Column Base Plates
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Column Base Plates

Course Number: STRUCTURAL 1, Spring 2010

College/University: Indian Institute of...

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(1978) and Narus (1976) have shown that the method in the Manual of Steel Construction is conservative. They have also noted that it does not consider the effects of reinforcement or the relative depth of the Base Plates with Moments Base plates with both axial loads and moments are not covered in the AISC Specification or the Manual of Steel Construction. Engineers must refer to textbooks for design...

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and (1978) Narus (1976) have shown that the method in the Manual of Steel Construction is conservative. They have also noted that it does not consider the effects of reinforcement or the relative depth of the Base Plates with Moments Base plates with both axial loads and moments are not covered in the AISC Specification or the Manual of Steel Construction. Engineers must refer to textbooks for design information, though not all texts cover this case. Two general approaches exist for design, one based on the elastic behavior and one based on the ultimate capacity. For each of these approaches, different assumptions are made. The elastic approach is covered in the majority of texts which treat moments, including those of Ballio and Mazzolani (1983), Blodgett (1966), Gaylord and Gaylord (1972), McGuire (1968), and Salmon and Johnson (1980). Soifer (1966) has noted that the design can be based on that for reinforced concrete columns. He has stated that the anchor bolt force determination is the most important design element, and that the precise determination of the concrete bearing stress distribution is not essential. He based his discussion on the elastic approach. The approach based on the ultimate capacity, much like that used for the design of reinforced concrete columns today, is based on the study of Salmon, Schenker and Johnston (1957). The method is presented by Gaylord and Gaylord (1972) and McGuire (1968). Both used it to calculate the ultimate load for plates designed by the elastic approach. concrete foundation, nor does it allow for different plate thicknesses. Thus, plates designed under old specifications cannot be evaluated under the new one. Design aids for the method in the Manual of Steel Construction have been developed by Blodgett (1966), Sandhu (1973), Dixon (1974), Stockwell (1975), Bird (1976, 1977) and Douty (1976). Good sources of detailing information are the Manual of Steel Construction, Detailing for Steel Construction (AISC 1983), Engineering for Steel Construction (AISC 1984) and Blodgett (1966). Base plates with especially large loads require more than a simple plate. This may result in a double layer of plates, a grillage system, or the use of stiffeners to reduce the plate thickness. The design of these plates is covered by Blodgett (1966) and noted in Engineering for Steel Construction (AISC 1984). Lightly Loaded Base Plates in which the plate size is approximately equal to the column size, were initially treated by Fling (1970) using an elastic plate bending approach and the assumption that the full plate is in contact with the concrete. The approach has been used DeWolf and Sarisley (1978, 1980) have compared both methods to test data. While they found that either normally provides an adequate factor of safety against collapse, the methods rely on the assumption of some of the variables. Consequently all of the test variables do not usually match with those used in design. They have made suggestions for alterations in the methods and have noted when they are not satisfactory. Thambiratnam and Paramasivam (1986) also conducted tests and compared the results with predictions from the elastic design method. 2 Maitra (1978, 1978a) has presented a graphical design aid for applying the elastic method. Marsh and Burdette also discuss the different types of drilled-in anchors, those that are placed following casting of the concrete foundation. These are not normally Anchor Bolts for Tension For all but the smallest moments, anchor bolts are needed. There are different ways of placing and anchoring these. Lee et. al. (1957) presents designs for placement following setting of the concrete. Others have treated anchorage for machines (Lee 1959, Engineering News Record 1960) and prestressing tendons (Schechter 1960). Hasselwander, Jirsa and Breen (1974) reviewed materials which are suitable for anchor bolts. Details and types of bolts are presented by Fisher (1981), Goldman used for column base plates and are beyond the scope of this publication. Most of these are proprietary and would b reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. The example, taken from Stockwell's paper, follows: Example 5 (ASD Procedure): A base plate is to be selected for a W12 x 106 column supporting a load of 560 kips, bearing on a 28 x 28-in. pier. The concrete compressive strength is 3 ksi. 1. In Fig. 4(b), enter the first quadrant at 2. Proceed vertically to P = 560 kips. 3. Draw a line from the origin in the right quadrant through point 2 and find that the allowable bearing pressure is =1.54 ksi. 4. From point 2, proceed horizontally to A1 = 365 in. 5. Continue horizontally to N = 20 in. 6. Proceed vertically to B = 18.4 in. 7. Use a 19 by 20 in. plate and determine the thickness as in the previous examples. Example 6 (LRFD Procedure): A base plate is to be selected for a W12 x 106 column with a dead load of 200 kips and a live load of 360 kips. The pier is 28 in. square Determining the Design Load for Existing Base Plates The method in the AISC Manual for designing base plates results in a unique plate thickness. It is not directly applicable for determining the allowable axial column load for an existing base plate that has been designed under different conditions. An example is a plate designed according to earlier AISC Specifications which specified lower allowable bearing stresses. It will have a greater area A1, with greater values of m and n. The resulting thickness, which was determined for the lower allowable bearing stress, will not allow evaluation of the plate with the new allowable bearing stresses. As an approximation, the following procedure can be used. It is based on assuming that only a portion of the plate is effective. Example 7 (ASD Procedure): A plate has been designed for a W14 x 95 column (d = 14.12 in., The plate was designed for a load of 480 kips using an older edition of the AISC Specification, with an allowable bearing stress of is equal to 1.0. The building is being and is 3 ksi. = 1.2(200) + 1.6(360) = 816 kips 1. Determine the factored load: remodeled, and it is desired to find out if an additional load of 70 kips can be applied without exceeding the allowable bearing stress in the present edition of the AISC Specification. The plate size is 25 x 1 2 in. in. x 2 ft 2. Determine divided by 1.46): The allowable plate bending stress is the same as used in the original design. It is thus not possible to use the new 3. Follow steps 3 through 6 in the previous ASD Example 5. 