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4: Chapter Biological beginnings to Human Culture Anthropology is a bio-cultural science. I) Evolution through Physical Adaptation A) a series of changes in the genetic make-up of populations adapts organisms to their environment over very long periods of time. B) C) Natural Selection is the mechanism by which evolution appears to be carried out. Humans, like all living organisms, are subject to the processes of natural selection. Cultural Adaptation is not the same as physical evolution, but evolution can serve as a general model. Humans do not only adapt to the environment through physical change; we shape our environment to suit human needs and desires. The point of this chapter is to trace the beginnings of human culture by looking for clues in the ancestral records. D) II. Humans and Other Primates (yes, humans are primates) A) Humans are closely related genetically to other species in the Primate Order. Name the other great apes. Why do primatologists study primates, especially great apes? Because human culture is rooted in our mammalian primate biology... meaning? B) Primates have a specific set of physical characteristics derived as adaptive to their early arboreal environment (life in the trees): 1) progressively generalized dentition (omnivore diet = able to eat anything) 2) reduction in sense of smell (although new research indicates that as much as 5% of human DNA is devoted to sense of smell, more than any other physical sense!) 3) stereoscopic vision for accuracy in judging distance and depth 4) acute sense of touch (sensitive finger and toe pads protected by nails, not claws) 5) brain: enlarged cerebral cortex led to developing flexible behavior patterns 6) skeletal structure: flexible, generalized, led to opposable thumb for grasping and flexible shoulder arrangement for brachiation (ability to swing arms directly overhead) Primate Behavioral Characteristics: adaptation through learned behavior 1) Chimpanzees and Bonobos exhibit many human cultural characteristics presumably found in our genetic common ancestors: a) social animals; larger groups divided into smaller sub-groups b) dominance and status hierarchies, physical and emotional manipulation c) grooming behavior, food-sharing, communal hunting, political alliances d) codes of sexual behavior: sex is not just for procreation. Both bonobos and humans have hidden estrus or concealed ovulation, which contributes to sexual receptivity for social reasons and pleasure. e) enormous capacity for learning complex cultural behaviors, including making and using tools 2) 3) 4) Note the cultural differences and motivations for hunting practices between the Gombe chimps (mating) and the Tai National Park chimps (group cohesion and status reward). Note different sexual practices between chimpanzees and bonobos Tool making and rudimentary culture are found in chimpanzee populations C) Original Study: Reconciliation and Its Cultural Modification in Primates Reconcilliation strategies: fighting and making up among bonobos (use of sex to release tension and diffuse a potentially aggressive conflict; mediation amongst chimpanzees (how does this work?); rhesus monkeys can learn reconciliation behavior. Noted Anthropologists: primatologists Jane Goodall and Kinji Imanishi study behaviors in other primates and often find analogies for early primate origins of human behavior. III) A) When and How did modern humans evolve? Genetically, humans are more than 98.5% identical to chimpanzees. The genetic split between these two species occurred about 6-9 million years ago (mya) as calculated by extending known rates of spontaneous genetic mutations. (Note species relationships cladogram on pg. 79.) B) first defining hominid family characteristic = bipedalism (walking fully upright). New evidence of bipedalism close to split with common ancestor dated to 6-7 mya in Africa. Chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans are knuckle walkers, not fully upright walkers. Bipedalism may have been a pre-adaptive condition in the earliest human lineage. Some anthropologists include the genus Australopithicus (3.8 - 3.0 m.y.a.) including the specimen known as Lucy in the human lineage. The Savannah Hypothesis suggests that bipedalism was selected for in human ancestors because of the various advantages it confers (pg. 80-81). C) Homo habilis (2.5 m.y.a.), name means handyman because stone tools have been found in vicinity of these fossils. H. habilis is found only in Africa. H. habilis was probably a food forager and scavenger (NOT hunter), using crude stone tools (Olduwan technology) to break open large animal bones so they could eat the protein-rich marrow, or to scrape off scraps of meat left after predators had finished eating. The protein problem = how to obtain enough high-quality protein to fuel brain growth. Protein from meat sources adds essential amino acids materials in an omnivorous diet. This