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H B m W K 5 K ey V e rs io n # 2 1. In what portion of the plant does photosynthesis takes place? A. mesophyll B. chloroplast C. thylakoid membrane D. grana E. All of the choices are correct. 2. Which of the following is most TRUE about multicellular organisms when compared with unicellular organisms? A. Multicellular organisms carry out specialized functions, while unicellular organisms do not. B. Multicellular organisms can reproduce themselves, while unicellular organisms cannot. C. Multicellular organisms can digest more complex molecules than unicellular organisms. D. Multicellular organisms tend to have larger genomes than unicellular organisms. E. Multicellular organisms show development while unicellular organisms do not. 3. Which of the following has the highest photosynthetic efficiency in hot and dry environments? A. C3 plants B. C4 plants C. plants undergoing photorespiration D. plants that use oxygen to produce sugars E. plants that only produce sugar in the dark 4. Programmed cell death is known as ____. A. meiosis B. cell genesis C. autophagy D. apoptosis E. mitosis 5. Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for the buildup of which molecule? A. ATP B. lactate Anandan 1 B C. carbon dioxide D. ADP E. oxygen 6. Which of the following is NOT a function of the extracellular matrix? A. provides strength B. provides structural support C. provides organization of cells throughout the organism D. provides an important source of energy for the organism E. cell signaling 7. What type of signaling occurs when insulin is secreted from the pancreas and acts on muscle cells to increase glucose uptake? A. contact-to-contact signaling B. intercellular signaling C. autocrine signaling D. paracrine signaling E. endocrine signaling 8. During exposure to elevated glucose, a yeast cell's membrane glucose transporters will rapidly increase so the cell can import glucose. Which would represent the signal for the yeast cell? A. glucose transporters B. glucose receptors C. glucose D. glucose transport into the cell E. glucose kinase 9. This pigment is responsible for the red-yellow coloration seen in leaves during the color change in autumn. A. chlorophyll a B. chlorophyll b C. carotenoids D. porphyrin E. phytol 10. This forms a seal that prevents the movement of substances between cells, for instance from the intestinal lumen into the blood. A. gap junctions B. tight junctions C. desmosomes D. hemidesmosomes E. focal adhesions Anandan 2 B 11. Vanillin is to flavonoids as atropine is to A. flavonoids. B. terpenoids. C. polyketides. D. alkoloids. E. B-carotenes. 12. Adenylyl cyclase is to cAMP as ________ is to IP3. A. protein kinase A B. protein kinase C C. calmodulin D. Raf1 E. phospholipase C 13. The simplest structure shared among all living organisms is the A. gut. B. cell. C. photosynthetic chloroplast. D. community. E. nucleus. 14. The production of second messengers in signal transduction offers at least two advantages, speed and A. specificity. B. amplification. C. one-to-one stochiometry. D. reversibility. E. affinity. 15. Which pathway shows the correct path of electron transfer from a molecule of NADH? A. NADH hydrogenase ubiquinone cytochrome oxidase cytochrome b-c1 cytochrome c O2 B. NADH hydrogenase ubiquinone cytochrome c cytochrome b-c1 cytochrome oxidase O2 C. ubiquinone cytochrome b-c1 cytochrome c cytochrome oxidase NADH hydrogenase O2 D. NADH hydrogenase ubiquinone cytochrome b-c1 cytochrome c cytochrome oxidase O2 E. ubiquinone cytochrome b-c1 cytochrome c NADH hydrogenase cytochrome oxidase O2 Anandan 3 B 16. A substrate binds an enzyme as a signal molecule binds a A. second messenger. B. kinase. C. receptor. D. transcriptional factor. E. G-protein. 17. What is the main role of the pigment molecules within the antenna or light-harvesting complex? A. Oxidize water and release oxygen to the reaction center chlorophyll. B. Absorb photons and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll. C. Synthesize NADPH. D. Pass electrons to the electron transport chain and then to NADPH. E. Increase H+ concentration in the stroma. 