4. Use to compute the required plate thickness by the LRFD equation. bearing stress based on the original values of A1 and A2, without exceeding the allowable bending stress. Instead only a portion of the plate will be used. The two requirements are that the allowable bearing stress should not exceed and that the bending stress The design aid prepared by Base Plates Placed Eccentrically on the Concrete Foundations When the plate is axially loaded, but placed eccentrically on the concrete foundation, Hawkins (1967,1968) found should not exceed 0.75 Stockwell will be used. 1. For a load of 550 kips and A2 = 25 x 26 = 650 in.2, A1 is found equal to approximately 425 in.2 from Fig. that the design could be conservatively based on using that portion of the concrete which is concentric around the plate. This is recommended for use here. The design approach already given can then be used, with the appropriate A2. 4(b). 12 Design of Lightly Loaded Base Plates Lightly loaded base plates are those in which the plate size is equal to or slightly larger than the column dimensions. For these m and n are approximately zero, and the critical portion of the plate for bending is between the column flanges, adjacent to the web. As noted, the 8th Edition Manual of Steel Construction contains a procedure for this plate thickness determination. Recent work by Murray (1983) has been used for the new Load and Resistance Factor Design Manual (AISC 1986) and 9th Edition. It is based on the approach of Stockwell (1975) and is more realistic than the method in tor this case, based on a yield line method and the work of Blodgett (1966) and Stockwell (1975). This is adopted here, with the addition of the bending resistance factor used in the LRFD Manual: When the required plate thickness is: When the required plate thickness is: where g is the gage, shown in Fig. 6; is the bending resistance factor, equal to 0.9; and, is the factored load. This applies to the LRFD method. Since 625/114.8 = 5.44 > 4.0, cannot further refine design. This procedure for lightly loaded base plates, or that in the 8th Ed. AISC Manual based on determining should be used for all plates in order to check the portion of the plate between the column flanges. Thus, the previous examples should also include this check. It can be modified for the ASD method by applying a factor of safety equal to 2.0 and using the applied service load P. Thus, when the required plate thickness is: and when the required plate thickness is: Base Plates for Uplift Loading Under certain conditions, base plates are subject to concentric axial tension, or uplift. These plates need to be checked for bending when the design results in a relatively flexible plate which is approximately the same size as the column, i.e. a lightly loaded plate. A typical design is shown in Fig. 6. It is necessary to use properly embedded anchor bolts for these with a plate that can The design of the anchor bolts, necessary to resist the uplift is treated in the section on the design of anchor bolts for tension. Example 11 (ASD Procedure): Determine the plate thickness for an uplift load of 25 kips due to wind and a column with d = 10.24 in. and = 4.02 in. The anchor bolt gage g is 4 in. = 36 ksi. resist bending in the area between the flanges, adjacent to the web. 1. x 4.02 = 5.69 in. < 10.24 in. be increased by 33%, which is equivalent to reducing the uplift force to 0.75 x 25 = 18.75 kips. 2. Since the load is due to wind, the allowable stress may Example 12 (LRFD Procedure): The load factor for wind is 1.3, so Fig. 6. Base Plate for Uplift Loading 15 Base Plates for Tube and Pipe Columns Base plates for rectangular and round pipe columns can be designed with the previous provisions, which have been developed for wide flange shaped columns. plate thickness, then is based on the bearing area The distance from the center of the tube wall to the edge of this bearing area should be equal at all points. This is shown in Fig. 7. The critical section used to determine the plate thickness should be based on 0.95 times the outside column dimension for rectangular tubes and 0.80 times the outside dimension for round pipes. These correspond to the values for wide flange columns and have been chosen here to conservatively approximate the critical sections for bending. Base Plates with Large Loads For column bases subject to heavier loads, plate thicknesses can become excessive. An alternative is to attach brackets to the column as shown in Fig. 8 (a) (Blodgett 1966). These brackets act with the plate to resist bending. The plate is then designed as a continuous beam perpendicular to the brackets, with supports at the centers of the two brackets, shown in Fig. 8 (b). The brackets are sized with the portion of the plate between the outer faces of the brackets to resist bending and shear. A full design example is given by Blodgett (1966). For lightly loaded plates, the procedure in the LRFD Manual (AISC 1986) can conservatively be applied to both shapes. The inside area in the enclosed area for tubes and pipes is stiffer than that between the flanges of a wide flange column. The dimension c, used in determining the (a) Details (a) Pipe Columns (b) Tubular Columns (b) Moment Diagram for Thickness Fig. 8. Column with Brackets Fig.7. Bearing Arm for Lightly Loaded Pipe & Tubular Columns. 16 For extremely heavy loads, the force may be distributed by a grillage (AISC 1984), shown in Fig. 9. The grillage consists of one or more layers of closely spaced beams, usually S-shapes because of the thicker webs. The entire grillage is then encased in the concrete foundation. The plate then rests on the steel beams, with a resulting increase in the ultimate bearing pressure. Guidelines are not available for the allowable bearing stresses, though as a conservative estimate, the engineer can assume the entire load is transferred from the plate to the beams, neglecting the concrete. Design of the plate would be based on distributing the load over the beam webs, based on the AISC allowable bearing stress for steel. The load at the base of the grillage can then be assumed as a uniformly distributed load. of the base plate. Grout is then worked under the plate. This allows for field adjustment. Normally four anchor bolts and a minimum thickness (values of 0.50 to 0.75 in. have been suggested) have been used for concentrically loaded base plates to provide stability against column overturning during erection. The design of these anchor bolts should follow the strength provisions stated in the section on the design of anchor bolts and be evaluated by the erector for the estimated construction loads and conditions. DeWolf and Sarisley (1978a, 1978b, 1982) have demonstrated that the ultimate load carrying capacity is reduced when the concrete pedestal has a depth greater than the plan dimensions. This is