Exercise (Chapter 10)
36 Pages

Exercise (Chapter 10)

Course Number: EXSS EXSS 141, Summer 2010

College/University: UNC

Word Count: 1319

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Exercise for Health and Fitness Chapter 10 What is Physical Fitness? The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort in relation to both general health and specific activities. Five components of fitness: Cardiorespiratory endurance: Muscular Strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition 2 Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance-ability of heart and lungs to...

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for Exercise Health and Fitness Chapter 10 What is Physical Fitness? The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort in relation to both general health and specific activities. Five components of fitness: Cardiorespiratory endurance: Muscular Strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition 2 Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance-ability of heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to working muscles for sustained activity Muscular Endurance- ability of muscle to sustain a given level of muscle tension (holding a single contraction for an extended period of time or contracting muscles repeatedly for an extended period of time) Muscular Strengthability of a muscle to generate maximum force against heavy resistance Flexibility- ability to move joints through their full range of motion Body Compositionamount of lean body tissue 3 vs. body fat Benefits of Exercise Increases energy levels Boosts the immune system and helps to prevent many diseases. Improves cardiorespiratory function and reduces chances of CV diseases. Increases resting metabolic rate (RMR). Improves the processes by which food is converted to energy and tissue is built Improves body composition. 4 Benefits of Exercise Improves blood lipid profile by increasing HDLs Improves blood pressure (decreases hypertension) Improves bone mineral status Decreases risk of Osteoporosis Decreases risk of Diabetes (Type II) through better blood glucose regulation 5 Benefits of Exercise Improves emotional Wellness Decreases stress Decreases likelihood of smoking Decreases risk of musculoskeletal disorders Decreases risk of certain cancers 6 Other Key Terminology Aerobic Metabolism Occurs when activity is prolonged Involves the utilization of oxygen Anaerobic Metabolism Kicks in when short bursts of energy are required Does NOT involve the utilization of oxygen 7 Other Key Terminology Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2 Max) Greatest rate at which oxygen can be taken in and utilized during exercise Volume of oxygen used relative to body wt. per unit of time (measured in a laboratory setting) Normal values for males and females (ages 15 25 years) range from 38-46 ml/kg/min Elite athletes may range from 60-70 ml/kg/min and 70-80 ml/kg/min for females and males, respectively 8 Complete Fitness Program Cardiorespiratory Endurance Muscular Strength and Endurance Flexibility Skill Training - incorporating exercise into an physical activity or sport which is enjoyed 9 Putting Together Your Own Program Set Goals Select Activities Make a Commitment Begin and Maintain your Program Record and Assess your Progress Current fitness level should determine starting point and how and when to increase physical activity. FITNESS= FUN= HEALTHY LIFESTYLE 10 Designing Your Fitness Program Get medical clearance before developing and participating in a fitness program. Pick activities you will enjoy!!! Basic Principles of Physical Training Overload principle- increasing the amount of tension creating an adaptation to the new levels of strength Frequency- the # of repetitions of an action or the # of days/per week a particular activity should be performed Intensity- the amount of resistance applied Duration- the number of minutes per activity or session 11 The Overload Principle For a physical component of fitness to improve, the system must work harder than it is accustomed to work. SAID Principle (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demand) Indicates that, over time, the body will adapt to stress based on the demands it encounters 12 Getting Started and Staying on Track Select the best equipment you can afford. Maintain a well-balanced diet and adequate hydration. Manage your fitness program so that it becomes an integral part of your day. Be CONSISTENT- this is the KEY to improvement 13 Diminishing Returns The greatest gains will be seen early in the training program. Following initial gains, progress will continue with milder gains and plateaus. Fitness benefits are only sustained with MAINTENANCE of an exercise program. 14 Designing an Exercise Program 1. Warm-up 1. Large muscle low intensity exercise for 5-20 minutes 2. Active and/or passive flexibility exercises for 10- 20 minutes 2. Fitness Workout 3. Cool Down 1. 5- 10 minutes of large muscle, low intensity exercise 2. 