18. A key is placed into a keyhole then turned and the door opens. Which of the following components of cell signaling would best correspond to the keyhole? A. the hormone B. the receptor C. conformational change in the receptor once bound to the hormone D. signal transduction E. the cell response 19. Which of the following produces NADPH A. light reactions alone B. the Calvin cycle alone C. both light reactions and the Calvin cycle D. neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle E. NADPH production is not a part of photosynthesis. 20. Which of the following are the final by-products of glucose oxidation during aerobic cell respiration? A. ATP only B. heat only C. carbon dioxide only D. both ATP and heat only E. ATP, heat, and carbon dioxide 21. Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location? A. cytosol B. mitochondrial outer membrane C. mitochondrial inner membrane D. mitochondrial intermembrane space E. mitochondrial matrix Anandan 4 B 22. A key is placed into a keyhole then turned and the door opens. Which of the following components of cell signaling would best correspond to turning the key? A. the hormone B. the receptor C. conformational change in the receptor once bound to the hormone D. signal transduction E. the cell response 23. Which ECM molecule provides structure while allowing certain tissues to expand and contract (e.g., lungs during breathing, intestine during digestion)? A. collagen B. elastin C. fibronectin D. laminin E. glycosaminoglycans 24. Which of the following statements about photorespiration is INCORRECT? A. Photorespiration tends to occur under dry and hot conditions. B. It utilizes oxygen to produce a 3-carbon sugar precursor. C. It liberates CO2. D. It occurs in C3 plants. E. It utilizes the enzyme PEP carboxylase rather than Rubisco to produce 3phosphoglycerate. 25. Which of the following organisms produce organic matter from inorganic molecules? A. photosynthetic bacteria B. plants C. algae D. autotrophs E. All of the choices are correct. 26. Which portion of the photosynthetic apparatus is involved in the oxidation or splitting of water? A. reaction center B. antenna complex C. P680 chlorophyll D. manganese cluster E. light-harvesting 27. complex Which of the following best represents the path of electron flow that occurs during photosynthesis? A. H2OP680Final Electron AcceptorElectron transport chainP700 B. H2OP680Final Electron AcceptorP700Electron transport chain C. P680H2OFinal Electron AcceptorP700Electron transport chain D. P680Final Electron AcceptorH2OElectron transport chainP700 E. P680 Electron transport chainFinal Electron AcceptorH2OP700 Anandan 5 B 28. The KD or dissociation constant between a receptor and its hormone/ligand is A. a measure of the binding affinity the receptor has for the hormone. B. the hormone concentration where half the receptors are bound to hormone. C. the hormone concentration where all of the receptors are bound to hormone. D. both a measure of the binding affinity the receptor has for the hormone and the hormone concentration where half the receptors are bound to hormone. E. both a measure of the binding affinity the receptor has for the hormone and the hormone concentration where all the receptors are bound to hormone. 29. During photosynthesis, the energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to A. produce glucose. B. fix CO2. C. generate an electrochemical H+ gradient across a membrane. D. oxidize water. E. boost energy levels of pigment electrons. 30. What type of cell communication is said to occur if a cell secretes a growth factor that then acts on neighboring cells to cause them to proliferate? A. contact-to-contact signaling B. intercellular signaling C. autocrine signaling D. paracrine signaling E. endocrine signaling 31. Gap junctions are to animal cells as ________ are to plant cells? A. middle lamella B. hemidesmosomes C. plasmodesmata D. primary cell walls E. tight junctions 32. What do G-protein coupled, enzyme-linked, and ligand-gated ion channel receptors have in common? A. They are all linked to protein kinase activation. B. They associate with protein bound to guanidine phosphates. C. They open ion channels. D. They bind similar hormones. E. They change their conformation when bound to a hormone. 