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PRINCIPLES CHAPTER MANAGEMENT 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT 1.2 ORGANISATIONS AND MANAGERS All the products and services required to satisfy the consumers and, ultimately, societys needs are produced and provided by specialised organisations such as hypermarkets, sports clubs, universities, car manufacturers, banks, guest houses, bicycle shops, hospitals, and airlines to mention but a few. Peoples lives are influenced in some way or another by the managers of these numerous business organisations. 1.3 THE NATURE OF MANAGEMENT Managers therefore combine, allocate, coordinate, and deploy resources or inputs in such a way that the organisations goals are achieved as productively as possible. In doing so, management follows a specific process. A process is a systematic way of doing things. The entails 4 fundamental management functions: Planning Organizing Leading Controlling THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS COMPRISES PLANNING, ORGANISING, LEADING AND CONTROLLING. A model is a simplification of the real world in order to explain complex relationships in easy-tounderstand terms. The fundamental functions of a manager link up in a specific sequence to form a process. Figure 1.2 illustrates the process as a logical sequence of actions. 1.4 A DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management can be defined as the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the resources of the organisation to predetermined stated organisational goals as productively as possible. Planning is the management function that determines the organisations vision, mission and goals. It involves identifying ways of reaching the goals and finding the resources needed for the task. Tactical plans are made by functional managers (such as financial, human resources, research and development, marketing, and operations managers) to support the organisations long-term plans. Operational plans are made by lower management (often called first line or supervisory management) to plan ahead for short periods such as weekly and monthly schedules. 2/ -2Organising is the second step in the management process. Tasks, roles, and responsibilities have to be defined and policies and procedures established to achieve the goals. Organising involves developing a framework or organisational structure to indicate how and where people and other resources should be deployed to achieve the goals. Leading refers to directing the human resources of the organisation and motivating them in such a way that their actions are aligned with predetermined goals and plans. Leading the organisations means making use of influence and power to motivate employees to achieve organisational goals. Leading can also mean change, which may be necessary to keep the organisation on track. Controlling means that managers should constantly make sure that the organisations is on the right course to attain its goals. To monitor performance and action, ensuring that they conform to plans to attain the predetermined goals. Control also includes the measurement of performance to determine how well the goals have been achieved. Feeding back results is an important aspect of control. 1.5 DIFFERENT LEVELS ORGANISATION. AND KINDS OF MANAGEMENT IN THE Managers are usually classified into two categories; 1. 2. According to their level in the organisation (the top, middle, and lower or first-line managers) and By the functional or specialist area of management for which they are responsible (the functional managers) Figure 1.4 indicates how managers within an organisation can be differentiated according to level and functional area. 1.5.1 TOP MANAGEMENT Top management represents the relatively small group of managers who lead the organisation. Top management is usually responsible for the organisation as a whole, as well as for determining its vision, mission, goals, and overall strategies of the entire organisation. Top management is concerned mainly with long-term planning, designing the organisations broad organisational structure, leading the organisation (through the top executive), and controlling it. It also influences the corporate culture. 1.5.2 MIDDLE MANAGEMENT Middle management is responsible for specific departments of the organisation and is primarily concerned with implementing the policies, plans, and strategies formulated by top management. It is responsible for medium-term and short-term planning, organizing functional areas. Middle managers also continually monitor environmental influences that may affect their own departments. 3/ -31.5.3 LOWER/FIRST-LINE MANAGEMENT Lower or first-line management is responsible for even smaller segments of the organisation, namely the different sub-sections. First-line managers are centered on the daily activities of their departments or sections, on short-term planning, and on implementing the plans of middle management. Their primary concern is to apply policies, procedures, and rules to achieve a high level of productivity. These managers hold the power to increase or decrease the productivity of most organisations. They also maintain the crucial interface between management and the major body of employees in the organisations. Figure 1.5 illustrates how the four functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling differ for the three management levels at a specific organisation. 1.6 AREAS OF MANAGEMENT The general management function includes an examination of the management process as a whole. The marketing function entails the marketing of the products or services of the organisation. The financial function includes the acquisition, utilization, and control of the money the organisation need to finance its activities. The production or operations management function includes that group of activities concerned with the physical production of products, namely the establishment and layout of the production unit. The purchasing function entails the acquisition of all products and materials required by the business to function profitably, namely raw materials, components, tools, equipment and the inventory. The research and development function is responsible for developing new products and improving old products. The human resource function entails the appointment, development, and maintenance of the human resources of the organisation. The public relations function of an organisation is to create a favourable, objective image of the organisation and to establish good relations with those directly or indirectly concerned with the business and its products or services. THE ROLE DISTRIBUTION OF MANAGERS 1.7 In Figure 1.6 can be classified into three overlapping groups, namely and interpersonal role, and information role, and a decision-making role. The interpersonal role acts as a figurehead for the mine. Second, all managers have a role as a leader. The third role within the set of interpersonal roles is liaison, which aims at maintaining good relations within and outside the organisation. Managers information role enables them to obtain information from colleagues, subordinates, and department heads, as well as outside persons, and they can use this information for making decisions. This information role of the manager involves monitoring or gathering information on trends and passing on relevant information to colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. 4/ -4Also entails acting as a spokesperson for the department or for the whole organisation. 1.8 A manager is regarded as an entrepreneur, using the information to introduce a new product or idea. A manager also has to deal with and solve problems such as strikes, shortages, or broken equipment. Managers must make decisions about the resources available to the organisation. Resource allocation, or deciding to whom resources such as money, people, and equipment are to be assigned. As negotiators, managers often have to negotiate with individuals, other departments or organisation and trade unions about goals, standards of performance and resources. MANAGERIAL SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES AT VARIOUS MANAGERIAL LEVELS. The following three main skills are identified as Figure 1.7 depicts the different skills. prerequisites for sound management. 1. 2. Conceptual skills refer to the mental ability to view the operation of the organisation and its parts holistically. Skills involve the managers thinking and planning abilities. Interpersonal skills refer to the ability to work the people. A manager should be able to communicate, understand peoples behaviour, resolve conflict, and motivate both groups and individuals. Technical skills refer to the ability to use the knowledge or techniques of a specific discipline to attain goals. A manager at a lower level in particular requires a sound knowledge of the technical activities he or she must supervise. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE 3. 1.9 The task of management in a free-market economy is to manage in such a way that the organisation earns the highest possible income with the lowest possible costs, with profit as the favourable difference between the two. Efficiency means doing something right, whereas effectiveness means that the right thing is done. 1.10 THE SCOPE OF MANAGEMENT Effective and efficient management practice is equally important in smaller business organisations as well as non-profit organisations such as government departments and organisations, municipalities, universities and schools, sports clubs, and even political parties. 5/ -5- CHAPTER 2 THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORY 2.2 WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT THEORY? One has to understand how a management (or other) theory is built. A theory is built in stages: 2.3 Gathering data regarding a phenomenon (eg what managers do) Organizing it into categories (eg planning, organizing, leading, controlling) Highlighting significant similarities and differences Making generalizations explaining what causes what and under what circumstances. UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT THEORIES A management theory is a group of assumptions advanced in order to elucidate the productivity issue. Figure 2.1, certain environmental forces are responsible for the evolution of management theory, namely social, economic, technological, political, international, and ecological forces. New technological breakthroughs in communication such as the Internet have caused managers to reassess their approaches to management. The fact that knowledge workers will soon become the dominant group in the workforce makes the contemporary mangers job even more challenging. The knowledge worker owns the means of production, namely knowledge, the in the new economy. Knowledge is highly portable, which leads to a mobile workforce. 2.4 THE THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT The theories of management can be classified into two main schools of thought, namely classical approaches and contemporary approaches. 2.4.1 The classical approaches The classical approaches extend from the late nineteenth century to the 1920s. Scientific management school Frederick W. Taylor believed that there was one best way to perform any task. Scientific management school (cont.) He analysed each aspect of each task and measured everything measurable. A standard time for the accomplishment of each task could be determined. This allowed him to describe performance objectives quantitatively. This is known as time-and-motion study. He believed that money motivated workers. Knowing what amounted to a fair days work, he supported the individual piecework system as the basis for pay. 6/ -6The focus of scientific management Scientific management focused on ways to improve the performance of individual workers. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth focused on work simplification as an answer to the productivity question. He changed an 18-step process into a five-step process and increased productivity by about 200 per cent. Henry L Gantts main concern was productivity at shop-floor level. His major contribution to scientific management is a chart showing the relationship between work planned and completed on one axis and time elapsed on the other. In short, scientific management focused on the issue of managing work not on managing people. This approach to managing work has obvious limitations. First, workers cannot be viewed simply as parts of a smoothly running machine. Second, the assumptions about the motivation of employees are stated too simplistically in these approaches. Money is not the only motivator of workers. In the third place, this approach to management creates the potential for the exploitation of labour and therefore, possible strikes by workers. Fourth, this approach can lead to ignorance of the relationship between the organisation and its changing external environment. The process (or administrative) approach The process approach to management grew out of the need to find guidelines for managing complex organisations such as factories. Planning, and the organisation of people n the workplace, became the focus of consideration. The focus of the process approach The process approach to management focused on managing the total organisation. Henry Fayols experience led him to conclude that there were five basic functions of administration: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1) 2) 3) 4) planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. Planning called for the formulation of goals. Organising focused on the effective coordination of resources for attaining the set goals. Commanding was the art of leading people Coordinating the activities of groups to provide unity of action ensure a smoothly functioning organisation. 7/ -75) Controlling involved seeing that everything was done according to the set plans and that the stated goals were indeed attained. According to Fayol, management is a skill something that one can learn once its underlying principles are understood. A major disadvantage of the administrative approach to management is the fact that the approach postulates that formal authority should be maintained by managers. The bureaucratic approach The main concern of Max Weber was the more fundamental issue of how organisations are structured. He developed a theory of bureaucratic management that stressed the need for a strictly defined hierarchy, governed by clearly defined regulations and authority. Webers ideal bureaucracy is based on legal authority. One of the major limitations of this approach is that bureaucratic rigidity results in mangers being compensated for doing what they are told to do not for thinking. Limited oranisational flexibility and slow decision making are also limitations, which, in todays turbulent environment, can lead to golden business opportunities being lost. 2.4.2 Human relations movement The early approaches to management emphasized the technical aspect of work as the expense of its personal aspects. Managing people became the major issue facing managers, and managers became more orientated to human relations and behavioural science. The human relations approach to solving the productivity problem grew out of a famous series of studies conducted at the Western Electric Companys Hawthorne Works in Chicago, Illinois. These studies became knows as the Hawthorne Studies. The Hawthorne effect - the studies concluded that group pressure, rather than management demands, had the strongest influence on worker productivity. In short, employees were more motivated by social needs than economic needs. Maslow and McGregor are two well-known behavioural scientists. Maslow suggested that human beings have five levels of needs. McGregor distinguished two alternative basic assumptions about people and their approaches to work. These two assumptions, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X managers assume that workers must be constantly coaxed into putting effort into their jobs. Workers, who must be motivated by force, money, or praise. This is consistent with the early approaches, especially the scientific approach. Theory Y managers assume that people relish work and approach their work as an opportunity to develop their talents. This approach reflects the basic assumptions of the human relations as well as the behavioural science approach to management. 8/ -8This approach viewed workers as human beings and not as machines. The belief that a happy worker is a productive worker is too simplistic. Many favours play a role in the productivity of workers, including a workers values, attitudes, learning, and motivation. 