new food source appears to have spurred brain growth and development in early Homo species. Understand: 1) the role of tool making in the growth of brain functions: a) conceptualization (mental template), planning b) creation, replication c) teaching the technique to others (symbolic communication) as brain size-to-body size increased, so also did cultural development food sharing, especially meat, reinforces social alliances 2) 3) D) Homo erectus (1.8 mya), moved out of Africa, populate old-world temperate zones Implied cultural adaptations to environment: 1) control of fire implies social groups; hearths imply relative warmth and perhaps cooked food, even the beginnings of social communication What are the advantages of cooking your food? tenderizes food, detoxifies poisonous plants, aids in absorption of newly-available nutrients, adds complex carbs to the diet 2) 3) cave dwelling shows planning ability in setting up a home base, and group solidarity to clear out other inhabitants, perhaps beginnings of language? complex tools reflect further abilities to teach and learn (cultural behavior) E) Ancient Homo (about 500,000 years ago) progressively more modern human looking. There were several species of cousins to modern humans. Homo sapiens neandertalensis (Neandertals) (classic Neandertal period = 130,000 30,000 y.a.) related human species: Mousterian tool technology, used fire, deliberately buried their dead (perhaps indicating religious rituals and ideals), cared for their disabled and elderly. Interesting cold-weather physical adaptations; probably died out under combined pressures from climate change and encroaching new modern Homo sapiens. F) Homo sapiens (about 200,000 years ago to present) the last surviving species of the genus Homo (unless you count Big Foot and Yeti sightings) 1) considerable physical variation but only one species. 2) archaeological record beginning about 40,000 years onwards reveals rich display of human cultural expression: cave paintings, personal adornments, musical instruments, ceremonial burials with grave goods, status symbols, etc. about this time (40,000 y.a.), Culture became humans primary mode of adaptation to environment (not biological adaptation). Humans continue to evolve genetically, but now solve most of the problems of human existence through cultural ideas methods: conceptual thought and symbolic behavior. 3) (We will not discuss the African origins vs. multiregional genesis origins of modern humans in this class. Please read for general information, but take Physical Anthro for the fuller picture.) IV) A) B) Race and Human Evolution Race as a social construct: assigning cultural ideas of innate superiority (physical or mental) to phenotypic variation Race as a biological construct: there is no biological basis for race, nor are there any specific definitions for racial categories: no exclusive possession of any particular variant of any gene or genes. Skin Color: A Case Study in Adaptation Melanin, Vitamin D and rickets; UV radiation and folate: understand the relationships C) Cultural Construction of Race I) The concept of race is used to differentiate and classify groups of people, usually based on phenotypic variation (visually detectible physical traits such as skin color, hair texture, body odor, facial features, etc.) There is only one species of modern human (Homo sapiens) alive today, in spite of all of our surface variations. Race has no biological basis; Racism however is a very real cultural practice, culturally reinforcing ideas of prejudice and discrimination that have no scientific basis. The story of Race can be used to justify social/economic/political policies and agendas. Existing power distributions, over time, can take on the appearance of being the normal social order. II) The Tripartite System of racial classification: Black / White / Yellow (where do Native Americans fit in?) A) based on skin color and gradations produced by varying amounts of melanin found in and distributed throughout outer layers of skin. Nina Jablonskis recent work (CA Academy of Science in S.F.) conclusively demonstrates that skin color evolved as an adaptive result of natural selection and has changed many times in human populations over the last 2.5 million years in response to climate and geographical shifts. B) If there is no biological basis for defining race, we are then left with the problem of culturally defining who is us and them. Ethnic groups are created on the basis of shared cultural, linguistic and general physical characteristics, and over time it has become assumed that these ethnic groups have a shared biological basis defined as race. The Rule of Hypodescent Socio-cultural identification of children of mixed-race unions with the darker racial classification. Helps create and maintain division and discrimination. Think about it: in our modern scientific world, it is the ethnocentric Northern European male in a hierarchal position of