based on tests with unreinforced specimens; all tests used for the development of the allowable bearing stresses in the ACI Code (1983) and the AISC Specification (1989) involved unreinforced specimens. When the depth is large, the concrete is unconstrained for lateral movement in the vicinity of the apex of the pyramid which forms at failure. For cubes of concrete, the attachment to the base of the testing machine provides the necessary confinement. DeWolf (1982) has recommended that for depths greater than the plan dimensions, the pedestal should be reinforced as if it is a column. A minimum of four bars should be placed at the corners of the pedestal. Ties should begin just below the base plate, subject to the minimum cover requirements. This reinforcing should be used in all pedestals, regardless of height. Details for Base Plates Typical details for axially loaded base plates are shown in the AISC ASD Manual (1989a) and Engineering for Steel Construction (AISC 1984). For smaller loads, the plates are usually welded to the base of the column in the shop, while for larger loads, the plates are shipped to the field separately. The surface preparation is governed by Section M2.8 in the ASD Specification (1989). Section M4.1 in the ASD Specification and M4.1 in the LRFD Specification specify that the plates should be set level at the correct elevation with full bearing on the foundation. The normal procedure is to maintain the top of the rough concrete footing 1-in. or so below the bottom Fig. 9. Grillage Footing 17 DESIGN OF BASE PLATES WITH MOMENTS General Behavior As noted in the literature review, two general approaches exist for the design of base plates subject to an axial load plus a moment. One is based on elastic behavior and the other is based on the loads at failure. The first is generally covered in texts and design references which deal with base plates subject to moments. The There are three different variations of the elastic method. One involves the assumption that the resultant compressive bearing stress distribution in the concrete foundation is directly under the column compression flange (Blodgett 1966, Salmon and Johnson 1980). This is shown in Fig. 10(a). The resulting bearing area is generally large, extending to the vicinity of the anchor bolt. If this occurs, it is unlikely that the anchor bolt is effective. This method is limited and not widely applicable. The second variation involves the assumption that at the junction between the plate and the concrete foundation second has been referred to in the texts as a means of determining the actual factor of safety against collapse. Only two sets of tests have been conducted for base plates subject to moments and axial loads, those by DeWolf and Sarisley (1978b, 1980) and those by Thambiratnam an plate, as shown in Fig. 13. and the sum of moments about the resultant bolt force yields: where A' is the distance between the anchor bolt and the column center. The allowable stress is exceeded. 3. Assume N = 17 in. and B = 14 in. The second equation gives the bearing distance A: 4. 17/6 = 2.83 in. and bearing occurs across the full plate. The first equation then gives the where resultant force T in the anchor bolt or bolts: The dimensions are satisfactory. 5. The critical section is at (17 - 0.95 x 11.1)/2 = 3.22 in. from the edge. The factored moment, for a 1 in. strip, determined from the bearing stress distribution shown in Fig. 13 with and the stress at the critical section equal to 1.24 ksi is: ASD Procedure: 1. Determine the allowable bearing stress: 2. Assume a plate size, N x B. = 7.19 in.-kips/in. and then: Use a 14 in. x x 1 ft 5 in. plate. 3. Determine the length of bearing A, equal to the smallest positive value from the above equation. If this value is reasonable, go to the next step. If it is close to the value of N', the solution is not practical since this implies that bearing extends to the vicinity of the anchor bolt. If this were so, the anchor bolt could not develop its full tensile capacity. It is then necessary to return to step 2 and pick another, larger plate. Design for Large Eccentricities When the effective eccentricity is large, it is necessary to use one or more anchor bolts to resist the tensile 4. Determine the resultant anchor bolt force T from the above equation. If it is reasonable go to the next step. Otherwise return to step 2. (The design of the anchor bolt is covered in the following section.) 5. Determine the plate thickness from the following: component resulting from the moment. This is shown in Fig. 10 (b). For a plate size chosen so that the resulting bearing stress does not exceed the maximum value from the Specification, the unknowns are the magnitude of the anchor bolt force T and the length of bearing A. The maximum bearing stress is assumed equal to the allowable value. where 0.75. is the allowable bending stress, equal to 21 Example 15 (ASD Procedure): Design a base plate for an axial load of 60 kips and a moment of 480 in.-kips. Bending is about the strong axis and the column depth is 8 in. The ratio of the concrete to plate area is four, for the plate and the anchor bolts is 36 ksi, and is 3 ksi. (See Fig. 14) 1. 2. Assume 14 x 14 in. plate. The effective eccentricity is e = 480/60 = 8 in., which is greater than half the plate width. Thus an anchor bolt is required. It is assumed at 1.5 in. from the plate edge. Rev. 3/1/ 03 kips The moment based on the critical section on the anchor bolt side is determined as follows. The full plate width is not always available. It is assumed that the critical plate width is based on the load spreading out at 45 degrees, shown in Fig. 15. This width is then equal to twice the distance from the bolt to the critical section for each bolt, provided that the critical section does not intersect with the edge of the plate. The moment for a 1 in. strip, is then: 7.48 3.74 Rev. 3/1/03 The moment from the bearing stress distribution governs, and the required plate thickness is then: Use a 14 x 1 in. x 1 ft 2 in. plate =5.1 in. This is reasonable when compared to N' which is 12.5 in. LRFD Procedure: 1. Determine the factored load and factored moment. 2. Determine the allowable bearing stress: 3. Assume a plate size, N x B. 4. Use the factored loads to determine the length of bearing A, equal to the smallest positive value from the equation for A. If this value is reasonable, go to the next step. If it is close to the value of N', the solution is not practical since this implies that bearing extends to the vicinity of the anchor bolt. If this were so, the anchor bolt could not develop its full tensile capacity. It is then necessary to return to step 3 and pick another, larger plate. This is reasonable for the bar sizes available. 