The Darwinian View of Life
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The Darwinian View of Life

Course Number: BIOLOGY 106, Spring 2011

College/University: Maryland

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TheDarwinianViewofLife:PatternsandProcessinNature 16:02 PatternsinNature Organismsseemtofit:theirenvironments Groupsnestedwithingroups o Why? 1800sarevolutionarybreakthrough:EVOLUTION! Specieschange! o Nolongerfixed,unchangeabletypes(sincePlato) Speciesarerelatedbysharedancestry! o Descentwithmodification(familytree) o Explainswhyweseenestedgroups! Populationsevolvebynaturalselection(atleastmostly) o...

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PatternsinNature TheDarwinianViewofLife:PatternsandProcessinNature 16:02 Organismsseemtofit:theirenvironments Groupsnestedwithingroups o Why? 1800sarevolutionarybreakthrough:EVOLUTION! Specieschange! o Nolongerfixed,unchangeabletypes(sincePlato) Speciesarerelatedbysharedancestry! o Descentwithmodification(familytree) o Explainswhyweseenestedgroups! Populationsevolvebynaturalselection(atleastmostly) o Processexplainshowspecieshavecometofit:theirenvironment WhohadtheAHAAA!s? Lamarck(~1810) o Firsttoproposetheoryofevolution(=specieschange) CharlesDarwinandAlfredRussellWallace(~1850) o Codiscovereddescentwithmodificationandnaturalselection o ReadBox24.1WhyDarwingetsmostofthecredit ARevolutionaryBreakthrough! Mechanismforchangethroughtime Variationwithinaspeciesiskey!(Nonoise) Populationthinking(nottypologicalthinking) o Populationlookateachindividual,individualityisimportant o Typologicalallthesametype WhatisEvolution? Evolutionoccurswhenthereisachangeingeneticcharacteristicsofa populationovertime(ex.AchangeinAllelefrequency) Theoryofevolution:allorganismsonEartharerelatedbycommonancestry andhavechangedovertime,largelyvianaturalselection EvolutionaryProcess Selectioneffectedbyhumans(artificialselection)providesmanyfamiliar examples Selectionanyonecandoit! Figure13 Eachindividualdidntchangethroughtime,butbecauseindividualshad differentreproductiveoutput,thepopulationchange Populationcanevolve o Phyleticevolutionevolutionwithinalineage,withoutsplitting Populationsthatevolvecanalsosplitinto2(ormore)geneticallydifferent populations o Specification:thesplittingofonespeciesinto2(ormore)species Adaptations Naturalselectionleadstoadaptations o Adaptations:atraitthatincreasesthefitnessofanindividualinaparticular environment o Fitness:theabilityofanindividualtoproduceoffspring o Butnotallusefulfeaturesareadaptationsforthatuse! Adaptationsvs.Goodfit Notallusefulfeaturesareadaptationsforthatuse Figure1.9(Giraffes);necknotforfoodbuttoestablishdominanceovermate akahugesledgehammer Taxonomy Taxonomynamingandclassificationoforganisms Linnaeus(1730s)botanistFigure1.5(memorize) o Linnaeantaxonomy TheTreeofLife:groupswithingroups Phylogenetictree Nestedgroups=>progressivelyoldersharedancestry TreeformsthebasisofLinnaeanclassification Classification(Linnaeanorother)shouldreflecttreeoflife Manyrevisionsaslearnmoreaboutrelationships EvidenceofEvolution 16:02 EvaluatingEvolution 18800shugeparadigmshirt Theoriesofspecialcreationandevolutionevaluated o Bylate1800sevolutionbecamedominanttheoryinbiology Evolution o Predictionsmet o Previouslyunexplainedobservationsmakesense o Evidenceoverwhelminglysupportsevolution o Evidencekeepsgoing Evolution:pattersand Evolutionarypattern o Specieschangethroughtime o Speciesarerelatedbycommonancestry Evolutionaryprocess o Naturalselection EvidenceSpecieschangethroughtime Extinction o Curvierfirstcleardocumentationofextinctspecies(~1810)IrishElk (hugedeerlike,tremendousantlers) Convincedbiologists:extinctionhappens! o Extinct:nolongerexists o Extant:occurstoday(living) EvidenceofEvolution 16:02 o Numerousextinctfossilsformsknownfromallmajorextantgroupsof animalswithhard(fossilizable)bodyparts o Hasoccurredthroughoutthehistoryoflife o Notjustduringafewcatastrophicevents Transitionalforms o Lawofsuccessionfossilsinalocationcloselyresemblelivingspeciesin thatlocation o KnownlongbeforeDarwin,unexplainedFigure24.4 Darwinianexplanation: Extinctandextantformsarerelated Fossilsareancestors o Transitionalforms:fossilspecieswithtraitsintermediatebetweenolder andyoungerspecies Numerousexamples! o Whalesfossilswithdigits o Manyextantmodelsofwhatintermediatescouldhavebeenlike Fossilrecordtrends o Simplespeciestendtoprecedemorecomplexspecies o NofossilrabbitsinthePrecambrian Vestigialtraits o Reducedorincompletelydevelopedstructurethathasnoorreduced functionbutissimilartofunctioningstructureincloserelatives o Bowheadwhaleshipandlegbonesbutnolegs! o Whalessomedevelopembryonicteeththenreabsorb o Rubberboashipandlegbonesbutnolegs EvidenceofEvolution o o o o o o o 16:02 Humantailbone Horsesplintbones HumanGoosebumpsFigure24.5 Eyesandeyesocketsinblindcaveorganisms Wingsinflightlessbirds Pseudogenes(seeFigure20.9) Asexuallizards,salamanders,fish,insects,thatmate Lesbianlizardsseefigure48.1 o Evidenceofpastfunctionbutnolongerused o Evolution:tinkeringwithpreexistingdesigns Phyleticevolutionbeforeoureyes o Abioticresistanceinbacteria o Herbicideresistanceinweeds o Artificialselection(exampledogbreeding) EvidenceSpeciesareRelated Twolinesofevidence o Biogeography;studyofwhereorganismsoccur