, 3, and 4. These rooms are arranged in a row, in that order, with 20 meters between each. The departmental work flows are contained in the table below. 1. a. What is the material handling total of assigning A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4? 2. b. What is the material handling total of assigning A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2? Flow Matrix Dept. A Dept. B Dept. C Dept. D Dept. A 0 5 0 10 Dept. B 30 0 10 5 Dept. C 5 40 0 0 Dept. D 20 20 40 0 (a)The material handling total of A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4 is 5500. Details: 1-2 (A-B): 20x30+20x5=700; 1-3 (A-C): 40x5+40x0=200; 1-4 (A-D): 60x20+60x10=1800; 2-3 (B-C): 20x40+20x10=1000; 2-4 (B-D): 40x20+40x5=1000; and 3-4 (C-D): 20x40+20x0=800. The sum of these six elements is 5,500. (b) The material handling total of A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2 is 5400, which is also the optimal solution. Details: 1-2 (A-D): 20x20+20x10=600; 1-3 (A-B): 40x30+40x5=1400; 1-4 (A-C): 60x5+60x0=300; 2-3 (B-D): 20x20+20x5=500; 2-4 (C-D):40x40+40x0=1600; and 3-4 (BC): 20x40+20x10=1000. These six elements sum to 5400. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 129. The flow and distance data in the table below were input into a layout software program, and solved by "pairwise comparison." That solution called for assignments A-4, B-1, C-3, and D-2, with a total movement of 2430. Verify that result. Is that solution optimal? Can you offer an The six elements of movement in the original solution are 1-2 (B-D): 6x30+12x30=540; 1-3 (BC): 7x60+2x60=540; 1-4 (A-B): 5x80+0x80=400; 2-3 (C-D): 9x30+4x30=390; 2-4 (A-D): 3x50+5x50=400; and 3-4 (A-C): 8x20+0x20=160. The sum of these six elements is 2430. This solution is not necessarily optimal because the pairwise comparison technique does not inspect all possible solutions. Another possible solution is A-4, B-1, C-2, and D-3, which has a total movement of 2700. The optimal assignment of departments to rooms is A-1, B-4, C-2, and D-3, which has a total movement of 2320. C is thus put further from B and closer to A, which helps reduce movement. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 130. Cyclone Appliances has developed a new European-style convection oven that will be made on an assembly line. The schedule requires 80 ovens in an 8-hour day. The assembly includes seven tasks. The table below indicates the performance time and the sequence requirements for each task. Task A B C D E F G Performance Time (minutes) 1 2 3 2 4 1 2 Task must follow Task listed below A B B C, D E F 1. a. What is the cycle time for this assembly operation? 2. b. What is the minimum number of workstations? 3. c. Draw the precedence diagram. SEE NEXT PAGE FOR SOLUTION. (a) The cycle time is 480 minutes per day / 80 ovens = 6 minutes/oven. (b) The minimum number of workstations is the sum of all task times, 15 minutes, divided by the cycle time, 6 (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 131. An electronics manufacturer makes remote control devices for interactive-cable-TV systems. The following assembly tasks must be performed on each device. Task A B C D E F G H I J Description Place circuit into circuit frame Solder circuit connections to central circuit control Place circuit assembly in device frame Attach circuit assembly to device frame Place and attach display to frame Place and attach keypad to frame Place and attach top body of device to frame Place and attach battery holder to frame Place and attach bottom body of device to frame Test device Predecessor(s) A B C Time (min.) 0.50 0.70 0.40 0.30 0.30 0.20 0.35 0.40 0.60 0.30 E, F D G, H I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. Draw the precedence diagram for this problem. b. What is the sum of the task times? c. What cycle time will allow the production of 200 units over a ten-hour day? d. What is the theoretical number of workstations needed? e. Balance this assembly line using the heuristic most following tasks and the heuristic longest operation time. 6. f. How do these two solutions differ? Which do you prefer; why? SEE NEXT PAGE FOR SOLUTION. The sum of the task times is 4.05 minutes. The cycle time for 200 units output is 600/200 =3 minutes. The minimum number of stations is 4.05/3 = 1.35 or 2. Both solutions use two (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 132. A company is designing a product layout for a new product. It plans to use this production line eight hours a day in order to meet a schedule of 400 units per day. The tasks necessary to produce this product are detailed in the table below. Task A B C D E F Predecessor A B, D C, E Time (seconds) 50 36 26 22 70 30 1. a. Draw the network described in the table. 2. b. Without regard to a production schedule, what is the minimum possible cycle time (in seconds) for this situation; what is the maximum? 3. c. What is the required cycle time (in seconds) in order to meet the schedule? 4. d. What is the minimum number of workstations needed to meet the schedule? 