5. The critical section is at [(14 - 0.95 x 8)]/2 = 3.2 in. The moment, for a 1 in. strip, dMalik 1982). Fisher (1981) presents an example, based on the PCI Handbook, which follows the first. Marsh and Burdette (1985a) recommend the second, which is conservative. The second is adopted here. This approach can be simplified by using the projected area, the circular surface area determined by the failure plane in Fig. 18, and applying the full average stress of to this area. This is equivalent to using the component of the stress and the surface area of the cone. Fig. 18. Failure Cone for Anchor The use of sleeves for bolts and threaded rods to allow for adjusting the embedded bolt with respect to the hole (a). Overlapping Cones. (b). Cone at Edge of Pedestal. Fig. 19. Calculation of Equivalent Areas. 27 in the plate should not reduce the anchorage capacity based on the failure cone, provided that the sleeve does not extend to the vicinity of the bolt head or nut. For multiple anchorages, the separate failure cones may overlap. The effective area of the group should then be used. Figure 19, taken from the paper by Marsh and Burdette (1985), shows how to calculate the effective will govern; the example is presented to demonstrate the general approach for multiple anchors or anchors near the edge of the concrete pedestal.) A 1 in. diameter bolt will be used area for two bolts with overlapping cones and how to calculate the area when a cone intersects a pedestal edge. It is also necessary to keep the anchor at sufficient distance from any edge to prevent a blow-out failure, where a cone of concrete splits out horizontally. The values given in the previous table should be used. 3. For a single bolt, with the full cone, the required length is: ASD Procedure: 1. Determine the gross bolt size based on the allowable tensile stress, equal to 0.33 x The minimum length, taken from the table is 12 x 1.0 = 12 in., and this governs as expected. The minimum edge distance is 5 x 1.0 = 5.0 in. > 4 in. Therefore use 6.6 in. which is needed for where T is the required bolt tensile force. 2. Determine the required projected surface area: LRFD Procedure: 1. Determine the gross bolt area Ag based on tensile fracture: This is based on an assumed factor of safety equal to 2.0, with in psi, T in pounds and in in. 3. Determine the required bolt length and concrete edge distance from this projected surface area. As a simplification for a single anchor not near a pedestal edge, if the area of the nut is discounted, the length is equal to the radius of the projected surface area: where is the required bolt tensile force, is the minimum tensile strength and is the resistance factor for tension, equal to 0.75. 2. Determine the required surface area: If the cone intersects the side of the pedestal, the projected area should be reduced accordingly. Modification is also needed when more than one bolt is used. Additionally, the bolt length and edge distance should be no smaller than the values in the previous table. When a single bolt is used and when the cone does not intersect with the projected surface area, the minimum length from the table will govern. The requirement for the edge distance should be considered when the pedestal dimensions are set; it usually precludes the use of pedestals equal in size to the plate. Example 21 (ASD Procedure): Design a single anchor bolt to resist a tensile force of 15 kips. It is to be made from a round A36 bar with equal to 58 ksi. is 3 ksi. (Note that the minimum length from the previous table The resistance factor is assumed equal to 0.75, with 2 in psi, in pounds and in in . With this value, the resulting area will be approximately equal to that for the ASD procedure when the ratio of live to dead load is 2.0 - 3.0. 3. Determine the required bolt length and concrete edge distance from this surface area. As a simplification for a single anchor not near a pedestal edge, if the area of the nut is discounted, the length is equal to the radius of the circular projected area: If the cone intersects the side of the pedestal, the effective area should be reduced accordingly. Modification is design capacity would then be a function only of the concrete edge distance, with provisions the in guide by Cannon, Godfrey and Moreadith(1981). As noted, shear friction is dependent on the clamping effect, and this is in turn influenced by the bolt tension. This clamping effect may not always be present in actual practice. Also, it is not likely that bearing will occur in a majority of the anchor bolts. Leading in the bolts is also risky since in normal practice the grout may work its way up between the bolt and the plate, and its bearing capacity is much smaller than the bearing capacity for steel. Shear can also be resisted with anchor bolts. This involves either the development of shear friction or bearing. Shear friction necessitates that a clamping force exist. The designer nevertheless has the option of specifying that bolts be used to resist shear. Provision must then be made to develop shear transfer, either through clamping, bearing or welding. The third way of resisting shear is to use shear lugs. An example is shown in Fig. 20. The shear lug is a plate welded perpendicular to the bottom of the base plate. The shear force is then transferred through this plate acting This occurs when the anchor bolt nuts are tightened against the plate. Marsh and Burdette (1985a) note that this clamping force can also occur in base plate anchor bolts which are not adequately tightened. Shear will cause wedge failure in the concrete adjacent to the bolt, and this wedge will push up on the plate, developing the clamping force. However, specific guidelines are not available on what is necessary to actually develop this clamping force and maintain it with time. The bolts can also resist shear through bearing between the bolt and the plate. Since the bolt holes are often oversized to allow for placement in the field, it is improbable that all of the anchor bolts are in bearing against the steel base plate. Fisher (1981) states that shear transfer through bearing on bolts should be limited to no more than 2 bolts unless the bolts are leaded in because of this. Others (Goldman Fig. 20. Shear Lug 30 as a cantilever. Designs for shear lugs are presented by Fisher (1981), Goldman (1983) and Tronzo (1983-84). Failure occurs when a wedge of concrete shears off. The design approaches involve treating the failure as a bearing problem. Fisher refers to a PCI Handbook to calculate the allowable bearing stress in the concrete, based on limit state design concepts. Tronzo used the allowable bearing stress given in the AISC Specification for base plates. He assumed full confinement, provided by the with = 0.60. The shear lug thickness should be no larger than the base plate thickness. ASD Procedure: 1. Determine the portion of the shear which can be transferred by friction equal to half of the dead load plus that portion of the live load which generates the shear force. The portion to be resisted by the shear concrete foundation and the base plate above, and thus used Goldman used an allowable value of 1 ksi to account for the grout. However, he does not lug, is then the difference between the applied shear and this frictional resistance. 