Whistle-Blowing
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Whistle-Blowing

Course Number: BUS bus 6610, Spring 2010

College/University: Troy

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M aking S ense f W histle-Blowing's o Antecedents: earning from Research n L o Identity and Ethics Programs Abhijeet K. Vadera,RuthV Aguilera, and Brianna B. Caza ABSTRACT: Despitea significantincrease n whisfle-blowing practicesin work organizai tions, we know little about what differentiates whistle-blowers from those who observe a wrongdoing but chosenot to report it. In this review article, we first highlight...

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aking M S ense f W histle-Blowing's o Antecedents: earning from Research n L o Identity and Ethics Programs Abhijeet K. Vadera,RuthV Aguilera, and Brianna B. Caza ABSTRACT: Despitea significantincrease n whisfle-blowing practicesin work organizai tions, we know little about what differentiates whistle-blowers from those who observe a wrongdoing but chosenot to report it. In this review article, we first highlight the arenasin which research n whistle-blowing hasproducedinconsistentresultsand thosein which the o findings havebeenconsistent. econd, e proposethat the adoptionof an identity approach S w will help clarify the inconsistent findings and extend prior work on individual-level motives behindwhistle-blowing.Third, we arguethat the integrationof the whistle-blowingresearch with that on ethicsprogramswill aid in systematicallyexpandingour understanding f the o situational antecedents f whistle-blowing. We conclude our review by discussingnew o theoreticaland methodolosicalarenasof research n the domain of whistle-blowins. i T T.S. ORGANIZATIONS LOSE FIVE PERCENT of their annual revenues, l-/ equivalentto $652 billion, to fraud (Association of Certifled Fraud Examiners,2006).This hugeloss suggestshat organizatrons nd their various stakeholders t a need to monitor better those engaging in white-collar crime and other unethical practicesin organizations.Miceli and Near (2005) arguedthat the most effective stakeholdersfor reducing the occurrenceof unethical behaviors in organizations were the employeesof the organizations. or instance,in a study conductedby the F Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (2006),'tipso' mainly from employees, were found to be the most common meansby which fraud was detected.However, another survey on workplace ethics (Hudson Employment Index, 2005) showed that of the almost one third (31 percent)of U.S. employeeswitnessingco-workers engagingin ethical misconduct, only half (52 percent)reported it to an authority. Non-reporting of unethical practices by those observing them may influence the occunenceof crimes in the modern orgarization. In fact, from 1996 to 2005, the federal government,through the help of whistle-blowers, recovered$9.3 billion in fraudulent Medicare claims, according to data from the Department of Justice (Hernandez,2008). Given thesestriking reporting rates and figures, it is clear that we needto understand etter the individual and situational antecedents f whistleo b blowing so that organizationalmemberscan be encouraged o adopt this effective t mode of "societal control mechanism over orqanizational misdeeds" (Miceli & Near,2005: 8). 9 Whistle-blowing is defined as "the disclosureby organizationmembers(former or current) of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practicesunder the control of their employers,to personsor organizationsthat may be able to effect action" (Near & @2009BusinessEthics Quarterly 19:4(October 009);ISSN 1052-150X 2 pp.5 53-586 ' uo qrreeserSuqur8etu fq tuqt esodordpu? sllnser oseqtssncslpe1$.eJntuJelll-qns a slqt q ,(cuelsrsuoc Jorupug em '3ur.tro1q-eltslql\ o stuepeceluunpl,t'lpul eqt ol J l a pereduro3 '8urlro1q-ellslqna o sluepeJefualouorllrrurs eW uo qcJeesoJ eIAeJe1vr J J 'lxeN 'qcJueseJoJsenueluelqrssodA\eueprloJd segezlrse 'sSurpug]uelslsuocursll ureldxedleq requn; ,{eurpue 'ernlerelq eql ut s?urpug}uetslsuoceqt tnoqe A\ou{ e^\ ue ol q leq^\ qlr^\ elqqudurocsr 3ur.ano1q-ellsrqa\ ceorddupesuq-.Qr1uepl Suqdopumoq e Jeprsuoc A'qcreeserlo,{poq s lql u o S urplng'eJn}urelll e q} q s Surpugue}srsuoJ l -ur pue tuelsrsuoceqt Sunq8qq8lqJo uqe oql qtr,r. 'Sutnolq-ellsltll!\ Jo stuepecetue t Ionpwrpur eql uo >lJoA\A\eIAeJsJU edt 'sl\olloJ su pezruu8ro sI oIcIlJ sIqJ 'pesn eldurespuu r poqletu puu 's8urpuu pue suorlcrperd 'salqeuuzr'sldecuoc ,(e>1reqt Sultq8qq8q e Surnolq-e1]slqd\ o sluopecelueeqt uo selpnls {e>1 ql 1e;o ,{ruururnse septlord J q u (ZtS'd ' xrpueddy e es) 1 e lqul ' ?urmolq-eltslq^\ o s ncoJ, (prc11dxerlq^\ s elpnls J esoql 01,{lureruA\orAeJno pelFull e^uq eA\'crdol slql uo eJn}JelIIuelxe eql l Jo ezIS e er{l ue^rD 'epsq^\ eq} A\olq ot uorslceps,pnpl^Ipul u3 ecuonuq leql sJolceJ ql Jo p Surpuulsrepun elepdnpue eleldruoceJolue reure801suollsuessrypoqslqndun pue u sralduqc>looqpepnlcut osle e7y1,'Surmolq-allsrql\ o selclue lecurdureroy sluu-rnof e e scrqlopue Ieuorlezum?tolueer1sulelu ql peqcJees m 'po8 sq] pJe,{\oJ'qJJeseJJo ol pue 'qcrueserSurnolq-ellsl{la ur sSutpug seeJe JnlnJInJllruJ pue e ^{eu,fpuepr luolsrsuoJurpue luelslsuoc eql qloq Je^ocunol JepJouI 'ellslqA\ eql A\olq ol uoIS o p -rcepe qtJo s tuepecetue l euoBunlls uu p nphlpul e ql u o s ncoJ A\'elclue s Hl u I A\erAeJnoJ o s ncoc J Surmolq -ellsrq1!\ el?lllrc4 l eql sJrlsuelssmqc IBuonnlrs 3ug,no1g-e11s1ql\ ornleroll1 l ueryg : 1 arn81g Jo 'peugap flpuorq Surltolq-eltslq^\ Jo qcreeser]uelxe eql Jo (eqlell uorlu4snlll u sreJlo 1 ern8rg '(OeOt trT pllqrslilo6 :2002 'rueN T lloclntr u ''3'e) s re,r.olq-eltsn{^\ t sure8e onu{ter l crperdt uq} s rolruJa q} p ue ' (986I ' lloclry e T r eeN : SgOt' llerll t rT : rrzoq''3'e) S urnolq-opslll^\Jos secord ql'(886I ' roNT t {oclntr:8Oe ' sncnegT u Dlro^\(l : gOOt' ueplesT t r e^\erg ' '3'e) S ut.,tnolq-eltslq^\Jo e tce I urucee q] J o s tueporetuu \t'(266I'rue1r1r y 1 1ecl6' '3'e) S urop8uor,lJ o u ol]ul u o s e -resqoeqlJo srolcrpe.rd ql Surururexe erprus lw papl^Ip.(1e3;u1eq ec plog sql ul ' (t e S qcJueseJtuqtelclpur Jnturelll ur,trolq-altsql\ qlJo.AaelnerJnO : Eg0t ' leclry o s .r.ruaruvn| SJIHJg sssNlsnfl v9s L nanNrNc F RoMR nsrancn o u I nnNrrry A NDE rnrcs P nocnl.rvrs 5 55 whistle-blowing with that on ethics programs rn organizations,we may be able to comprehendbetter the contextual factors affecting whistle-blowing. Table 2 sumo marizes the various individual and situational antecedents f whistle-blowing. We i w o concludeo ur r eview w ith a d iscussion f t he m ethodologicalssuesa ssociated ith the extant work on whistle-blowing and suggestionsfor fruitful avenuesof future research. Thble 2 : Individual Antecedents of W histle-Blowing ;, ' Views Whistle-Blowing as Role Responsibility Others . Job Performance . O rganizationalPosition Pay Level ' . E ducation . V aluesWhistle-blowine " ' : . i Gender Age Tenure Attachment . J ob S atisfaction . P ay S atisfaction . J ob C ommitment . O rganizationalCommitment PersonalM orality Situational A ntecedents of W histle-Blowing' PerceivedS upport OrsanizationalJ ustice Or!anizational Climate/Culture OrganizationalPerformance OrganizationalResources Private versusPublic O rganizations Type o f Wrongdoing Severity o f Wrongdoing * S ince situational f actors are m ore c onsistentlya ssociated o w histle-blowing, w e p resentt hesef actors a s t hose t relating to the job/organization and t o t he wrongdoing. INDIVIDUAL ANTECEDENTS OF WHISTLE-BLOWING A variety of individual-level factors are associatedwith the decision to blow the whistle. Thesefactors include demographiccharacteristicssuch as age, genderand a level o f e ducation, sw ell a sp ersonalityv ariabless ucha sl ocuso f c ontrol,p ersonal morality and