Commonpatters:relatedspeciesonneighboringislands Galapagosmockingbirds(figure24.6)(gaveDarwinisideas) Caveorganismsclosestrelativestypicallynearbynoncaveorganisms (notcavedwellerselsewhere) Ratitebirds:groupofflightlessbirdsincludingemus,ostrich, cassowary,rhea,kiwi RecentlyextinctMoa&ElephantBirds(gone200yearsago) Ratitebirddistributionfigure26.6 o Homology:similaritycausedbysharedancestry Genetichomology(figure24.7) Developmentalhomology(figure24.8) Ex.Gillpouch Structuralhomology(figure24.9)bones NaturalSelection 16:02 DarwinandWallace NaturalSelection 16:02 Codiscoversofnaturalselection 1850s Britishnaturalists Traveledandcollectedextensivelyintheir20s(&30s) WhowasDarwin? Wealthyfamily Avidnaturalist,collector Darwinsdad:Youcarefornothingbutshooting,dogs,andratcatching,and youwillbeadisgracetoyourself. Darwin Trainedinmedicineandfortheclergy,butheartwasntinit Age22(1831):boardstheHMSBeagleforafiveyearvoyage o Notyetanevolutionist o Interests:variation,biogeography OnHMSbeagle,traveledextensivelyespeciallySouthAmerica DiversityonGalapagosIslandsmadelargeimpression o Betweenislanddiversity o Example:tortoisesandmockingbirds Withinjustafewyearsreturn(age27early30s),developedprincipleof naturalselection BUTslowtopublish(17years)! o FirstwritingsaboutNaturalSelection1842 NaturalSelection 16:02 o Firstpublication Why17yearsdelay? o Extremelythorough,clearthinking,carefulamassedlargeamountsof evidencebeforepublishinghisidea o V.Scaredaboutrepercussions! Likeconfessingmurder WhowasWallace? Poorfamily,hardtimes,neededmoney? FriendHenryWalterBates(ringabell?) WallaceandBatestraveltogethertoSouthAmerica o Wallaceage25,Batesage23 Wallacesgoals? o Makemoney:collectandsellspecimenstoprivatecollectorsand museums o Seekevidenceforevolutionandtrytouncoveritsmechanisms TriptoSouthAmericaendsintragedy o Shipsinksduringreturnvoyage o Mostcollection,notebookslost Wallacetravelsandcollectsthroughouthis30sinMalaysia,Indonesia Whilesickandtraveling,hasinsightintonaturalselection DarwinandWallace 1858:WallacewritestoDarwinforadviceonpublishinghisideaDarwinis shockeditsessentiallywhathehadcomeupwith! 1858papersbyDarwinandWallacereadtoScientificsociety,thenpublished NaturalSelection 16:02 1859DarwinpublishesbookonNaturalSelection o Darwin:onTheOriginofSpeciesbyMeansofNaturalSelection o Wallace:keepstraveling DarwinsAccomplishments Establishedevolution o Oldidea,butDarwinprovidedoverwhelmingevidenceandaveryclear argument o Widelyacceptedafter1859 Proposedaplausiblemechanismforevolutionarychangeanddesign (adaptation) o HowStupidofmenottohaveThoughtofthat(Huxley) o Notwidelyacceptedatfirst TheFundamentalInsightsintoNaturalSelection Variation o Observable,butpreviouslyunderappreciated HeritableVariation o Phenomenonknown,butnotmechanism Struggle o InfluenceofMalthus:populationswilloutgrowtheirresources Differentialreproductionbasedonheritablevariation If14hold,thenthepopulationsheritablecharacteristicswillchange= evolutionbynaturalselection! NaturalSelection:EvolutionofPepperedMothColoration Figure24.10 NaturalSelection 16:02 NaturalSelection:EvolutionchangesinGeneticCharacteristicsofaPopulation overTime Naturalselectiononeagentofevolution o Theonlyonethatleadstoafitbetweenorganismsandtheirenvironment Otheragentsofevolutioninclude o Mutation o Migration o Geneticdrift NaturalSelection:EvolutionofDrugResistance Figure24.11 NaturalSelection:EvolutionofFinchBeaks Darwinsfinchesanextremelywelldocumentedcaseofnaturalselection PeterandRosemaryGrantandothers DarwinsFinches 14species Similar Focus:Geaspizafortison G.FortisonDaphneMajor Geaspizafortis o Mediumgroundfinch o Primarilyeatseeds o ~1200individualsonisland NaturalSelection 16:02 o Populationtendstostayput o Essential G.FortisonDaphneMajorVariation 1)Istherevariationinbeakdimension? o Yes o Figure G.FortisonDaphneMajorHeritability 2)Isthisvariationheritable? Heritability:Proportionofvariationduetogenes o Variesfrom0to1 o 0variationentirelydeterminedbytheenvironmentregardless Heritabilitycanbeestimatedbycomparingcharacteristicsofoffspringto parents IsthereaheritablecomponenttovariationinbeaksizeinG.fortis? o Yes G.FortisonDaphneMajorStruggle 3)Isthereastruggleforexistence? o Alwaysthecaseoverlongterm Yes:inG.fortis,droughtsleadtostarvation o Majordroughtin1977 o Dropinfoodabundance o Majordieoffoffinchesalmost85% NaturalSelection 16:02 G.FortisonDaphneMajorDifferentialSurvival/Reproduction 4)Diddifferencesinbeakdimensioninfluencetheoutcomeofstruggle? o Yes o Droughts:fewersmall,softseeds o Largerbeaksbetterforeatinglargeseeds o Fincheswithlargerbeakssurvivedthedroughtingreaterproportions G.FortisonDaphneMajor Inevitableconsequenceof14=evolutionbynaturalselection! =Averagebeaksizeoftheoffspringofthesurvivals G.FortisonDaphneMajorOngoingEvolution Naturalselectionhascauseddynamic,ongoingevolutionofthepopulationin responsetochangesintheenvironment Figure24.14 Counteringcommonmisconceptions Readpp.495500 Evolutionarychangesoccurwithinpopulations(notindividuals) Evolutionisnotgoaldirectedorprogressive o Wantingorneedinganadaptationdoesnotcausechange o Evolutionproducesatree,notaladder Animalsdonotdothingsforthegoodofthespecies Selfishallelespropagated,selfsacrificingallelesdecrease Notalltraitsareadaptive o