2. The required bearing area for the shear lug, or lugs, is: account for the grout's full bearing potential. It should be as strong horizontally as it is vertically, where it provides for full development of the concrete foundation in bearing. A conservative choice would be to use the unconfined allowable bearing stress, equal to 0.35 All three assume bearing on the portion of the plate adjacent to the concrete foundation, i.e. they neglect the upper part in the grout under the plate. Bearing is assumed to be uniformly distributed through this height. The plate is then sized for bearing and bending as a cantilevered beam. Lug shear strength has been traditionally ignored, as in base plate design, since it will not govern. The shear lug design approach will be detailed for the following example. The shear lug should be designed for 3. Determine the shear lug dimensions assuming that bearing occurs Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. APPENDIX A - RESEARCH REVIEW This appendix contains the review of column base plate research studies. It is divided according to the different cases of interest, i.e. axially loaded columns, those with moments and those developing shear. The design of anchor bolts follows the review of base plates with moments. Within sections, the work is organized chronologically. under the plate, similar to that of Meyerhof. In the tests with smaller depths, the concrete split radially without the formation of a clear-cut pyramid. The retardation of the formation of the pyramid resulted in increased failure loads, which is opposite to Meyerhof's test results. The authors state that factors such as friction at the base of the concrete block, i.e. on the face opposite to that with the plate, caused erratic results. Kriz and Raths (1963) tested both plain and reinforced concrete column connections. The loads were applied near the edges of the concrete support, and the results demonstrated that lateral reinforcement was needed to prevent early failure. This was one of the few tests conducted with reinforcement, though again the results were not sufficient to draw quantitative conclusions. Chen and Drucker (1969) used a plasticity analysis to study concrete blocks with strip loading and circular and square punches. They obtained both upper and lower Axially Loaded Columns Fully Loaded Base Plates - The earliest studies involved concrete loaded by a punch or through a plate in which the full plate was loaded, unlike base plate foundations in which the load is applied by the column cross section to only a portion of the plate. Plate bending is thus precluded, and the assumed uniform bearing stress distribution in the concrete foundation is not necessarily equivalent to that in the column base plate foundations. Meyerhof (1953) was interested in the effect of confinement, which occurs when the area of the concrete foundation is larger than the base plate area. He found that the surrounding concrete confines the concrete directly below the plate and can result in greater load carrying capacity. His test variables were the ratio of the concrete to plate area, the concrete strength and the depth of the concrete foundation, measured perpendicular to the plate. The depth was equal to or smaller than the horizontal concrete dimensions. Failure occurred when an inverted cone (apex pointing downward) of concrete formed directly under the plate and pushed downwards, splitting the concrete block outwards from the line of loading. He attributed the failure along the cone to shear failure. When the concrete depth was small, a cone also formed at the base of the concrete block with its apex near the upper inverted cone under the plate. He found that the bearing capacity decreased as the ratio of the concrete depth to plate width decreased, for depths bounds for the blocks, where the ratio of concrete to plate area was greater than unity. Hawkins (1967, 1968) tested concrete blocks with the load applied over the full plate area. He varied the relative sizes of the concrete block and the plate area, the concrete strength and the position of the plate on the block. In the concentrically loaded specimens, failure smaller than the other concrete support dimensions. The results were not sufficient to establish guidelines. He also conducted a limited number of tests with large circular reinforced concrete footings. Two test specimens had reinforcing, different from that for normal concrete columns and pedestals, and these had significantly larger bearing capacities than the unreinforced specimens. Au and Baird (1960) tested concrete blocks loaded through plates with variable ratios of concrete to plate area, variable concrete strengths and concrete depths equal to or smaller than the horizontal dimensions. Failure was due to the formation of an inverted pyramid occurred when an inverted pyramid formed undernt of the cracks matched that from the tests. They did not model the nonlinear material behavior however and thus were not able to get failure loads that matched those from the tests. The studies of partially loaded plates have shown that the bearing capacity is related to the concrete strength, the ratio of the area of the concrete to that of the plate, the relative plate thickness, the relative concrete depth, the with central holes. They found from their experimental work that the central hole for the prestressing tendons significantly reduced the failure load. Iyengar and Yogananda (1966) used a three dimensional elasticity solution for a circular concrete member with a coaxial duct and compared their analytical results with tests conducted by others. In a discussion, Taylor (1967a) questioned the validity of applying elastic principles to these and stated that design should be based on empirical results rather than just analytical results which involve assumptions of elasticity, etc. He also referred to tests he conducted with square blocks with holes. In their closure, the authors stated that good agreement could not be expected between their circular blocks and Taylor's square ones. Taylor in a study of anchorage bearing stresses (1967) referred again to the large discrepancies between theories and experimental evidence. He conducted tests of anchorage devices and plain concrete. He found that horizontal compression, applied perpendicular to the load, increased the load carrying capacity; this would be similar to the favorable influence of confinement. His failure was by wedging action, similar to that noted in amount of reinforcement, and perhaps nominally to the plate's yield stress. Related Studies - Most analytical work for concrete subject to bearing loads has treated prestressed tendon anchorages. The dissimilarities between these and column base plates involve the way in which the load is applied, usually with multiple tendons which result in negligible bending in the bearing plate, and the prestressing tendon holes. However, the general conclusions and analytical approaches apply to both base plates