AP 2 Unit 1
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AP 2 Unit 1

Course Number: BIOL 186, Spring 2008

College/University: Messiah

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Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Hematology the study of blood A. Functions 1. Transport: cells, nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, heat 2. Regulation: pH, electrolyte levels, heat distribution 3. Protection: defense against pathogens; limit fluid loss from damaged vessels B. General Properties 1. Connective tissue specialized cells embedded in fluid matrix...

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A&P2 Bio186 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Hematology the study of blood A. Functions 1. Transport: cells, nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, heat 2. Regulation: pH, electrolyte levels, heat distribution 3. Protection: defense against pathogens; limit fluid loss from damaged vessels B. General Properties 1. Connective tissue specialized cells embedded in fluid matrix (plasma) with dissolved protein fibers (fibrinogen, etc.) ~ 55% Plasma ~ 45% Formed Elements = cells & cell fragments suspended in the plasma. 2. Volume depends on size, sex, age. 5-6 L adult (5.3-6.4 qt) 4-5 L adult female (4.2-5.3 qt) 3. pH: slightly alkaline. 7.35-7.45 (tightly regulated by buffers) 4. Five-times as viscous as water. C. Plasma ~92% water Similar, but not identical to interstitial fluid (more protein & oxygen than ISF) Dissolved solutes: 1. Proteins a. Albumins most abundant; gives blood its osmotic pull; transport other molecules and/or ions. b. Globulins antibodies transport proteins carry other molecules, ions, hormones that otherwise have low solubility (e.g. cholesterol) c. Clotting proteins e.g. prothrombin, fibrinogen d. Enzymes, hormones, etc. 2. Nitrogen wastes e.g. urea 3. Nutrients e.g. glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol 4. Electrolytes e.g. Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, H+, Cl 5. Respiratory gases O2 and CO2 Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood D. Formed Elements Hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis -- production of the various formed elements by process of (1) cell division and (2) differentiation (specialization, maturation) occurs in red bone marrow (a.k.a. myeloid tissue) = vertebrae, sternum, ribs, scapulae, pelvis, proximal limb bones Hematocrit -- Percentage of whole blood volume taken up by formed elements (mostly RBCs). 1. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells; RBCs) a. Numbers Make up about 45% of whole blood volume Make up 99.9% of formed elements approx. 4-6 million/l (mm3) of blood b. Structure Bi-concave discs thin center, thick margin (1) gives large surface:volume ratio = diffusion (2) enabled RBC to bend & flex through narrow capillaries Mature RBCs = no nucleus (no ribosomes, no mitochondria) c. Hemoglobin 95% of RBC proteins 4 subunits; each subunit contains: globin protein chain heme = an organic pigment atom of iron a binding site for one oxygen molecule High [O2] in plasma (e.g. in lungs) O2 binds to heme Low [O2] in plasma (e.g. peripheral tissues) O2 released High [CO2] in plasma CO2 binds to globin portion d. Life Cycle i. Erythropoiesis = RBC production occurs in red bone marrow stimulated by hormone: Erythropoietin (EPO) kidney secretes EPO in response to low blood O2 ii. Lifespan = ~120 days iii. Destruction & Hemoglobin recycling Majority (90%) of aged RBCs mechanically tested in small capillaries of spleen and liver. Engulfed by phagocytes (macrophages) Hemoglobin recycled: protein reduced to amino acids that are recycled Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood heme iron atoms recycled pigment converted to bilirubin = yellow pigment Absorbed by liver, released in Bile breakdown products make feces brown; urine yellow Jaundice bilirubin build-up; seen in skin, sclera of eyes Causes? bile duct blockage; liver failure; massive RBC death e. Diseases: iv. Anemia reduced oxygen-carrying capacity low hematocrit reduced hemoglobin content v. Sickle-cell anemia Genetic mutation in hemoglobin O2 carry-capacity is okay Morphology change With abundant O2 normal shape When O2 is released from RBC hemoglobin molecules interact cell shape change, sickling; stiff Fragile = break easily (hemolyze) Get stuck in capillaries as sickling occurs vi. Thalassemia Genetic disease inadequate production of the globin proteins of hemoglobin 2. Leukocytes (White Blood Cells; WBCs) a. Characteristics Source: Red bone marrow Large, nucleated Defend against: pathogens, toxins, abnormal cells, damaged cells 6000-9000/l of blood Large, nucleated b. Two Groups (based on appearance) [TABLE 11-3 p380] i. Granulocytes -- abundant stained granules in cytoplasm 1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils ii. Agranulocytes -- few granules in cytoplasm 1. Monocytes 2. Lymphocytes Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Use the leukocyte chart to facilitate your learning for both lab & lecture. Which two are most numerous? Which especially attacks bacteria? parasites? Which also has a role in cleaning up debris? Which commonly comprises wound pus? Which comprise our "custom" defense system? Which especially attack virus-infected human cells? c. Leukopoiesis production of WBCs in bone marrow complicated process controlled by various hormones; Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) Lymphocytes: also produced in thymus, spleen, lymph nodes d. Diseases: i. Leukemia cancers resulting in... (1) excessive numbers of leukocytes or (2) abnormal immature WBC release 3. Thrombocytes (Platelets) Produced in red bone marrow Cell fragments (cytoplasm & membrane) from megakaryocytes, very large cells. 