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### Lab 6 - Guide

Course: EE 100 100, Spring 2010
School: Berkeley
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Word Count: 1067

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#6 EE43/100--Lab EE43/EE100 LAB #4 Op Amps Guide Motivation / Objectives In this lab, we will be learning about operational amplifiers (op amps), and simple circuits involving op amps. We will compare the op amp theoretical analysis developed in the lectures with actual measured values, and real-world (non-ideal) op amps. In addition, the circuits used in this lab will also reinforce previous concepts, such as...

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#6 EE43/100--Lab EE43/EE100 LAB #4 Op Amps Guide Motivation / Objectives In this lab, we will be learning about operational amplifiers (op amps), and simple circuits involving op amps. We will compare the op amp theoretical analysis developed in the lectures with actual measured values, and real-world (non-ideal) op amps. In addition, the circuits used in this lab will also reinforce previous concepts, such as voltage dividers and superposition. Important Notes Please set the current limit on the DC power supply to 300mA or less, on both the 6V and 25V outputs, to prevent damage to the op amps. These circuits are complicated. Good breadboard practices will be key in completing this lab. Part 1: Op Amp Setup 1. Set the current limit on the 6V, 25V, and -25V outputs of the DC power supply to 300mA. Set the power supply to have outputs of +5V, +10V, and -10V. Be sure to use the same ground node for the ground of the 6V and 25V outputs. 2. We will be using the LM741 op amp. The pinout of the LM741 package is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Pinout of LM741 package (Source: National Semiconductor LM741 datasheet) Part 2: The Voltage Follower 3. On your breadboard, build the op amp circuit shown in Figure 2. The numbers correspond to the appropriate pin of the LM741. VDD and VSS will be supplied by the DC power supply. Set VDD = 10V and VSS = -10V. Figure 2: The voltage follower Page 1 of 4 4. Apply a 5V DC voltage to vin. Measure this value using the DMM. What is the expected value of vout? Verify by measuring vout with the DMM. Part 3: The Inverting Amplifier 5. On your breadboard, build the op amp circuit shown in Figure 3. The numbers correspond to the appropriate pin of the LM741. The circuit element labeled R is an adjustable resistor, which is realized by using a potentiometer. Figure 3: The inverting amplifier 6. Set R to approximately 20k. Use the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the 6V output of the DC power supply, apply a 1V DC signal at vin. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vout. Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. What is the gain of this circuit? 7. Increase R to approximately 50k. Use the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vout. Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. What is the gain of this circuit? 8. Disconnect the 1V DC input. Use the function generator to apply a 1kHz, 0.5Vpp sine wave to vin. Measure vin using the oscilloscope to obtain a more precise value. Using the measured value of vin, what should vout be? Using the second channel of the oscilloscope, measure vout and display it on the screen along with vin. Plot the input and output waveforms (using the same scales for both signals). What is the gain of this circuit? Part 4: The Non-inverting Amplifier 9. On your breadboard, build the op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. Figure 4: The non-inverting amplifier Page 2 of 4 10. Set R to approximately Use 20k. the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the 6V output of the DC power supply, apply a 1V DC signal at vin. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vout. Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. What is the gain of this circuit? 11. Increase R to approximately 50k. Use the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vout. Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. What is the gain of this circuit? 12. Disconnect the 1V DC input. Use the function generator to apply a 1kHz, 0.5Vpp sine wave to vin. Measure vin using the oscilloscope to obtain a more precise value. Using the measured value of vin, what should vout be? Using the second channel of the oscilloscope, measure vout and display it on the screen along with vin. Plot the input and output waveforms (using the same scales for both signals). What is the gain of this circuit? Part 5: The Summing Amplifier 13. On your breadboard, build the op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: The summing amplifier 14. Leaving v2 disconnected, use the 6V output of the DC power supply to apply a 0.5V DC signal to v1. What value do you expect for vout? Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. 15. Now disconnect v1, and use the 6V output of the DC power supply to apply a 0.5V DC signal to v2. What value do you expect for vout? Verify by measuring the value of vout using the DMM. 16. Use the superposition principle to calculate vout for the case where v1 = v2 = 0.5V. Apply a 0.5V signal to both v1 and v2. Measure the value of vout using the DMM. You have now witnessed the superposition principle in practice. Part 6: The Non-Ideal Op Amp 17. One condition of the ideal op amp is that the open-loop gain is infinite. Lets see how a real op amp behaves. Build the circuit shown in Figure 6. Page 3 of 4 Figure 6: Open-loop op amp 18. Set R = 4 k. Use the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vin. Verify by measuring the value of vin using the DMM. What is the expected value of vout? Measure the actual value of vout using the DMM. 19. Set R = 1 k. Use the DMM to measure the exact value of R. Using the measured value of R, calculate the expected value of vin. Verify by measuring the value of vin using the DMM. What is the expected value of vout? Measure the actual value of vout using the DMM. Review your results for R = 4 k and R = 1 k. Why is the measured value of vout not equal to the expected value? Part 7: The Differential Amplifier 20. Build the op amp circuit show in Figure 7. Figure 7: The differential amplifier 21. Using the 6V output of the DC power supply, apply a 1V DC signal to v1. Using the function generator, apply a 1kHz, 1Vpp sine wave to v2. What do you expect the output of the differential amplifier to be? 22. Measure the output of the differential amplifier using the oscilloscope. Plot the output waveform. Page 4 of 4
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