one's attachmentto the organization(Miceli & Near, 1992).Although existing researchon the individual differencesbetweenwhistle-blowersand inactive observershas been informative, severalflndings remain inconsistent. As shown in Table 2, factors such as perceiving whistle-blowing as role responsibility, job performance, organizational position, and pay level have produced relatively c onsistent f indings. I n c ontrast, r esearcho n g ender, a ge, t enure a nd personalmorality as predictors of whistle-blowing has yielded mixed results (Mes2 mer-Magnus& V iswesvaran, 005;N ear & M iceli, I 996).We r eview t he c onsistent factors, followed by the inconsistentfactors, in detail below. ConsistentFactors Role R esponsibility Findings regarding formal and informal role responsibility and whistle-blowing o i areq uite c onsistent,n t hat, o bservers f w rongdoingw ho v iew w histle-blowinga s elqeuoqsenb u o 'eEureleuo 'ueuroly\ snuceq eru uuql ,tltuenber; eJolu slce 1e8e111ro ore t iloder o1,(1e>111 ueruoly\ uqt spuetuor (666I'oqlelry ?t plqcsqtog ''3'e) qcrees -or Jo wee4s euo 'poxrru ueoq osle e,luq Surmolq-eltslql\ uo repue8Jo elor eqt o] puu poleloJstueurnS.ru e .reloero141'3urmo1q-eltslq^\ repue8ueelueq IecrteJooql q1 : drqsuorleleJ u pug sJeqloilrls sueroq^a(S002 'uululsezltsrnry snu8el4-reruseyl) o aluruoJSureq pue Sur,lolq-ollslql\ ueeA\lequolJeloossuerrrlrsodu lroder sJeqlo s :(ggOt 'reeN T IImIW) epur Sureqo] petuler,(1e'ulrsodt Surnolq-eltsrq^\tuqt ^\oqs p e serpnlsetuos 'JueJsrsuorur re Surmolq-oltsq.l.r ue repue8Surpru8ersEurpugeq; repuec sJolJDl lua$lsuoJuI '(S0Ot ' ueueay T s ruls : 6661 ' oqteytr r y p lFlcsqlo1 : 2002 o ' 'reoN T I lerlhtr : OO0Zuuuee;q.1002' uBIupIoD' 'E'e) S urtrolq-eltslq^{ 1uorlrsod ' p Iuuorluzrue8ro uu uoqucnpe'eJueturopedlunpt'npulJo uoqulcosseou punoJoluq serpnlsreqlo tezrel\oH 'snlels puolssoJord qlrlr pelelJossese,l Burmolq-oltslql\ tuqt Je^ocunureSeol etp 1elrgcrepJeog uoqceloJd surels,(5tlJel tr'S'n t86I eql u pez(leae( gSOt)r oN p ue l lerl1,1'relels ruef A \oJ 'srelresqo e AItJeuI ql s uoDIS V p -od leuorluzrue8ro uu sle^el fud'uorlecnpe req8q eluq ot pepuetsJel\olq-eltslq^\ s ]eqt perreJq feql ',(lluuourppv'ecuuuoJred lunprrrrpulot peteleJ,t1e'rqrsod e,l Surmolq-e1lsFll\ leql pepnlruoJ 'elep lellqcre pJeog uoltceloJd surels,{5 }}re141 'S'n t tmguls ' suorlezruu8ro r 0 g6I e ql S urunuuxe egu ' (?g6t) r eeN p ue 1 1ecry\tr e rroql ur sreurogred qBH eq o1 .{1e>19rolu ere.t Sutltolq-eytsq^\ ur pe8e8uaoqlr see,toldure lerepeJleq] pe^\oqs (866I) ueples puu re^\org 'elduruxe rod '(S002 ploq r e 'uu.rAso1r\srnsnuSelN-JerusolNes)suo4rsod,{rostrrrednso 1e,l,e1-reqSrq o1 ry o pue 'polecnpe,{1q8rq Jolueq o1'ecueuuo;redqof poo8 e.r.uq } pue} (sreuesqo enrl e frun sllnserq8noqlly -cuuro] peredurocse)sremolq-eltslq^\'serpnlsssorre,{1tq3;1s srolcsd roqlo 'Surmoyq-e1]s5{^\ Fruetxe puu Iuruotur ol peluler flea.rlrsodereA\-Jolleqeq eqt ur e8eSueplnoqs eqs ro eq tuql s r l {urq} sJeqtouucgruErseqleq^\tnoqesJelleq .pnplllpur ue-Suurolq-ellslq^\ rnoqe e suuou e 'rqcefqnsuq] p olue^sJ'slecg;o cqodu eJo) $ no5 t uoJJs esuodser 67;o l 9 ses,(1euu rreql uI '(OOOZ)dosuquelfl pue >lredpue 'seclo; punorS secroCesueJec d rleerslS ur,rlonur{pn1sreqt u \'(666) I IelrV p u s ilg t 1tse1 ' reaolq-eltslqa e ql , r , e ,(q perrrecred e ,(llpqrsuodsereloJ rllrlv\pelercosse {1e,u1rsodrelt 'SuEroderreed s Jo loe lentoe eql puu reed e troder 01 uoltullJul eqt qloq luql pelersuoruep osle J 'Surgoderreed uo serprus leqt w '(8661'orrduqg ?g'ogller; tolctn i7661 'to1cr6 zgog1,,r.er1) p senSeelloc ue ogr^eJJ 'suorlducsapsloJ JleqlJo tmde eq ol pe,rtec.led rleql o e ueq^r surrr ur.ato1q-eltsq.ry\ e^rlceJile rorrrsu1(3ur.lo,o1q-ellsFl^a lstll eAeIIeq l 3 puu eltsqlvr eqt .,vrolq 1f1e41 eJolu erel\ sJelresqotq] punoJ ,(eq1 'tuaruu-re,ro8 o e IeJepoJ ql Jo qcuuJqolllnJexe eql q Suqro.tnlueusseJqIenxespecueuedxepeq orll!\ stuopuodsor lptueJZ96Iaro4elup (c) puu '(V11)srollpnv1eluetulJo eln]Ilsul e u eqlJo uollepunod qcmeseu oq1,{qpellsur pue pelueJcseJl?uuollsenb ror;?lep (q) (ZOOZ) eN m 'ulupp^rqcre preog uortrelord stuetsfg luelN 'S'n 086I eql (u) pazf,1errc eJ puu 11ecrry'oltsrql\erp o1,(1e>11erolu eceldryo,l eql q eloJJleqlol ler8elut ^\olq ,rruaruvn| scIHJg sssNlsng 999 LsenNrNc rnonaRnsnARcH N IosNrrry eNo Ernrcs Pnocnervrs 557 o feel a greaterpublic responsibilityto speakagainstwrongdoing.The opposingview (seeMiceli & Near, 1984)is that to the extentthat reporting questionable r illegal o behavior is consideredrisky, men are more likely than women to report theseacts sincewomentendto conform to a majority opinion more thanmen,andthe majority opinion may be to not report. Miceli a ndN ear ( 1988),i n t heir a nalyses f t he 1 984U .S. M erit S ystems roteco P tion Board archival data, showedthat men were more likely to blow the whistle. In contrast,Seifert (2006), in her dissertationexamining the relationshipbetween organizationaljustice and perceived likelihood of whistle-blowing, uncovered that being female was positively associated ith perceivedlikelihood of whistlew blowing. I n t heir s tudy o n e xternal w histle-blowing, S ims a nd K eenan ( 1998) also demonstratedhat whistle-blowing was negativelyrelatedto being male (i.e., t positively associated ith being female). However,other studiesby Dworkin and w Baucus( 1998),G oldman( 2001),L ee, H eilmann,a ndN ear ( 2004),a ndR othschild and Miethe (1999)found no relationshipbetweengenderandwhistle-blowing (also seeZhang, hiu, & W ei, 2 009). C Age Existing researchhas reportedpositive, negative,and absentassociations etween b whistle-blowing and age.Most of the argumentsrelating age and whistle-blowing arebasedon power theories.Researchers avearguedthat "more powerful employh eeswho observewrongdoing haveless to fear from their organizationthan do less powerful employees, nd are thereforemore likely to blow the whistle" (Lee et al., a 2004:304), and ageis one such"power variable" (seeMiceli & Near, 1983).On one hand, Goldman (2001) integratedthe social processingtheory with organizational justice theoriesto explorethe conditionsunder which employeeswould file claims for discrimination, and found that older workers were more likely to decideto file claimsfor discrimination.Also, Stansbury ndVictor (2009)developed life-course a a perspectiveof whistle-blowing and demonstrated hat young (and short-tenured) t employeesperceivedless informal prosocial control and that informal prosocial control boostedwhistle-blowing. On the other hand,althoughnot the centralfocus ( of their research,Zhangand olleagues Zhang eta1.,2009)discovered hat agewas c t negatively related to internal whistle-blowing in China. Yet there are also studies which havefound no relationshipbetweenageand whistle-blowing. Theseinclude Chiu's ( 2003) i nquiry w ith C hinesep rofessionals nd m anagers, workin a nd a D Baucus's(1998) research n internal versusexternalwhistle-blowing, and Keenan o (2000)'sa rticleo n w histle-blowing n l esss erious rauds( alsos eeL ee e t a 1.,2004; o f Sims & K eenan,1 998). Tenure A systematic review of studies examining the association between tenure anci whistle-blowingindicatesthat extantresearchs mostly concerned ith therelationi w ship betweentenureandexternalversusinternal whistle-blowing. Overall, tenureis found to be negativelyrelatedto externalwhistle-blowing andpositively associated with internal whistle-blowing. Supportfor the negativerelationshipbetweentenure ',$1u,(o1letdrelur s o o s u l euo,4Aoqo Surpuedep uorlcoJrpuereJJrp {ul uec 8ur.tro1q-eltslq^dl dqsuoqeler e r s.luoruqolleoq] JoJuorlcrpe.rd ql 'tuns uI '( I E :966I 'IToJIIN y reep) ,.uol1eztue8 e -Jo eql Jo Jleqequo Suqluzrreuolso .{o1dpelserelul-Jles,' uI lou pue cgqnd eqt 3o J p.{o1 tsoJelureql ur loe ,(eql esnucequotluzrue?Joeql o1p.