Importantgeneticandhistoricalconstraints o Fitnesstradeoffsarecommon ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 Mendelstudiedsimplestcases ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 Nolinkage 2alleles/gene Fulldominance Lateranalysesofmorecomplicatedcasesledtonewinsights Linkage Linkage:physicalassociationofgenesfoundonthesamechromosome Linkedgenesviolateprincipleofindependentassortment Figure13.12 Recombination:physicalexchangeofchromosomessegmentsbetween homologouschromosomes o Crossingover o Breaksuplinkage o Figure13.14 Recombinationisnormalandcommon! o Typically>1crossingovereventperchromosomepermeiosis Frequencyofrecombinationdependsonphysicaldistance Figure13.15 Allelesatlinkedgenesareinheritedtogether,asaunit,unlessrecombination occursbetweenthem Figure13.13 NumberofAlleles>2 ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 Independentsegregationlike2alleleproblem Dominancemorecomplicated! Betagoblingene>500alleles! o Manyalleleshaveequivalentfunction o Somelocallyadaptivealleles: Highelevation MalariaresistancesicklecellAnemia Heterozygoteshavehighestfitness o Someallelescauselowerfitness IncompleteDominance Incompletedominance:heterozygoteshaveaphenotypeintermediaterelative tohomozygotes o E.g.flowercolorinfouroclock o Figure13.17 Codominace Codominance:heterozygoteshaveadualphenotype,associatedwithboth alleles o 1.Gene: WhydifferenttypesofDominance? Botheallelestypicallyexpressedbut Functionalityofalleleproductiscritical! Ifanallelemakesexcessfunctionalproduct,cancompensateforaless functionalallele=completedominance o Onlyneed1functionalallele ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 o E.g. Ifanallelemakesinsufficientfunctionalproducttofullycompensateforless functionalallele=incompletedominance o Onlyneed1functionalallele o E.g.manyenzymes o E.g.growthhormones MendelsTall/Dwarfpea Molecularfunctionalityfitness! o Higherfunctionalitynotnecessarilybetter o Dominantgenesdontnecessarilyconferhigherfitness o Adysfunctionalallelecancontributetohighfitness Ifwhiteflowersconferhighfitness,selection Plelotropy Pleiotropy:occurswhenasinglegeneinfluencesmorethanonephenotype trait! VERYcommon! o E.g.MarfanSyndrome EffectsofPhysicalEnvironment Physicalenvironmentcanhaveprofoundimpactonphenotype Environmentaleffectsextremelycommon! PKIJ o Normaldiet>mentalretardation o Lowphenylalanine>completelynormal ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 EffectofGeneticBackground Mendelspeas:wrinkled/smoothregardlessofallelesatotherloci Geneticbackgroundeffect:effectofalleleatalocusdependsonwhatalleles arepresentatotherloci Figure13.18 Foodforthough Youfindaspeciesofshrimp,thecolorofthebodyandthelengthofthe antennaearetypicallyassociatedwhatcouldcausethisassociation? o 2traitsgotogetherin o Linkedgenes o Geneticbackground>toseeifonegeneaffectsboth QuantitativeTraits Discretetraits:qualitativelydifferent,likecategories Quantitativetraits:formacontinuumofphenotypes o Typically,normaldistributionofphenotypes o Figure13.20 Quantitativetraitsresultfromactionofmanygenes Figure13.20 Pedigrees Familytreedisplayingrelationshipsandphenotypesofindividuals Canestablishwhetherdiseaseisrecessiveordominant Figure13.21 Recessivedisease,e.g.SickleCell ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 o Carriers:heterozygotes,whendiseaseisrecessive Havethediseaseallelebutdonotmanifestthedisease o Canskiponeormoregenerations Dominantdisease,e.g.HuntingtonsDisease o Affectedindividualsalwayshaveanaffectedparent o Onaverage,halfoftheoffspring HuntingtonsDisease Dominant,degenerativebraindisorder Onsettypicallymidadulthood,fatal,tragicfinalyears RepetitiveDNA:high#CAGrepeats Currentlynowaytosloworhaltthedisease WoodyGuthrie o ThisLandisYourLand o Motherhaddisease o Died(1967)age55years(onset~40years) o DeathraisedawarenessforHD o Goodcandidateforgenetherapy? Singlegenecause Geneidentifiedinmid90s Meiosis Reviewofsomefundamentals ExtendingMendelsRules 16:02 o Foragiveorganism,thereisaspecific#ofchromosometypes o Typestypicallynumbered(1,2,3,4I,II,III,IV) o Havedistinctsetofgenes o Humans:23 o ThatistheHAPLIOD# Mulitcellularorganismstypicallycomprisedofcellswith2copiesofeachtype ofchromosomes 3copyfrommom(maternalcopy) Chromosomesvs.chromatids Meiosis Meiosis:reduction&Division o Meiosis1:reductioninchromosome#/cell o Meiosis2:divisionofsisterchromatids(X>1) Whatmusthappenduringmeiosis? o Onechromosomeofeachtypesegregatestoagametecell o Chromosomesofthesametypealignaspairs,formingtetradsofthe metaphase Whatisvariableduringmeiosis? o WhichsidetheylieonisRANDOM TheHardyWeinbergPrinciple:anullmodel 16:02 MechanismsofEvolution Naturalselectionisnotonlymechanismofevolution 4mechanisms(allelefrequencychanges) NaturalSelection:allelesthatcontributetosurvivalandreproductivesuccess increaseinfrequency Goodallelesinone GeneticDraft GeneFactor Mutation:newallelesarise o Introducesnewalleles HardyWeinbergPrinciple NullmodelwhathappenstoallelefrequencywhenNONEoftheevolutionary mechanisms Allowsusto o 1)Identifywhenevolutionagentsareacting o 2)Predictallele&genotypicfrequenciesassumingnoevolutionaryagents areacting Modelsmatingacrossthewholepopulation Imagineallgametesgointoagenepool,getpairedatrandom Genepool:alltheindividualallelesinapopulationforagivenlocus