5- 15 minutes of flexibility exercises 15 Cardiorespiratory Endurance Workout To Determine Target Heart Rate Zone (THRZ) 220 - Age = Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) MHR X 65% = lower target heart rate w/in range MHR X 90% = upper target heart rate w/in range Type of Activity -Large muscle, sustained activity duration (ie: walking, jogging, swimming, biking, C.C. skiing, etc.) Frequency - 3-6 days/week Intensity - 65-90% of MHR Duration - 20-60 minutes/ bout 16 THRZ Recommendations 80-90% MHR- to improve performance. No medical problems 70-80% MHR exercise regularly on a weekly schedule. No medical problems 60-70% MHR beginning an exercise program. No medical problems <60% previously sedentary, unfit, rehabilitating after injury,or medical problem 17 Muscular Strength and Endurance Equipment- (weight machines, free weights, resistance bands, body weight) Both men and women can increase strength and endurance through resistive training Men typically develop larger muscle mass (hypertrophy) because of higher levels of testosterone Women tend to develop more defined muscles with less mass (tone) 18 19 TwoTypesofMuscularContractions 20 21 22 23 How to determine how much resistance is needed while wt.training 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) 45-60% of 1RM= Endurance 60-80% of 1RM= Hypertrophy 85-100% of 1RM= Maximum Strength Building 24 Circuit Training Combination of exercise stations 8 - 12 stations, 3 times through Design for different training goals Flexibility Calisthenics Aerobic exercise 25 Functional Training Uses integrated exercises designed to improve functional movement patterns Training for strength and neuromuscular control Training in 3 planes of motion Involves integration of proprioceptive feedback to perform tri-planar movement tasks Avoids isolated single plane training Also works on core strength and flexibility 26 Calisthenic Strengthening Exercises Enjoyable exercise that is not always regimented Used to enhance muscular strength Free exercise Isotonic training that utilizes gravity and body weight as resistance No weights are required 27 Core Stabilization Training The core is the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex Center of gravity is located there Core training works to improve Dynamic postural control Muscular balance Functional strength Neuromuscular efficiency Body must be adequately stabilized Allows muscles (prime movers) to generate strong, powerful, movements 28 Core Stabilization Techniques Weak core can lead to inefficient movements and potential injury Core training plan Should be systematic, progressive and functional Needs to be safe, challenging, stress multiple plans, and incorporate a variety of resistance equipment Begin with exercises that allow for stability and neuromuscular control 29 Flexibility Necessary to maintain full R.O.M. Static stretching- NO BOUNCING (no ballistic movement). Active stretching involves stretching a muscle by contraction of the opposing muscle. Passive stretching involves holding a muscle in a stretched position for a period of time. Complete flexibility workout should-. include 3-5 repetitions with a count of 15-30 seconds each. include a period of rest for 5-60 seconds between repetitions last approximately 10-30 minutes. be performed 3- 7 days/ week. 30 Exercise Hydration Guidelines Before Exercise 2-3 hours before exercise drink 17-20 oz. of water or a sports drink 10-20 minutes before exercise drink another 710 oz. of water or a sports drink 31 Exercise Hydration Guidelines During Exercise Drink at least 7-10 oz. of water or sports drink every 10-20 minutes To maintain hydration, remember to drink beyond your thirst. Optimally, drink fluids based on amount of sweat and urine loss. Remember, even minimal dehydration compromises performance. 32 Exercise Hydration Guidelines After Exercise Within 2 hours, drink enough to replace any weight loss from exercise. Drink approximately 20-24 oz. of a sports drink per pound of weight loss 33 Hydration Tips By the time you become thirsty, youre already dehydrated. (The thirst mechanism is NOT a good indicator of when and how much you need to drink.) Avoid soft drinks and juice during play. The high amount of carbohydrates in those beverages may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and disturbance. 34 Hydration Tips Beverages containing caffeine, alcohol and carbonation are discouraged during activity because they can dehydrate the body by stimulating excess urine production or by decreasing voluntary fluid intake. 35 Care for injuries that may occur. Preventing and Managing Athletic Injuries P.R.I.C.E. (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) Maintain good physical fitness Warm-up and cool-down during every exercise session Use proper body mechanics Limit strenuous exercise when acutely ill Use appropriate equipment Return to exercise intensity gradually following injury 36

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