(o1srpinq crlqnd eqt ot ' ,(luug p uv'uoq"zrue8ro e ql u Sureqs e p enrecrad eeq o slu e neq s Ja^\olq-el1sq.^A p l s1 ruJeqol ,{1e>11 slql esneJeqs?urop8uor.Lr oder ol sercueSe?uJelxeesn feql;t l '1e1 p.{o1srpeq ol peurrElcueeqe^eq sJeA\olq-el}srq.4a 'seop clqnd eq] eJoJeque^e s e Surnolq-ellsql\ e qt l noqe t l;uel u otleztue8ro ql d leq.(eql e sneceq Jelrosqoa AIl -ceur uuql uorluzruu8roeql ol Iefol eJorueq o1pen8re uoeq e^eq sJe,4Aolq-ollsq.4A .aldurexe e tqSrerlssBJou sI uorlcrperdslql 'JeAo^\oH JoC'e{I p1no.4auo se pJB,^AJSJ '3ur,Lro1q-e1lslq,a6 pelelcossg JuscIJSIJalssJ"qc e luerlIqcelleseqlqJIqA\qSnorql qlL A d e usrueqooruurcruoqt sr uorluzrue8ro ql qlr.&\ tqsuorlelars.ouoJo fi1e,(olleqi sI oJeq a r luerun8re qJ ' (661" Tul e r olrl1 : 9661' rlerIIAI y r eeN : 8661' ueplesr y r e^\arg) e e s s8urpugel,rsnlouocur JeJJollslq.4l I{]lAolq ol pooqlTe{IlJoWSqpue-luolulruruoJ qo! Jo suuel uI leuotlezrue?topuu luerullluluoc qof 'uollce;slles fed 'uollceJsl]es e d u e -.uor.Tezruv?toql 01]ueuqcelz s,ee,{oldure e ueemleq rqsuollsleJ ql uo qcJeeseu lueluqceDV .GOOZ,.p c ? uWZ,.g66I r 'rournl T ' Ileqctlhtr're8ut5 i 3661 ' ueuee) T ' s urls i 1gg7 ' utnplug T l lo,,trrqlo1 o u l p ue :ggg7 u uueey , .?.e)3 ur,tro1q-ellslq^\ e Jnuel eealeqd rqsuotluleruecgtu8ts u q r punoJseq3ur,,r,royq-el1sq,4a IuuJalxepu IuJeluI8utz,(1eue cJeeseJeqlo 're.te',trro11 .(rg6I . pJ?og u orlceloJds urelsfS l rJsIAtr ' S'n) s uoqezluesJoleql u I s Josl^rodns r J p s Jreqle Aoqe Jeqlo ue r osrnredns loql ' qloq o 1l t S uruoderl uec:ed7 9 , (leleurrxord e e -de pue srost,,rrednslIperurulJleql ol ^&t,tqce lqeuotlsenbe Suqrodersae,(oldure IeuJelulpa^Io^ul asecslql ur Sutlroder IIu Jo luoJJed91 re,l,oqlt.tr ?ur.,r,ro1q-3llsll1v\ J eql Jo lsol4tr.seJnuelra?uo1pq Jo/pue{Jo,^A reql ol suoll3eeJel4tsod eJoIUpq S 1 J u s Je1Jesqoeq,4ancJoo 1f 1e41 e Jolus elv\ urnolq-epsrqm pu;atut) Suropfluor,LrJo l lrel t r' s'n e qt S ursn(pn1s o leql p a,A oqs sls ' fe^rns I 8 6I p JBogu ollcoloJds urels',{5 ' rraqluI,(gg6t)reoNpueIIecII t r'3urtrolq-epslq,4Allue]xaqlL^Apetelor:oc.(1e,rqe?eu ,,(cr1od s ?ut,r1o,tut esec cqqnd u;o uorlulol^ ut s?uug 1n;3uor.,r,r su^\eJnuollrll punoJ u ' S pSeye erql-.{lxrs ursns es,(puur leql u I ' (geOt) s ncneg p ue u I{Jo1v\C}reJJe I .,(1eure1xe llsrq,4Ar{l A\oIqol fle{ll eJolu eJesJeluoc, euteql pan8JusI A a o e ql I lr ' oroJereql'(866I ' snrneg r y u nFo,uq) s leuuqc euJalulS utsnS utop?uorn e l s ?urddotsq lr^Ap euJecuoc sele q,(eru p uu u ollzrue8ro qt u I l ueluJssnuruuosred sseleleqoslefurusJeluoJ^\eu'ure.tpelelereuI'(896I'repuellog)spo?puoqezru S -u8io e,rerqce urdlequl puz sluJouleuotlezrue8roo1?urru.lo;uocuI fcueleduroc;o e e uorler1suoruep ql qSnorqt peuJgeslrpeJJoql-sllpeJJ rllercu,{sotpl Je,laeJ Aeqol o f leuo4ezrueSroe q o l s e,,\Iosueqlltecredf uru,(eqt Jo ( voo1,,.1e ee e1) s sepeznod 1 osneceqslouu"qJ l?[uelxe uo eJour,(1er,{eru ,(eql 'ero;ereql 'uollezlueSro peurof eq] ,(1.a,rau Jo ernllnc oql pue spo8 luurro;ul pue IluJoJoql qtl^\ ssel [JIluepI osF ssel eq ol puel ,{eur,(aq1 'Surlroder IeuJelulJoJsleuueqcelerrdordduqlIA\ JUIIIIU?J IsIIJolxopu sJotuoo,lneu lueurn?Jueql IuoU sruels3ut,nAolq-ellsq.4A ,(11e.reue8 leql ,\'rdardvoo sJIHrg ssaNlsng 89S LnRnNrNc nnoNrResslRCH oN IoeNrrrv.q.Nn Ernrcs Pnocn.q.us 559 Brewer and Selden(1998) analyzeddatafrom I992MeritPrinciples surveyconducted by U.S. Merit SystemProtection Board database nd concludedthat federal a whistle-blowers were motivated by concern for public interest and reported high j j ob levelso fjob s ecurity,ob a chievement, c ommitment,a ndj ob s atisfaction. owH ever, Somersand Casal (1994) provided evidencefor a more complex relationship betweenc ommitmenta nd w histle-blowing.T hey c ollectedd ataf rom 6 13 m anagement accountantswho were members of the National Association of Accountants (NAA). Their analyses howedthat the relationshipbetweencommitment and intent s to report wrongdoinghad the form of an invertedU, indicating that moderatelevelsof commitment were most likely to result in whistle-blowing. Lastly, Sims and Keenan (1998)'ss tudy i nvolving c olleges tudents ncovered hat e xternalw histle-blowing t u was not significantly predicted by satisfactionor commitment. PersonalMorality Researchexamining the link between whistle-blowing and morality (in terms of personali deal v alues,i .e., v alues a ssociated ith v iewing w histle-blowing a s a w o moral o bligation,m oral p erceptions egardingt he s eriousness f f rauds,e tc.) a lso r ( e.g.,C hiu, 2 003; K eenan,2000;S ims & K eenan,1 999).F or found m ixed s upport example,Keenan(2000) offered evidencefor a positive relationshipbetweenmoral perceptionsof managersat all levels and the likelihood of blowing the whistle on less seriousfraud. However,when testing this relationship for middle-level managw i ers,h e u ncovered he o ppositer elationship,.e., m oral p erceptions ere n egatively t associated ith w histle-blowingo n l esss eriousf rauds.I n a nothers tudy,S ims a nd w s Keenan( 1998) a dministered q uestionnaire n a c onvenience ampleo f 2 48 a dult a o studentsenrolled in a college level undergraduateand/or graduatebusinessclass. They discoveredthat studentswith personalideal valuesfavorable toward whistleblowing were more likely to engagein external whistle-blowing. Similarly, Chiu (2003) posited and found a positive relationshipbetweenthejudgment that whistleblowing w as e thical a nd w histle-blowingi ntention. o The abovesectionreviewed pastresearchinvolving the individual antecedents f t whistle-blowing. Our review demonstrateshat studiesinvestigatingfactors such as p education,o rganizational osition, a nd v iewing w histle-blowinga s a r ole r esponsibility have yielded consistent findings, whereas those analyzing variables such as gender,age, tenure, morality and attachmentto the organizationhave produced t a mixed results.Below we proposehow an identity-based pproach o whistle-blowing is not only consistentwith what we know about the individual-level factors in the literature but may also help resolve the contradictory flndings and offer possible avenuesfor future research. IDENTITY AND WHISTLE-BLOWING Identity is rooted in the very core of one's being and involves being true to oneself in action (Erikson, 1964).One's identity or the way in which one views oneselfhas been shown to affect one's cognition, judgments, affect, and behaviors (seeBurke, 1980;M arks, 1977; S tryker,1 987;T ajfel & T urner,1 979),i ncludingt hoser elatedt o r rro4 p e^uap e Jes erl4uepr seql ' (966I , lt?rd e e es o sl" : 696I , loew T q uoJqsv) suoqcgnuapl ue p ( 7661 ' qaesedT l tur4 i VE6I.peelNi 7 961, e4tng) s allrluepr no s -eu?llnurs eldqpur e^er{slEnpr^rpulecursuorluznreSro ql q1I.4.\ e lueluqrullu rreqt fq pelelnsdecueln; l ou s r f f J IesJ o e sues. spnpr^rpur' o^oqep essncsrpi1efo1 l noqe slueurn8reeqt ,{q pe11dur1 sV'allsrqA{ oql .,!\olqol uorlenrlorus.euoureldxe ol puoq e , S u leuol4ezrueato-lBnpr^rpurql uo sesn3oJ(1e8ru1 urnolq-epsrq,4Ao {Jo,r\ lueJJnc 'r(1nueg aql 'renerrr,o11 s.euouenepuu 'sreedpue senSeelloc'seluurproqns 'srosrruedns 'uoqezrueSro (euosBqcns sJolcEuJeAesuo 8umo1q-ollsrq, JolceJJo ql pue) qtln s ( A 3 I drqsuorlelar .euo s o , Junooce iur 3u114rege ollsrql\ eql A\olqol eproop (erueuo 'uo"tuE a z to asdn11o3 ry{o Ktolg aplsq aqJ :amfzl ra(hod oql q (002 ,sun11e11T gea\S) selcruoJqc .suDlle1ll oJJer{s e,rolqepsrq,4A s u J uoJug ruo4 ]uepr^esu 'erorureqgng ';ur.rolq-ollsnllr\ Jo (scqsuelce.reqc crqdurSourep,(lecgrceds) quepecelue ' le^ol-lBnpl^Ipq eql Jo eluos pulsrepunsn dleq snqt furu .