HardyWeinbergTerms Population:agroupofindividualsfromthesamespeciesthatlineinthesame area&interactmorewitheachotherthanwithothersuchgroups Allele:alternativeformsofagene o E.g.Avs.a TheHardyWeinbergPrinciple:anullmodel 16:02 o E.g.A1vs.A2 Genotype:thecombinationofallelespresentforagene o E.g.AA,Aa,aa(inadiploidorganism) Allelefrequency:theproportionoftotalallelescomposedofaparticularallele o E.g.fortwoalleles o p=f(A)=(#Aalleles)/(#Alleles+#aalleles) o q=f(a)=(#aalleles)/(#Aalleles+#aalleles) o p+q=1 Genotypefrequency:proportionofthetotalnumberofindividualscomposed ofaparticulargenotype o e.g.for2alleles f(AA)=(#AA)/(total#individuals) f(Aa)=(#Aa)/(total#individuals) f(aa)=(#aa)/(total#individuals) o Figure25.1 o Whatkindsofgametepairsarepossible? Redandyellow Redandred Yellowandred Yellowandyellow o Genotypefrequencytotalmust=1,sop^2+2pq+q^2=1 o Whatwillhappentothenextgeneration? TheHardyWeinbergPrinciple:anullmodel 16:02 Pandqwillnotchange>samethingcalledequilibrium Populationnotchanginginalleleandgenotype HardyWeinbergPrinciple 1)ThefrequenciesofA1A2,A2A2andA2A2andA2A2willbep^2,2pq,andq^2 forgenerationaftergeneration 2)Allelefrequenciesdonotchangeovertimeunless AnExample:calculatingpandq Freeearlobeallele(F)dominant Attachedearlobeallele(f)recessive N=1000individuals #FF=700#Ff=200#ff=100 Whatarethegenotypicfrequencies? o 1000individuals Whatareallelefrequencies? o 2000totalalleles(2/indiviuals) o p=f(F)=(2x(#FF)+1x(#Ff))/2000=(1400200)/2000=0.8 o q=f(f)=(2x(#ff)(#ff)/2000 Howitworks Supposep=f(F)=0.8,q=f(f)=0.2 Pullout2allelesatrandom,whatschangeofgetting2Falleles? o P^2=(0.8)(0.8)=0.64 TheHardyWeinbergPrinciple:anullmodel 16:02 o 2allelesrandom,chanceofgetting2falleles? q^2=(0.2)(0.2)=0.04 HardyWeinbergasaNullHypothesis Nullhypothesisnodifferencebetweentreatmentgroups o E.g.nodifferencebetweenobserveddataandpredictionsbasedonHW condition TestingagainstHWnullhypothesis o MNbloodtype o HLAimmunitygenes o Figure25.2 Whyisituseful? 2distinctways(dontgetconfused!) 1)Areevolutionaryagentsactingmustknowgenotypefrequencies o Ifthegenotypicfrequenciesarenotwhatyouexpect,something interestingmustbehappening o Earlobeexample:wecalculatedp=0.8,q=0.2 o Whyexcessofbothhomozygotes?Implies1ormoreofthefollowing Mutationsmalleffect Migrationheterozygotesmigrationout? Nonrandommatinghomozygotespreferthemselves? NaturalSelectionheterozygotesdontsurvivewell? Driftrandomfluctuation!(Commoninsmallpopulations) 2)Whatarepandq?AssumingpopulationisinHWequilibrium(I.e.not evolving) o ExamplePKUduetorecessiveallele(a) o Expressed(i.e.homozygousaa)in1/10,000people o AssumingHWq^2=f(aa)=1/10,000=0.0001 o q=SORT(0.0001)=0.01 o p=(1q)=0.99 o Expectedgenotypefrequenciesare f(AA)=p^2=).9801f(Aa)=2pq CausesofEvolution NaturalSelection 16:02 CausesofEvolution 16:02 Canfavordifferentpartsofaphenotypicdistribution o Typesofnaturalselection Directionalselection Stabilizingselection Disruptiveselection DirectionalSelection o Favorsindividualsatoneendofthedistribution(eitherhighorlowtrait values) o Increasesordecreaseaveragetraitvalue o Figure25.3 o Variationtypicallyreduced o Strongselectionlowstandingvariation! Stabilizingselection o Selectionagainstindividualswithextremetraitvalues o Averagetraitvaluestayssame;variationreduced o Figure25.4 DisruptiveSelection o Favorsindividualswithextremetraitvalues(bothhighandlow);disfavors averagephenotypes o Variationincreases o Averagetraitvaluecanstaysame o Canfacilitatespeciation CausesofEvolution 16:02 o Figure25.5 GeneticDrift Randomchangeinallelefrequency Randomwithrespecttofitness Mostpronounced Figure25.6 Canleadtorandomlossorfixationofalleles o Fixation:establishmentofonealleleastheonlyalleleinapopulation o E.g.fixationofsilentchanges,pseudogenes Experimentaldemonstrationinthelab o KerrandWright(1950s) o Figure25.7 Concernforconservingspecies o ManyspeciesdramaticallyreducedNinthewild o Captivepopulationsrelativelysmall o Driftcanfurtherreducegeneticdiversityinalreadysmall,threatened species! o E.g.cheetahs Innaturalpopulation,GDisprominentwhen: 1)newpopulationisestablishedbyasmall#ofindividuals o foundereffect:changeinallelefrequenciesthatoccurswhenanew populationisestablished 2)populationsizeisdramaticallyreduced=geneticbottleneck CausesofEvolution 16:02 o elephantsealsdownto50in1890s! 3)populationstayssmallforprolongedperiods GeneFlow Movementofallelesfromonepopulationtoanother migration homogenizesallelefrequenciesofdifferentpopulations Figure25.8 E.g.lupines,Mt.St.Helens,WA o Earlysuccessionalplant E.g.humanpopulations Mutation Mutation:changeinheritablematerial(DNA,RNA) Widespreadandhappeningineachindiviualineachgeneration Increasesgeneticvariation Manytypes: o Singlenucleitidechange,duplications,deletions,inversions,translocations Randomwitfitness!Justhappens Newmutationscanbe o Deleteriousdecreasefitness o Neutralnoeffectonfitness o Beneficialincreasefitness Mostnewmutationsaredeleterious,becauseorganismalreadywelladapted Minoreffectonchangingallelefrequenciesatparticulargene o Ratelow Butmutation=rawmaterialfornaturalselection! o Majoreffect o Figure25.9 HumanMutation Mutationrateverylow o 1newmutation/1530millionbases butaddsupoverawholegenome! o 3billionnucleotidestotal o ~100200newmutationsineachofus! ~1 