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Structural Elements Design Manual TREVOR DRAYCOTT, CEng, FIStructE B U T T E R W O R T H H E I N E M A N N In memory of my father Harry Draycott Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group O X F O R D A U C K L A N D B O S T O N JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE DELHI First published 1990 Reprinted 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999 © Trevor Draycott 1990 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Draycott, Trevor Structural elements design manual 1. Structural components. Design I. Title 624.1771 ISBN 0 7506 0313 5 Printed and bound in Great Britain Contents Preface 9 1 General matters 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 British Standards 2 1.3 Loading 3 1.4 Structural mechanics 14 1.5 Theory of bending 14 1.6 Compression members 21 1.7 Summary 25 2 Timber elements 2.1 Stress grading 2.2 Structural design of timber 2.3 Symbols 2.4 Strength classes 2.5 Grade stresses 2.6 Design stresses 2.7 Dry and wet exposure conditions 2.8 Geometrical properties of timber 2.9 Duration of load 2.10 Load sharing systems 2.11 Types of member 2.12 Flexural members 2.12.1 Bending (including lateral buckling) 2.12.2 Deflection 2.12.3 Shear 2.12.4 Bearing 2.12.5 Design summary for timber flexural members 2.13 Proprietary timber beams 2.14 Compression members: posts 2.14.1 Applied compression stress 2.14.2 Permissible compression stress 2.14.3 Slenderness of posts 2.14.4 Slenderness ratio 2.14.5 Ratio of modulus of elasticity to compression stress 2.14.6 Eccentrically loaded posts 2.14.7 Design summary for timber posts 26 26 27 27 28 28 30 31 31 31 31 33 34 34 36 38 39 39 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 l vi CONTENTS 2.15 Load bearing stud walls 56 2.16 Timber temporary works 58 2.16.1 Formwork 58 2.16.2 Support work for excavations 63 2.17 References 65 3 Concrete elements 67 3.1 Structural design of concrete 67 3.2 Symbols 67 3.3 Design philosophy 69 3.3.1 Ultimate limit state 69 3.3.2 Serviceability limit state 70 3.3.3 Limit state basic design procedure 70 3.4 Safety factors 70 3.5 Loads 71 3.5.1 Characteristic loads 71 3.5.2 Partial safety factors for load 71 3.5.3 Ultimate design load 72 3.6 Material properties 73 3.6.1 Characteristic strength of materials 73 3.6.2 Partial safety factors for materials ... View Full Document

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