5. e. Balance this line using longest processing time. 6. f. What is the efficiency of the balance obtained in part e? The network diagram appears below. Minimum cycle time is 70 seconds (the longest task time); maximum cycle time is 234 seconds (sum of the task times). Cycle time is 480/400 = 1.2 minutes or 72 seconds (which is barely feasible). The number of stations required is at least (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 133. You have been asked to balance a flow shop assembly operation to achieve an output rate of 80 units per eight-hour day. Task times and precedence relationships are shown in the table below. Task A B C D E F G H Predecessor(s) Duration (minutes) 1.4 0.8 0.4 1.8 0.4 2.1 2.0 1.2 A, B C E, F D, G 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. Draw the precedence diagram. b. Determine the desired cycle time. c. Determine the minimum number of stations needed. d. Balance this line using most following tasks. e. What is the efficiency of the line obtained in part d? The precedence diagram appears below. The desired cycle time for 80 units is 6 minutes. The (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 134. A firm operates a flow shop building kitchen cabinetry for recreational vehicles. The major activities of this process are listed below. Task A B C D E F G H Duration (hours) 4 6 2 6 3 3 5 1 Predecessor 1 Predecessor 2 Predecessor 4 A A B B D G C C E F 1. a. Draw the appropriate network for this project. 2. b. What would the cycle time be if the goal is to produce 20 units per month (the plant operates 160 hours per month)? 3. c. What is the minimum number of workstations needed? 4. d. Balance with the most following tasks heuristic. What tasks are assigned to which stations? 5. e. What is the efficiency of the line obtained in part d? (b) The cycle time is 160/20=8 hours; (c) This line requires at least 30/8=3.75 or 4 stations; (d) A and C are in Station 1; B is in Station 2; D is in Station 3; E and F occupy Station 4; and G and H are in Station 5. (e) Efficiency is 30/40=.75 or 75 percent. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 135. There are three work centers (A, B, and C) behind the financial aid counter at a nearby university. They can each fit into any of three office spaces (1, 2, and 3) off the corridor behind the desk. There is no student contact in these areas, only workers. The distance 1-2 is 20 feet, 2-3 is 30 feet, and 1-3 is 50 feet. The matrix of work (trips per day) at the three centers is in the following table. Remember that each trip must be a round-trip (from 1 to 2 and back, for example). A A B 20 C 0 B C 45 60 -0 25 1. a. How many possible assignments are there? List them. 2. b. Calculate the total distance traveled in each of these assignments. 3. c. Which assignment minimizes distance traveled? (a) There are 3! = 6 assignments, listed in the table below. (b) The cost, in feet, of each assignment appears in the table below. (c) The lowest cost assignment is A-2, B-1, C-3. A B C Cost 1 2 3 10,100 1 3 2 10,400 2 1 3 8,700 2 3 1 8,800 3 1 2 11,100 3 2 1 10,900 (Process-oriented layout, difficult) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 136. Hemo-tech, Inc., a biomedical technology and research laboratory, produces a standard blood filtering device on an assembly line basis. Six basic tasks are performed along an assembly line. The time to perform each task and the tasks that must immediately precede each task are in the table below. Twenty pumps per 450-minute day must be produced by the assembly line. Task A B C D E F Preceding Task A B, C D E Time to perform (min.) 5.40 3.20 1.50 2.80 17.10 12.80 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. a. Draw the network diagram of the precedence relationships. b. Identify the absolute minimum and maximum cycle times. c. How many workstations are required to meet the schedule? d. What is the cycle time required to meet demand? e. Balance this line using most following tasks heuristic. f. What is the efficiency of the line obtained in part e? g. Can the efficiency of this solution be improved? Explain. SEE NEXT PAGE FOR SOLUTION. (a) The appropriate diagram appears below. (b)The absolute minimum cycle time is 17.10 minutes (the longest operation). The absolute maximum cycle time is 42.80 minutes (the sum of all task times). (c) The minimum number of stations is 42.8/22.5 = 1.90 or 2, but the actual number of stations needed is 3. (d) The cycle time is 450/20 = 22.5 minutes. (e) The balanced line appears below. (f) The line's efficiency is only 63%. (g) There is idle time at all stations; removing the smallest amount of idle time (5.4 minutes) from all stations reduces the cycle (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 137. A firm is planning to set up an assembly line to assemble 40 units per hour, and 57 minutes per hour are productive. The time to perform each task and the tasks which precede each task are: Task A B C D E F G H I Preceding Task A B B B B C, D, E G, F H Time to perform (min.) .69 .55 .92 .59 .70 1.10 .75 .43 .29 1. a. Draw a network diagram of precedence relationships. 2. b. Compute the cycle time per unit in minutes. 