new gene allele in each of us SexandSexualSelection NonrandomMating 16:02 SexandSexualSelection 16:02 ViolatesHWassumption Commonforms: o Inbreeding:matingwithcloserelatives o Sexualselection:naturalselectionformates Inbreeding Matingwithcloserelative(orself) Mostlikelytoshareallelesbecauseofsharedancestor Ifeachgenotypemateswithlikegenotype o Homozygotesmakemorehomozygotes o Heterozygotesmakehomozygotesandheterozygotes o Figure25.10 o Homozygositygoesup/heterozygositygoesdown Many(butnotall!)populationscanexhibitinbreedingdepression o Inbreedingdepression:decreaseinfitnessofinbredindiviualsrelativeto noninbredindividuals o Figure25.11 Inbreedingdepressiondemonstratedinmanygroups Whymarryyourcousin? o Sharedalleles>ifhomozygouscanbeproblematic o Exhibitinbreedingdepression o Inbreedingdepression:decreaseinfitnessofinbredindiviualsrelativeto noninbredindiviuals SexandSexualSelection 16:02 o Why? Higherhomozygosity=higherincidenceofhomozygousdeleterious mutations Decreaseheterozygosity=decreasefrequencyofheterozygote advantagethatoccursatmanygenes Evolutionconsequenceofinbreeding? o Genotypicfrequencieschange o Butallelefrequenciesstaysame=NoEvolution!(atleastinshortterm) SexualSelection Sexualselection o Specialcaseofnaturalselection o ImportancerecognizedbyDarwin o Occurswhenindiviualsinapopulationdifferinabilitytoattractmates MostsexuallyselecedcharactersareinmalesWHY? o Inmostspecies,femalesinvestmuchmoreinoffspringthandomales! o Eggsareexpensive,spermarecheap o fundamentalasymmetry typically o femalreproductiveoutputlimitedbyresourcesneededtoprodce/carefor young o malereproductiveoutputlimitedby#femalemates consequences: o 1)femalesarechoosy whatmightindicateamalehasgoodalleles? SexandSexualSelection 16:02 Manybirds:carotenoidssignalhelath&goodnutrition Figure25.12 Birdofparadise>displayformating Demonstraitingresources&ability o 2)malescompeteforfemales malereproductivesuccessvariesdramaticallyinsomespecies e.g.elephantsealsFigure25.14 leadstomalemalecompetitionforfemales ConsequencesofSexualSelection Malesandfemalesselectedfordifferenttraits(sexualasymmetry) Sexualdimorphism:havingtraitsthatdifferbetweenmalesandfemales Evolutionconsequencesofsexualselection? o Females:favorallelespromotinggoodchoicesinmates o Malesfavorsallelespromotinghighaccesstofemales(e.g.,highmale malecompetitiveability) WhySex? ThereareMANYreasonsNOTtoreproducesexually! Asexualorganisms o Havegreaterpotentialreproductiveoutputbecausedontproducemaels o Figure12.13 o Dontdilutetheirgenomes o Arentdependentonfindingmatestoreproduce SexandSexualSelection 16:02 Possibleadvantagesofsex? 1)Purifyingselectionhypothesis o purifyingselection:selcationagainstdeletriousalleles o purifyingselectionmoreefficientinsexuals o some(~50%)offspringwillbe Daphniaasexualpopulationshavemoredeleteriousallelesthan sexualpopulations 2)Changingenvironmentalhypothesis o sexualsproducegeneticallydiverseoffspring especiallyimportant:diseaseagents! o Sexualsnailspredominatewhenparasitismishigh Figure12.14 RedQueenHypothesis:speciesincoevolutionarmsrace(e.g.hostandparasite) mustevolvetostayinthesameplace.Lackofevolutioncausesextiction BehavorialEcology&SocialBehavior 16:02 EvolutionofBehaior Variationinbehavior? Somevarationheritable? Doesheritablevariationpartlydeterminereproductivesuccess? TypesofBehaviors Innatebeavior:inheritedbehaviorthatshowslittlevariationbasedonlearning o Commonwhen: Situationhashighimpactonfitness&requiresrapid,reflexlike response Learningnotpossible Learnedbehaviors o Learning:changeinbehaviorresultingfromproiorexpirence(s) o Classicalconditioning:learninginwhichindividualtrainedtogivesame responseto>1stimulus E.g.Pavlossdogs:bell>salivation o Imprintingrapid,irreversiblelearninginwhichyounganimallearnsto recognizecaregiver Lorenzgeese:imprintingonLorenzboots(firstmovingobject) Figure51.7 o Cognition(thinking):recognitionandmanipulationoffactsaboutthe world,particualrytoformnovelassociationsorinsights(e.g.extrapolation, foresight,etc) Figure51.9 E.g.NewCaledoniancrows>Figure51.10 BehavirosHonesty&Deception Honestbehaviors BehavorialEcology&SocialBehavior 16:02 o E.g.beedancestocommunicatelocationoffood Rounddance,waggledance Figure51.16 Deceptivebehaviors o E.g.predatoryfirefliesimitatematingflashesofotherspeciesFigure51.18 o E.g.bluegillsunfishsneakymalesFigure51.19 Typesofintraspecificinteractions Selfish o Actorbenefits:recipientharmed Cooperation o Botheparticipantsbenefit Altrusistic o Actorharmed,recipient Spiteful Canweexplainaltruism? Fairlycommonwhy? 