150,000 350,000 /l of blood Essential in clotting process = hemostasis E. Hemostasis = Process that stops the loss of blood from a damaged vessel 1. Three phases a. Vascular Phase Immediate Vascular spasm = local contraction of smooth muscle of injured vessel vessel diameter decreases Can significantly reduce blood flow for ~30 minutes Most effective with crushing/blunt damage (more damage = more chemicals released to cause constriction); less effective in clean, sharp cut. b. Platelet Phase Immediate (or within 15 seconds) Platelets become sticky, aggregate and adhere Form Platelet plug c. Coagulation Phase Doesn't start for at least 30 seconds Clotting factors exist as inactive proenzymes in plasma Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Activated in cascade = chain reaction Two origins: i. factor released from injured endothelial cells or peripheral tissues ii. factor released from aggregating platelets Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin = fibers that reinforce the clot Majority of clotting factors produced by liver; production requires Vitamin K Clotting cascade also requires Ca++ 2. Disorders: a. Embolus drifting blood clot (also can be air bubble or fat globule) b. Thrombus inappropriate blood clot attached to intact vessel wall; c. Hemophilia inherited disorder; inadequate production of a clotting factor Cardiovascular System: Heart A. General Info Size of clenched fist Lies in mediastinum Inside Pericardial sac double-layered sac surrounding heart a. Parietal pericardium tough outer layer b. Pericardial cavity filled with pericardial fluid = lubricant c. Visceral pericardium or Epicardium directly contacts surface of heart Behind sternum & ribs (protection) Base: superior top of heart Apex: inferior pointed tip of heart B. Heart Wall 1. 3 layers (exterior to interior) 1. Epicardium epithelium & loose connective tissue 2. Myocardium thick, contractile layers of cardiac muscle (blood vessels & nerves) 3. Endocardium simple squamous epithelium lining heart & valves; continuous with vessels (endothelium) 2. Cardiac Muscle Cells (review) Shorter than skeletal muscle fibers; branching Mono-nucleated Striated (sarcomere organization) Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Depend upon aerobic metabolism (need oxygen!) Connected by intercalated discs: transmit tension & action potential (gap junctions) C. Surface Features 1. Grooves separating various chambers a. Coronary Sulcus groove between atria and ventricles b. Interventricular Sulcus (anterior & posterior) groove between right and left ventricles 2. Sulci contain: a. Coronary arteries and veins - supply and drain the myocardium; b. Filled with protective Internal adipose D. Anatomy 1. Atria - right and left upper chambers receive blood right and left separated by interatrial septum 2. Ventricles - right and left pumping chambers; eject blood from heart right and left separated by interventricular septum thicker myocardium than atria; left ventricle thickest because it pumps blood farther than right ventricle 3. AV (atrioventricular) valves between atria and ventricles are both one-way valves - allow blood to only go from atria to ventricles a. Right - also called tricuspid b. Left - also called bicuspid or mitral c. Chordae tendineae fibrous cords from papillary muscle to cusps of AV valves prevent the AV valves from ballooning up into the atria during ventricular contraction prevent back-flow of blood (regurgitation) AV (atrioventricular) valves continued... d. Papillary muscles cone-shaped muscle projections from the floor of the ventricles contract put tension on the chordae tendineae 4. Semilunar valves prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles a. Pulmonary b. Aortic Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Heart Sounds: 1st Heart sound: (lubb) -- Closing of AV valves 2nd Heart sound: (dupp) -- Closing of semilunar valves Regurgitation backflow of blood through damaged valves; causes heart murmur 5. Fibrous skeleton dense bands of tough elastic connective tissue at base the base of the arteries (aorta, pulm. trunk) and heart valves stabilize position of valves electrically insulate ventricular muscle from atrial E. Blood Vessels 1. General: Arteries carry blood away from heart Capillaries where exchange between cells and blood takes place Veins return blood to the heart 2. Major Vessels Associated with Heart a. Veins - return blood to the heart atria (receiving chambers) i. Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae - return blood from all over body to right atrium - blood is deoxygenated ii. Pulmonary Veins - return blood from lungs to left atrium - blood is freshly oxygenated b. Arteries - eject blood from the heart ventricles (pumping chambers) i. Pulmonary Artery (Pulmonary Trunk) - pumps deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs - contains one-way valve - pulmonary semilunar valve ii. Aorta - pumps oxygenated blood from left ventricle to all parts of body - contains one-way valve - aortic semilunar valve 3. Coronary circulation branch of the systemic circulation that supplies the heart muscle (myocardium) (remember, the heart muscle does not obtain nutrients from the blood inside the four chambers!) meets heavy demands of myocardium for oxygen, nutrients Coronary arteries (right, left) branch from base of aorta Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Anastomoses arterial interconnections; ensure constant blood supply blockage of a major coronary artery causes heart attack (myocardial infarction) Coronary veins combine into the coronary sinus that drains directly into the right atrium F. Blood Flow 1. Two circuits a. Pulmonary circuit (to and from lungs) Pulmonary arteries carry de-oxygenated blood Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood! b. Systemic circuit (to and from rest of body) Left ventricular myocardium much thicker than right Reflects functional difference in workload BUT both ventricles pump equal amounts of blood! 2. Path: starting with the venae cavae... (remember, in reality, blood is filling both sides of the heart at the same time) 1. venae cavae (superior & inferior) 8. pulmonary veins 2. right atrium 9. left atrium 3. right AV valve (tricuspid) 10. left AV valve (bicuspid/mitral) 4. right ventricle 11. left ventricle 5. pulmonary semilunar valve 12. aortic semilunar valve 6. pulmonary artery 13. aorta 7. lungs 3. Foramen ovale opening from right atrium to left atrium (bypass lungs) while lungs are developing in utero (fifth week until birth); seals 48 hrs after birth; small depression remains = fossa ovalis G. The Heartbeat Electrical Events Heartbeat needs two types of Cardiac Muscle Cells: 1. Contractile Cells = provide the pumping action (99% of cardiac muscle cells) Differences between Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Cells: a. Duration of action potential Cardiac action potential has long plateau phase b. Source of Ca++ Extracellular Ca++ enters cell (sarcoplasm) first (release of intracellular Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum comes second and continues the contraction) c. Duration of contraction Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiac muscle has long, slow twitch Cardiac muscle has long refractory period (pause before contracting again) Cardiac muscle can't reach tetanus (sustained contraction) 2. Non-contractile cells of the conducting system Network of specialized cardiac muscle cells (1) Initiate and (2) spread electrical impulses in heart Automaticity/Autorhythmicity Two types: a. Nodal cells = set rate spontaneously depolarize generate action potentials rate can be modified by nervous system, hormones, ions, etc.. i. Sinoatrial Node (SA node) = pacemaker cells Location: wall of right atrium Inherent rate: 70-80 bpm spreads action potential over both atria atria contract first ii. Atrioventricular Node (AV node) Location: floor of right atrium Inherent rate: 40-60 bpm rate is trumped by arrival of impulse from SA node will take over if SA node stops Additional roles: (1) transmits impulse from atria to ventricles (recall the fibrous skeleton insulates) (2) delays impulse briefly to allow atria to finish contracting before ventricles begin. b. Conducting cells = distribute stimulus to myocardium i. Atrioventricular Bundle (AV bundle; Bundle of His) Location: interventricular septum receives impulse from AV node ii. Bundle branches (right and left) conducting branches into right and left ventricles begin to spread impulses into ventricles iii. Purkinje Fibers finger-like extensions of conducting cells spread throughout the ventricles cause contraction of ventricles beginning at the apex base 3. The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood A recording of the electrical activity of the heart Three main components: P wave -- Atrial depolarization (stimulated by SA node) QRS complex -- Ventricular depolarization (AV thru Purkinje) T wave -- Ventricular repolarization 4. Pathology Bradycardia -- heart rate slower than normal (<60 bpm) Tachycardia -- heart rate faster than normal (>100 bpm) Fibrillation -- rapid, uncoordinated contractions Cardiac arrhythmias -- e.g. injury to pacemaker or conduction pathways; exposure to drugs; electrolyte imbalance H. Heartbeat - Mechanical events Cardiac Cycle Systole = contraction period (pressure rising) Diastole = relaxation period (pressure falling) General Rules: Blood moves from high pressure to low pressure Atria and ventricles never contract at same time (one contracts, other fills) atria contract simultaneously; ventricles contract simultaneously Three Steps: 1. Atrial systole a. atria contract (due to impulse from SA node) b. squeeze remaining blood (small amount) into ventricles 2. Ventricular Systole & Atrial Diastole a. ventricles contract b. pressure closes AV valves ("lubb") c. pressure forces semilunar valves open d. blood is ejected into pulmonary trunk and aorta 3. Atrial & Ventricular Diastole a. ventricles relax b. pressure in pulm. trunk and aorta closes semilunar valves ("dupp") c. AV valves re-open Bio186 A&P2 Unit 1: Cardiovascular System: Blood d. blood passively flows through atria down into ventricles * before atria contract, ventricles are already 70% full. Atrial systole begins Atrial diastole begins Cardiac Cycle Ventricular systole begins Ventricular diastole begins Think about it: the 1st & 2nd heart sounds ("lubb, dupp") indicate the start & stop of ventricular systole!

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