authority who created many of our supposedly valid perceptions of race. If anthropology had been defined by, say, Japanese or Australian Aborigine scientists, there may have been a different set of valid racial classifications. C) D) III. Intrinsic Racism: the belief that a perceived racial difference is enough to devalue a group of people. A) Doctrine of Innate Superiority: the idea that certain groups are hereditarily incapable of performing as well as others. Examples: the myth that Native Americans cannot hold their liquor as well as European-Americans. Another myth: that test scores prove superior intelligence of one race over another. Study after study show that IQ directly correlates with economic background, exposure to opportunities in middle-class environment, and years of formal education. Go back to the Biocultural Connection highlighted box on page 82. Modern humans world-wide have essentially the same genetic make-up as people of 10,000 years ago, when almost all people lived in hunter/gatherer populations. Low-calorie, high fiber, unprocessed foods from a wide variety of sources, coupled with high levels of physical activity and low-level technology with which to exercise limited control over environment = no natural rise in blood pressure with age! No natural hearing loss, or chronic diseases associated with being overweight or old: no heart disease, hypertension, stoke, cancer, cirrhosis or diabetes. These diseases of civilization are brought about by our modern lifestyle and environment. Another interesting point: natural birth control was (and still is) practiced for thousands of years by hunter-gatherer peoples around the world. Births are usually spaced about three to four years apart. This is accomplished through the combined side effects of low-fat diets, high levels of exercise and prolonged on-demand lactation. Girls need a certain level of lipids (fats) in their diet to initiate puberty. In hunter-gatherer populations that balance is not usually reached until girls are well into their teen years. In modern American society, it is not unusual for a 10-year old girl to start having her periods. Thats 4th grade! The average age of menses onset in the U.S.A. has been steadily dropping over the last 50 years, and correlates with the increasing availability of sugar and fat-laden processed fast foods. Read Fast Food Nation for an eye-opening look at the American diet. On-demand, prolonged lactation (breast feeding) in hunter/gatherer societies is part of a mothers daily life. The key words here are on demand and prolonged. Infants are carried almost all the time so their feeding needs are easily met, and co-sleeping for two or three years makes it convenient for a mother to feed and comfort an infant/young child. Yes, on-demand lactation continues for two to three years. This simply is not possible for most of us in our isolated, technologically complex working environments! Chapter 5: Language I. What is Language? A complete, open-ended system of symbolic communication. The human species is hard-wired for language, but the language you speak is culture-specific and learned. For example, a baby born in Tibet and of Tibetan ancestry who was removed from her Tibetan home and raised by adoptive parents of Navajo ancestry on the Navajo reservation in New Mexico would learn to think and speak in the Navajo language, not the language of her biological ancestry. Humans communicate through the use of symbols (sounds or gestures that have culturally assigned meaning) and signals (instinctive sounds or gestures that have a self-evident meaning). Other animals appear to communicate in ways that approximate language and we all have our favorites, but remember that Anthropology is the study of HUMAN behavior! Original Study: Intellectual Abilities of Orangutans Chantek the orangutan learned to communicate in English through various forms of sign language. He also displayed considerable evidence of understanding the culture of his keepers. Does this make him human? How do you feel about enculturated apes? II. The Nature of Language: Linguistics = the systematic study of all aspects of Language There are an infinite number of sound combinations possible for humans to make, but no human language uses more than about 50 combinations. All 6,000+ languages world-wide today are organized in the following manner but according to their own specific rules: A) Descriptive Linguistics: recording, describing, analyzing the structure of language Sounds and gestures are arbitrary in themselves but are imbued with meaning in a given cultural context. This system of communication is governed by the rules of language: 1) Phonology: the study of language sounds phoneme: the smallest unit of sound that make a difference in meaning 2) Morphology: patterns or rules of word formations in a language morpheme: the smallest unit of sound that has cultural meaning (usually words) 3) Syntax : patterns or rules for