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and Language Symbol Use in Childhood Click to edit Master subtitle style Language Development Click to edit Master subtitle style Using Language Involves... L anguage compr ehension L anguage pr oduction gener ativity L anguage Compr ehe nsion L anguage Pr oductio n Language and the Brain l Language processing involves a substantial degree of functional localization in the brain l The l eft hemispher e shows some specialization for language in infancy, Damage to B r ocas ar ea Vs Damage to Wer nickes ar ea Language and the Brain Critical Period To learn language, children must also be exposed to other people using languagespoken or signed Sometime between age 5 and puberty, language acquisition becomes much more difficult and ultimately less successful Language capabilities of bilingual adults who acquired their second language at different ages? Bilingual Children More than half of the worlds children are exposed to more than one language Children who are acquiring two languages do not seem to confuse them Bilingual children perform better on a variety of cognitive tests than do monolingual children Test of the Critical-Period Hypothesis Performance on a test of English grammar by adults originally from Korea and China was directly related to the age at which they came to the United States and were exposed to English The scores of adults who emigrated before the age of 7 are indistinguishable Infant-Directed Talk The distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children It is common throughout the world, but it is not universal Infants prefer IDT to speech directed to adults Sensitivity to Language Patterns numerous regularities in language Str patter ess ns D istr ibutional pr oper ties Older infants are also sensitive to the m inute pauses that occur between words in speech Interactions Even before infants start speaking, they develop interactive routines: T ur n tak ing I nter subject ivity Joint attention Pointing Word Comprehension pr oblem of r efer ence Infants may begin associating highly familiar words and referents by 6 months of age By 10 months, children in the U.S. have comprehension vocabularies of about 11154 words - link to Piaget Word Production Most infants produce their first words between 10-15 m onths of age First words typically include names for people, objects, and events from everyday life The period of one-word utterances is referred to as the h olophr astic per iod , because the child typically expresses a whole phrase with a single word (dont need to know this word) Over extension again. Piagets assim and Examples of Young Childrens Overextensions of Word Meaning Individual Differences Style of acquisition: The set of strategies that young children enlist in beginning to speak r efer ential or analytic style expr essive or holistic style w ait-and-see style These different styles, however, have little if any effect on the ultimate outcome of the process of Fast Mapping The process of rapidly learning a new word simply from the contrastive use of a familiar and unfamiliar word A number of assumptions (also called constraints or biases) guide childrens acquisitions of word meanings Meaning from Context Children use p r agmatic cues, aspects of the social context used for word learning Children also use the l inguistic context in which novel words appear to help infer their meaning ... View Full Document

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