and studies of base plate foundations. In three papers, Yettram and Robbins( 1969,1970,1971) used a finite element analysis to study anchorage zone stresses. The plate was fully loaded, and their elastic analysis was limited to precracking stresses. prestressed tendon anchorages. Guyon (1955) presents analytical stress distributions for the anchorage zones of prestressed tendon anchorages. The analysis is based on elastic behavior and does not consider cracking, which occurs in the tension areas. Ban, Magurama and Ogaki (1957) conducted two and three dimensional tests to determine the anchorage zone stresses in post-tensioned concrete members and then compared the strain distributions with those from previously developed theoretical solutions. The load was applied by a bolt through a center hole. They found that the load at which cracking occurred and the failure load were related linearly to the plate thickness and the concrete strength. They also found that spiral reinforcement increased both of these loads. The studies of prestressed tendon anchorages demonstrate that analytical results do not generally compare with tests. This is due to the need to develop a post-cracking analysis and the complexity of the many variables. While failure was similar to that for base plates, differences were noted due to the shape of the block and the method for loading. A central prestressing hole can substantially reduce the failure load. Reinforcing generally increased the load carrying capacity. Studies of Fixity for Axially Designed Base Plates Other researchers have reviewed the amount of fixity that Zielinski and Rowe (1960) conducted tests and compared the behavior to existing analytical theories. Their variables included the ratio of the concrete to plate area, the type of anchorage, the use of ducts for prestressing tendons, and the amount and type of reinforcement. They exists at base plates which are designecally applied load on the column. What has been done has treated plates with anchor bolts which are properly embedded, to develop the tensile component from the moment. Salmon, Schenker and Johnston (1957) estimated upper and lower bound loads for columns with moments. They did not conduct tests and stated that their work could serve as a first approximation until experimental data became available. LaFraugh and Magura (1966) conducted tests for base plate connections for precast concrete structures. Their variables included the plate dimensions, the anchor bolt size and the load eccentricity. Their tests were not equivalent to base plates for steel columns due to the shape of the column and the lack of significant overhang from the column, which results in plate bending. DeWolf and Sarisley (1978b, 1980, 1982) conducted tests of base plates with moments and compared the results to the present design methods. Their variables included the plate thickness, the anchor bolt size and the eccentricity for the equivalent axial load. They found that the behavior at failure was not always consistent with the assumption used in present design approaches. Thambiratnam and Paramasivam (1986) conducted a study very similar to that of DeWolf and Sarisley. Their test variables included the plate thickness and the equivalent load eccentricity, and they determined the strains in the base plate. 36 Anchor Bolts for Tension A number of studies have been concerned with anchor bolts and their design. Anchorage for tension is dependent on the amount of bond developed along the length and what is done at the end of the bolt embedded in the concrete. The normal approaches are to hook the bolt or to use a bolt head or nut, with or without a plate or washer. With proper design, the anchor bolt can then develop its full tensile capacity. Breen (1966) tested anchor bolts embedded into drilled Powell and Bryant (1983) were interested in the behavior of anchor bolts subject to earthquake loading. They found that structural grade mild steel bar is a suitable material and provides sufficient ductility and strength for these loads. Shear Loads Shear can be resisted by friction between the plate and the foundation, embedment of the column into the concrete foundation, anchor bolts and shear lugs, which are shafts. He subjected these to tensile loading and varied the bolt size. He used a standard nut or standard nut plus a washer at the bottom of the bolt. The amount of bond developed for the smooth bar was minor, and anchorage was due to the nut, with or without the washer. Conrad (1969) studied different types of grouted anchor bolts subject to tension and shear. These were grouted into holes drilled in the concrete and the variables were the type of grout and the bolt size. He noted that only nonshrink grout is suitable for developing tensile loads. attached to the bottom of the plate. The research efforts in this area have been limited to determining the shear capacity of anchor bolts. Conrad (1969) conducted tests of different grouted anchor bolts. He found that all were satisfactory for shear loads. Cannon, Burdette and Funk (1975) found that the shear strength is a function of the bolt strength, the amount of pretightening and the position of the bolt with respect to Lee and Breen (1970) conducted a model study based on Breen's work. They found that reduced scale models can be used in anchorage studies when they are used in combination with some full-scale tests. Cannon, with Burdette and Funk (1975) looked at the anchorage requirements for concrete inserts, anchor bolts, welded studs and expansion anchors for both tension and shear loads. They found that the anchorage is a function of the concrete's tensile strength, the size, strength and number of anchors, and the proximity of the edges. They state that the use of bearing plates in addition to the bolt head or nut at the interior end of the bolt is neither necessary nor helpful in developing the tensile capacity. Hasselwander, Jirsa, Breen and Lo (1977) evaluated the effects of bol Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures (ACI 349-80) and Commentary on ACI 349-80," Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 80, No. 2 (March-April 1983), pp. 79-84. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (1983), Detailing for Steel Construction, Chicago, Ill., 1983, pp. 7:3-7. American Institute of Steel Construction (1983a), Proposed Load & Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, AISC, September 1983. pp. 93-95. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (1984), Engineering for Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois, 1984. pp. 6:2-7. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (1986), Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design, First Ed., Chicago, Ill., 1986. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (1986a), Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, September 1986. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (1989), Specification for Structural Steel for Buildings, June 1, 1989, Chicago, Ill. Breen, J. E. (1966), "Development Length for Anchor Bolts," Highway Research Record, Vol. 147, 1966, pp. 1-23. Cannon, R. W., E. G. Burdette and R. R. Funk (1975), "Anchorage to Concrete," Report No. CEB 75-32, Tennessee Valley Authority, December 1975. Cannon, R. W., D. A. Godfrey and F. L. Moreadith (1981), "Guide to the Design of Anchor Bolts and Other Steel Embedments," Concrete International, Vol. 3, No. 7 (July 1981), pp. 28-41. Chen, W. F. and D. C. Drucker (1969), "Bearing Capacity of Concrete Blocks or Rock," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. EM4 (August 1969), pp. 955-978. Conrad, R. F. (1969), "Tests of Grouted Anchor Bolts in Tension and Shear," Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 66, No. 9 (September 1969), pp. 725-728. DeWolf, J. T. (1978), "Axially Loaded Column Base Plates," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. ST5 (May 1978), pp. 781-794. DeWolf, J. T. and E. F. Sarisley (1978a), "Axially Loaded Base Plates - Effect of Concrete Base Depth," Report No. 78-119, Civil Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., August 1978. 38 DeWolf, J. T. and E. F. Sarisley, (1978b), "Column base Plates with Axial Loads and Moments," Report No. 78-118, Civil Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., August 1978. DeWolf, J. T. and E. F. Sarisley (1980), "Column Base Plates with Axial Loads and Moments," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 106, No. ST11 (November 1980), pp. 2167-2184. Hasselwander, G. B., J. O. Jirsa and J. E. Breen (1974), "A Guide to the Selection of High-Strength Anchor Bolt Materials", Research Report 29-1, Center for Highway Research, University of Texas at Austin, October 1974. Hasselwander, G. B., J. O. Jirsa, J. E. Breen and K. Lo (1977), "Strength and Behavior of Anchor Bolts Embedded Near Edges of Concrete Piers," Research Report 29-2F, Center for Highway Research, University of Texas at Austin, May 1977. DeWolf, J. T. (1982), "Column Base Plates," Structural Engineering Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1982), pp. 39-51. DeWolf, J. T. and J. W. Kou (1988), "Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Concrete," American Concrete Institute (in press). Dixon, G., et. al. (1974), discussion of "Steel Column Base Plate Design" by B. S. Sandhu, Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. II, No. 2 (Second Quarter), 1974, pp. 48-51. Hawkins, N. M. (1967), "The Bearing Strength of Concrete - Loading Through Rigid Plates Covering Part of the Full Supporting Area," Research Report No. R54, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, March 1967. Hawkins, N. M. (1967a), "The Bearing Strength of Concrete - Loading Through Flexible Plates," Research Report No. R84, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, August 1967. Hawkins, N. M. (1968), "The Bearing Strength of Concrete Loaded Through Rigid Plates," Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol 20, No. 62 (March 1968), pp. 31-40. Hawkins, N. M. (1968a), "The Bearing Strength of Concrete Loaded nuts is brought to the proper elevation, allowing for the thickness of the heavy washer which must be placed on top of the nut and below the base plate. This bolt and nut is then spray painted to identify it as the nut with the proper elevation. The other nuts are brought to the same elevation. If someone bent on mischief attempts to change the elevation of the key nut, the broken paint These large base plates are usually furnished with some kind of leveling devices in the form of bolts or threaded rods. Shims and wedges can safely be used in this situation because there is not an attached column shaft waving around in the sky. A three-point support (like a milking stool) is satisfactory. If leveling bolts are provided, small steel plates must be placed under the points of the bolts so they won't dig into the concrete. When colossal-sized (say over four tons in weight) base plates are required, an angle frame is often supplied in advance. This angle frame is carefully leveled and filed with concrete which is screeded off accurately and results in a level concrete pad of proper elevation on which the column base plate is directly placed (see Fig. 4). will expose the misdeed and help to re-establish the proper elevation. When it comes time to erect the column, it can be dropped into place very quickly and efficiently and the upper washers and nuts installed. One of the major advantages of the leveling nut method is that it can accommodate a base plate slightly out of level or a base plate curled by the heat of welding. Leveling nuts are best used for base plates ranging up to about 36 in. in size. Beyond this size, bending of the base plate may become a problem, and shipping the base plate separately should be considered. ANCHOR BOLTS PRESET BASE PLATES Large-sized base plates (36 in. and larger) are often shipped to the job site and set in advance of the start of erection. This is done because these large plates are often so heavy and cumbersome that they make shipping and handling of the column very difficult if not impossible. Fig. 3 Heavy column base Fig. 2 Column base with leveling nuts Fig. 4: 44 The selection of the column base type is determined primarily by the geometry of the foundation and the nature of the loads which influence the base. The geometry consists of the shape and location of the foundation--whether it is a square or rectangular footing, pile cap, a narrow wall, a pier or a pilaster, isolated or part of a wall, or at a corner of a wall. The loads may consist of vertical gravity loads, uplift, shear, moment, or combinations of any of these. Erection loads, for example, may anchor rod mean the same thing in this text, and the terms are used interchangeably as they are in the trade. Anchor bolts are primarily a tension device. To prevent the anchors from pulling out of the concrete-should the bond stresses be exceeded--hooks, plates, or other shapes are added to the embedded portion of the anchors (see Fig. 10). be a combination of gravity load and moment (see Fig. 14). Columns subject to gravity loading alone, theoretically, would not need any base anchorage. During the erecting of a column, however, there is a brief period of time, before the column is stabilized with beams or guys, when a column must stand on its own. For example, a 14 in. wide flange freestanding column 31 ft long, being scaled by an erector on a breezy day, will require a resisting base moment of approximately 5 ft kips. Some kind of anchorage is required to hold the base plate to the foundation--usually anchor bolts or rods. Anchor bolts and Anchor bolts vary in size from approximately in. diameter to 2 in. diameter with 1 in., 1 in., and 1 1/2 in. being the most common diameters. Avoid specifying bolt diameters in sixteenths and eights (except in. and 1 in.) as these sizes may not be readily available. Anchor bolts less than 3/4 in. diameter may lose section due to corrosion and result in less than anticipated service life. Anchor bolts greater than 2 in. diameter may be difficult to find nuts for and wrenches to