{1r1uepr.ouoJo rueruocoql Jo uorleurrrrexe y 'f1r1ueprBJorus.euo s u I azrJl)erc.lf)?q] slreJlaql 'urnl ur 'pu? J s l ..lBJoru,, eprsuoc lenpr^rpurlBql sJor^sqeq ,uorlenlrs eql ol pesoddo su d /suorlcu eql eplcet sreqoruesar leq pm Jles eql Jo lueuoduroc e sB lenprlrpu oql uqll^\ flqerour Jo uoqou oql ?urtunlrs ,(q ,(g002 'uerueeJd e ry 'ournby 'oeqs) ,{1r1uepr l?JoruJo enqcedsredJelcuJer{r q1Buqdopy 's8urpug ,fto1crper1uoc e luoJJncoql JoJuoseoJ lqeqorde sr qcrqt\ ,,,1eJour ureq,, q B f ,JeAeA\oHsuorsrJep Joru e{Iu . uBsruslBnpr^rpurleq^\ p {oolJe^o selqerJe^eseql ot fl{lq? s,euo qlr.& polenosse ueeq ,,(luuorllpe4 o^BqsJolceJ errrroJeqJ .ellsil{.d r aql A \olq o l u orsrcops .euoJ o r olcrperd p rurxord o Jorue e q , (eur ( 2002 , pee6 T oumby) fl4uapr leJorus.euo 'luerudolelep leJourpuz e8eJo puelsut ,ecuelsurlog 'ror^Bqaqolul suoquelur8uqe1sue4 r pe^Io^ur eq,(eu ,{1r1uepl e u 1eq1 n8rue^\ ,eJoJ -oJeqJ' (ZAg'regue;f s enlestueqt uoqcue ql e cuongurs elqeuAeurrxorda llqzn s l 'suorlru pulqoq suoquolutecuonguro1,(ye>11y flereue8 ere srolce; Ilslq .lelslp erou eJorueq feur qcq.Lr eJnuelpue repue8 'e8e se qcns scqsrJelc8JuqcrqderSouep o1 c uosuudruocur '3ur.lo,o1q-ellsrq^\ eIqrJeAeurrxord e se e^Jes,{uru flquepr 'r(1e ol l -uopppv '(tg1t ot ;rn \. T snqreyn) 3ur.,r,ro1q-elrslq^\ sdrqsuorlulereyqelcrperd pu l uelsuoc e ^eq ( uorlecnpe' repueS' '3'e) s cqsuelcuJeqcenpr^rpurr elncllred l luql sounsse qorql\ 'qceordde puo4rsodsrp Iuorlualuoc eql ueql JoqleJ ,mo1eq peurllno se seSuuqc rodruel pu Ieuorlsnlrslunoccu olul se{e} lBqt eJnlEuueunq p go ged crureu,{poJorue ernldec ot sn s.{\oileqcuordde,,{lquepr }Br{lesodorde,tn w 'eoueH ' ernlJelrl3 ur.,rro1q-epsrqd\ u r s 8urpugl uelsrsuocur ql e lecgdxep ue e ql e s?urpugl uelsrsuoc ql J oJl unoccud 1eq.{euls ncog,(1r1uepr l eql u reluwu e 1V\ e w '3urmo1q-epsil.{./Yr cns ssecordluecgtufils ,{11erour sBq e ecuenuulo1,(1e>11 ,fi4uepr sr s e lql sl >lJoA\ rqlJo ecuenbesuoc lc11dunuo .sror^eq 1 -aq pue queurSpnf ?uqce;;e ur olor luecgru8rse s.{e1d i11uepr IuJoru cslenpr,,r.rpur f leql s tseSSns ' snql ' qcreesel s J o e url s rqJ,' senlu^e soql q lra\ p elercoss? elepuBru u IeJoIuJreqlqtrA\ocuepJocc r po^?qeq,(eqt'reep,(lercadsepyoqr(eql enIBA BJoru I e o] e l eoJqle S ursod. ,{qs urecuoc cqsnfI eroosq lr^\ s enrluopreuosred, slunprl,rpur l aurnd s uorluntrs eq^\t eqt p eaoqs ( ZOOO aIInINp ue D IIDIS, oslv.(2002 . peod T u u ournby) dpeeuaqt dyeqol pooJ Jo suoqeuoppuu suorsnep Suueelunlol ecuangur flen4rsod o l p unoJu ooq s eq ' G ZVy : ZOOZpee5 ? o urnby) , ,slle4 I ?rorrr o ] es e J punoJe ezrueSro oqdecuoc-;les,, sepeugep,{tquepr roru ,eldurexo od',$qerou p u e p J ,lruaruvnf sJTHJAssaNrsng 09s L sanNrrNc.nou R EseeRCH N I lBNrrrv n No E tnrcs p nocR.q,us o 5 61 being membersof groups (social identities),having certainroles (role identities), or possessing ertaincharacteristics personalidentiGs). c ( Sometheorists(e.g.,stryker, 1980;S tryker & S erpe,1 982)a rguet hat t hesem ultiple i dentitiesa re o rganizedi n a "saliencehierarchy" where salienceis the probabiliiy that a given identity will be invoked across a variety of situations. In this concepiualization, identity salience is v iewed a s " transsituational"( Strykea 1 9g7) a nd l s c arried b y p ersonsa s t hey move across situations and respond to particular situations. Therefore, choice oi behavior is a function of the relative salienceof identities to which the behavioral choicesa re r elated. In addition, identities are often formed, enacted,and exert their influence in the context of certain environmental pressuresor particular roles the individual finds him/trerself in' In the case of whistle-blowing, identities that are not necessarily relevant to the situation but that have moral components (e.g., certain non_work role identities, suchas an identity as a parent) are most likely to'be invoked because are most likely to be at the top of ihe saliencehierarchy in this situation. These 1!er identities would, in turn, shapehow one respondsto the wrongdoing and whether or n ot t hey b low t he w histle.T he d ecisiont o b low t he w histle i s-thus ot o nly i nflun encedb y o ne'sm oral i dentity a nd w ork i dentity,b ut m ay a lsob e i nfluencedb y t he other identities the individual holds that have moral components.In other words, thesenon-work related identities are likely to become salient when faced with the decision to report the questionablework activity. consider, for example, an individual with a salient morar identity who strongry identifies with her organization and who is a parent of two young children. when this individual observesethical misconduct inin organi zatiin,it would be difficult to p redict i f s hew ould e ngagei n w histle-blowingb lsed o n t he e xrantr esearch n o whistle-blowing. ould s heb low t he w histle b ecause W o f h er s alientm oral i dentity? or would shereport the wrongdoing because f her desire o to seta good examprefor her c hildren?o r w ould s hen ot e ngagei n w histle-blowing b ecause he w ould n ot s want t o r isk l osing h er j ob? A nd h ow w ill h er i dentificati6n w ith t he o rganization interact with her personal(moral) identity and role (parent) identity to influence her decisiont o e ngage nrvhistle-blowing?w " p ropo." t hat i o nly a s ystematic xplora_ e tion of the "salience hierarchy"-understanding which ioentities are most salient for the individual when faced with a moral declsion-will help investigateif and why t his i ndividual w ill e ngagei n w histle_blowing. Finally, s everals cholars( e.g.,B urke,2003;Deaux, 1 993; s tets, r gg5),building on the work on identity salience,have suggestedhat t multiple identities might work together asedo n t he c ommonalityo f t he c ontento f t hese b i dentities.I dentitiest hat overlap in their content are more likely to be located near the top of the salience hierarchy and may work together when the situation activates any one of these identities (Deaux, 1993).Therefore, this line of work claims that it is not only the salienceor hierarchi cal organizationof the multiple identities but also the shared content among identities which are activatedthat influence behavior. we suggestthat uncovering the role of multiple identities and identifications as related to whistle-blowing may help clarify the conflicting findings noted above. 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'acueprne lrsnlcuocf ue q lrn s n e prnord1 ou e ,{uu Surmolq-ellsrq, pulqeq selr}otu eql puzlsrapuno1drqsuorleloJ euoqztuelrc a I -pnphrpur eql le Surlool ,tyelos'eJoJareql .uoq?nlrs B leql uI ldecuoc-g1es uqro,u arll s?Lltululop(lurour pue u leuosredlo 'lercos '1eue1eu) Ies eql Jo lcedse qcrr{1r\ o J puedepilr.,rarcJunro rrBJsreprsuocslunpr^ryurteq,la eqt se1e1s r (9967) e1tp4g.uo4 t -lppe uI p Jo{uJo e l4cedsrede ,tr1ru80c-lercos e lzcqdxeo l s luerunSru e ql " {1r1uepr relrurs e luur ( ggg7 " p 1 eo eqS)s enSeeloc ue o sqs ' ror^uqeq ^rrpo t,(1e1t s r l eut p e ftpuepl e uo l ql e e J o e cuerles qt s r u ' oscs rql u I ' luerles, (tq8q s r ( eldruexe loqe aq1uorg) o u Ienprlrpur slql Jo ,{14ueplIeJorueql ureJeq,{\ rJeuocs Jeprsuocoslv 'serlrluepr o l ueluoc e qt;o , {lluuoruruoce ql s r S upleur-uorsrcep J I?clqle ur rolc?J ,{e4e leql 8uqse83ns,(qeJeqttor,r,eqeqecrqle 1ce;;efluqueJeJJlp l o1 s ellpuepl p auuep f leuoquzrueSro q llm e leduoc s ercuspuel I ecrqlep e]srcossB pu s oqrluopr nor8qe;. spnpr^rpur,Aaoq s p ezrJoeq( 200d e l8ypue J eABa ,tq8noql \ J B Jo e ur1 elrrurs u I ' Je^\olq-allsq,ry\ l uql 1 ur1ue1od J o r or^pqeqa ql l clperd p lnoJ l eq] seqrluepr seql' uee.tlequ orlceuuoc ue J o , (uyfue1urql e q f ,euty p uv.sploq e uo e p e seD4uepr ldlllnul eq] Sururuexef1ucr1erue1s,(s pegrrelc e ,{q oq snqtuec uorluzrueSro aql ol tuetuqcepes,euoSulpmSer 3urpugluelsrsuocu eql .opsrq.,!\q],r\olq o1d1e4q s e ssal e q p lno,!\ e qs ' uorlezrue8ro ql q tl,!\ s eurluepr,{18uo4s e l enpr^pu e qt q 8noqt ue.,leelo;ereq; 'qof srq ezrpredoel,{eur Bql uortcuewl ol luelrseqoq snqt.