2.4.3. The quantitative management theory The focus of the quantitative management theory. This theory deals with mathematical models, statistics, and other models, and their use in management decision-making. This school argues that management decisions should be based on quantifiable information. The quantitative perspective comprises: Management science Operation research (OR) Management science deals with the development of mathematical models to assist managers in decision-making. Operations research is an applied form of management science that helps managers develop techniques to produce their products and services more efficiently. Tools and techniques used today include linear programming, PERT/CPM, and regression analysis. They can be used to develop product strategies, production scheduling, capital budgeting, cash flow management and inventory control. It is used mainly as a tool or aid in decision-making. 2.4.3 Contemporary approaches The systems approach The is approach compensated for the two main limitations of the classical approaches First, that they ignored the relationship between the organisation and its external environment Second, that they focused on specific aspects of the organisation at the expense of other considerations. The systems approach to management views an organisation as a group of interrelated parts with a single purpose: to remain in balance (equilibrium). The open system perspective of an organisation is illustrated in figure 2.3. This figure depicts a system as an interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole. It also depicts the organisation as a system that comprises four elements: Input (resources): Transformation processes (managerial processes, systems, and so on); Outputs (products or services); Feedback (reaction from the environment). The contingency approach The contingency approach is based on the systems approach to management. The basic premise of the contingency approach is that the application of management principles depends on the particular situation that management faces at a given point in time. 9/ -9The contingency approach recognises that every organisation, even every department or unit within the same organisation, is unique. The characteristics of the situation are called contingencies and they can be of use in helping managers identify the situation. These contingencies are: The organisations external environment The organisations own capabilities Managers and workers (their values, goals, skills, and attitudes) The technology used by the organisation. Total quality management It was inspired by a small group of quality experts, the most prominent of them being W Edwards Deming. Total quality management Total: Quality: Management: Quality involves everyone and all activities in the organisation Meeting customers agreed requirements, formal and informal, at the lowest cost, first time every time. Quality must be managed. TQM encompasses employees and suppliers, as well as the people who buy the organisations products or services. The goal is to create an organisation committed to continuous improvement. TQM emphasizes actions to prevent mistakes; quality control consists of identifying mistakes that may already have occurred. Six Sigma Six Sigma is a quality initiative that focuses on defects per million. Potential quality is the known maximum possible value added per unit of input. Actual quality is the current value added per unit of input. The difference between potential and actual quality is waste. The focus of Six Sigma is on improving quality by helping organisations produce products and services better, faster and more cheaply. Six Sigma was initially designed to improve manufacturing processes, but these days the techniques are being applied to various business areas, including sales, human resources and customer service. Six Sigma is defined as three different levels at Motorola University: As a metric; As a methodology; As a management system. Motorola consider that Six Sigma is all three at the same time. 10/ -10Six Sigma as a metric Six Sigma equated to 3.4 defects per one million opportunities. Six Sigma as a methodology Understanding requirements Aligning those requirements Utilizing data Driving rapid and sustainable improvement to business At the heart of the methodology is the DMAIC model for process improvement. DMAIC is commonly used by Six Sigma project teams and is an acronym for: Define Opportunity Measure performance Analyse opportunity Improve performance Control performance Six Sigma management system Is a high-performance system for implement business strategy. The learning organisation The learning organisation is a management approach that is also based on the systems approach to management. A learning organisation therefore requires learning individuals. The seven learning disabilities are listed below:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The delusion of learning from experience. I hit him because he took my ball. The myth of teamwork. I am my position. The enemy is out there. The illusion of taking charge The parable of the boiled frog According to Senge, five disciplines enable us to overcome these disabilities and create new futures for the organisation. These disciplines are: Becoming committed to lifelong learning: Challenging ones own assumptions and generalizations about the organisation and the world around it. Sharing a vision for the organisation; Encouraging active dialogue in the organisation. Promoting systems thinking. 11/ -11- Re-engineering Re-engineering involves a significant reassessment of what a particular organisation is all about. It entails a fundatmental reappraisal of the way that organisations operate. Hammer and Champy, re-engineering experts. Re-engineering: a quantum leap In the extreme, re-engineering assumes the current process is irrelevantIt doesnt work, its broken, forget it! Start over. Re-engineering thus involves rethinking and redesigning the processes connecting organisational members with people, such as customers and suppliers, outside the organisation. Speed, quality of service, and overhead costs are some of the issues that re-engineering can address. Compared to TQM, re-engineering blends the best of two worlds: Drastic change not merely incremental change Respect for the smallest but most important details that make an organisation successful in the eyes of the customers. The following six conditions are vital for successful re-engineering: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Powerful external forces for change should make change inevitable. Top management should vigorously back the re-engineering initiative. Re-engineering projects should focus on the process improvements that customers really care about and are willing to pay for. Thorough knowledge of the needs of customers is therefore essential. All major departments affected by the process (es) should be represented on the team. Changes in human resource programmes and information technology should be closely coordinated with the re-engineering effort. Successful re-engineering is an ongoing rather than a one-off project. 2.5 CURRENT AND NEAR-FUTURE MANAGEMENT REALITIES The fact that the new competitive advantage lies in the human assets of organisations poses unprecedented challenges to the modern manager. Managing this source of competitive advantages requires that managers thoroughly grasp: How the current and near-future environments differ from previous ones; How todays organisations differ from previous ones; The impact of both of the above on management. Evolutionary environments are environments that are predictable. They change gradually, which makes it possible to detect trends that can be forecast to determine what the future holds. A revolutionary environment is known for its unpredictable, drastic change also called discontinuous change. Forecasting becomes impossible in these environments. 12/ -12- CHAPTER 3 MANAGING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT 3.2 3.2.1 CONCEPTS OF SYSTEMS THEORY The organisation as a sub-system of its environment A system can be defined as a set of interrelated elements functioning as a whole. A business organisation is also a system that operates in a specific environment. Organisations are not selfsufficient, nor are they self-contained. The organisation and its environment therefore depend on each other for survival. This mutual dependence is illustrated in Figure 3.1 (see Figure 3.1 A systems perspective of an organisation) 3.2.2 The systems approach in management Four basic concepts must be understood: an open system (as opposed to a closed system), subsystems, synergy, and entropy A system is closed when it is self-supporting and can exist independently of a particular environment for example, the development of a test-tube baby from conception to the foetal stage. A system is open if: It is dependent on the environment in which it operates; The environment is dependent on the system; There is a specific interaction between system and environment. A sub-system is actually a system within a system. Synergy is another concept of the systems theory that can be applied to management. It means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, or that the individual sub-systems are simultaneously applied in such a way that the result of their simultaneously applied in such a way that the result of their simultaneous application is greater than the sum of their individual efforts. Entropy, or the process of systems disintegration, is the opposite of synergy. The organisation supplies the products and services that a society requires. As an employer it influences the purchasing power of the society, and its products may also affect the communitys way of life. 3.3. THE COMPOSITION OF THE MANAGEMENT/BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The management environment is therefore defined as all those factors or variables, both inside and outside the organisation, that may influence the continued and successful existence of the organisation. (See Figure 3.2) Figure 3.2 shows the composition of the management environment in the format usually encountered in the literature, on the one hand, and as a practical conceptualization of the interaction between organisation and environment, on the other. 13/ -13Micro-environment consists of the organisation itself, and over which management has almost complete control. The variables in this environment, namely the vision, mission and goals, as well as organisational strategies, various management functions, and the organisations resources, are controlled by management. Also included are the organisations employees and organisational culture. The second component of the environment is the market or task environment, which surrounds the organisation. Variable determine the nature and strength of the competition in an industry. Key variables in this environment are as follows: Consumers, whose purchasing power and behaviour in turn determine the number of entrants to the market; Suppliers, who supply or not wish to supply products, raw material, services, and even finance to the organisation; Intermediaries, who compete with each other to distribute the organizations product; Competitors, who are already established in the market and wish to maintain or improve their position Labour unions, which deal with the supply of labour. Management has no control over the components in the market environment, although its strategy may influence the relevant various. The third environmental component, the macro-environment, exists outside the organisation and the market environment. It comprises six distinct sub-environments, which are defined as follows:1, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The technological environment that is continually responsible for the pace of innovation and change; The economic environment in which factors such as inflation, recessions, exchange rates, and the monetary and fiscal policy of the government influence management; The social environment, in which peoples lifestyles, habits and values are shaped by culture and, in turn, make certain demands on the organisation; The ecological environment, which comprises natural resources such as flora and fauna and mineral resources. The political environment, with the government and its political involvement and legislation. The international environment, in which local and foreign trends influence the organisation. The individual organisation has no control over these components of the macro-environment and its influence on these variables is also negligible. 3.3.1 Main characteristics of the management/business environment The following are some of the principal characteristics of this environment: The interrelatedness of environmental factors or variables. Increasing instability. The interdependence between environmental factors results in increasing instability and change in the environment. 14/ -14 3.4 Environmental uncertainty. The complexity of the environment. The environment is becoming unpredictable. THE INTERNAL OR MICRO-ENVIRONMENT It is in this environment that management plans, organises, leads, and control the activities of the organisation. The management process is enacted in this environment to achieve synergy between the goals of the organisation, the resources for realizing these goals, the personal goals of employees, ownership interests, market requirements, and the environment outside the organisation. 3.5 THE MARKET OR TASK ENVIRONMENT As shown in figure 3.2, it comprises the market, suppliers, intermediaries, competitors, substitute products, possible new entrants, and labour unions, which are the source of opportunities and threats to the organisation. This environment contains whose variables that revolve around competition and pose threats or create opportunities for organisations. 3.5.1 The market The market for the organisations products or services consists of people who have needs to be satisfied and the financial means to satisfy them. The market consists of people with particular needs and a certain behaviour in satisfying those needs. Buying power is represented mainly by the personal disposal income of consumers. Personal disposable income is that portion of personal income that remains after deducting direct tax, plus credit loans from banks, shops, and other institutions), which can be used to purchase consumer produces and services. Only two of the main characteristics of the consumer market the number of consumers and the buying power of consumer. Other characteristics, such as language, age and gender distribution, marital status, family, size, and literacy, influence the consumption patterns of the consumer market. 3.5.2 Suppliers The inputs that the organisation requires are mainly materials (including raw materials, equipment and energy), capital, and labour, which are provided by the organisations suppliers. If an organisation is unable to draw the essential inputs of the right quality, quantity, and price to attain its goals, then it cannot hope to succeed in the competitive market environment. 3.5.3 Intermediaries Intermediaries also play a vital role in bridging the gap between the manufacturer and the consumer. By bridging this gap, the utilities of place, time, and ownership are created. Intermediaries are wholesalers and retailers, commercial agents and brokers. 3.5.4 Competitors 15/ -15A market economy is characterized by a competitive market environment. Organisations compete not only for a market share for their product, but also complete with other organisations for labour, capital, and materials. Competition can be defined as a situation in the market environment in which different organisations with more or less the same product or service compete for the business patronage of the same consumers. The result of this competition is that the market mechanism keeps excessive profits in check, provides an incentive for higher productivity, and encourages technological innovation. The intensity of competition in a particular market environment are determined by five forces. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The possibility of new entrants or departures; The bargaining power of clients and consumers; The bargaining power of suppliers; The availability or lack of substitute products or services; The number of existing competitors. Figure 3.3 illustrates the five forces responsible for competition in a particular industry. The model derives from the work of Michael Porter. The weaker the five forces are, the better the chances are of good performance. (NB: See Figure 3.3 - Competitive forces in an industry) Management must be sensitive to trends in the market environment to enable it to make the most of opportunities and to avoid possible threats in good time. 3.6 THE MACRO-ENVIRONMENT The emphasis is on the changes caused by the uncontrolled macro-variables and their implications for management. 