3generalexplanations: o goodofthespeciesDoesntwork! o KinSelection o ReciprocalAltruism BehavorialEcology&SocialBehavior 16:02 Inclusivefitness Personalsacrificemaybeoffsetiftherecipientisrelated o Ownallelfrequencycanbeincreasedby Producingoffspringdirectfitness Helpingrelatedindiviualsproduceoffspringindirectfitness Relatedness Propabilitythatallelesin2indidvualsareidenticalbydescent o Parent/offspring:r= o Siblings:r= o Firstcousins:r=1/8 o Figure51.21 HamiltonsRule AnalleleforaltruisticbehaviorislikelytospreadifBr>C B=benefittotherecipient o AlargeBmeansrelatedindividualbenefitsalot r=relatedness C= KinSelection Naturalselectionthatactsthroughbenefitstorelatives o Prariedogs o Nakedmolerates BehavorialEcology&SocialBehavior 16:02 o Ants CanoccuriftypicallyBr>C Prariedogs o Highlysocial o Alrmcalling Signalspotentialthreat(predator) Riskybutcanbenefitrelatives Increasesinclusivefitness Reciprocalaltrisum Exchangeoffitnessbenefitsseparatedintime Canoccurbetweenrealtivesaswellasnonrelatives Benefitstorecipientmustoutweighcoststoactor Cheatersmustbepunished o Iffailtoreciprocate Facilitatedby o Stablegroups=likelytointeractwithsameindividualagain o Repreatedopportuniesforaltruisticacts: Bloodsharinginvampirebats o Feedonbloodoflargemammalsadifficultfoodsource o Regurgitatefoodforunfedbatswhy? Kinselection Mostregurgitationsgotocloserelateness Reciprocalaltruism Frequentassociates Benefittorecipient>thancosttodonor Agivenamountofbloodisworthmoretoastormybatthanafull bat Batsmorelikelytoreceive SocialBehavior&Humans Explainableintermsof Direct/indirectfitness o Parentalcare(motherly/fatherlylove) o Clandishness(valuingextendedfamily) o Incestavoidance

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Chapter101:00 Terms Organicchemistrythebranchofsciencethatdealsgnereallywith compoundsofcarbon Valenceshelloutermostshellofelectrons Valenceelectronselectronsinvalenceshell Octetrulethetendancyofatomstogainorloosevalenceelectronstoform ionswiththenoblega
Maryland - ENGL101 - engl101
LogicalFallacies16:55BasicsofAristotelianLogic Syllogism:ifthisistrueandthatistruethenextthingistruetoo o Deductivereasoning o Majorandminorpremise Bothmustholdtrue o Mostfamoussyllogism: Majorpremise:allmenaremortal Minorpremise:Socratesismen Conclusio
Maryland - ENGL101 - engl101
English10118:04LinesofArgument Afortiori:tothestrength,comparinglessandmorelikely arguments/outcomes o Ifanadultcantunderstandtheteacher,thenachildcertainlycant. o Ifcongressdoesntobeyitsownlaws,whyshouldwe? UseMaximsorProverbs o Pathos(familiarity) o C
Maryland - SOCY - 105
Socy105Poverty/Homelessness20:39Whatisthemeaningofclass? Agroupofpeople Moneythreeclasses(lower,middleandupper)andtheyaregrouped togetherbymoney/income,materialitems,education,culture Proximitytor4fccccccccpower ResourcesNetwork Socialranking o Occupati
Maryland - SOCY - 105
Socy105:PovertyandWelfare19:35WhyDoAmericansHateWelfare Whatisit? o Howdoestheauthordefinewelfare? o Mainthesis/aimofbook RacialsterotypescontributetooppositionofwelfareinAmerica Americansdontknowwhatwelfareactuallyisandtheydislikewhat theythinkitis Ind
Maryland - SOCY - 105
Socy:Representation19:36SociologicalMindfulness Beingawareof:differentperspectives,beingawareoftheworld o Whatwedo o Howweandothersdoit o MainArgument: Appearancesaroundusarecraftertoinfluenceourthoughts,feelings andbehavior MainConcepts Whatisaconcept?
Maryland - HIST - 157
Maryland - COMM - 107
Chapter3 Nonverbal Communication: messages exchanged that are not made up of words; such as crying, smiling, pointing, staring. Tend to be interpreted based on our own personal experiences and the assumption that everyone shares those experiences - No one
Maryland - COMM - 107
Chapter 11 Getting to Know Your Audience 1) Public Communication: Transaction between a speaker and an audience 2) Listenable Speech: A speech that is formatted properly so audience can understand it a. Fits intellectual level of audience, structure follo
Maryland - ECON - 200
E con200 T xtbk Notes Chapter1 Economy: comes from Greek phrase one who manages a household Society must allocate people to various jobs and allocate the amount of goods and services that i t produces, like a house must allocate how to employ i ts few peo
Maryland - ECON - 200
F I NAL: DECE MBER 16, 10:30!-chapter 14, 15, 16, 17 chapter 3, 18, 21ECON200 Class Notes cengagebrain.com (register for aplia) - The study of how best to allocate scarce resources among competing uses. (what is t he best way to apply scarce resources?
Maryland - PSYCH - 221
Social Psychology: The scientific study of how we think, feel, and behave toward others, and how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors influence and are influenced by the other people in our lives. Brief History: Kurt Lewin father of social psychology Soc
Indiana - HPER-F - 170
H170 Test 1 study topic guide Health Belief Model Lecture: Dimensions of wellness Health Belief Model components Prevention Leading causes of death for US and for youth 15-24 years of age Self efficacy Shaping strategyHealth Problems of College Students
University of Texas - HIS - 315L
ReadingsforJanuary26,2011 pp.24 HenryGradyDeclaresaNewSouth pp.511 MikeTrudicsexperiencestheNewSouth FromWilliamLorenKatzandLaurieR.Lehman,eds.,TheCruelYears: AmericanVoicesattheDawnoftheTwentiethCentury(Boston:Beacon Press,2001). pp.1214 BookerT.Washingt
University of Texas - HIS - 315L
ReadingsforJanuary31,2011WesternExpansion pp.25 SelectionfromNatLove,TheLifeandAdventuresofNatLove,Better KnowninCattleCountryasDeadwoodDick,editedandreprintedin RobertD.MarcusandDavidBurner,eds.,AmericaFirsthand:Volume II,FromReconstructiontothePresent(N
University of Texas - HIS - 315L
Readings for January 24, 2011 pp. 2-8 Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom: Foner is one of the leading American historians of Reconstruction. This short selection should give you some background to help you understand the rest of the documents. pp.