constructing meaningful and coherent phrases and sentences 4) Grammar: all of the above, plus lexicon (vocabulary) of a given society Anthropologists try to approach the study of a foreign language in terms of its own inner workings (rather than similarities or differences with the researchers own language). Anthropologists also have to have very finely tuned hearing to catch the subtle sounds of an unfamiliar language. For example, say the word chad out loud. What did you hear? Did you hear the t at the beginning of the word? Did you hear the uh sound at the end of the word? As a Linguistic Anthropologist, you would have to be aware of these sounds, and understand whether or not those little sounds had cultural meaning! B) Note the Biology of Human Speech biocultural connection special section. Although other primates appear to have at least some form of language, only humans are physically capable of actual speech. The lowered larynx and epiglottis in humans (compared to other primates) make it possible for humans to talk and other apes not. C) Historical Linguistics Linguistic divergence and language families: important tools that illustrate the tendency for isolated human populations to develop cultural differences specific to their linguistic identity over time: group solidarity, group exclusion All languages change over time as part of a dynamic, viable culture. Modern languages change at a relatively slow rate that is perceptible between generations. For example, the following sentence For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, the oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely when he himself might his quietus make with a bare bodkin? made perfect sense in England in 1600 but its meaning is not obvious today. Historic language changes over long periods of time include pronunciation changes that follow a predictable and cultural-specific pattern. The diagram on page 107 shows a linguistic tree for modern Germanic languages, with earlier branches leading to modern Italic and Celtic/Gaelic languages, all from a 6,000 year old Proto-Indo-European root stock. By studying linguistic divergence, anthropologists can track migrations, see the effects of globalization, take note of technological advances, and monitor language loss and revival. Linguistic Nationalism is useful for maintaining or resurrecting a sense of ethnic identity (Anthropology Applied: Language Renewal among the Northern Ute). II. Language A) and Thought Sociolinguistics: Language and Gender (gendered speech): do women and men speak different languages? Not really, but men and women use language in different ways. In effect, women and men have distinct speech patterns. As the old joke goes, its not what s/he said so much as the way s/he said it! Social Dialects and Code-switching Language studies also focus on dialects that reflect both regional differences and class / status differences in various populations. Social Dialects are regional variations of the same language, usually with region-specific vocabulary in addition to the core vocabulary. Code-switching is practiced by individuals every day as we shift between home environments to work environments to different social environments, etc. Would you talk to your mother the same way as you would talk to your little brother? Would you talk to your boss (work environment) the same way you talk to your best friend (social environment)? Heads Up! Why should you care about this? People who do not understand why they did not get the job they interviewed for would benefit from reviewing their code-switching skills. Ask yourself, was my language appropriate for the setting? Ethnolinguistics: the study of the relationship between language and a specific culture. What does a culture specific vocabulary tell us about the importance of a particular aspect of that groups natural environment? B) Language Determinism (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis): Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf suggested that language is more than an encoding process: Language is a shaping force. It shapes our thoughts and filters our perceptions of reality by creating habitual grooves of expression that predispose people to look at the world in a certain way (determining how we perceive reality, and directing our thinking and cultural behavior.) Examples: The Hopi do not have the urgent value placed on linear time as in the Western clockfixated world. Hopi time therefore has no segmented hour system. Notice the opportunity for cultural misunderstanding in the Hopi example about running. C) Reaction to Sapir-Whorf hypothesis = Language Reflects (rather than determines) Cultural Reality. The primary communicative purpose for language is to reflect what is important in a culture. As culture changes, language changes to keep up. Example: 400 words for cattle in the nomadic Nuer culture of Kenya. As the Nuer trade their nomadic existence for sedentary jobs