3.3.1 The technological environment Technology refers to the knowledge of how to do something, whether it is age-old technology for making wine or high-tech for manufacturing the latest cellular phone. Technology not only determines how the organisation makes products or serves customers, but also affects the organisations markets and its ability to compete in those markets. The most basic effect is probably higher productivity, which results in keener competition. Continued assessment of the technological environment should include:- Identification of important technologies and technological trends; Analysis of potential change in important current and future technologies; Analysis of the competitive impact of important technologies; Analysis of the organisations technological strengths and weaknesses; A list of priorities which should be included in a technology strategy for the organisation. 16/ -16- 3.3.2 The economic environment The economy which in turn is influenced by technology, politics, the ecology and the social and international environments. These cross-influences constantly cause changes in the economic growth rate, levels of employment, consumer income, the rate of inflation, the exchange rate, and the general state of the economy. The economic environment not only influences other environments and businesses but by other trends such as crime, social and technological trends and the governments monetary policy, which affects the money supply, interest rates, and the exchange rate. Fiscal policy affects organisations as well as the consumer through tax rates and tax reforms. 3.3.3 The socio-cultural environment People are products of their society; as members of a particular community, nation or population group, they adopt the culture of that society. They learn its language, values, faith, expectations, laws, and customs. An organisation is at the center of social change. It should always keep up with the major influences on it of social trends. One social problem is the curse of AIDS. 3.3.4 The ecological/physical environment The ecological or physical environment contains the limited natural resources from which an organisation obtains its raw materials. Waste, or effluent, creates various forms of pollution. Management much take timely steps to limit as far as possible any detrimental effects the organisation may have on the environment, not only to prevent unfavourable attitudes towards the organisation, but, most importantly in order to conserve, maintain and manage the country dwindling natural resources. 3.3.5 The political environment The state influences the business environment and the organisation primarily as a regulating force. The policy of the South African Government is aimed at maintaining a market economy, private ownership, and freedom of speech, but it will intervene when monopolistic or other conditions impede the functioning of the market. The government also intervenes by means of the annual budget, taxation, import control, promotion of exports, import tariffs to protect certain industries against excessive foreign intervention, price control in respect of certain products and services. The government influences the organisations market both internally and externally internally through government expenditure, and externally though its political policy which may mean acceptance. 3.3.6 The international environment Each country has unique environmental factors with its own technology, economy, culture, laws, politics, markets and competition, which differ from those of other country. -17International and multinational organisation are affected by international trends and events. Globalisation, however, not only offers opportunities but poses threats too. Management must therefore constantly assess possible global threats to their products and markets. The macro-environment comprises the following variables: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3.6.8 Political, Economic Social Technological International Ecological Conclusion Knowledge of trends in the environment, and identification of environmental dimensions that largely determine the progress of a business, are also necessary for decision making in order to maximize profitability. This knowledge requires the environment to be scanned, which enables management to identify threats and challenges in the environment in good time and to transform them into opportunities. 3.7 3.7.1 INTERFACES BETWEEN THE ORGANISATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Environmental change and the organisation Change means changing the status quo changing a state of stability to one of instability, moving from the predictable to the unpredictable. It is unmeasurable and it causes uncertainty. It occurs in specific areas and societies in various ways and at different rates. Change is therefore a process of continual innovation in every conceivable area of society. To ensure its survival, management must make adjustments in one or more of the organisations interfaces, namely its systems, strategy, structure, and so forth. The environment of one organisation differs from that of another, with the result that some environments are more suited than others to specific kinds of organisationl 3.7.2 Uncertainty in the environment The extent of change refers to the degree of stability or instability of the environment, whereas the complexity of the environment depends on the number of its variables, resulting in either a complex or a simple environment. In Figure 3.6 determines the level of uncertainty that the environment holds for the organisation. A complex and dynamic environment promotes a high level of uncertainty. (NB: See Figure 3.6 - Environmental change and uncertainty. 18/ -183.7.3 Crises in the environment Crises influence organisations in different ways. 3.8 3.8.1 WAY IN WHICH MANAGEMENT CAN PREPARE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES. Information management Its information management system should make adequate provision for environmental scanning. The importance of environmental scanning i.e. the process of measuring, making projections, and evaluating change in the environment is illustrated in the following: The environment is changing constantly. Environmental scanning is necessary to determine whether factors in the environment constitute a threat to the organisations current mission, goals, and strategy. Scanning is also necessary to determine which factors in the environment afford opportunities for attaining goals. Organisations that scan the environment systematically are more successful than those that do not. The extent of environmental scanning is determined by the following factors: 3.8.2 The nature of the environment in which an organisation operates and the demands the environment makes on it. The basic relationship that an organisation has with its environment. The source and extent of change will also influence the degree of meaningful environmental scanning. Strategic responses This may entail adapting an existing strategy or developing a new one. 3.8.3 Structural change Organisations that operate in an environment with a high level of uncertainty prefer a more flexible structure with fewer levels of authority and fewer rules in order to deal with environmental change more quickly. 19/ -19- CHAPTER 4 STRATEGIC PLANNING 4.1 INTRODUCTION A hierarchy of plans exists in all organisations. The strategic plan is the guiding star it provides focus and direction to all other plans in the organisation. The strategic plans are translated into tactical plans for the different functional areas (finance, marketing). With the tactical plans in place, the operating plans can be derived from them. Strategic management is about change, and planning to survive amid change. To-days business environment is more turbulent than ever. One can describe the environment as revolutionary as opposed to evolutionary. Evolutionary environments are predictable; revolutionary environments change at such a rate that they cannot be predicted. 4.2 STRATEGIC PLANNING: WHAT IT ENCOMPASSES Strategic planning can be defined as the process of proactively aligning the organisations resources with threats and opportunities caused by changes in the external environment. See Figure 4.1 The focus of strategic planning. The main focus of strategic planning is on the changing future. Strategic planning has unique characteristics, some which are: Strategic planning is an ongoing activity (a process). It requires well-developed conceptual skills and is performed mainly by top management. It focuses on the organisation as a whole. It is future oriented. It is concerned with the organisations vision, mission, long-term goals, and strategies. It aims at integrating all management functions. It focuses on opportunities that may be exploited, or threats that may be dealt with, through the application of the organisations resources. 1. 2. Strategic planning is performed by top management with input from managers at the other levels. Tactical planning and operational planning are perform by middle and lower management. The strategic planning process) (NB: See Figure 4.2 The corporate strategy (also called the grand strategy) is the course charted for an organisation as a whole and specifies which set of businesses the organisation should be in and in which markets it intends to compete. The corporate strategy focuses on the organisations scope of activities and resource deployment. 20/ -20Business strategy determines how best to complete in a particular industry or market. It is concerned with the strategies for each unit or business within a corporation. 4.3 4.3.1 THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS The vision Visions are also about creating expectations at organisational level but also at individual level. The vision should provide a clear sense of what the organisation hopes to become. The vision is the end, not the means of getting to the end. A clear vision is important to an organisation for the following reasons: 4.3.2 It portrays the dream that the organisation has for the future. It promotes change It provides the basis for a strategic plan. It enhances a wide range of performance measures. It helps to keep decision making in context. Visions provide focus and direction. It motivates individuals and facilitates the recruitment of talent. It has positive consequences. The mission statement. This vision had to be translated into reality = the mission statement. The vision statement guides the formulation of the mission statement. The mission statement aligns the organisation with its dream in terms of its products, market, and technology. Management will typically ask the following questions when formulating a mission statement. 1. 2. 3. What is (are) our business(es) (in other words, our product)? Who is our client(our market)? How will we provide this product or service (technology)? The mission statement also sets the parameters within which all decisions should be made. Organizations should also address the following components in their mission statement. Concern for survival/growth/profit Philosophy Public image Employees and all other stakeholders Distinctive competence See Figure 4.5 The mission statement as a strategic tool. 4.3.3 Assessing the internal environment (NB: See Figure 4.6 Steps in the development of an organisational profile. Step 1: Identify strategic internal factors 21/ 21Managers identify and examine key aspects of the organisations basic capabilities, limitations, and characteristics. How managers decide which factors are truly strategic. To help managers with this challenging task, the following approaches have been identified. a) The evaluation of functional segments The functional approach concentrates on in-depth studies of the functional area of an organisation. b) The value-chain approach The value chain look at an organisation as a chain of activities that transforms inputs into outputs that customers value. The value chain distinguishes between two types of activities in an organisation: c) Primary activities Secondary activities The resource-based view (RBV) of an organisation The underlying assumption in this approach to internal assessment is that organisations differ in fundamental ways because each organisation possesses a unique mixture of resources. See Figure 10.8 The hierarchy of resources Figure 4.8 above depicts as a hierarchy the types of resources or capabilities that an organisation possesses. Strategic resources or capabilities are the unique resources of an organisation that cannot be easily emulated by competitors. Base resources are those resources that an organisation cannot operate without. Peripheral resources are necessary resources but can easily be outsourced. d) e) The production/market evolution Using financial analysis Organisations use the balance sheet and income statement in their financial analyses. The key financial ratios that are used are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Liquidity - refers to an organisations ability to meet its short-term obligations. Leverage - ratios look at the source of the organisations capital, such as its owners or outside creditors. Activity measure how well the organisation is using its resources. Profitability measure how well an organisation is managed. 22/ -22Four basic perspectives on the evaluation of strategic internal factors can help managers in this task. These perspectives focus on: A comparison with the organisations performance in the past. A comparison with competitors; A comparison with industry rations; Benchmarking Step 2: Evaluate strategic internal factors. Comparing the organisations capabilities with those of major competitors is a second approach that managers might use to evaluate the organisation. Each industry has its own ratios that measure success in that industry. Benchmarking is another approach that can be used to identify an organisations strengths and weaknesses. Benchmarking is the search for the best practices among competitors and noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance. Step 3: Develop input for the strategic planning process. The results of the second step could be applied to determine those internal factors that: 4.3.4 Provide an organisation with an edge over its competitors Important capabilities for the organisation to have but are typical of every competitor; Are currently weaknesses in the organisation. The external environment The macro-environment includes forces that originate beyond any single organisations immediate environment. The societal environment includes factors such as attitudes towards quality of life, the population growth, and the career expectations of the population. The market environment includes those factors that both directly affect, and are affected by, an organisation. These factors include competitors, customers, suppliers, potential entrants, and substitute products. (NB: See Figure 4.9 Steps in environmental forecasting.) The next step in forecasting environmental variables is the development of an environmental profile. An environmental profile is a summary of the key environmental factors. The final step in environmental forecasting is to monitor the critical aspects of management forecasts. Scenarios can be built as follows: Determine which decisions will make or break the organisation. Put together an information-gathering network that focuses on forces that seem most likely to have a significant impact on the organisation. Sketch what if scenarios that deal with the most influential external forces in the environment. Assess the implications of each scenario. Identify signs, which could indicate that a particular scenario is materializing. Reassess your companys vision in the light of the scenarios. 23/ -234.3.5 Translating the mission into long-term goals The assessment of both the external and internal environments will indicate to management whether the mission statement is realistic. The mission statement is a broad statement indicating the organisations intent. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is used by many organisations, including Edcon, Kumba Resources, universities and government, for this purpose. Kaplan and Norton state what you measure is what you get. BSC includes financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken. The financial perspective includes measures such as operating income, return on capital employed, and economic value added. The customer perspective looks at measures such as customer retention and customer satisfaction. The thirds perspective of the BSC namely internal business processes, deals with continuous improvement, throughput and quality. The four dimensions of the BSC do not operate in isolation. Kaplan and Norton. A strategy map visually represents how an organisation creates value. They argue that sustained value creation depends on managing four key internal processes: 4.3.6 Operations Customer relationships Innovation Regulatory Social processes Choosing a strategy The term used in strategic planning for this core idea is generic strategy There are three types of generic strategy: Low-cost leadership Differentiation Focus (NB: See Figure 4.10 The Balanced Scorecard An overall low-cost leadership strategy attempts to maximize sales by minimizing costs per unit and hence prices. Several things can be done to minimize costs. First, as workers gain more experience in producing a particular product. Second, an organisation can expand the size of its operations. Differentiation is the second generic strategy that distinguishes an organisations products or services from those of its competitors. The third generic strategy is to focus on a specific product line or a segment of the market that gives an organisation a competitive edge. 4.4 Grand Strategies 24/ -24Single-business organisations limit their operations to one major industry. Consider three categories of grand strategy, namely growth, decline, or corporate combination strategies. See Figure 4.11 4.4.1 Growth Strategies Internal growth strategies It involves concentrating on improving what one is already doing. Resources are directed towards the continued and profitable development of a known product, in a known market, using a known technology. A concentration growth strategy can be accomplished by attracting new consumers, increasing the consumption rate of existing consumers, or poaching from the competition. (NB: See Figure 4.11 Grand strategies) Known skills and capabilities are a major advantage in this low-risk strategy. Market development is very closely related to a concentration strategy. Market development is a strategy according to which an organisation sells its present products in new markets by opening additional new outlets or attracting other market segments. Product development implies substantial modification of existing products or additions to present products to increase market penetration within existing customer groups. Innovation is a riskier strategy. External growth strategies Backward vertical integration is the strategy followed by an organisation seeking increased control of its supply sources. When the strategy involves the acquisition of a business nearer to the ultimate consumer, it is called forward vertical integration. Forward vertical integration is an attractive alternative if an organisation is receiving unsatisfactory service from the distributor of its products. Horizontal integration is a long-term strategy by which one or more similar organisations are taken over for reasons such as scale-of-operations benefits or a larger market share. Diversification growth strategies may be appropriate to organisations that cannot achieve their growth objectives in their current industry with their current products and markets. The reasons for an organisation to diversify could include the following:The markets of current businesses are approaching the saturation or decline phase of the product life cycle. Risk can be distributed more evenly. Current businesses are generating excess cash that can be invested more profitably elsewhere. Synergy is possible when diversifying into new businesses. 25/ -25Concentric diversification involves the addition of a business related to an organisation in terms of technology, markets, or products. The new business selected must possess a high degree of compatibility with the current businesses. Conglomerate diversification involves seeking growth by acquiring a business because it represents the most promising investment opportunity available. This strategy is not without its pitfalls, the primary one being the lack of managerial experience in the new business. 4.4.2. Decline strategies Turnaround is an appropriate strategy, as it focuses on eliminating inefficiencies in an organisation. Turnaround strategies could also focus on increasing sales to put the organisation back on track. A divestiture strategy involves the sale of a business or a major component of it to achieve a permanent change in the scope of operations. Harvesting is an appropriate strategy when an organisation seeks to maximize cash flow in the short run, regardless of the long-term effect. This strategy could have detrimental effects on the organisations long-term survival. Liquidation, the owners and strategic managers of an organisation admit failure and recognize that this least attractive of all strategies is the best way of minimizing the loss to the stakeholders of the organisation. Liquidation can therefore be seen as the most extreme form of the decline strategies in that the entire organisation ceases to exist. 4.4.2 Corporate combinations A joint venture is a long-term strategy that requires commitment of funds, other resources, facilities and services by two or more legally separate entities to a combined undertaking for their mutual benefit. A lesser form combination, which may or may not involve equity participation, involves strategic alliances. A merger, on the other hand, involves the total pooling of resources by two or more organisations. A merger is usually farm ore collaborative and voluntary, and is entered into mutually. Acquisition occurs when the organisation being taken over agrees to sell a controlling interest to the dominant company willing or unwillingly. 4.5 THE SELECTION OF GRAND STRATEGIES See Figure 4.13 The grand strategy selection process A portfolio approach provides a visual way of identifying and evaluating alternative strategies for the allocation of corporate resources. In the Boston Consulting Group Growth/Share Matrix each of an organisations strategic business units (SBUs) is plotted according to its market growth rate. In figure 4.14 the horizontal axis represents the market share of each SBU relatives to the industry leader. The vertical axis represents the annual market growth rate for each SBUs particular industry. On the BCG matrix, businesses are classified as stars, cash cows, question marks, and dogs. Stars are businesses in rapidly growing markets with large market shares. These businesses should be quite profitable. If an SBU has a low market growth but a high market share, it often generates a large amount of cash that can be used to support other SBUs, especially question marks. 26/ -26Cash generating businesses are called cash cows because they can be milked for resources to support other businesses. Question marks are high-growth, low-share SBUs that normally require a lot of cash to maintain. A dog is usually a candidate for divestiture or liquidation. Such an SBU is in a saturated, mature market with intense competition and low profits margins. A strategy for dog businesses, for instance, would be to cut on maintenance a strategy of harvesting. FACTORS AFFECTING STRATEGIC CHOICE 4.6 Corporate Governance plays a major role in strategic planning and therefore in the choice of a strategy or combination of strategies. There is a move away from the single bottom line (i.e. profit for shareholders) to a triple bottom line, which embraces the economic, environment and social aspects of a companys activities. Risk-averse managers will probably consider growth strategies first, followed b decline strategies. 27/ -27- CHAPTER 5 PLANNING 5.2 THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING The purpose of a profit-seeking organisation is to realise an above-average return for its shareholders and to satisfy the claims of its other stakeholders. Planning occurs in all organisations, and at all levels of the organisation. (NB: See Figure 5.1 Planning as the primary management function Plans have a specific value to an organisation, thought it is a time-consuming activity to formulate them. 5.3 KINDS OF ORGANISATION PLAN Top management typically has to formulate plans for the entire organisation; middle management drafts plans for specific functional areas in the organisation to support top managements plans; lower management formulate plans for their specific smaller sections to support middle managements plans. 5.3.1 Strategic plans Strategic plans are plans designed to ensure that the organisation as a whole is aligned with the changing external environment. These plans are formulated by top management and focus on the entire organisation. Planning at strategic level includes: Creating a vision (dream) of the future for the entire organisation. Translating the vision into a realistic mission statement. Translating the mission statement into measurable long-term goals; Choosing a strategy/strategies to attain the above. (NB: See Figure 5.2 The kinds of organisational plan The strategic plan of an organisation reflects the following characteristics: 5.3.2 Plans have an extended time-frame, usually more than five years. They focus on the entire organisation. Look at reconciling the organisations resources with threats and opportunities They focus on creating and maintaining a competitive advantage. Plans also fake synergy into consideration. Tactical plans Tactical planning deals primarily with people and action to implement the strategic plans. The focus could be on the functional areas in an organisation. Tactical plans differ from strategic plans in the following ways:28/ -28(NB: See Table 5.1 The differences between strategic and tactical plans All of these plans should be congruent i.e. they should contribute to the attainment of the organisations overall goals. 5.3.3 Operational plans Operational plans are developed by the middle-level and lower-level managers. These plans focus on carrying out tactical plans to achieve operational goals. Operational plans are narrowly focused and have relatively short time horizons. (monthly, weekly, and day-to-day) Two basic forms of operational plan are, namely single-use plans and standing plans. 1. 2. Single-use plans are used for non-recurring activities. Plans that remain roughly the same for long periods of time are called standing plans. A programme is a single-use plan for a large set of activities. (NB: See Figure 5.3 Types of operational plan) A project goes through the following phases: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initiating Planning Executing Controlling Closing A budget is a numerical plan for allocating resources to specific activities. Programmes, projects, and budgets are all single-use plans. Policies are general statements that guide decision making in an organisation. 5.4 THE TIME-FRAME FOR PLANNING The reason for the different time-frames has to do with the future impact of the decisions that these managers currently make. Top management usually makes plans that commit resources for long time periods. (NB: See Figure 5.4 The levels and time-frames of the different kinds of plan) 5.4.1 Long-term plans Strategic planning focuses on the future and extends beyond current realities. The time-span for strategic planning varies from one organisation to the next. 5.4.2 Intermediate plans (tactical plans) Intermediate plans refer to the medium-term planning carried out by middle management for the various functional departments to realise tactical goals derived from the strategic goals. 29/ -29Intermediate plans are components of long-term goals and plans. 5.4.3 Short-term plans (operational plans) Short-term (or operational) plans are concerned with periods of no longer than a year. They are developed by lower management to achieve the operational goals. Short-term plans are concerned with the day-to-day activities of an organisation and the allocation of resources to particular individuals. 5.5. STEPS IN THE PLANNING PROCESS Step 1. Identifying changes that necessitate planning Identify any changes that necessitate planning. These changes can occur either outside or inside the organisation. Step 2. Establishing goals Goals need to be formulated to give direction to all major plans. These goals form a hierarchy, starting with the vision at the top of the hierarchy. Step 3. Drawing up premises Consistent premises should therefore be agreed upon by top management to ensure that subordinate managers base their plans upon the same premises. Step 4. Developing various courses of action To search for and examine various courses of action. Step 5. Evaluating various courses of action To evaluate the options by weighing up the various factors in the light of the premises and goals. One option may appear to be extremely profitable but may require the retrenchment of many employees; another option may seem less profitable but may not lead to job losses. Step 6. Selecting a course of action The manager may even decide to follow several courses rather than a single one. Step 7. Formulating derivative plans Planning is seldom complete when a decision is made. Step 8. Budgeting Managers ensure that they have the resources available to carry out the plans to achieve the organisations goals. 30/ -305.6 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING The dynamic and complex environment in which managers work requires careful consideration during planning. Managers need a clear understanding of which resources their organisation can utilise in order to attain the purpose, mission, and goals of the organisation in a changing environment. They need to understand the strategy that the organisation is following. The reluctance of some managers to establish goals for their sub-units is another barrier to effective planning. A lack of confidence in their own ability and that of their subordinates could be another reason for this reluctance. Fear of failure may be another reason why managers are reluctant to formulate goals. One of the principal barriers to the planning process is resistance to change. Planning involves changing one or more aspects of an organisations current solutions to enable it to adapt to the ever-changing external environment. Planning is time-consuming and expensive. Guidelines that managers can use to overcome them: Effective planning should start at the top of an organisation. Management should realise the limitations of planning. The role that line and functional managers play in the planning process cannot be overemphasised. Communication plays a vital role in planning. Plans should constantly be revised and updated. Contingency planning may be very useful in a turbulent environment. Contingency planning is the development of alternative courses of action to be taken if an intended plan is unexpectedly disrupted or rendered inappropriate. PLANNING TOOLS Forecasting 5.7 5.7.1 A forecast is therefore a projection of conditions expected to prevail in the future by making use of both past and present information. Forecasting starts with the identification of factors that might provide opportunities or pose threats to an organisation in the future. Areas of forecasting that are of the utmost importance to most organisations are sales and revenue forecasting and technological forecasting. Sales forecasting, is concerned with predicting future sales. Technological forecasting focuses on the prediction of what future technologies are likely to emerge and when they are likely to be economically feasible. Resource forecasting projects future needs for human, financial, physical, and information resources. Economic forecasting focuses on factors such as the inflation rate, interest rates, and the potential level of unemployment in a country. 5.7.2 Budgeting A budget is a plan that deals with the future allocation and utilisation of various resources with regard to different organisational activities over a given period. 31/ -31Budgets are typically thought of in financial terms, but also in terms of the allocation and utilisation of raw material, labour, office space, machine hours, computer time and so on. A budget exercises control in two ways: It sets limits on the amount of resources that can be used by a department or unit. It establishes standards of performance against which future events will be compared. Characteristics of budgets 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They are most frequently stated in monetary terms. They cover a specific period (usually one year). They contain an element of management commitment. They are reviewed and approved by an authority higher than the one that prepared them. Once approved, they can be changed only under previously specified conditions. They are periodically compared with actual performance. They provide clear guidelines on an organisations resources and on their utilisation. Budgets also facilitate performance evaluations of managers and units. Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) is a planning technique that plays an important role in organisations going through change. No reference is made to the previous level of expenditure as it is considered irrelevant in the changing situation. ZBB is a technique by which the budget request has to be justified in complete details by each division manager starting from the Zero-base. 5.7.3 Scheduling and monitoring The Gantt Chart The Gantt chart is a graphic planning and control method in which a project is broken down into separate tasks. Estimates are then made of how much time each task requires as well as the total time needed to complete the entire project. (NB: See Figure 5.6 - Gantt chart) PERT PERT, an acronym for Programme Evaluation and Review Technique, is a planning tool that uses a network to plan projects involving numerous activities and their interrelationships. The key compontents of PERT are: Activities Events Time The critical path Possibly Cost (NB: See Figure 5.7 a PERT network) The critical paths is the longest or most time-consuming sequence of events and activities in a PERT network. 32/ -32These four steps should be followed in developing a PERT network. Step 1 List all activities and events All the activities and events that must be completed to realise the objective should be listed. Step 2 Determine completion times The time to complete each activity should be determined. Step 3. Arrange tasks chronologically Arrange tasks in the sequence in which they should be completed. Step 4 Determine the critical path The critical path should determined. 5.8 GOAL FORMULATION The hierarchy of plans clearly differentiates between: Strategic plans Tactical plans, and Operational plans The goals in an organisation therefore also forms a hierarchy, ranging from the broad purpose of the organisation, and its mission, to very specific individual goals. 5.8.1 The focus areas A well-written mission statement will provide clear guidelines in terms of the key focus areas of the organsation when its long-term goals are formulated. The strategic goals of an organisation, guided by the vision, mission statement and strategies of the organisation will often focus on such areas as the following: 5.8.2 Finance Customers Internal processes Learning and innovation Properties of well-formulated goals A well-constructed Balanced Scorecard should reflect all the properties of well-formulated goals. 33/ -33Goals need to meet certain specifications in order to fulfill their managerial purpose. These specifications are specificity, flexibility, measurability, attainability, congruency and acceptability. Specify Goals should be specific and should indicate what they are related to, the time frame for accomplishing them, and the desired results. Flexibility Organisations are often guilty of not changing their goals when the conditions on which the goals were based subsequently change. (NB: See Figure 5.9 The Balanced Scorecard) Measurability Measurability means that goals should be stated I terms that can be evaluated or quantified objectively. Attainability Goals should be realistic and attainable, but should also provide a challenge for management and personnel. Congruency Goals should be congruent with one another. Incongruent goals may lead to friction and conflict. Acceptability The collaboration of managers at all levels in the goal-formulation process is therefore important. 5.8.3 The degree of openness The official goals of the organisation are those that society expects the organisation to pursue. Operative goals represent the private, unpublished goals of an organisation. 5.9 THE PROCESS OF GOAL SETTING The Board of Directors sets the goals. When goals are set in this way, we speak of centralized goal setting. Although centralized goal setting has important advantages. One major disadvantage is that the goal-setters may know little about the specific opportunities and problems faced by lower-level managers. Decentralised goal setting takes place when managers at each level of an organisation have the dominant influence on their unit or departments goals. 34/ -34Two basic approaches namely: 1. 2. The top-to-bottom approach and The bottom-up approach. In the top-to-bottom approach to goal setting, the board of directors or corporate-level managers set the corporate goals and the head of each division or business unit sets the goals for his or her division in line with the corporate goals. In the bottom-up approach, the lower levels set their goals, and higher-level managers set their goals to be in line with the lower-level goals. 5.10 TECHNIQUES FOR GOAL SETTING Another technique designed to achieve the integration of individual and organisational goals is called management by objectives, or MBO. MBO is based on the belief that you are motivated to perform more efficiently in an organisation if you participate in selecting your own personal goals. MBO managers focus on the end result not the activity. The principle behind MBO is to make sure that everybody within the organisation has a clear understanding of the objectives of the organisation. MBO refers to goal-formulation at the individual level. The importance of objectives or goals in management can best be seen by showing how MBO works in practice. ( NB: See Figure 5.10. The process of MBO) The goal hierarchy It is necessary for each subordinate involved in the MBO process to have a clear understanding of the hierarchy of plans and goals in the organisation. Job output The key performance areas as well as the key performance indicators of the subordinate should be discussed to ensure that both parties are familiar with the subordinates job output. Performance targets The subordinate formulates performance targets in predetermined areas of responsibility for a forthcoming period. Discussion of goals The subordinate meets with his or her superior to discuss potential performance targets. The discussion between subordinate and superior should also spell out the resources that a subordinate needs in order to work effectively towards goal attainment. 35/ -35Determination of checkpoints These periodic reviews not only monitor the subordinates progress, but also provide an opportunity to adjust goals that have become unrealistic in the light of changing conditions or uncontrollable events. Evaluation and feedback The superior should meet with the subordinate to review the degree of goal attainment. Some of the major benefits that organizations experience when they implement MBO are: Improved employee morale through participate in goal setting; Increased clarity of the outputs that have to be delivered; Improved communication resulting from the process of discussion of goals. MBO has limitations, one of them being the overburdening of manager and subordinate with the administration of the process. CHAPTER 6 CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING 6.2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEMS, PROBLEM SOLVING, AND DEVISION MAKING Problem solving can be defined as the process of taking corrective action that will solve the problem and that will realign the organisation with its goals. Decision-making can be defined as the process of selecting an alternative course of action that will solve a problem. 6.3.1 Programmed decisions Decisions are programmed to the extent that they are repetitive and routine. Examples of programmed decisions include the processing of payroll vouchers, the processing of graduation candidates at a university. Managers can usually handle programmed decisions by means of policies, standard operating procedures, and rules. 6.3.2 Non-programmed decisions Decisions are non-programmed to the extent that they are novel and unstructured. Non-programmed decisions have never occurred before, they are complex and elusive, and there is no established method for dealing with them. 6.4 DECISION-MAKING CONDITIONS The conditions under which decisions are made are certainty, risk, and uncertainty. (NB: See Figure 6.1 Decision-making conditions) 36/ -366.4.1. Certainty A decision is made under conditions of certainty when the available options and the benefits or costs associated with each are known in advance. 6.4.2 Risk Decisions under conditions of risk are perhaps most common. Probability falls into two categories: 1. 2. Objective and Subjective Objective probability is based on historical evidence. Historical evidence is not available, so a manager must rely on a personal estimate and belief, or subjective probability, of the situation outcome. 6.4.3 Uncertainty A decision is made under conditions of uncertainty when there is a lack of information the outcome of each alternative is unpredictable and managers cannot determine probabilities. What are the possible crises that may be sources of uncertainty and high risk for organisations? These crises may fall into seven categories, namely: Economic Physical Personnel Criminal Information recessions, stock market crashes, hostile takeovers industrial accidents supply breakdowns, strikes, workplace violence theft of money and goods, product tampering theft of information, tampering with company records 6.5 Reputation Natural disasters rumour mongering, slander fires, floods, earthquakes DECISION-MAKING MODELS Managers also need to consider the two primary decision-making models: 1. 2. The rational model The bounded-rationality model The rational model, the decision maker should select the best possible solution. This is known as optimising. The bounded-rationality model, the decision maker uses satisficing selecting the first option that meets the minimal criteria. They should optimise apply the rational model when they are making non-programmed, high-risk decisions in conditions of uncertainty. When managers are making programmed, lowrisk, or certain decisions, they should select the first option that meets the minimal criteria, in other words, they should satisfice. (NB: See Table 6.1 Summary of decision-making conditions and levels of certainty) 37/ -376.5.1 The decision-making process Describes a set of phases that individual decision makers or decision-making teams should follow in order to increase the probability that their decisions will be optimal. Stage 1: Recognise, classify, and define the problem or opportunity The problem or opportunity may be classified in terms of the type of decision that needs to be made, the decision-making condition and the decision-making model making model used. (NB: See Figure 6.2 Model of the decision-making process) Stage 2: Set goals and criteria The manager will be responsible for this task. He or she can make an individual decision or involve a group in decision making. Stage 3: Generate creative alternative courses of action Innovation and creativity play a major part in generating various courses of action. Stage 4: Evaluate alternative courses of action. Each option should be evaluated in terms of its strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, benefits and costs. Stage 5: Select the best option This step requires a manager to evaluate each option carefully against the goals and criteria set during the second state, with a view to ranking the options in order of priority. Stage 6: Implement the chosen option It is possible for a good decision to be damaged by poor implementation, while a poor decision may be helped by good implementation. Stage 7: Conduct follow-up evaluation Evaluation is necessary to provide feedback on its outcome. Adjustments are invariably need to ensure that actual results compare favourably with planned results. 6.6 GROUP DECISION MAKING The advantages of group decision making are as follows: A variety of skills and specialized knowledge can be used to define and solve a problem or recognize an opportunity. Multiple and conflicting views can be taken into account. Beliefs and values can be transmitted and aligned. More organisation members will be committed to decisions, since they will have participated in the decision-making process. 38/ -38Participation in problem soling and decision making will improve the morale and motivation of employees. Allowing participation in problem solving and decision making trains people to work in groups through developing group process skills. Group decision making also has some potential disadvantages: 6.7 It may be more time consuming and lead to slower decision making. Groups are more likely to satisfice than an individual, especially when group meetings are not run effectively. One group member, or sub-group, may dominate and nullify the group decision. It may inhibit creativity and lead to conformity and groupthink. TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING GROUP DECISION MAKING These four techniques are brainstorming, the nominal group technique, the Delphi technique, and group decision support systems (GDSS). (NB: Figure 6.3 Group decision-making techniques) 6.7.1 Brainstorming Group participants informally generate as many ideas as possible without evaluation by others. The object is to generate as many ideas as possible in the belief that the more ideas that are conceived the greater will be the likelihood of one outstanding idea emerging. The following Rules govern brainstorming sessions: Criticism is prohibited. No Yes but. comments are allowed. 6.7.2 Imaginative solutions are welcome Quantity is important. Combining of various solutions and improving suggested solutions are encouraged. Nominal group technique The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process. Group members are all physically present, as in a traditional committee meeting, but members operate independently. A problem is usually presented, with the following steps taking place: Seven to ten members meet as a group The group leader systematically gathers information from all participants. The ideas are clarified through a guided discussion. The group leader then instructs participants to vote on their preferred solutions. Each member silently and independently ranks the ideas. The process may conclude with an acceptable solution. 39/ -396.7.3 Delphi technique The Delphi technique is a process of decision-making that does not require the physical presence of the participants. The Delphi technique involves using a series of confidential questionnaires to refine a solution. In this technique the groups members never meet face to face. The following steps characterise the Delphi technique: 6.7.4 The problem is identified and members are asked to provide potential solutions through a series of carefully designed questionnaires. Each member anonymously and independently completes the first questionnaire. The results of the first questionnaire are compiled. Each member then receives a copy of the results. After viewing the results, members are again asked for their solutions. The last two steps are repeated as often as necessary until consensus is reached. Group decision support systems GDSS is a generic term that refers to various kinds of computer-supported group decisionmaking system. In an electronic brainstorming sessions, the participants simply type in their suggestions. These ideas are disseminated to the other group members without an identifying mark. Thus anonymity is preserved and the group members can respond more freely than in a conventional brainstorming session. (NB: See Figure 6.4 Typical GDSS configuration for a face-to-face meeting) Top management commonly uses the Delphi technique for a specific decision. Brainstorming and the nominal group techniques are frequently used at middle and lower management level where work groups are involved. 