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Name Midterm Exam I Description Instructions Question Which of the following statements about vitamin D is FALSE? Answer A. It is synthesized in the epidermis of the skin when exposed to UV light. B. It is converted by organs of your body into calcitriol.
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Name Midterm Exam II Description Instructions Question Match the appropriate statement with the best option. Answer Match Question Items An swer Items D. - A. Troponin E. - B. Tropomyosin C. - C. Myosin B. - D. Actin A. - E. Sarcoplasmic reticulum A. Stor
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week1:Chapter3TheCellularLevelof OrganizationThe Cell Performsalllifefunctions basicstructuralandfunctionalunitsoflife3-1, 64 respondtotheirenvironment maintainhomeostasisatthecellularlevel modifystructureandfunctionovertimeSex Cells Sex cells (germ
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week1:Chapter4TheTissueLevelof Organization1:BasicHistology Organelles:area groupofmolecules workingtogether Cells:areagroupof organellesworking together Tissues:areagroup ofsimilarcellsworking together Organs:areagroup ofdifferenttissues workingtogether
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week1:Chapter4TheTissueLevelof Organization2:EpithelialTissue Epithelia:1.EpithelialTissues4-5, 115 layersofcells coveringinternal orexternal surfaces Protection& permeability Glands: structuresthat produce secretionsFigure46,116Distributionof ep
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week1:Chapter4TheTissueLevelof Organization3:ConnectiveTissue2.ConnectiveTissue Fillsinternalspaces Supportsothertissues Transportsmaterials Storesenergy4-8, 1194-15, 128AllCTderivedfromembryonicmesodermThibodeau, 6thed.,fig. 5.2ConnectiveTissues(p
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week1:Chapter1Structure&FunctionObjectives: 1. Howdoesstructure determinefunction? 2. Describethedifferent levelsoforganization inthehumanbody. 3. Describehomeostasis andwhyitisso essentialforlife.What is anatomy and physiology? Anatomy Describes the s
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture1:Chapter1An IntroductionToTheHumanBody:Anatomical PositionsandLanguageTheLanguageofAnatomy ManyanatomicaltermscontainLatin&Greek roots,prefixes&suffixes: a without(avascular=withoutvessels) super above(superior=atahigher level) Infra Below
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture2:Chapter 7TheSkeletalSystem: TheAxialSkeleton: SkeletonOverviewTheSkeletalSystem Skeletalsystem includes: bonesofthe skeleton cartilages, ligaments,and connectivetissueshttp:/www.sciencenewsf orkids.org/articles/20040 204/Feature1.aspFi
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture3: Chapter7TheSkeletal System:TheAxial Skeleton,alsoChapter8 TheSkeletalSystem: TheAppendicular SkeletonTheAxial Skeleton formsthelongitudinal axisofthebody has80bones Theskull Thevertebralcolumn: Thethoraciccage: 24ribs thesternum 24vert
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture4:Chapter 6TheSkeletalSystem: BoneTissue:IntrotoBone GrossAnatomyFunctionsofthe SkeletalSystem1. 2. 3. 4. Support Storageofminerals(calcium) Storageoflipids(yellowmarrow) Bloodcellproduction(red marrow) 5. Protection 6. Leverage(forceofmoti
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture5:Chapter 9Joints:Structure Bodymovement occursatjoints (articulations)where2 bonesconnect JointStructure: determinesdirection anddistanceof movement(rangeof motion) Jointstrength decreasesasmobility increasesJoints Functional Classificati
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week2:Lecture5:Chapter 9Joints:MovementsTypesofDynamic Motion Linearmotion(gliding) Angularmotion Rotation 2surfacesglidepasteachother (carpals&tarsals)Linear MotionFigure92,263 Monaxial(1axis) Biaxial(2axes) Triaxial(3axes) Nonaxial MobilejointsP
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week3:Lecture5:Chapter6The SkeletalSystem:BoneGrossAnatomy& HistologyLongBoneStructureRevisited: TheDiaphysis Aheavywall(cortex)of compactbone,or densebone Acentralspacecalled marrowcavityFigure62a,183Figure65,186Saladin,4thed.,fig.77Red marrow (red
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week3:Lecture1: Chapter9Joints: JointReviewBasicJointPrinciples Articulation=joint Joints(articulations)are where2bonesconnect JointStructure: determinesdirection anddistanceof movement(rangeof motion) Jointstrength decreasesasmobility increasesthAreo
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week3:Lecture2: Chapter9Joints: AxialSkeletonTemporomandibularJoint(TMJ) Mandiblearticulating withtemporalbone Combination modifiedhinge& glidingjoint Common dysfunctionatthis jointhttp:/www.aaoth Synovialjoints:Atlas&AxisJoints Atlantooccipital: c
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week3:Lecture3: Chapter9Joints: Appendicular Skeleton:Upper LimbArticulationsof the Appendicular SkeletonTable9.4,281JointsoftheUpper Limbhttp:/mywebpages.comcast.net/wnor/lesson5jointsofupperlimb.htmMartini,Figure82,241 Sternoclavicularjoint Acrom
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week3:Lecture4: Chapter9Joints: Appendicular Skeleton:Lower LimbJointsofthelowerlimbhttp:/www.bartleby.com/lhttp:/mywebpages.comcast.net/wnor/llbonesant.jpg Sacroiliacextensive ligamentousreinforcement Pubicsymphysis (cartilaginous)PelvicJointsWeigh
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture1:Chapter 6TheSkeletalSystem: BoneTissue:Introduction toBoneDevelopment Humanbonesgrowuntilabout age25 Osteogenesis: Ossification:BoneDevelopment boneformation Calcification: theprocessofreplacing othertissueswithbone Theprocessof deposi
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture2:Chapter 6TheSkeletalSystem: BoneTissue: EndochondralOssification Mostbones originateas hyaline cartilage Hyaline cartilageis replacedby boneEndochondralOssificationNewborn SkeletonAdult SkeletonThibodeau,6thed.,fig.77Figure71,207Over
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture3:Chapter6 TheSkeletalSystem:Bone Tissue:Intramembranous OssificationIntramembranousOssification Alsocalleddermalossification: occursinthedermisofskin [connectivetissuelayerunder epitheliallayer(epidermis)] producesdermalbonessuchas mandibl
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture4:Chapter 6TheSkeletalSystem: BoneTissue:Bone HomeostasisBloodVessels,LymphandNerves Boneisrichlysuppliedwith bloodvessels,nerves& lymphaticvesselsTortora,10thed.,fig. 65Figure612,193 Theadult skeleton: maintainsitself replaces mineral re
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture5: Chapter10Muscular TissueandChapter11 TheMuscularSystem: MuscleOverview Allmusclesofthebody Skeletal Attachtobones& producemovement Smooth Gutmuscle,blood vesselsetc. Cardiac OnlyinheartThemuscularsystemFunctionsofSkeletalMuscleOrgans1.