{eu pue ' } 'f1rure; slq JoJSurpr,tordqlr.ry\ etuocuoceq osp ,(eu p Ienphrpu eqr ']uerude Bureq 'eldurexeJoc 'serlqueprpesBq-{Jo,ruoupu? -{Jol\ ol uor}BIeJ r Burnolq-ellsrq^\ u yo suorlucrldur eql uo SursncoguorleruJoJur?uoqrppelno {ees ol poeu ,{uu eqs ' I 'uorsso.rSsueD ? Iuuo[ezruuSroue;o ]{311urollsrq.r\eql 8ur.,no1qJotuluerp oql qtr^\ peoe; ueql\ 'Jele.r\oq 'lotleztue?to eql qlr^\ uorl"Jgrluepr Jo Ienel qBH slrqqxe a^oqE pelou elduexe 1ecr1eq1od,(q uI pnpr^rpu eql 'ecuelsur rod 'seDrluepr eq] aseql o1suorlceuuocraq ro srq pue sploq Je,r\olq-ellsrqzrrql ]eq] serlDuepleldrlpur e eql tu s{ool auo Jr po^loseJeq ue3 eJnleJalrl ql ur serlrnSrqure seql 'uorlezrueSro e e ,rruaruvn| $rurg ssaNrsng 299 O LEenNrNc rnoNl RsssA.RCH N IonNrrry.q.No Ernrcs Pnocn.c.x4s 563 decisionto blow the whistle. Researchon situationalvariablesand whistle-blowing displays fairly consistentresults. Characteristics of the Job/Organization PerceivedSupport p perceivedsupportfrom top management nd from supervisors redictsboth whether a and how the whistle is blown (Dworkin & Baucus, 1998)' The theoretical arguments here are basedon social exchangetheory, which suggeststhat high level of supervisorsupportleadsto norms of reciprocity which developtrust in the channel an individual can use to report unethical practices. King (1997) confirmed these q argumentsin his study involving a scenario-based uestionnaireof 26I registered to supervisorwas shownto be positively relatedto internal nursesin which closeness whistle-blowing. Similarly, Sims and Keenan (1998) showedthat external whistleblowing was signiflcantly relatedto supervisorsupportfor externalwhistle-blowing. Miceli a nd N ear ( 1988),i n t he a boven oted s tudy,f ound t hat w histle-blowingw as more likely to occur when observersof wrongdoing were employed by organiza' tions perceivedby othersto be responsiveto complaints' OrganizationalJustice Organizational features such as organizationaljustice and organizational climate or c ulture h ave a lso b een l inked t o w histle-blowing ( Miceli & N ear, 1 985, 1 988; Rothschild & M iethe, 1 999; S eifert, 2 006; S ims & K eenan, 1 998; T revifro & c youngblood,1 990).G oldman( 2001),i n h is s tudyo n f iling o f d iscrimination laims i llustrated t hat d istributive a nd p roceduralj ustice w ithin to e xiernal a gencies, t w organizations ere n egativelya ssociatedo e xternal w histle-blowing.B ased o n a quasi-experimentinvolving a sample of 273 auditors and 244 managementaccountants.Seifert (2006) uncoveredthat the highestperceivedlikelihood of internal ( whistle-blowing occurredwhen all whistle-blowing circumstances i'e., distributive, justice) were fair; and the opposite was found when procedural andinteractional w ull * hirtl"-blowing c ircumstances ere u nfair. I nterestingly,i n m ixed f airness situations,a higher perceivedlikelihood of reporting was expected whistle-blowing and found when outcomeswere fair versuswhen they were not fair. Finally, Victor i ( and c olleagues Victor e t a l., 1 993)p rovidede vidence ndicatingt hat i nclinationt o justice perceptions;however, w report a peer for theft was associated ith procedural reporting behavior was associatedwith retributive justice evaluations.This aciual stream of research,therefore, indicates that when organizationsare perceived to be fair, observersare more likely to blow the whistle internally and less likely to engagein external whistle-blowing. Organizational Climate/Culture Regarding organizational climate and culture, researchshows that individuals in organizationswith team oI friendship climates, strong ethical climates, or democratic climates are more likely to engagein whistle-blowing when they observea wrongdoing. For instance,Rothwell and Baldwin (2007) obtained data from 198 police offlcers and 184 civilian employeesin Georgia and reportedthat a friendship .suorluelur pecuenuur,{lenrlrsodsuorldecredruJeq}3r{1 3ur.Lro1q-e1lsrql\ e setersuoruep' sluepntsq lr.,rA t uelulredxe-rsenb S urllo.tut ' (EOOt)a sr16.{q, (pn1s s peluler y .Surzrrolq-allsrq,4dpooqrTe{ll eql o1palelsr .{1tuecgp81s r SuropSuorm Jo p o ' e1se,t'?uqeels e1Jesqo q1\ r goe d,Q'erogereq;'uollululJtsrpo'sruelqord,(1e3es s ea see,toldure Je, uuql ?utop8uormeq] UodoJol {Ia1l1 erour,(lluecgtu8rsere,r,t uot]l S S p r -orn 1efle1 egrcedsun o 1uerussemq nxes 'luerue8euerusttu utrrlo.tur utop8uor,lo, p u pe.r.recrede^rosqooqm seefoldtue leq] punoJ (?002 'IecUN T '8qed 're11ocg en p ,reeN) o l p oleleJ,{le,rt1rsod p s en8eelloc uu J oN'uteAJ eltuts u u 1 ' 3ur.lo,o1q-allslq.4a ? utcue e e ldrtlml J o o 3uelsrxe q; ' ?ur,Lro1q-ellslql\ s JosseJuq pue f pcerrp o sle s e.4A e l -ngur ,(qereql 'secrlceld lueruswJeqIunxos5o sed,(1ueJeJJIp W plp os 'peseolcut ' luouss?Jeq enxos3 o s ed.{1 p I luerusseJeq I unxesy o q 18uey ue , (cuenbe{ s u ' sI 1 qJ p ?urlrolq-ellslq,4A elclperd lueursser eqt Suuceg;e,(q fllcerrpur osle pue "{llcerrp p -eq pnxes;o q1?ue1 uu fcuenbeq ]ql peA\oqs,(eq1 'lueurure,ro8prepa; eql Jo s qcueJqelrlncexe eql ut 8ut4ro,l.r qluoru rno;-,{1ue,t1sed eqt uI luelussemqIenxas l ( pecuenedxepq oqA\ sluepuodserelBIuoJ 96I worJ peulslqo elup pez.(1uuaV002 Z . .'p e e1) s enSueloc u e a-1 sJeqrueru e e p 1e l euorluzrue?ro ql p ue J e,^aolq-ellslql\ql uee,4lloqsxe UoddnsI?Icospue ,(lrcordrcalJo sluJou?uorls ;r pepoder eq o1,{1e1t1 l e luql eqt s oJorrr r sJo{Jo1y\-oc Jo/pueuol1ezlue8Jo ql suJeq l"ql Sulop8uoJlY\ Sunurelc t T {ro,^Auo4 s ruelsq rreeser;o,{poq s HI'(966I ' llecu4tr r BaN i gggT'uerenso,,lrsl1 a S ry snu8e141-leruselq)utop8uorryr ql Jo fllJe^es pentecredeql pue ?utop8uorn so o l u olslcepa ql u I s uollec e ed,&e qt e pnlcul s JllsuoJcgJuqosoqJ ' ellslq^\ o ql ^ \olq e ql e -{dul l uecgruSrs ^q o l u aoqs u eeqo sle e .tuq? urop?uor,AA J o s cllslJelcBmqJ a{ 1 3utop3uo"t,14q1 o st 1stt apoJ oqJ 'JOlCeSle.\ud e 1?ql eql ur wql Jolces cqqnd eql ur tuenbo4 eroru su,ta3ur,4aolq-ollsq,4a poJJeJuI p p c p (OOOt) qtIeIN uep lqcsqlou's,^Aol^relutruoqdelel,(q enolloJs uollBzlue8ro ue e ' suorlezrueflJouu p s c serJlsnpul glceds1 ep e1ul ,(e,,lrns I euolleuI uo{ s lep u o p esg o luql q sdnor84ro,u ?ururrograd 8tq uI >lro,la l popue]sre,4Aolq-el1sq,^a IJepeJ pe,laoqs : uo , ? 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(9002 ' ueJe,tseasrn s nuflBlN-Jelusetr as) s rolces J pu J e,4AeJg Ie T lgoJd-JoJ-louro ale,urd ueql JeqleJcqqnd ut eluredool puol pue 'cll"JcneeJnq-uou eq ,(1e,l,r1e1er oJ 'sacJnoseJcels eleq ol 'ecueulto;;ed leuotleztueSro;eq8rq Uode; { eJoluosIBere ?ur,ro,o1q-ellslqA\sacuepl3ulq3rq Uode; teql suolleztue8Jo o1,{1e>11 Jo ; sJusrJelJeJuqJ I euotlztue8;gaqtg 'Surmoyq-epslqA\ A p olelcosse{1e,tr1rsod ' eJnllncc lleJooruep s B^\ , q ll , I eclqlel eql p eulIc e 1oqup essncsrp{pnls( 666i) o qtIeINp ug Jo s rurelu r'e1erur1c S ututecuoc plrqJsqlog e ql'{llssT'Jornqeq p auorlcuus-lueure8eueru'e1eurr1t8e1 Jlaql .(q sruJouanrlcelloc Surpr,r,ord uorluelut ?ur,,r,ro1q-e11slq^\ Jo ,(cecg;epelcedxe . e q-plnol\ ' p oql p esuequee3re1 ue . {q,ern11nc I scrqlop uorlezrue?rosra,ttolqe1lsq,^a E roJl ql p el\oqs ' eulqJ u r 8 ur.Lro1q-ellslqll I uurelulu o . {pn1s u I'(6002)'1ep?trcq7 .(epsrq,lrr o eqt 8ur^\olqJo .