6.8 6.8.1 TOOLS FOR DECISION MAKING Quantitative tools for decision making Decision-making tools in conditions of certainty Linear programming The most frequently and extensively used. It is a quantitative tool for optimally allocating scarce resources among competing uses to maximize benefits or minimize losses. Queuing theory Queuing theory is a quantitative tool for analyzing the costs of waiting in queues. The objective of queuing theory is to achieve an optimal balance between the cost of increasing service and the amount of time individuals, machines, or materials must wait for service. Decision-making tools in conditions of risk and uncertainty 40/ -40 (NB: See Figure 6.5 Conditions of decision making and quantitative decision-making tools) Probability analysis The term probability refers to the estimated likelihood, expressed as a percentage, than an outcome will occur. There are two complementary approaches to using probability analysis, namely pay-off matrices and decision trees. Pay-off matrix The pay-off matrix is a technique for indicating possible pay-offs, or returns, from pursuing different courses of action. (NB: See Table 6.2 Pay-off matrix showing alternative pay-offs) Decision tree A decision tree is a graphic illustration of the various solutions available to solve a problem. Break-even analysis This technique involves the calculation of the volume of sales that will result in a profit. The break-even point is then calculated as the level of sales where no profit or loss results. Capital budgeting Capital budgeting is a technique that can be used to evaluate alternative investments. A process by which each alternative investment is analysed in financial terms and (NB: See Figure 6.6 - A decision tree) Simulation Simulation is a quantitative tool for imitating a set of real conditions so that the likely outcomes of various courses of action can be compared. This enables managers to save time and money and keeps them better informed. 6.8.2 The Kepner-Fourie method The Kepner-Fourie method combines the objective quantitative approach with some subjectivity. The subjectivity comes from determining must and want criteria and assigning value weights to them. Table 6.3 on the next page shows the use of the method to decide which house to buy. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Compare each alternative to the must criteria listed in column 1. Rate each want criterion (column 1) on the scale of 1 to 10. Assign a value of 1 to 10 to how well each alternative meets all the want criteria. Compute the weighted scores (WS) for each alternative by multiplying the importance value by the meets criteria value for each house. Select the alternative with the highest total weighted score as the solution the problem. 41/ -416.8.3 Cost-benefit analysis The Kepner-Fourie method combines the objective quantitative approach with some subjectivity. Managers may be faced with situations when the benefit received for the cost is uncertain, making these methods unusable. In such situations the cost-benefit analysis can be used. It compares the costs and benefits of each alternative course of action using subjective intuition and judgement. (NB: See Table 6.3 The Kepner-Fourie method of analyzing alternatives) CHAPTER 7 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 7.2 THE LINK BETWEEN DECISION MAKING AND INFORMATION An information system transforms data from an organisations external and internal environments into information that can be used by managers in the decision-making process. 7.3 WHAT IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM? 7.3.1 A definition of an information system Data refers to raw, unanalysed numbers and facts about events or conditions from which information is drawn. Information, on the other hand, is processed data that is relevant to a manager. Management information is information is that timely, accurate, and relevant to a particular situation. An information system can now be defined as the people, procedures, and other resources used to collect, transform, and disseminate information in an organisation. An information system accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output. 7.3.2 The basic components of an information system. An information system utilizes hardware, software, and human resources to perform the basic activities of input, processing, output, feedback, control, and storage. (NB: See Figure 7.2 An information system model) Hardware resources is a broad term that denotes the physical components of a computer system. The four main categories of computer system components are: Input devices, such as keyboards, optical scanning devices. A central processing unit (CPU), which consists of electronic components. The CPU can be seen as the brain of the computer. Output devices, printers, audio devices and display screens. Auxiliary storage, magnetic disks and tapes. Software resources are the programs or detailed instructions that operate computers. These include: 42/ -42 System software, which manages the operations of a computer. Application software, which performs specific data-processing. Procedures that entail the operating instructions for users of an information system. The human resources required to operate an information system include specialists and end-users. Specialists are people who develop and operate information systems, such as systems analysts, programmers, and computer operators. While end-users are people who use the information produced by a system. Managers are endusers of information. 7.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF USEFUL INFORMATION These characteristics are: Quality (accuracy). The more accurate the information, the higher its quality. Relevance. Information is relevant only when it can be used directly in problem-solving and decision-making processes. Quantity (sufficiency). Quantity is the sufficient amount of information available when users need it more is not always better. Timeliness (currency). Timeliness means the receipt of the needed information while it is current and before it ceases to be useful for problem-solving and decision-making processes. ORGANISING INFORMATION SYSTEMS 7.5 (NB: See Figure 7.3 illustrates the hierarchy of an organisations strategies.) IS strategy, as one of an organisations functional strategies, may have various sub-strategies. 1. 2. 3. IT strategy can be developed into a hardware and software strategy: The manual systems strategy can be developed into a planning and staffing strategy. The communications strategy can be developed into a data strategy and voice strategy. Table 7.1 on the next page provides examples of some functional units and the IT applications that typically support them. 7.6 CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS The purpose of operations IS is to support business operations. These systems process data generated by and used in business operations. The major categories of such systems and the roles they play are:1. Transaction-processing systems (TPS) to record and process data resulting from business transactions, such as sales, purchases, and inventory changes. (NB: See Table 7.1 Organisational functions and IT supporting them) 2. Operations IS can make routine decisions that control physical processes. Information systems in which decisions adjusting a physical production process are automatically made by computers are called process control systems (PCS). 43/ -43Office automations systems (OAS) transform traditional manual office methods and paper communications media. Management information systems (MIS) 3. 7.6.2 Management information systems support the decision-making needs at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels of management. At the operational level, decisions are mainly structured. At the tactical level, decisions are semi-structured, and middle managers receive results from the operational level. At the strategic level, decisions are unstructured. Top management needs information from internal and external sources in order to gauge the organisations strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities and threats in the external environment. Providing information and support for managerial decision making at all levels of management is a complex task. Several major types of IS are needed to support a variety of managerial end-user responsibilities. These types of MIS, as indicated in Figure 7.4. Information-reporting systems (IRS) Information-reporting systems provide managerial end-users with the information reports they need for making decisions. These systems access databases on internal operations containing information previously processed by transaction-processing systems. Decision support systems (DSS) Decision support systems are a natural progression from transaction-processing systems and information-reporting systems. Decision support systems use: 1. 2. 3. 4. Analytical models Specialized databases The decision makers own insights and judgement An interactive, computer-based modeling process to support the making of semistructured and unstructured decisions by the individual manager. Executive information systems (EIS) The function of computer-based executive information systems is to provide top management with immediate and easy access to information on the organisations critical success factors. 7.6.3 Other classifications of information systems Expert systems (ES) Expert systems are an attempt to mimic human experts. An expert system is a decision-making and/or problem-solving package of computer hardware and software that can reach a level of performance comparable to or even exceeding that of a human expert in some specialized and narrow area. 44/ -44Business function information systems Information systems directly support the business functions of accounting, finance, human resource management, administration, purchasing, marketing, and operations management. The Internet The Internet makes use of thousands of computers linked by thousand of different paths. Each message sent bears an address code that speeds it towards its destination. It offers almost unlimited communication opportunities. One drawback is the limited privacy of information sent over it. Internet access usually provides four primary capabilities: 1. 2. 3. 4. Electronic mail (e-mail) enables users to send, receive, and forward messages from people all over the world. Telnet enables users to log in to remote computers and to interact with them. File transfer protocol (FTP) enable users to move files and data from one computer to another. Users can download magazines, books, documents, software, music, graphics, and much more. World Wide Web ( or the Web) is a set of standards and protocols that enable users to access and input text, documents, images, video, and sound on the Internet. The extranet The extranet is a wide area network that links an organisations employees, suppliers, customers, and other key stakeholders electronically. The general public does not have access to an extranet. The Intranet The intranet is a semi-private internal network where access is limited to an organisations employees. It enables managers and employees to communicate with each other and to access internal information and databases for which they have been cleared, through their desktop or laptop computers. Electronic commerce Electronic commerce (e-commerce) can be defined as the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically by means of computerized business transactions. Three types of ecommerce exist, namely business-to-consumer, business-to-business and consumer-to-consumer. 1. 2. 3. Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce involves selling products and services to customers over the Internet. is an example. Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce, which refers to electronic transactions between organisations. Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is made possible when an Internet-based business acts as an intermediary between and among consumers eg. Web-based auctions. 45/ -457.7 DEVELOPING AN INFORMATION SYSTEM (NB: See Figure 7.5 The relationship between management information systems and levels of management) (NB: See Figure 7.6 The information systems development life cycle) 7.7.1 Systems investigation The first step in the IS development life cycle is to determine the nature and scope of the need for information. A feasibility study therefore determines the information needs of prospective users and the objectives, resource requirements, cost benefits, and feasibility of proposed projects. The findings of a feasibility study are usually formalised in a written report and submitted to management for approval before development begins. 7.7.2 Systems analysis The first step in systems analysis involves a study of the information requirements of an organisation and its end-users. The second step in systems is to understand the current system that is to be improved or replaced, and to determine the importance, complexity, and scope of the problem at hand. The third step is to determine the system requirements for a new or improved IS. 7.7.3 Systems design Systems analysis describes what a system should do to meet the information requirements of endusers, systems design specifies how system will accomplish this goal. Systems design involves logical and physical design activities. Logical design activities involve the development of a logical model of the proposed system. Physical activities entail the process of developing specifications for a proposed physical system. 7.7.4. Systems implementation, maintenance, and security The systems implementation phase involves acquiring hardware and software, developing software, testing programs and procedures using both artificial and live data, developing documentation, and carrying out a variety of other installation activities. Systems maintenance involves monitoring, evaluation, and modifying or enhancing a system once it is up and running. Systems security is an issue that must be addressed in the design and implementation stages. 46/ -46- CHAPTER 8 ORGANISING AND DELEGATING 8.1 INTRODUCTION Organising is the process of creating a structure for the organisation that will enable its people to work effectively towards its vision, mission, and goals. 8.2 ORGANISING, ORGANISATION, AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE Organisation refers to the end result of the organizing process. The task of dividing up the work, allocating responsibility, and so on, is referred to as the design of the organisational structure. An organisational structure refers to the basic framework of formal relationships between responsibilities, task, and people in the organisation. 8.3 REASONS FOR ORGANISING Some of the reasons why organising is necessary include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 8.4 Allocation of responsibilities. Accountability. The responsible employees will be expected to account for the outcomes, positive or negative, for that portion of the work directly under their control. Establishing clear channels of communication Resource deployment. Organising helps managers to deploy resources meaningfully. The principle of synergy enhances the effectiveness and quality of the work performed. Division of work. Organising means systemicatically group in a variety of task, procedures, and resources. Departmentalisation. The related tasks and activities of employees are grouped together meaningfully n specialized sections, departments, or business units. Coordination. The organisation structure is responsible for creating a mechanism to coordinate the activities in the entire organisation. THE ORGANISING PROCESS The first stage in the organizing process involves outlining the tasks and activities to be completed in order to achieve the organisational goals. The next step in the organizing process is to develop an organisational design that will support the strategic, tactical, and operational plans of the organisation. Finally, a control mechanism should be put in place to ensure that the chosen organisation structure does indeed enable the organisation to attain its mission and goals. (NB: See Figure 8.1) 47/ -478.5 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION The principles of organisation should guide managers in this process. 8.5.1 Unity of command and direction Unity of command means that each employee should report to only one supervisor. Unity of direction means that all task and activities should be directed toward the same mission and goals. 8.5.2 Chain of command Chain of command states that a clear, unbroken chain of command should link every employee with someone at a higher level, all the way to the top of the organisation. (NB: See Figure 8.2 (NB: See Table 8.1 8.5.3 Span of control Stages in the organising process) Principles of organisation) |Span of control refers to the number of subordinates reporting to a manager. A flat organisation exists when there are few levels with wide spans of control, whereas a tall organisation exists when there are many levels with narrow spans of control. 8.5.4 Division of work With the division of work, employees have specialized jobs. 8.5.5. Standardisation Standardisation is the process of developing uniform practices that employees are to follow I doing their jobs. The purpose is to develop a certain level of conformity. 