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week4:Lecture6: Chapter11The MuscularSystem: MusclesoftheLower LimbMuscleofthelowerlimb(extremity)Musclesofthelowerlimb:anterior/medialthighMusclesofthelowerlimb:anterior/medialthighMusclesofthelowerlimb:posteriorthighMusclesofthelowerlimb:hipflexors
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week5:Lecture4:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:ContractionCycleAPreview/ReviewofMuscleContractionTable 10-1, part 1, p. 299*SeeTable101,p.299*SkeletalMuscle Contraction Slidingfilament theory 6Participants: Actin Myosin Troponin Tropomyosin ATP Ca2+Figure1
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week5:Lecture3:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:MembranePotential& SynapseSendingsignaltoactin& myosin: SkeletalMuscle Contraction1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5BasicSteps: Actionpotentialmoves downmotorneuron Neurotransmitter(Ach) releasedbymotor neuron Achinitiatesaction po
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week5:Lecture2:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:MicroanatomyII: MyofilamentsOrganizationofSkeletalMuscleFibers:Myofibrils Madeupof bundlesof myofilaments (cytoskeletal elements) Myofilamentsare responsiblefor musclecontractionfig.10.2,306TypesofMyofilaments
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week5:Lecture1:Chapter10Muscular Tissue:MuscleStructureFunctionOverview: MicroanatomyIEpimysium: Exteriorcollagenlayer Connectedtodeepfascia Separatesmusclefrom surroundingtissues Perimysium Surroundsmusclefiberbundles (fascicles) Containsbloodvesseland
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Neuromuscular JunctionsTo complete this worksheet, select: Module: Support and Movement Activity: Animations Title: Neuromuscular Junctions.Introduction1. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the brain. Describe this neural connection.Components of th
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week6:Lecture1:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:ReviewMarieb,7th ed.,fig.9.4fig.10.18,307Nervetomuscle Neuromuscular junction Sarcoplasmic reticulum SarcomereAReviewofMuscle ContractionTable101(1of2)Summaryof Excitation contraction couplingTortora,10thed.,
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week6:Lecture2:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:TensionProduction& ControlTensionProduction Theallornoneprincipal: asawhole,amusclefiberiseithercontracted orrelaxed TensionofaSingleMuscleFiberdepends on: thenumberofpivotingcrossbridges thefrequencyofstimulat
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week6:Lecture3:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:Energetics&Forceof ProductionATPandMuscleContraction Sustainedmusclecontraction usesalotofATPenergy Musclesstoreenoughenergyto startcontraction Musclefibersmustmanufacture moreATPasneededFigure109,293&1012,296297
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week7:Lecture3:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:CardiacandSmooth MuscleSkeletaltissue& Cardiactissue*note not similar scales*Figure103,287Figure1022,317 cardiacmusclecells (cardiocytesorcardio myocytes): aresmall haveasinglenucleus haveshort,wideTtubules hav
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week7:Lecture1:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:MuscleFiberTypes1. Slowfibers 2. Fastfibers 3. Intermediatefibers3TypesofSkeletalMuscleFibersTable103,313(Intermediate)Marieb, 6th ed Areslowtocontract,slowtofatigue Havesmalldiameter,moremitochondria Havehig
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week7:Lecture2:Chapter10 MuscularTissue:LeverSystems Titin Bonearrangement ConnectivetissuesWhatpreventsoverstretchingduring relaxation?Whataffectshowmuchtension amusclecangenerate? Muscletension=forceexertedbya contractingmuscleonanobject Load=forcee
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week7:Lecture4:Chapter11The MuscularSystem:MusclesoftheHead, Neck&TrunkMusclesofmasticationFig. 11-6a, p. 340Musclesofarmflexion&extensionPectoralis majorFig. 11-15, p. 354Latissimus dorsiMusclesofback& abdomenRectus abdominis External oblique Int
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Week8:Lecture1(andonly):The MuscularSystem:SkeletalMuscle Review Concentrationgradientof ions(Na+,K+) [K+]highinsidecell [Na+]highoutsidecellRestingTransmembranePotentialSilverthorn, 4thed.,fig. 5.16Actionpotential Voltagegatedchannelsonmembranes ope
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Weeks9and10:Lecture1:Chapter5:The IntegumentarySystem:Introductionand EpidermisPartsoftheIntegumentI.Cutaneous membrane (skin)a) b) Epidermis DermisII.Accessory structuresa) b) c) Hair Nails GlandsFigure51,154;512,169OrganizationoftheIntegument&Sup
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Weeks9and10:Lecture2:Chapter5: TheIntegumentarySystem:TheDermis Anchorsepidermalaccessory structures Has2components: superficialpapillarylayerareolar CT deepreticularlayerdense irregularCTTheDermisFigure51,154Remember:ConnectiveTissues? (p118) Suppor
Oregon State - ZOOLOGY - 331
Weeks9and10:Lecture3:Chapter5: TheIntegumentarySystem:Accessory Structures Hair,hairfollicles, sebaceousglands, sweatglands,and nails: areepidermal structures(derived fromembryonic epidermis) arelocatedin dermis projectthroughthe skinsurfaceIntegumenta
Allen University - ECON - 100
DIT 2010 Business Statistics Problem Set/ Study Guide #1 Due: TBANotes: (1) (2)Prof. MW Varano Spring 2009The purpose of this short problem set is to verify that the student has a basic understanding of descriptive statistics, and basic probability. Th