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for Worksheet Labs One and Two Evolution : Natural Selection and Morphological Change in Green Algae Questions from Manual (each answer is worth 0.5 pts, 12 points total) 1. a. How many alleles are present for this particular trait? --2 b. How many of the total beads are colored and how many are white? --100 blue, 100 white c. What color fur do Bb individuals have? --Black d. How many beads represent the population? --200 beads = 200 alleles 2. a. Consider the Hardy-Weinberg equations. If the frequency of a recessive allele is 0.3, what is the frequency of the dominant allele? --0.7 b. If the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype is 0.49, what is the frequency of the dominant allele? --.51 c. If the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype is 0.36, what is the frequency of the homozygous dominant allele? --.64 d. If the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype is 0.49, what is the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype? --.51 e. Which Hardy-Weinberg equation relates the frequencies of the alleles at a particular gene locus? --P + q = 1 f. Which Hardy-Weinberg equation relates the frequencies of the genotypes for a particular gene locus? --P + q = 1 g. Which Hardy-Weinberg equation relates the frequencies of the phenotypes for a gene? --P2 + pq + q2 = 1 3. a. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle predicts that genotypic frequencies of offspring will be the same as those of the parental generation. Were they the same in your simulation? --yes b. If the frequencies were different, then one of the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle was probably violated. Which one? --The no selection pressure 4. a. Did the frequency of white individuals decrease with successive generations? --yes b. Was the decrease of white individuals from the first to second generation the same as the decrease from the second to the third generation? From the third to the fourth generation? Why or why not? --No because it became more difficult to get a pair of alleles to be bb after the third generation. c. How many generations would be necessary to totally eliminate the allele for white fur? --it would take a whole lot more generations to totally eliminate the allele for white fur. 5. a. Did the frequency of white individuals decrease with successive generations? --yes b. Consult your graph and compare the rate of selection for procedures in 18.3 and 18.4. Was the rate of decrease for 20% negative selection similar to the rate for 100% negative selection? How did they differ? --no, they were not similar. The rate of decrease for the 100% is greater than for the one with 20%. The 20% decrease rate had a much slower rate. c. How many generations would be to necessary eliminate the allele for white fur? --with this data, it would take a lot more generations than the 100% procedure. 6. Why do colonies of Gonium consist of only 4, 8, 16, or 32 cells? Why are there no 23-celled colonies? --because later on, they divide to produce more cells for new colonies. 7. What is the significance of a specialization at one end of the colony? -8. What is the significance of these structural and functional specializations of Eudorina? --its structure becomes more spherical and this creates the transition to having anterior and posterior parts of the colony. 9. a. Does the Volvox colony spin clockwise or counter-clockwise? --Both. b. What is the significance of this cytoplasmic network in Volvox ? --it helps promote the multi-cellular life in the volvox. The cells are then able to co-operate with each other and help each other until they break away to make new colonies. Tables and Graphing assignment Table 18.2 Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies with Chi Square analysis for 100% Negative Selection (5 pts) Genotypes Total genotypes BB Bb bb Alleles Total alleles B b Chi Square Significance Parent First Second Third Fourth Fifth Generation generation Generation Generation generation Generation 100 100 79 68 65 64 .25 .50 .25 ----------200 .5 .5 ------------------.21 .58 .21 ---------200 .5 .5 0 Not sig. .41 .46 .14 ----------158 .63 .37 .07 Not sig. .51 .44 .04 ---------136 .74 .26 .23 Not sig. .55 .43 .02 ---------130 .77 .23 .29 Not sig. .59 .36 .05 ---------128 .77 .23 .29 Not sig. Table 18.3 Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies with Chi Square analysis for 20% Negative Selection (5 pts) Genotypes Total genotypes BB Bb bb Alleles Total alleles B b Chi Square Significance Parent First Second Third Fourth Fifth Generation Generation Generation Generation generation Generation 100 100 95 92 90 87 .25 .50 .25 ----------200 .5 .5 ------------------.26 .48 .26 ---------200 .5 .5 0 Not sig. .23 .60 .17 ----------190 .53 .47 .0036 Sig. .24 .60 .16 ---------184 .54 .46 .0064 Sig. .28 .54 .18 ---------180 .56 .44 .0144 Sig. .30 .55 .15 ---------174 .57 .43 .0196 Sig. Assignment Figure 1 (3 pts) Graph the B and b allelic frequencies for the parent through 5th generations for both the 100% negative selection and the 20% negative selection. The x axis will be labeled for the six generations and the y axis will have the frequencies ranging from 0 to 1 (use at least 0.1 intervals). There will be four lines that must be distinguishable from one and another. Two lines will represent the B and b allelic frequencies with 100% negative selection and two lines will represent the B and b allelic frequencies for 20% negative selection. ... View Full Document

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