8.5.6 Coordination Coordination means that all departments, sections, should work together to accomplish the strategic, tactical, and operational goals of the organisation. Coordination entails integrating all organisational tasks and resources to meet the organisations goals. Thompson has identified three major forms of interdependence, namely interdependence, sequential interdependence, and reciprocal interdependence. 1. 2, 3. 8.5.7 pooled In groups that exhibit pooled interdependence, the units operate with little interaction; the outputs of the units are pooled at organisational level. In sequential interdependence, the output of one unit becomes the input for the next unit. Reciprocal interdependence refers to a situation in which the outputs of one work unit become the inputs for the second work units, and vice versa. Responsibility, authority, and accountability 48/ -48Responsibility is the obligation to achieve goals by performing required activities. Authority is the right to make decisions, issue orders, and use resources. Accountability is the evaluation of how well individuals meet their responsibility. Managers can delegate responsibility and authority, but never their accountability. 8.5.8 Power Power refers to the ability to influence the behaviou of others in an organisation. The following kinds of power can be distinguished in organisations: Legitimate power is the authority that the organisation grants to a particular position. The power of reward is the power to give or withhold rewards, which can be of a financial or a non-financial nature. Coercive power is the power to enforce compliance through fear, wither psychological or physical. Referent power relates to personal power and is a somewhat abstract concept. People follow a person with referent power simple because they like, respect, or identify with him or her. Expert power is based on knowledge and expertise, and a leader who possesses it has special power over those who need his or her knowledge. Delegation 8.5.9 Delegation is the process of assigning responsibility and authority for attaining goals. Responsibility and authority are delegated down the chain of command. 8.5.10 Downsizing and delayering Downsizing is a managerial activity aimed at reducing the size of an organisations workforce. Delayering is the process of reducing the number of layers in the vertical management hierarchy. 8.6 AUTHORITY Authority resides in positions rather than in people managers acquire authority by means of their hierarchical position in the organisation. 8.6.1 Formal and informal authority Formal authority refers to the specified relationships among employees. It is the sanctioned way of getting things done. Informal authority refers to the patterns of relationship and communication that evolve as employees interact and communicate. It is the unsanctioned way of getting things done. 8.6.2 Line and staff authority Line authority entails the responsibility to make decisions and issue orders down the chain of command. Line authority originates at top management level, with the directors, and is delegated to the heads of the different units, departments, or sections. Staff authority entails having the responsibility to advise and assist other personnel. 8.6.3 Centralised and decentralized authority. 49/ -49In centralised authority, important decisions are made by top managers. authority, lower levels can decide on certain issues. The following factors should be considered: The external environment: The more complex the environment and the greater the uncertainty, the greater the tendency is to decentralise. The history of the organisation The nature of the decision: The riskier the decision and the higher the costs. The strategy of the organisation. Skills of lower-level managers. The size and growth of the organisation. In decentralised Advantages of decentralization The workload of top management is reduced. Decision making improves because decisions are closer to the core of action and time is not wasted. There should be improved morale and initiative at the lower levels of management. Decentralisation of decision making renders it faster and more flexible. Decentralisation authority also fosters a competitive climate in the organisation. Disadvantages of decentralization There is the danger of loss of control. There is the danger of duplicating tasks. Decentralisation of authority requires more expensive and more intensive management training and development to enable managers to execute delegated tasks. Decentralisation also demands sophisticated planning and reporting methods. (NB: See Table 8.2 The advantages and disadvantages associated with decentralization) 8.7 ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN Organisational design refers to the arrangement of positions into work units or departments and the interrelationship among them within an organisation. 8.7.1 Organisational chart The organisational chart is a graphic representation of the way that an organisation is put together. 8.7.2 Departmentalisation Departmentalisation can be described as the grouping of related activities into units or departments. Functional departmentalisation The functional organisational structure is the most basic structure. 50/ -50The activities belonging to each management function are grouped together. (NB: See Figure 8.2 Functional departmentalization) Production departmentalisation Departments are designed in such a way that all activities concerned with the manufacturing of a specific product, or group of products, are grouped together in product sections. The advantages of this structure are that the specialized knowledge of employees regarding specific products is used to maximum effect, decisions can be made quickly within a section. (NB: See Figure 8.3 Product departmentalisation) The disadvantages are that the managers in one particular section may concentrate their attention almost exclusively on their particular products and tend to lose sight of those of the rest of the organisation. Location departmentalisation This is a logical structure for a business that manufactures and sells its goods in different geographical regions. (NB: See Figure 8.4 - Location departmentalisation) Customer departmentalisation Customer departmentalization is appropriate when an organisation concentrates on a particular segment of the market or group of consumers. (NB: See Figure 8.5 - Customer departmentalisation) Multiple departmentalisation Particularly large and complex organisations find it necessary to use several of the departmental structures. The most common combinations:Matrix departmentalisation Combines functional and product departmental structures. Advantages departmentalisation is flexibility. The major disadvantage is that each employee reports to two superiors. Coordination can also be difficult. (NB: See Figure 8.6 Matrix departmentalization) Divisional departmentalisation (strategic business units0 Global organisations with related products and services usually have a divisional structure. (See Figure 8.7) 51/ -51Network Structure This describes an interrelationship between different organisations. Usualy performs the core activities itself but subcontracts some or many to is non-core operations to other organisations. (NB: See Figure 8.7 - Divisional departmentalization) (NB: See Figure 8.8 - Network structure) New venture units These consist of groups of employees who volunteer to develop new products or ventures for the organisation. The new products or ventures become a part of traditional departmentalisation. The products are developed into a totally new department, or The new products grow into divisions. of matrix Team approach Team approach gives managers a way to delegate authority, push responsibility to lower levels and be more flexible and responsive in the competitive global environment. (NB See Figure 8.9 The team approach) The virtual network approach The virtual organisation is a streamlined model that fits the rapidly changing environment. It provides flexibility and efficiency because partnerships and relationships with other organisation can be formed or disbanded as needed. A disadvantage is that the levels of reciprocal and sequential interdependence are much higher than those of the network organisation. Examples of the information technologies are electronic commerce, extranet, and intranet. 8.8 JOB DESIGN Job design refers to the process of combining the tasks that each employee is responsible for. 8.8.1 Job specialisation Job specialisation, or job simplification, refers to the narrowing-down of activities to simple, repetitive routines. The term job specialisation should not be confused with person specialisation, which refers to individuals with specialised training e.g. medical specialists, lawyers, etc etc 8.8.2 Job expansion It is the process of making a job less specialized. Jobs can be expanded through job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. 52/ -52Job rotation involves performing different jobs for a set period of time. Job enlargement stems from the thinking of industrial engineers. A job is enlarged when an employee carries out a wider range of activities of approximately the same level of skill. Job enrichment is implemented by adding depth to the job. Job enrichment entails increasing both the number of tasks a worker does and the control the worker has over the job. 8.9 DELEGATION Delegation is the process through which managers assign a portion of their total workload to others. Managers delegate authority, they remain accountable for the completion of the job. The parity principle stipulates that authority and responsibility should be co-equal. 8.9.1 Principles of effective delegation Some principles that can be used as guidelines: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explain the reason(s) for delegating. Set clear standards and goals. Ensure clarity of authority and responsibility. Involve subordinates. Request the completion of tasks. Provide performance training. Provide feedback to the subordinate. 8.9.2 The advantages of delegation Important advantages when applied properly:1. 2. 3. 4. 8.9.3 Managers who train their staff to accept more responsibility are in a good position themselves to accept more authority and responsibility from higher levels of management. Delegation encourages employees to exercise judgement and accept accountability. Better decisions are often taken by involving employees who are closer to the action. Quicker decision making takes place. Obstacles to effective delegation Barriers may be helpful to us, as managers: A manager may fear that his or her own performance evaluation will suffer if subordinates fail to do a job properly. The manager may also feel that the subordinate will not do the job as well as he or she can do it. Managers are often too inflexible or disorganised to delegate. Managers may also be reluctant to delegate because they fear their subordinates will do the job better then they can. The following are examples of organisational impediments to delegation:53/ -53Delegation is not effective if authority and responsibility are not clearly defined. When a manager does not make subordinates accountable for task performance, there is a likelihood that this responsibility will be passed on to others. Individuals may not have a good understanding of what is expected of them Overcoming obstacles to effective delegation 1. 2. 3. 8.9.4 One way of overcoming obstacles is to create a culture of continuous learning. Improved communication between subordinates and managers removes obstacles to delegation. 8.9.5 The delegation process The recommended steps in the delegation process:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Decide on the tasks to be delegated. Decide who should perform the tasks. Provide sufficient resources for carrying out the delegated tasks. Delegate the assignment. Be prepared to step in, if necessary. Establish a feedback system. (NB: See Figure 8.10 - The delegation process) 8.10 SUMMARY By following the steps in the delegation process, managers will 1. 2. 3. Reduce their own workload to focus more on management challenges, Develop their subordinates. Increase productivity in the organisation. CHAPTER 11 LEADERSHIP 11.2 THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP 11.2.1 Introduction Without leadership, organisations stagnate, lose their way, and eventually become irrelevant. 11.2.2 A definition of leadership Leadership is the process of directing the behaviour of others towards the accomplishment of the organisations goals. It involves taking the lead to bridge the gap between formulating plans and reaching goals. Leadership entails activities such as formulating the organisations mission, goals, and strategies and explaining these to followers, giving orders and instructions to followers. 54/ -54Leadership can be defined from a management perspective as influencing and directing the behaviour of individuals and groups in such a way that they work willingly to pursue the goals of the organisation. Leadership is the process of directing the behaviour of others towards the accomplishment of the organisations goals. 11.2.3 The components of leadership We can identify the following components of leadership namely: Authority Power Influence Delegation Responsibility Accountability Authority is the right of a leader to give orders and to demand action from subordinates. Power refers to the ability of a leader to influence the behaviour of others without necessarily using this authority. Influence is the ability to apply authority and power in such a way that followers take action. Delegation entails subdividing a task and passing a smaller part of it on to a subordinate together with the necessary authority to execute it. (NB: See Figure 11.1 The balance of the components of leadership) Power has nothing to do with a managers position in the hierarchy and is not acquired through a title or an entry in an organisational diagram. A leader has to earn it. The following kinds of power:Legitimate power This refers to the authority that the organisation grants to a particular position. The power of reward The is the power to give or withhold rewards. Coercive power This is the power to enforce compliance through fear, either psychological or physical. Referent power This refers to personal power. Subordinates follow their leader simply because they like, respect, or identify with him or her. Such a leader is said to have charisma Expert power This is power based on knowledge and expertise. 11.2.4 The importance of leadership (NB: See Table 11.1 - The sources of leaders influence) 55/ -55(NB: See Figure 11.3 - The integration of leadership and management) 11.3 LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT A person can be a manager, a leader, both, or neither. Management is about coping with the complexity of practices and procedures to make organisations, especially large ones work. Leadership is about setting the direction of the organisation and coping with change. (NB: See Table 11.2 - The distinction between management and leadership) Management achieves its goals by creating an organisation structure. Management finally controls the process of reaching targets by comparing results with goals. Leaders do not engage in detailed audits, but check whether people are following the new direction Managers focus on non-behavioural aspects of management. Leaders focus on the behavioural aspects of management,; they mobilise people. 11.4 THE THEORETICAL FOUNATIONS OF LEADERSHIP 11.4.2 Leadership characteristics or traits Trait theories of leadership attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders. Leadership traits include qualities such as intelligence, assertiveness, above-average height, a good vocabulary, attractiveness, self-assurance, an extrovert personality, and similar characteristics. 11.4.3 The behavioural approach to leadership Studies at Michigan Likert identified the following two basic forms of leadership behaviour. Task-orientated leader behaviour in which the leader is concerned primarily with careful supervision and control to ensure that subordinates to their work satisfactorily. Subordinates are merely instruments to get the work done. Employee-orientated leader behaviour in which the leader applies less control and more motivation and participative management to get the job done. Focuses on people and their needs and progress. (NB: See Figure 11.4 The leadership grid) The first leadership style (task oriented) stresses the actual job; the second concerns the development of motivated groups. In Figure 11.5 the model depicted in this figure presents a series of leadership styles that can be used in certain situations. A continuum from left to right in the model also indicates a change from autocratic to democratic leadership. (NB: See Figure 11.5 A continuum of leadership behaviour) 11.4.4 The contingency or situational approaches to leadership 56/ -56Leaders success is often determined by their ability to sum up a situation and adapt their style of leadership accordingly. This is the contingency or situational approach to leadership. Various models were developed. 