3. c. Compute the minimum number of workstations required to produce 40 units per hour. 4. d. Balance this line using longest processing time. 5. e. What is the efficiency of the line obtained in part d? (a) The appropriate diagram appears below. (b) Cycle time is 57/40 = 1.425 minutes. (c) The number of stations required is 6.02/1.425 = 4.22 or 5. (d) The balanced line appears in the (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, difficult) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 138. An insurance claims processing center has six work centers, any of which can be placed into any of six physical departmental locations. Call the centers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and the departments A, B, C, D, E, and F. The current set of assignments is A-3, B-1, C-6, D-2, E4, and F-5. The (symmetric) matrix of departmental distances, in meters is 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 5 3 30 40 4 20 15 50 -5 15 10 20 10 -6 20 10 5 35 5 The matrix of work flow (estimated trips per day) is among centers A A B C D E F 20 0 30 40 0 B 15 50 60 0 0 C 20 50 20 0 30 D 0 0 30 10 20 E 30 160 0 70 50 F 0 10 30 0 60 The firm estimates that each trip costs approximately $4. 1. a. What is the cost of the current assignment? 2. b. Use trial-and-error to find one improved assignment. 3. c. What is that assignment, and what is its cost? (a) The current assignment costs 14,000 meters, or $56,000. (b,c) The optimal solution is 10,450 meters, or $41,800, with A-3, B-5, C-4, D-1, E-6, and F-2. Students may find improved solutions other than the optimal solution. (Process-oriented layout, difficult) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 139. An assembly line with 11 tasks is to be balanced. The longest task is 2.4 minutes, the shortest task is 0.4 minutes, and the sum of the task times is 18 minutes. The line will operate for 600 minutes per day. 1. a. Determine the minimum and maximum cycle times. 2. b. What range of output is theoretically possible for the line? 3. c. What is the minimum number of stations needed if the maximum output rate is to be sought? 4. d. What cycle time will provide an output rate of 200 units per day? Minimum cycle time is 2.4 minutes. Maximum cycle time is 18 minutes. Maximum output is 600/2.4 = 250; minimum output is 600/18 = 33.3. For maximum output, 18/2.4 = 7.5 or 8 stations will be needed. To produce 200 units per day requires a 3minute cycle time. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 140. A facility is trying to set up an assembly line, and has identified the various tasks, and their relationship to each other, as shown in the following table. They wish to produce 600 units per day, working two 8-hour shifts. Task A B C D E F G Preceding Task Time to perform (sec.) 20 30 25 10 55 30 25 A D, B, C E H F, G 40 1. a. Draw a network diagram of precedence relationships. 2. b. Compute the cycle time per unit in seconds. 3. c. Compute the minimum number of workstations required to produce 600 units per day. 4. d. Balance this line using longest processing time. 5. e. What is the efficiency of the line obtained in part d? (a) The precedence diagram appears below. (b) Cycle time is 96 seconds. (c) 3 workstations are needed. (d) The computer output places tasks A-B-C-D in station 1, E-F in station 2, and (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 141. A work cell is required to make 200 computerized diagnostic assemblies (for installation into hybrid automobiles) each day. The cell currently works an eight hour shift, of which seven hours is available for productive work. What is takt time for this cell? Takt time = 420 minutes / 200 units required = 2.1 minutes (Work cells, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 142. A work cell is scheduled to build 120 digital light processor (DLP) assemblies each week. These assemblies are later installed into home theater projection systems. The work cell has 7.5 hours of productive work each day, six days per week. What is takt time for this cell? The cell has 7.5 x 6 = 45 hours (or 2700 minutes) of work time each week. Takt time = 2700 / 120 = 22.5 minutes. (Work cells, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 143. A work cell is required to make 80 computerized diagnostic assemblies (for installation into hybrid automobiles) each day. The cell currently works an eight hour shift, of which seven hours is available for productive work. These assemblies require five operations, with times of 1.0, 0.8, 2.4, 2.5, and 1.4 minutes each. What is takt time for this cell? How many workers will be needed? Takt time = 420 minutes / 80 units = 5.25 minutes. Total operation time is 1.0 + 1.8 + 2.4 + 2.5 + 1.4 = 9.1 minutes. Workers required = 9.1 / 5.25 = 1.73 or 2. (Work cells, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 144. A work cell is required to make 140 computerized diagnostic assemblies (for installation into hybrid automobiles) each day. The cell currently works an eight hour shift, of which seven hours is available for productive work. These assemblies require five operations. Standard times for these operations are: Operation A, 3.0 minutes, B, 1.8 minutes, C, 2.4 minutes, D, 2.5 minutes, and E, 1.4 minutes. What is takt time for this cell? How many workers will be needed to achieve this schedule? Use the grid below to construct a work balance chart for this cell. Takt time = 420 / 140 = 3 minutes/unit. Total operation time = 3.0 + 1.8 + 2.4 + 2.5 + 1.4 = 11.1 minutes. Four workers are required (11.1 / 3 = 3.7). The balance chart appears below. (Work cells, moderate) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
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