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University of Phoenix - ENGLISH - sn34
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University of Phoenix - ENGLISH - sn34
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University of Phoenix - ENGLISH - sn34
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Key Terms U7 Analysis-the separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements (opposed to synthesis). Attitude-manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, esp. of the min
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University of Phoenix - ENGLISH - sn34
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University of Phoenix - ENGLISH - sn34
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Key Terms U 6Adjective a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind, which one, how many, or how much Adverb a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb by telling how, when, where, or to what extent Block method format in which all
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
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University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 1 Review Jamestown- Site of the first Representative Government in North America Paleo-Indians- Prehistoric People who moved into North America from Asia along the Beringia land bridge Tobacco- Cash crop that provided a way for the colonists to make
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University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 1Lesson 2 The Reciprocal Impact of Exploration and ColonizationLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will review the reciprocal impact resulting from early European contact with indigenous peoples. During the 15th century, the European nati
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Unit 1Lesson 3 The Columbian ExchangeLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will review the reciprocal impact resulting from early European contact with indigenous peoples. The text of this lesson was reprinted with permission from the Constituti
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Unit 1Lesson 5 Pilgrims and PuritansLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will: Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies. Describe the impact of key colonial figures, such as John Winthrop, Roger Williams,
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Unit 1Lesson 6 Colonial Regions Lesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will: Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies. Describe the impact of key colonial figures, specifically William Penn. The colonies a
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Unit 1Lesson 7 The French and Indian WarLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will discuss how the French and Indian War impacted the American Revolution, including who was involved, causes, turning points, and the outcome.In lesson 3, you lear
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 2 Founding of a Nation Lesson 1 No Taxation without Representation Lesson 2 The Boston Tea Party Lesson 3 The Declaration of Independence Lesson 4 The Course of the War Lesson 5 The Articles of Confederation Lesson 6 Problems with the Articles of C
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal st
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
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University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 2Lesson 2 The Boston Tea PartyLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will explain how British attempts to regulate colonial trade led to the American Revolution. explain the colonists' reaction to British taxation policies. The Tea Act T
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Unit 2Lesson 3 The Declaration of IndependenceLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will list the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence By the fall of 1775, many of the representatives in the Second
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Review Common Sense- Antimonarchy pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain Townshend Acts- Series of laws that included duties on lead, paper, tea, paint and glass being imported into A
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
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University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Title:Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to CongressAuthor: Andrew Jackson Type: Primary Sources: Public Record The following passage is from Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress on December 6, 1830, several months after the passage of
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 3Lesson 1 Jefferson's PresidencyLesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will: analyze how Jefferson's Presidency affected the political transformation of the developing nation, particularly in terms of the Louisiana Purchase. examine the si
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Unit 3Lesson 2 the Lewis and Clark Expedition Lesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will: Explain the significance of the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the expansion of the nation. Identify how economic incentives an
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Unit 3Lesson 3 the War of 1812 Lesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will analyze the causes and consequences of the War of 1812. The United States was at peace with the nations of Europe in the opening years of the nineteenth century. By 1812,
University of Phoenix - HISTORY - eb34
Unit 3 Lesson 4 the Monroe Doctrine Lesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will analyze how the Monroe Doctrine affected the political transformation of the developing nation. The Era of Good Feelings After the War of 1812, the United States expe
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Unit 3Lesson 5 Andrew Jackson Fights for the Common Man Lesson Objective: In this lesson, the student will analyze how Jackson's Presidency affected the political transformation of the developing nation. When Andrew Jackson was elected as President of t
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Review Andrew Jackson- Champion of the common man Barbary Pirates- A war with Tripoli resulting from President Jefferson's refusal to pay tribute to stop this group from attacking American merchant ships in the Mediterranean Sea Nullification Crisis- The
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Unit Review 4 Alexander Graham Bell- Inventor of the telephone Urban- living in a city Tecumseh- influential Indian leader who began uniting tribes to oppose American settlement in the Northwest Territory George Pullman- Developed the private sleeping car