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r C itical Thinking What is critical thinking? -difference between mere thinking and c ritical thinking (critical thinking deals with words) -think thoughts in stream (1 after another) -> critical thinking t ry to keep thoughts linked t ogether where we believe that one thought gives support for other -critical thinking is not about w hat you think but how we think (structure of thoughts) -reasoning / critical thinking involves a system , systemic placing of our thoughts in order t o establish certain s tandards of systemic ordering -intellectual standards: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance (eg. Students thinking they deserve higher grades), depth (just say no -> shallow slogan), logic Cr itical thinking -Systemic evaluation of beliefs by rational standards -involves logic the study of good reasoning and rules that govern it -deals with elements of thought Why do we need critical thinking? -Socrates says that unexamined life is not worth living. When thinking critically we become aware of elements of reasoning and rational standards that we must apply in order to become successful in our reasoning. -all reasoning is an attempt to figure something out / to solve a problem or settle an issue -all reasoning is based on assumptions -all reasoning is done from a point of view -all reasoning is based on data, information, and evidence -all reasoning is expressed through concepts and ideas -all reasoning interpretation contains and inferences (conclusion) -all reasoning leads somewhere, or has implications and consequences -inference -> active process of reasoning/ statements -> expression of inference in words (capable of being t rue or false) -eg of statements: t r iangle has 3 sides / 2+2=4/ youre a liar -not statements (just sentences): Wake up! / Is god all-powerful? / stop telling lies! / Hey d ude! -> not statements because they convey emotions, questions are unfinished s tatements, critical thinking doesnt deal with emotions -sometimes, though inference indicator is missing when inference is obvious -consider ex: I ts raining; I better take my umbrella ( inference) -> supposed to have i nference but not always obvious of where inference is A rguments - w hen inference is expressed in statements, i t is an a rgument -argument -> set of standards when one or more of the statements called premises claim to support the statement called the conclusion - no limits on the number of premises as long as they meet certain standards (relevance) -can have more than one conclusion (main conclusion and sub conclusion) Indicators -some common p remise indicators: because, for, given that, seeing that, as, since, assuming t hat, due to the fact that, as indicated by -some common conclusion indicators: thus, hence, consequently, as a result, which means t hat, so, therefore * * *Read int ro of textbook ... View Full Document

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