{cuenber;FrucBeql lou 1nq)epsrq,ueql .4dolq 1ssauSurp,r,r e peuruldxe,(lereue? etSroeg Jo olels oql uI sJeJgJo ctlod Suoureeleru{c rueel Jo I.T{Ardvno s JIHrg S SANISng v99 E oN LsA,nNrNcpnolr RgsBA.RCH bBNrrrv .q.No rnrcs Pnocnllras 565 o Although the existing researchon the situational antecedents f whistle-blowing hasf urtheredo ur k nowledgeo f t he l ikelihood o f w histle-blowing,i t i s s till u nclear w which particular organizationalpracticesand policies encourage histle-blowers to report unethicalpractices.In fact, we find it surprisingthat work on whistle-blowing and that on ethics programshave progressedindependentof each other, especially sincethe Ethics ResourceCenter (2007) survey showedthat, in someorganizational contexts,formal ethics and complianceprogramshad a greaterimpact on reporting behaviors than organizational ethical culture. That is, "in companies with strong h w ethical c ultures,o nly 3 5 p ercento f e mployees hose c ompanies ave l ittle o r n o ethics and compliance program report the misconduct they observed, compared to 6 6 p ercento f e mployeesw hose c ompaniesh ave w ell-implementede thics a nd complianceprograms" (Ethics ResourceCenter,2007: 12).Additionally, the survey uncoveredthat companieswith weak ethical cultures and well implemented ethics and complianceprogramshad the highestratesof whistle-blowing-perhaps because b the l ack o f a n e thical c ulturel eavesn o a lternative ut w histle-blowingi n r esponse o h to e thical p roblems.T herefore,b elow w e p roposea nd e laborate ow r esearch n ethicsp rogramsc an a dd t o o ur k nowledgeo f w histle-blowingi n o rganizations. ETHICS P ROGRAMS A ND W HISTLE-BLOWING A o a Following t he c orporates candals nd t he p assage f t he U .S. S arbanes-Oxley ct in 2 002, o rganizationsa re i ncreasingly a dopting e thics p rograms.T hese e thics programs a re d esigneda nd i mplementedi n v arious f orms. F or e xample,e thics programs in organizationsmay include written standardsof conduct, training on t ethics,mechanisms o seekethicsadviceor information, meansto report misconduct a anonymously,discipline of employeeswho violate ethical standards, nd evaluation of employees'performancebasedon ethical conduct (Weaver,Treviflo, & Cochran, I999b). Additionally, the extent of adoption and effectivenessof ethics programs differs across organizations (Weaver,Trevifro, & Cochran, 1999a). For instance, m on o ne h and, s ome o rganizations ay e spousea c ode o f e thics a nd e nsuret hat all organizationalmembersunderstandand follow their codes.On the other hand, other organizationsmay circulate codes of ethics without explaining the content or communicating the importance of the codes to its members. Similarly, ethics training in organizationscan range from filling out short surveysonline to intense workshops with regular feedbackand counseling.Thus, organizationsvary largely on h ow t hey f orm, d esign, c ommunicate,i mplement a nd f ollow t hrough e thics programs (see Vadera & Aguilera, 2009).In fact, the study on workplace ethics by the Ethics ResourceCenter (2007) found that only one in four companieshad a well structuredand well implemented ethics program, whereas45 percent of the surveyed companies had a poorly implemented program, with the remaining 30 percent had no ethics program in place whatsoever. Researchon ethics programs can greatly inform us about the situational factors that influenceindividuals' decisionto blow the whistle, especiallysincein companies e with comprehensive thicsand complianceprograms, only 29 percentof employees fail to report misconduct they observe,in contrastto 61 percentin companieswith u o l Bql q lr.As uruJSoJdcrqlou o q JJueseJ urlurofuoculoslv'pegoder e ru s ecqcurd s S ' o e IeJlqleun leql eJnsue 1sruerSordsctqle Surssedurocue rour dolelep ol peou suorl -eztuearcpue ssecordxelduroce sr Surnolq-eltsl{1y|eltsq,4aeqt.AAolql spnpr^rpur o ols^rlolu ol luercgJnseq lou fzru suerSord scrqle eldurs ,fte,t 3o uorlelueureldurr pue uorl"JrunruuroJ'uorlBlnrrrJoJ^lcaJJg 'ellsltl^\ eql . aolq o] spnpr^rpur elu^rloru o s S s 1eq1 urels,{s e u l euorlezrue8ro uru8rsep;o eqrxelduroc ql J o s n r uJoJur uc 8 ur,u,o1q -opsr{.,ta cuengur sruerSordsorqle ,&oq o Jo uorleuruexo uB luql urelurur o1y1 '3ur.uo1q-eltsrq^\ S urSe8ua 1e ur s -nprlrpur JoJsenrlotuselcs ol u,^aoqs oeq e^eq sJolceJ seqlJo qtoq q8noqt ,(,rer.,l u o s e ;o l urod l uJotuE r uorgs urerSo;d cqle u 8rsepo l I I"J J elrrurs r oJ . V11z,er,l.rog e s e ry s p1ou,{eg es)s ruerSord crqleJ o u orleFrrrroJ ql u l f tgqlsuodse; e lor p ue f 1r -lJoru o o loJe ql l B f llJrleurelsfs p e{ool s uq ' e8pel,uou>lnor ed s e . qJJeoseJu J o J 'senle^ 're,r.ez!\o11 e IeJrqle leuoqezruearo q1Surlrqn{xessoql osp lnq suorlezrueSro Jleql o l s uorle8qqo, see.,{oldure l ou u oDuollB lur I I?J1 uq1 ruzrSord crqlee ,trs , {1uo o s s -ueqerduroc Joru o s l uerueldur o 1p aeus uoDezlue?ro s lso?8ns Hr'l3npuoJsrru l eql q lr, lrode; o 1s seu8urllm , see.,(oldrue A p olroossee,A s uoDeluerro cueqdtuoo ue s e p sonle^J o u orlJsJolule qJ, ' seruoslnoe soql e J o J noJJ o]]l 3 q1q lr.a p olrJosse Je,r ' Jor^eqequJrqloS ur.nresqouu ' ecr,rpu ur uorlBluorJo cueqdruoc g o s uorldecJod e e p 8 I -1ees'8un1eu orsrcop elleq'ssouoJB,ru u J p crqle'fluSelur'luerulluruoc'uoqeyorn SuqroderJo seuroolnouenosqlr,4A el?rJosse Je^\sonp^, IeJrqlo Burur"rg;u Je,l.rol p e p poluerJo e,Lr u:8ord scrqle,{uedruoJ q}leql suolldecred,see,{o1dug'c1e'z(1u8a1ur su e 'luotulllutxoJs eq Jnss otuoclno s J o l es e sJolrpe o l r uerSo.rdJrqleu Bu r s uorleluorJo acuetldruoc ue s onlene ql;o s drqsuorlelal ql e luSt1se.Lur, (uudruoc eJrLJes p e o1 s I rc -ueug e S,ruyu r f enrnsp leg e p elJnpuoc eeAD o gr^o{ p ur eABeI&.erouroqunC e ( '?ur,r,ro1q-epsrq,4d e J o s JollrTrcBJ l uuorluzrueBJoqt J elleqp uulsJepun sn d yeqs nql p Jno. s ruerSo.rdorqlep ue 3 ur,r,ro1q-epsrq,tr cJeeseJ A s uo q J o u oqe;Be1ul e,r.rsueqerdruoc y 'Sur,rnolq-epsq,^Ao e cuenuure Jotue .Leqeru , suorluzrue8ro r u f u pacJoJue e rus ururSotd cqla l eql S uunsue eqtJ er{leJ'scruruu,(p u r S ulueruetur s u r eed 'eltsq,r\ eql .,tAolq1see,{oldrue Sernocua 1elenbepeur q .{eursurer8o:d 'pee1su1 o a o e sclqlo e u ( a J o u orlerruntutuoo ArlJeJJoene' pe1e4snru0002) u o$lcef f q , tpn1s q1s e 'lcEJu I ' secrlcerdBJrqleun oder o 1s eefoldue e 8ernocue l l uorcgJns q l , ou {eur o e u I uorlezruu8ro e u r r uerSord crqleu e S urlueureldurr u s , {ldulrs' ero;ereq1. (6997, ddos -uDluolg pue u T ryed:666I 'r1euvT slllg) 3ur,r,ro1q-epsrq,lrr suuou e.r,qcalqnsoa^\loq drqsuorleler ,trlrsod p eurclqoe ^Eql uql s erpnls r p unoJe q o sleu ecl uarun?re rql e B u s ro; ' )luoH) s lrrguoc e nlul p elracradp ue s es.{puet geueq u oddns l cerrpq ' (SOOZ -lso3 . slenpr,^,puruue11e e ltsrq,Lrql . Aaolql s uorsrJep 1e1{lc3J , ,sreldnrsrp 3 fq e o e l uql ,tlefol 1 uuor1uzrue8Jo,,J ce( .sJeqlo uecgru8rs,,ue ' sreuged , slepou a IoJl eql se p 1 s^\oqsq cH,\\ S urmolq-e1lsq,r o q cJeoseJ u e S l ueceJ ql u e,rr8 ursudrns ous r S urpug 1 sq1 ' pe,(ea'rnserlrlzuorleu ql s soJJu re8eueur;o urluru-uorsrcepcrqle p m,l.rol s a s S p sepnlr1l?uqcrperd ur luegodurr eJorrrJeJsA\senSuaylocsre8eueur o Jorleqeq , J ' 8ul1uruu orsrrepI ecrqle penrecred qt t uql p e^\oqso sye( 6667) u os{cef ' re.te,tlo11 o pelroder u ,sre?Bueru o ecuenguroplll peq scrqlalnoqu ,(crtodelurodroc;o flueyc aql 'lcnpuocsnuI eorqle o s eueJu"JeAes soJce ecueJeJJrp s s e J I I euorlul uecgruSrs lrdsep s e leql p unoJ' sruerSord JrqleJ o , {pn1seuorluu-ssoJc q ' (0002) u os{ce1. eldurexe l ro1'(L002're1ue3 o rrnoseg s orqtg) s urerSord cue4duoc p ue s crqleI BruJoJ u e o lruaruvn| s JrHrg s saNrsng 999 oN R L BenNrNcp noNr BsSA,RCH I onNrrrv e No E rurcs P nocnlus 5 61 whistle-blowing may highlight (1) why individuals are more likely to report certain crimes in comparisonto others and(2) what the channels(internal versusexternal) individuals are more likely to choseto blow the whistle, since organizationalethics p programs maybe designedto encourage racticesoI may be communicatedin ways that may underscorecertain options over others. i Below, w e d iscusst he m ethodologicalc hallengesf aced b y r esearchersn a ddressingthe foregoing questionsand issues,and arguethat someof the inconsistent i a findings can be resolved,and new research venuesnvestigatedusing multi-method o t approacheso r esearch n w