33. Estrogen is most likely to exert its effects by regulating A. protein kinases. B. phopholipase C. C. expression of genes and production of specific proteins. D. cyclic AMP. E. Ca2+. Anandan 6 B 34. This is a tool that enables researchers to study the structure and function of cells. A. magnifying glass B. B. microscope C. tunneling assay D. digital recording E. differential centrifugation 35. How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced from each molecule of glucose in the citric acid cycle only? A. 4 ATP, 2 NADH B. 3 ATP, 4 NADH C. 2 ATP, 6 NADH D. 1 ATP, 2 NADH E. 0 ATP, 6 NADH 36. This polysaccharide is an important ECM component for the exoskeleton of many insects and shellfish. A. proteoglycan B. glycosaminoglycans C. collagen D. chitin E. laminin 37. Which would be TRUE if a metabolic poison were to completely inhibit the function of mitochondrial ATP synthase? A. The pH difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane would decrease. B. The pH difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane would increase. C. ATP synthesis would increase. D. Oxygen consumption would decrease. E. The accumulation of NADH would increase. 38. Assuming a fat molecule can be oxidized into 2 glycerol molecules, which are immediately converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, in intermediate glycolysis, how many ATP can be produced from a fat molecule? A. 4 B. 8 C. 24 D. 36 E. 60 39. Which of the following is NOT a function of cellular junctions? A. Cellular junctions hold adjacent cells together. B. Cellular junctions prevent leakage of materials between cell layers. C. Cellular junctions permit the direct exchange of small molecules between cytosol of adjacent cells. Anandan 7 B D. Cellular junctions bond cells to their ECM. E. Cellular junctions promote the motility of adjacent cells. 40. A chemical reaction that has a positive G is correctly described as A. endergonic. B. endothermic. C. enthalpic. D. spontaneous E. exothermic. 41. A scientist produces an artificial membrane from phospholipids and notices that oxygen, but not glucose readily moves through the membrane. What might account for the inability of glucose to move through the artificial membrane? A. The artificial membrane lacked a protein needed for glucose transport. B. The artificial membrane lacked the appropriate types of phospholipids for glucose transport. C. Oxygen readily passes through the membrane, so glucose should have as well. D. The membrane lacked an adequate amount of amphipathic molecules for glucose transport. E. Thermodynamics does not allow glucose to pass through membranes produced either artificially or from living organisms. 42. Which of the following is NOT considered a secondary metabolite? A. glucose B. flavonoids C. terpenoids D. alkoloids E. polyketides 43. Which of the following is NOT a component of plasma membranes? A. glycosylated proteins B. phospholipids C. glycolipids D. glycosylated nucleic acids E. cholesterol 44. The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by A. substrate-level phosphorylation. B. electron transport. C. photophosphorylation. D. chemisosmosis. E. oxidation of NADH to NAD+ Anandan 8 B 45. With which type of microscopy would one observe three-dimensional structure? A. fluorescence microscopy B. standard light microscopy C. C. confocal microscopy D. differential-interference light microscopy E. transmission electron microscopy 46. The bones and cartilage in animals serve the same function as ________ in plants? A. leaves B. phloem C. capillaries D. wood E. xylem 47. Cellular respiration produces the most chemical in the form of ATP from which of the following? A. the electron transport chain B. the citric acid cycle C. substrate-level phosphorylation D. glycolysis E. oxidative phosphorylation 48. Using 14CO2 as a radioactive tracer, which of the following molecules would be the last to incorporate 14C within the Calvin cycle? A. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) B. 1,3-biphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) C. 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG) D. ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) E. rubisco 49. The enzyme responsible for oxidizing pyruvate once it enters the mitochondrial matrix is A. pyruvate oxidase B. pyruvate dehydrogenase. C. hexokinase D. ATP synthase. E. peptidase. 50. Water held behind a dam would best reflect ______. A. potential energy B. kinetic energy C. chemical energy D. heat energy E. mechanical energy Anandan 9 ... View Full Document

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