in the city, most of their cattle language will atrophy from lack of use, and their language will change to reflect their new circumstances. Language is a combination of both functions: determining our perceptions of what is possible AND reflecting that which has value in any given culture. What does a study of our language say about American Culture? D) III. Gesture / Call system (probably present in common ancestor prior to 6 million years ago) What percent of the emotional content of communication is conveyed through body language and tone of voice? At least 90%! A) Kinesics (body language): more than just posture a) involuntary expressions are inherited physical characteristics (basic facial expressions) that can be culturally exaggerated or repressed b) learned responses (hand gestures, head shaking, eye contact, etc.) are culturally constructed and vary considerably from society to society. c) note gender differences! These are also learned responses. Proxemics: personal space and communal space. Very important for business people, diplomats, others involved in intercultural work. Intimate space, personal/casual space, social/consultive space and appropriate public distances are culture-specific. Example: I lived and worked in Dubai for four years. It was not unusual to see two unrelated men walking down the street and occasionally holding each others hand or otherwise touching each other during their conversation. Conversely, I never saw a local man and woman holding hands in public, even if they were married to each other. Another example: during my years in Hong Kong, Kenya and Europe, I observed vastly different ideas of culturally appropriate personal space. C) paralanguage (inflection, tone of voice) not what was said but how it was voiced Cries and other utterances, both voluntary and involuntary 1) voice qualities (pitch, articulation, tempo, etc.) reflect physiological states (anatomical, emotional) 2) vocalizations reflect a speakers attitude and cultural framework (intensity, uh oh , mmm-hmm segregates) B) C) Tonal Languages: about 70% of the worlds modern languages are tonal: the pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its meaning. If you get the tone or inflection wrong, you have changed the word entirely. No matter how, when or where they started, ALL languages world-wide are complex and sophisticated communication systems, adequate to express and discuss anything of value in that particular culture. Languages change (evolve) to meet the needs of a changing cultural value system. III. IV. From Speech to Writing Until very recently in the human experience, all languages were communicated in oral (or gesture/call) form. Advantages of an oral system of communication include heightened listening skills and inter-personal skills, and great prestige for orators. Disadvantages include the devastating loss of traditions when the last speaker dies. Look at the section on Literacy in Our Globalizing World on pg. 121 of your textbook. Why does the world population need to be literate? Is this an ethnocentric statement? Article: A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication (Maltz/Borker) Basic premise of this article is that men and women exist in different socio-linguistic subcultures, due to our early enculturation. Pay attention to the sections on the world of girls and world of boys and how these two worlds lead to different styles and purposes of communications. Male-female miscommunications often result when each party assumes that the other has the same understanding of words and paralanguage. After all, we both speak the same language or do we? Consider the following: (from Gender in the Workplace compiled by G. Boucher, Los Medanos College Behavioral Science Department, Pittsburg, CA) How to Tell a Business MAN from a Business WOMAN A businessman is aggressive He is careful about details He follows through He exercises authority He climbed the ladder of success He is firm He is a stern taskmaster What do YOU think? Chapter 6: Social Identity, Personality and Gender I) Nurture vs. Nature A) John Lockes Tabula Rasa (blank slate idea of human personalities) B) Genetics: potential and limitations of personality/ character development C) Personality is influenced by both genetic parameters and cultural experience Points to consider: Biologically inherited characteristics: certain levels of aggression, bio-chemical disorders (bi-polar, schizophrenia, etc.), male or female hormones + Enculturated characteristics (learned behavior responses within culturally constructed parameters) = An individuals personality is the result of accumulated experiences and culturally defined expression. What we learn is as important as how we learn it. Questions: Are there natural gender personalities? Is there a natural and inevitable Generation Gap? Read this chapter carefully for the surprising answers. Remember, much of what you think is natural is actually culturally