histle-blowing. METHODOLOGICAL I SSUES Our review of the whistle-blowing literature shows that most of the researchon s whistle-blowinghasmainly beenconductedusing eithercross-sectional elf-reported h A s surveysor scenario-basedtudies. s it is well-known, thesetwo methodologies ave limitations, thereby restricting our knowledge of the individual and some inherent s s o situationala ntecedents f w histle-blowing.C ross-sectional, elf-reported urveys c (e.g.,M iceli & N ear, 1 984,1 988),a lthoughe asyt o a dminister, annotb e e mployed T to e xaminec asualr elationships. his m ethod i s a lso a t r isk o f m onomethodb ias wherein the magnitude of the observedrelations could be inflated due to cornmon a sourcevariance.Also, respondents remore likely to exhibit social desirability bias ( t w andh ypothesis-guessinghen a skedt o r espond o s urveys Fowler,2 001).I n q uasiw a s i experiments,ncluding s cenario-basedtudies,s ubjects re u sually p resented ith describingthe wrongdoing in different experimentalconditionsand areasked stories how they would respondto the wrongdoing describedin the scenario(Keenan,2000; Sims & K eenan,1 998;W ise, 1 995).T his m ethodologyh elps m aintaina nonymity, c avoids s ames ourceb iases,a nd g ets c loser t o u nderstanding ausality.H owever, m ay b ecomev ictims o f s ocial d esirabilityb iasesa nd m ay b e s usceprespondents tible to experimenterdemand bias in which they give the researcherthe answers i they believe would help him/her. In addition, it is difficult to assessf individuals responding to the scenarioswould behave in a similar manner when faced with s an e quivalents ituationi n t he " real" w orld. H ence,m ost c ase-based tudies( e.g., P eek,R oxas,P eek,R obichaud,S alazar, Kaplan, P any,S amuels,& Z hang,2009; f & C odina.2 007; S ims & K eenan,1 998)m easure actorsa ffectingt he " intentions" to b low t he w histle i nsteado f t he a ctuala ct o f w histle-blowing. i f Anotherr eason or t he l ack o f s ignificantp rogressn t he f ield o f w histle-blowing W i designs n many studies. e acknowlinvolvesthe implementationof flawedresearch edge that these errors are likely to be associatedwith the difficulty of controlling for all the possible factors that may influence the decision to blow the whistle in a single study, and of finding an organizationthat would allow collecting sensitive data on whistle-blowing and related issues.However, an inaccurate design limits deeperand thorough understandingof the different forces affecting the decision to blow the whistle. For instance,to analyzethe moderating role of locus of control on the relationship between ethical judgment and whistle-blowing intention, Chui (2003) distributed 800 copies of a questionnaire to managers and professionals p a lrq,l.l'Jorleqeq ur,^aolq-ellsq,,lr 3 u l orpaJdf ylualsrsuoc or]ecnpe ue'ecueuuogred leuoqeztue?to'eJueuuoyed qof s qcns sJolJeJle^el-l"npl^rpu etuos leql u,aoqs seqqcJeese1'BeJs ql ur qJJBeseJJnlnJ oJfe,r,reqt Surnud;orureql qtr,l '8urmolq J e e -ellsil{1y\Jo luepaJelueeuorlBnlrs ue pnphrpur eql ?urpreSer Supug }uelsrsuosur p s s l pue l uelsrsuose ql s saJpps l s e^\ e lJrue A \erA.eJ q e ,rqcefqo^ (rerurrd n6 o s rql r NOISSNJSICI '[pn1sq creeseJ u r q loq u Surfoldiue fq poqleur Jeqloueur sesseu{uea\ ql etuocJelo ol poqleu l?uorlrpp? e ' s,{enrns r e roldxeo l l lnogJrpe Jel eql s Jol u ue;o s ql8ueJls ql e snu ec s JoqcJeeseg e -JeI w 4oo1 (c) uone puu l>poneurer; pesodord eql erlrepun leql susrueqcourpu sessecord ql u o e luJoqele q) i fenrns e ql u r ' fue 3 r ' sdtqsuotleler non8rqrue n ( s e d ( e ,(eqt -rue1cu) :,(pn1s ql ur selrlJeiqo luuorlrppu eeJql qsqduoccu elqe eq p1no.,r,r srole?rlseLul SuuelsrurupelelJesl\orlJeJurpeJqcruls-ruestonpuocoJeJe,lrt. 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Based on this review, we propose that to resolve a theseconflicting resultsregardingthe individual antecedents, ndto extendthis work lens to understandwhy in a more systematicmanner,we need to adopt an identity individuals engagein whistle-blowing. Identity researchsuggeststhat individuals have multiple identities, and thus, multiple identifications. We argue that understanding (a) the content of identities, (b) the salienceor hierarchical organization of said multiple identities, and/or (c) one's connection to the multiple identities (through multiple identifications) may help us explain why individuals engagein whistle-blowing. o In contrast,researchregardingthe situational antecedents f whistle-blowing has t hat e vent houghw e h aves ome f m revealed ore c onsistent indings.B ut w e c ontend knowledge about the situational factors influencing an individual's engagementin i i whistle-blowing,t his r esearchs l imited b ecauset d oesn ot a ccountf or t he r ole o f which are becoming increasingly prevalent.Acethics programs in organizations A cording to the Sarbanes-Oxley ct of 2002, organizationsarerequired to take more responsibility for detecting and reducing fraud and ensuring that whistle-blowers are not retaliated against for their actions. Organizations around the world are increasingly adopting ethics programs to fulfill these criteria. But we still do not fully k now i n w hat w ays t hesee thics p rogramsf acilitate w histle-blowing.S ome preliminary evidence(seeWeaver & Trevifio, 1999; Weaver,Treviflo, & Cochran, p I999a,b ) p oints o ut t hat a c ombinationo f c ompliance-a nd v alues-basedrograms promote internal whistle-blowing, but researchin this arena is is most likely to largely inadequateand much required. Future Research f Apart from the insights generated rom the identity and ethics programsliteratures, if o our u nderstanding f w histle-blowingc an a lsob e s trengthened w e f ocuso n t hree T additionala venues. hesei nclude( a) v iewing w histle-blowinga sa f orm o f p ositive deviance,( b) d evelopinga m eso-levelt heory o f w histle-blowing,a nd ( c) s ystematically accounting for the role of national cultures and laws to garner a holistic o understanding f t he p rocesso f w histle-blowing. Whistle-Blowing a s P ositiveD eviance As a n a venuef or f uture r esearch,w e s uggestc onceptualizingw histle-blowing u as p ositive d eviance a s a m eans t o d evelop a c omprehensive nderstandingo f whistle-blowing. Positive, both the individual and the situational antecedentsof or constructive, deviance is defined as intentional behaviors that depart from the norms of a referent group in honorable ways (Galperin & Burke,2006; Spreitzer & Sonenshein,2004;Warten, 2003). Referent groups can include the workgroup, the department,the organization,and even the society as a whole, and honorable ways mainly involve behaviorswhich promote the welfare of the organizationand G its various stakeholders. iven the low rates of the whistle-blowing practice in organizations(asillustrated in the introduction), whistle-blowing can be equatedwith '3ur,ln.o1q-e1tsrq,4A. e uo eJnllnc leuo4eu ur seJueJeJJIproldxe ol seIJIue pcurdrue me; ,(reneql Suoruesr ,(pn1s rql 'e?pe1,Lrou[no oJ 'secuoJoJJrp J s luecgpSls pelcedxeun punoJl nq s uorsuorurp u s l erntlnJ ( OSO1) .epelsJoH o p oseqs el4unoce orql e qt r oJ e p p J e saseqlod,{qedole,tep an8ualloc uu{ eod : osr,t:edns laqlo l J essereq lqrssod qi s s a A o t:oder plnoqs sJelcuJqJ ql Jeqteq. 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S arbanes-Oxley ct o f a 2002has dramatically affected organizationsand has pushed them to enforce and encouragewhistle-blowing in the U.S. However, such hard regulation is largely missing in countriesacrossthe world. For example,somestudiesfound that in countries like India, the attitudes toward, and pressuresfor, successfulimplementation of ethics programs were significantly lower than those in the U.S. (Chakraborty, 1997). Therefore, future researchneedsto investigatehow national differencesin laws and their enforcement,along with cultural dimensionsand other country-level institutional factorssuchasemploymentrelationsand understanding f trust endorse o whistle-blowing. CONCLUSION Having reviewed the extant literature on whistle-blowing, we note that although the f ield i s p rogressing,t i s r estricteda nd p laguedw ith i nconsistent indings e si f pecially regarding individual-level antecedents o whistle-blowing. As a result of t thesei nconsistencies, e s till d o n ot h ave a dequate nowledgeo f t he m otives o f w k potentialw histle-blowers. esearchnvolving t he r ole o f s ituational recursors as R i p h also b eenl imited s inces cholars avel eft o ut a s ystematic ynthesis f t he w ork o n h s o ethics p rogramsa nd w histle-blowing.W e u rge s cholarst o f irst a ddresst he c hallengesp ut f orth b y t hesei nconsistencies nd i nadequacies.n t his r eview a rticle, a I we provide the first step in this direction by laying the groundwork for exploring new, exciting, and fruitful avenuesof researchon the individual and situational antecedents f w histle-blowins. o (866r) snrnBg prrs uDIJolr\CI Surrrrolq-apsrqit Fruelxe Jo l?Iuel -ur p e^Io^ur a seql 3o eerp-.{u1q; '.{c11od 11qnd c e u JOU OIlslOrAI s8uug 1 n;Suorrtr 8ur,rlo,rurs esec p8el eerql .ftxrs Sursns qel-ssor3 flpurelxe ro dlpuretur slroder u e re,rolq-allsrq^\ ql r aqleq.m o 3 ur -puadepp errAJ eaolq-ellsrq^\ e ql lsuruSelueue8uueur . {q u ollell?teJ Jo s urell?d ( )'sre^Aolq-ellsrya e PIlJaluI u eql u oqBIIBleJ ^rsuelxe p eJorrr ecueueoxeo sF s Jell\olq -ellsq.t Ieuretxd ( 7) 'sacltcerd S leuorlezrue8ro ur8uuqcu r e ltl e -ceJJe Jorua q o l p epuel,{eqt p uu r 'SuropSuorrrr e cueprrraeleer8 ;o 'uoqezrue8roe ql q lr.tr e Jnuels sal peq s le/r\olq-rllsrq^\er|lrlxA ( l ) I Suug p ue uowrleleJ lSurmolq -ellsrq^\J o sseueArlJeJ -Je : uu?q J o sseusnoues :pelrellot ecuepr^e Jo lunorrJs J :SIIDISO uorleJnpe o J IeAeI: eJnual :Jepueo Surmolq -ellsrq.t{ PIuelxe s^ pluelul p es?qelup Jeog uorlJeloJd ruel -s,(5 yary'g'n 1 (866r) p ueples ue Je1YleJg ,(q p elcnpuoc ,(e.trns seldrcuu4 lVeINZ66l uror; e lup S ursn p uorsser8er ooq -lle{ll l unlurxslN suotlezrue8ro pue sdnor8 ryorrr Suruuoyed q8q u pe4om (7) q :uorlceJsResol p u" tuetutrfiuuroc qof ' lueurelerqceq of '.fiunces qof;o s 1e.re18q u oder ( g) i sre q -ur.royedq 8rq e rer'r( 7) l lseralut c11qndo; r ueruoc,(q p elultlour r eJe^\( I) s re^\olq-ellslq^\I ereped uorlJqsllss qol i lueru -lluuoc qoI l ecueru -roped q ol :e^loru l se -retur r llqnd clqle ecrAJes c11qnd:ecr,r -res I r^rJ I?reped s s luopeteluv a ql S upu8glse^ul olpnls 3u;,u.o1g-ells;rtrA\Jo I gTgYI xIpuoddV ,\rusruvoo sclHrgssilNlsng ZL9 L BlnNrNc F RoMR sspnncH o N I oBNury A NDE rnrcs p nocnenas 5 73 Goldman (2001) Discriminationclaiming; organizational j ustice; social information processing; demographic variables Distributivej ustice; procedural justice; social guidance;race; gender; age;tenure; education; discriminationclaiming The decisionto claim for discrimination was affectedby procedural and distributivejustice, social guidance,minority status,gender, age,tenure,and education T,ogisticregresslon oI survey data collected basedon initial decisionsto claim in a sampleof 439 terminated workers who were surveyed at severalunemployment offices Kaplan, Pany, Samuels, andZhang (200e) Gender; reporting intentions of fraudulent financial reporting Anonymous and nonanonymous reporting channels; participant's gender;perpetuator's gender (l) Femaleparticipants' reporting intentions for an anonymous channel were higher than for male participants;(2) male and female participants differed in the extent to which theyjudge the reduction in personalcostsof an anonymous reporting channelcomparedto a non-anonymous eporting channel r ; and (3) the reduction in personal costsmediatedthe relationship betweenparticipant genderand anonymousreporting intentions A 2 *2 a nalysis of variance between-subjects experimental design----once uslng nonanonymous reporting intentions as the dependent measureand once using anonymous reporting intentionsas the dependent measurewith I 13 participants enrolled in an eveningMBA classin a large university ;;*;;'-.r*; l -enbs I Sursn +oJ 3r.IlJo rJrlr?rg i a.lEnJexe eql ur 3uqro,ryr sqltro$ l moJ-,{luo^dll sud ;w S uFnp l rraur -ssEJ?qPnxas I pocuauedxa p uq : oq.r\ s luepuods0J eleursJz s6I lilo4 Elsq ,rjirrrrr,r,t : lir i :,,tlir'l:ri,'.rr.'' '.**1# :l rrllr.. r,,,111,1.:tr:iiii;iit:,1i .,,,;;it .:til1r :::i:t: : 1),,:,:: :tll,a SSEUSNOIJES ONSSI suotsse:3e: aldnlnur p ue y,16gY S utsn paz,{pue e lup Oqlp ue s osJnu :aratsrie.r1 97,(q palalduoc e :rcu p -uortsenb esuq ouEUoJS *Z V Z Surop8uor,ue 3 uP:oda: ur p usru(uocJ o u lEqs J eooJoa ql ',tioy1o; p 1no,,r,r s luepuodser'3ur -op8uo:,n e ql S o , {lua,tesP ue s ro1ce4 ieuesolce qi;o s selP:eBea sseuosolJe l -uosred:eiut l3ur,uo1q -o[1sIq,4A s IUUJoIXe^ luuretuti Sur -opFuo:,tr ;o , {1r:e,te5 :ssouesolt lBuotlelad (t6et ) S utx ,ffi n;,1'N J uoddns P exnu qll^ P eUfiuexoa le/rl s elqeuu^ uopdor.radp :otu p ue'Fuolluz -Jrni8ro' pnprarput Y o . {larrel Y l I ti,tl).ir i i iiit sclld , lueulotse: -uw:pn8{ $ snoFJ$ sei l 'l I I ,{TUilrxvoo SJIHTA ssaNISOg I [, [t _*u*** , vL9 o LslnNrNc rnou Rrsn,q.RcH N IprNrrrv lNn Errrrcs Pnocnaus 575 Miceli a nd Near ( 1984) Beliefs; organizational position; whistleblowing status Approve of whistleblowing; fear of retaliation; incentives to w histleblow; awareness o f complaints channel; o rganizational position Distinct p rofiles o f w histleblowers, observers of wrongdoing and nonobservers emerged and were t ested ANOVAsu sing the 1 980 .S. U Merit S ystems Protection oard B archivaldata Miceli a nd Near ( 2002) Effective whistleblowing Power; organizational dependence on w rongdoing; complaint recipient's power Whistle-blowers Derceive that wrongdoing w as h ore l ikely t o b e terminated w hen: ( 1) i t o ccured less f requently, w as r elatively minor i n i rnpact, o r h ad b een o ccurring for a shorter period; and (2) w histle-blowers h ad g reater power-reflected i n t he l egitimacY -of t heir r oles a nd t he s upport o f others Regression Analysis u sing the 1 980 U .S. 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A nAly$ls , i.r..., NOTES We w ish t o t hank t he B EQ e ditors, G ary W eaver a nd M arshall S chminke, a s w ell a s G reg O ldham, M ike Pratt, D eborah R upp, a nd G retchen W inter f or t heir h elpful c omments o n e arlier d rafts a nd i deas i ncluded in t his r eview. W e a lso t hank t he C enter l br P lofessional R esponsibility i n B usiness a nd S ociety a t t he University o f I llinois, U rbana-Champaign, f br i ts f inancial s upport. 1. S pecifically, w e s earched a rticles f rom t he A c ademy o f M andgement J ournal ( 1984-2008), B usiness E t h i c s e u a r t e r l y( 1 9 9 1 - 2 0 0 8 ) , E m p b ye e sRe sp o n sibi l i ti esandR i ghtsJournal (1998-2008),C roup& Organi7.1ti6n M anagement ( 1992-2008), H uman R elatbns ( 1965-2008), J ournal o f B usiness C ommuniccrtktn a (1963-2009), J ournal o f P ublic A dministration R esearch. ndTheory ( 1991-2009), J ournal o f B usiness E thics (1982,2009), P ersonnel P sychology ( 1965-2008), a nd W ork a nd O ccupations ( 1974-2008). F or u npublished dissertations,w e u sed t he P roQuest e ngine t o s earch f or r elevant d issertationso n w histle-blowing. 2. C hui n otes s ome o f t hese l imitations i n t he d iscussion s ection o f h is a rticle. REFERENCES o Aquino, K ., & R eed,A . 2002.The s elf-importance f m oral i dentity.,Iourndlo f P ersonality c and S ocial P sy hology, 8 3(6): | 4 2310. A Ashforth, B . E ., & M ael, F . 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