constructed! II) Enculturation: teaching behavior and ideology to children of a society A) Agents of Enculturation 1) primary caregiver (usually mother, father) A businesswoman is pushy She is picky She doesnt know when to quit She is bossy She slept her way to the top She is stubborn She is difficult to work for 2) 3) 4) 5) B) immediate household or family, including grandparents, siblings, etc. friends and social groups: peers teachers, religious personnel, social authority figures, etc. media (this is not in your book) Development of Self-Awareness: Self-perception and Separation: Counter-intuitive to American thinking, early separation between infants and caregivers limits the interactive stimulation necessary for healthy infant development and actually delays independence. Note comparison: 15-week old Ju/hoansi child in contact with mother 70% of the time, American home-reared infants 20% of the time. Note physical advantages of breast-fed infants. (Refer back to the co-sleeping practices on page 6) Compare North American infant self-awareness (usually around 2 to 2 years old) with that of a Ju/hoansi infant (usually between 12 and 18 months old). This key identity ingredient is delayed in American infants through our cultural handling of young children, who generally are in physical contact with their primary caregiver only about 20% of each 24-hour period. Interesting idea: there has been a dramatic rise in ADD/ADHA among children in America over the past twenty years, right around the time that double incomes (both parents working) became necessary for a family to achieve and maintain a middle-class lifestyle. Could there be a connection? C) Personal naming Without a name, an individual has no identity. Explore the rituals associated with naming. Why do we name our cars? Why name your pet? Why name your child? One reason: to establish and maintain both ownership and relationships. Naming rituals are culture specific and often reflect cultural values. (Note ethnic examples in textbook.) D) Behavioral environment 1) Object orientation: perceived environment and our place in the universe Example: Mbuti foragers and Ituri farmers. The jungle environment of the Ituri Rain Forest in Congo is perceived very differently by two of the ethnic groups that inhabit the region. The Mbuti are a hunter-gatherer society who perceive the forest as a welcoming, nurturing environment and as such, children grow up with a love of and trust in the wonders of their habitat. The Ituri are farmers who fight the encroaching forest every day as it threatens their livelihood . Consequently, Ituri children grow up fearful of the despised jungle that must be controlled. 2) 3) 4) III) Spatial orientation: navigating from one place (or one thing) to another Temporal orientation: place in time (connecting past-present-future) Normative orientation: the normal or acceptable moral values, ideas, principles in a given community. Personality A) Gender roles are culturally constructed, not automatic, fixed or defined along biological lines. Note three points of Margaret Meads work: a) Arapesh: gender egalitarian, both men and women exhibit feminine cultural traits: cooperative, nurturing, gentle b) Mundugamor: gender egalitarian, both women and men exhibit masculine traits: individualistic, assertive, volatile, aggressive c) Gender dominance (men or women) is a social construction! Note the Ju/hoansi example: what happens to male and female personality training when the society shifts from traditional nomadic hunter-gatherer communities to settled farming communities? Read the handout: Im Glad Im a Boy, Im Glad Im A Girl. This is a real book by Whitney Darrow, Jr., published in 1969. These were the prevailing attitudes of the day 40 years ago in the U.S.A. The Womens Liberation Movement of the 1970s helped bring gender equality to the workplace. On the other hand, there are some who would argue that the breakdown of traditional American society started when these rigid gender roles became blurred over the past 40 years. What does it mean to be a man in a society where a woman can do anything a man can do, and visa-versa? B) Dependence Training and Independence Training Dependence training socializes people to think of themselves in terms of the larger group, and is reflected in cultural tendencies to give cooperative help with little individual attention Independence training emphasizes individualism, self-reliance and personal achievement and is reflected in the need for individual satisfaction as a measurement of success. Most cultures reflect a combination of independence and dependence training Comparison: Dependence Supportive of childs immediate needs Requires communal chores at early age Discourages aggression and competition Insists on obedience to the family Subordinate the self on behalf of the group Identity is largely associated with being part of the community C) Independence Emphasizes individual achievement Might require a few non-essential chores Encourages competition (group or personal) Often encourages assertiveness Value leadership and assertive behavior Individual expression and recognition are often important cultural values Group Personality Culture is a generalized amalgamation of acceptable behaviors. As such, there is a wide range of individual variations. The most visible cultural characteristics reflect an assumed cultural personality. Modal personality is a statistical approach to ascertaining cultural personality, but again it generalizes and leaves out individual personality variation. National character studies have the nasty side effect of becoming vehicles for ethnic prejudice and stereotyping. Core Values: whats the difference between national character and core values? (anthropologist Francis Hsu) D) E) F) Anthropologists of Note: Margaret Mead: Coming of Age in Samoa. Other factors that contribute to the cultural creation of the generation gap in modern America include Child Labor Laws, compulsory secondary education, extended childhood dependence without adult status recognition at odds with physical and sexual maturity. Ruth Benedict: National Character studies = Deviance is caused by a conflict between innate personality and the norms of culture. Now discredited ideas, but helped bring focus to the reality of cultural variation. Patterns of Culture and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword) are fascinating glimpses of the wartime mindset of an American anthropologist in the 1940s. IV) Alternative Gender Models? This is going to stretch your credibility Original Study: The Blessed Curse Euro-American vs. Native American (Cherokee) views on intersexed individuals. In the U.S., there are only two socially acceptable sexes, and gender roles are closely bound to sex roles. On many Native American reservations, there are at least three physical sexual identity possibilities and at least three gender roles (man, woman, berdache) that can change in different stages of life. Both cultures consider their point of view to be right (ethnocentrism) and normal (culture-bound perspective) Review the difference between biologically determined sexual identity (male, female, intersexed) and culturally constructed gender identity (man, woman, berdache) A) About 1% of all humans are born intersexed (not exclusively male or female).. This is a problem only in a social structure that has a strictly binary social construction of gender system. If there are only two natural physical sexes and no third possibility, what do you do when an intersexed individual is born? Surgically assign them to the right sex? How do you choose? Who makes that choice? Transgenders are people who cross over bio-gender binary construction: twospirited individuals (or berdache) in Native American communities, Faafafine in Samoa, Hijada or Hijra in India, Bakla in the Philippines, and many, many more. This is difficult: around the world there are at least five gender categories: male-man, female-woman, female-man, male-woman, and intersexed or transgendered individuals. Gender roles are reinforced by religious teachings and encultrated perspectives on the right way to live. B) C) D) V. Normal vs. Abnormal Personalities A) Norms (normal standards) of behavior are culturally constructed. Remember normative orientation? In the Zuni culture, transvestitism is normal; in much of the U.S. it is considered highly abnormal. The textbook example of the Sadhu is extreme by Western standards, and holy by Hindu cultural standards. Abnormal behavior can become normal over time. Example: Katherine Hepburn was considered an abomination in some social circles in the 1930s 40s because she wore trousers in public. How many of you ladies wear skirts in public as your typical mode of dress today? Mental Disorders: when do eccentricities become psychoses? Why would Western psychiatric practices not work for someone from a different cultural reality? Refer back to the Original Study on traditional healers in Africa (pg. 16-18) for a clue. D) All cultures have culture-specific ethnic psychoses (read the boxes on pg. 147 for some ethnic examples.) Example: Windigo psychosis: paranoid schizophrenia expressed in culturally relevant terms. In contrast, look at Euro-American persecution delusions. The underlying mental disorder is similar, but its expression is culturally specific. The ethnic psychosis of Koro is particularly amusing, right? The treatment is mindboggling, to say the least! Go ahead, re-read it before continuing with this lecture. Now lets look at something equally ludicrous. Imagine a culture in which affluent young women actually starve themselves to death in an effort to fit their societys ideal of beauty! Laughable, right? No? Anorexia nervosa isnt funny? Neither is Koro. Both are very real mental disorders in their respective cultures. Hmmm . B) C) ... View Full Document

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