11.4.5 Fiedlers contingency theory of leadership Fiedlers contingency of leadership if based on the assumption that, for lack of a single best style, successful leadership depends on the match between the leader, the subordinate, and the situation. A leaders effectiveness is determined by how well his or her style fits the situation. A manager can maintain this match by: 1. 2. 3. Understanding his or her style of leadership. Analysing the situation to determine whether or not the style will be effective. Matching the style and the situation by changing the latter so that it is compatible with the style. 11.4.6 Hersey and Blanchards leadership cycle model A well-known situational leadership model is that of Hersey and Blanchard, which postulates that the most effective management style for a particular situation is determined by the maturity of the subordinate(s). The maturity of the subordinate is defined as that persons need for achievement, willingness to accept responsibility, and task-related ability and experience. (NB: See Figure 11.6 The leadership cycle model) The leadership cycle model postulates that managerial style must change as a group of subordinates develops and reaches maturity. 11.4.7 The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model Researchers argued that leader behaviour must adjust to reflect the task structure. The model is a decision tree incorporating five alternative leadership styles and 12 contingencies. 11.4.7 Path-goal theory Developed by Robert House. It is the leaders job to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall goals of the organisation. House identified four leadership behaviours: The directive leader lets employees know what is expected of them The supportive leader shows concern for the needs of employees. The participative leader consults with employees The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects employees to perform at their highest level. 11.4.9 Some contemporary perspectives on leadership A few of the numerous enquiries into new leadership models. 57/ -57Transactional leadership Transactional leaders do what managers do: they clarify the role of the subordinates, initiate structures, and provide appropriate rewards. They conform to organisational norms and values. Transactional leader are characterised as directing and controlling in a stable structure and having greater centralised authority. Charismatic leadership Charismatic leaders have the capacity to motivate people to do more than what is normally expected of them; they motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance. Transformational leadership Transformational leaders are distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change. They have the ability to make the necessary successful changes in the organisations vision and mission. These seven key leadership skills describe the actions of effective transformational leaders. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Leaders are people who tune in to their organisations environment and sense needs, opportunities, and dangers. Leaders think in a kaleidoscopic way. Leaders form and communicate inspiring visions. Leaders build a coalition to support their change. Leaders turn dreams (changed visions) into reality by nurturing and supporting heir coalitions. Great leaders build other leaders. Leaders drive the change process by pushing and overcoming obstacles. Leaders make heroes. Transformational leadership refers to a leader who takes his or her followers to a destination (vision) that they are too afraid to approach alone. Female leadership They tend to engage in leadership behaviour that can be called interactive An interactive leader is concerned with consensus building, is open and inclusive, encourages participation by others, and is more caring that the leadership style of many males. Dynamic engagement The researchers simply revisited the basics of leadership by trying to single out the five fundamental practices and ten behaviours that leaders use to get extraordinary things done. Attribution theory Attribution theory postulates that leaders seek proof or reasons why subordinates act in a certain way, and then modify their behaviour to guide their followers. Substitutes for leadership 58/ -58(NB: See Table 11.3 - Fundamental practices and behaviours of exceptional leaders) These factors are known as substitutes for leadership, and include, for example, subordinates ability, experience, need for independence, professionalism, and indifference to the organisations reward system. 11.5 LEADERSHIP AND POLITICLA BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISATIONS 11.5.1 Introduction Political behaviour in an organisation entails people gaining and exercising power to obtain a specific outcome. Politics in organisations is often regarded as dirty play and back stabbing. 11.5.2 Types of political behaviour in organisations Four basic forms of political behaviour:1. The first, inducement, occurs when a manager offers or promises something to someone in exchange for that persons support. 2. 3. 4. The second kind of political behaviour, persuasion, plays on a subordinates emotions and may even include fear or guilt. A third kind of political behaviour is the creation of an obligation. One manager might, for example, support another in a specific matter, even if opposed to it. Finally, coercion is behaviour that borders on the use of force to get ones own way. 11.5.3 Managing political behaviour in organisations Various guidelines have been proposed: Managers should be aware of the fact that certain people may regard the managers actions as political even if this is not so. By granting adequate autonomy and responsibility to subordinates and receiving regular feedback, managers reduce the risk of political behaviour. Managers should limit the use of power if they wish to reduce the likelihood of being accused of political behaviour. Managers should clear the air by handling differences and conflict openly. Managers should avoid covert behaviour. Management systems that evaluate subordinates realistically, rewards systems that are directly linked to performance.. 59/ CHAPTER 14 MOTIVATION 14.1 INTRODUCTION Motivation is one of the factors that directly affects employee performance, and managers can play a major part in the motivation of their employees. Motivation is an inner desire to satisfy an unsatisfied need. From the viewpoint of organisations (and managers), motivation may be defined as the willingness of an employee to achieve organisational goals Motivation is what drives people to behave in certain ways. People are motivated to do what is in their best interests. 14.2 THE MOTIVATION PROCESS Figure 14.1 depicts the motivation process in its simples form. The motivation process consists of the following interdependent elements:- (NB: See Figure 14.1 The motivation process) Need Motive Behaviour Consequence Satisfaction / dissatisfaction Feedback The variables that determine performance are motivation (goal or desire) ability (training, knowledge, and skills) and the opportunity to perform. Motivation x Ability x Opportunity = Performance An employee must possess a high level of motivation plus the appropriate training, knowledge, and skills that are necessary to perform effectively in a given work situation. Work performance is also determined by a persons values and attitude, perceptions, learning, emotional intelligence and so on. 14.3. THE CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVATION THEORIES We classify motivation theories in terms of content, process, and reinforcement theories. (See Table 14.1) The content and process theories deal with the what and the how of motivation respectively. Reinforcement theories look at the ways in which desired behaviour can be encouraged. 14.4 CONTENT THEORIES Theories attempt to answer some of the following questions: What needs do people want to satisfy? And what are the factors that influence individual behaviour? 60/ -6014.4.1 Maslows hierarchy of needs Maslow based his hierarchy of needs theory on two important assumptions:1. 2. People always want more, ad their needs depend on what they already have. (NB: See Table 14.1 Classification of motivation theories) Peoples needs arise in order of importance. (NB: See Table 14.2 - Hierarchical order of human needs) Physiological and security needs are lower-order needs. Extrinsic rewards (rewards provided by the organisation) generally satisfy these needs. Affiliation, esteem, and self-actualisation are higher-order needs, satisfied by intrinsic rewards (rewards experience directly by the individual) The five levels in Maslows hierarchy of needs model are:1. Physiological needs. These needs represent the most basic level in the hierarchy and comprise such needs as salary or wages and basic working conditions. 2. 3. 4. 5. Security needs. Security in the workplace, job security, insurance, medical aid schemes and pension schemes. Social needs. The needs for love, friendship, acceptance, and understanding by other people and groups of people. Esteem needs. The need of success, recognition, and appreciation of achievement. Self-actualisation needs. This represents the apex of human needs. Self-actualisation is the full development of an individuals potential. Maslows hierarchy of needs theory in perspective The following are some of the criticisms of the theory: People reorder the levels of the hierarchy in their personal lives. Difficult to determine the level of needs at which an individual is motivated at a certain point in time. Managers work with many employees. Individuals differ in the extent to which they feel that a need has been sufficiently satisfied. Management applications of Maslows hierarchy of needs The value of the theory is that: It highlights important categories of needs: It makes a distinction between higher-order and lower-order needs; It stresses the importance of personal growth and self-actualisation in the workplace. 14.4.2 Herzbergs two-factor motivation theory The two-factor model is shown in (Figure 14.3) 61/ -61Model of Herzbergs two-factor theory Herzberg termed the sources of work satisfaction motivation factors. These include the work itself, achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunities for advancement and growth. These factors relate to job content and are associated with positive feelings about their work. Herzberg termed the sources of work dissatisfaction hygiene factors, including salary, interpersonal relations, company policy and administration, status and job security. Hygiene factors are associated with individuals negative feelings about their work and these factors do not contribute to employee motivation. However, if the organisation links a monetary reward to performance, such as a merit bonus or a promotion, it provides recognition of the employees performance and is therefore a motivator. Herzbergs theory differs from Maslows in that he assumes that most employees have already satisfied their social and economic needs. Herzbergs two-factor theory in perspective (NB: See Figure 14.3) Herzbergs theory makes an important contribution to our understanding of motivation in the workplace by: Extending Maslows ideas and making them more applicable in the workplace; Focusing attention on the importance of job-centered factors in the motivation of employees. Offering an explanation for the limited influence on motivation or more money, fringe benefits and better working conditions; Pointing out that if managers concentrate only on hygiene factors, motivation will not occur. Management applications of Herzbergs two-factor theory 1. 2. 3. First, managers should eliminate dissatisfaction. Second, to enhance employee motivation, managers can provide opportunities for growth, achievement, ad responsibility. Third, job restructuring (job enrichment) contributes to workers motivation. 14.4.3 Acquired needs model This approach, also known as McClellands achievement motivation theory postulates that people acquire certain types of need during a lifetime of interaction with the environment. The model proposes that it will motivate the person to engage in behaviours to satisfy that need: 1. 2. 3. The need for achievement (N Ach) is the need to excel. Achievers prefer jobs that offer personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks. The need for affiliation (N Aff) the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. The need for power (N Pow) is the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not otherwise have behaved. Acquired needs model in perspective 62/ -62Employees can be successfully trained to stimulate their achievement need. Management applications of the acquired needs model To improve worker performance by placing employees in jobs according to their predominant needs. 1. 2. 3. 14.5 Employees with a high N Ach are motivated by non-routine, challenging tasks with clear, attainable goals. They are also successful in entrepreneurial activities such as running their own businesses. Employees with a high N Aff will be motivated if they work in teams and if they receive lots of praise and recognition from their managers. They derive satisfaction from the people they work with rather than from the task itself. Employees with a high N Pow prefer work where they can direct other peoples actions prefer to be working in competitive and status-orientated situations. PROCESS THEORIES The best-known process theories are the equity theory and the expectancy theory. The focus in process theories is on how motivation actually occurs. 14.5.1 The equity theory of motivation An individual must be able to perceive a relationship between (1) the reward he or she receives and (2) his or her performance. (NB: See Figure 14.4 illustrates the equity model) Reward (individuals own inputs) = Reward (comparable individuals inputs) Inputs refer to effort, experience, qualifications, seniority, and status. Outputs include praise, recognition, salary, and promotion. A workers comparison leads to one of three conclusions: The workers is under-rewarded, overrewarded, or equitably rewarded. If individuals perceive themselves to be under-rewarded, they will try to restore the equity by: Reducing their own inputs by means of lower performance; Increasing their reward by asking for a raise; Distorting the rations by rationalizing; Trying to get the other individual to change inputs and/or rewards; Leaving the situation; Finding a new person to compare their situation with. Equity theory in perspective: its contribution and its management applications The theory stresses that workers will be motivated by a reward only if they perceive it to be fair and equitable. When feelings of inequity arise, managers should be patient and either correct the problem or explain to their employees why their perceptions of inequity are unfounded. 14.5.2 The expectancy theory of motivation 63/ -63The expectancy theory argues that people will act according to (1) their perceptions that their work efforts will lead to certain performances and outcomes, and (2) how much they value the outcomes. (NB: See Figure 14.5 the expectancy theory model) The expectancy theory suggests that a individuals work motivation is determined by the following elements:1. 2. 3. Expectancy (effort-performance relationship). Expectancy is the individuals belief that a particular level of performance will follow a particular level of effort. Instrumentality (performance-reward relationship) The degree to which an individual believes that a certain level of performance will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. Valence (rewards-personal goals relationship). The value or importance that a individual attaches to various work outcomes. For motivation to be high, employees must value the outcomes they will receive for their performance. Expectancy theory in perspective: its contribution and its management applications The first management application regarding the expectancy theory is to link the performance of employees to the rewards that they receive. Second, employees are motivated to achieve outcomes that they desire. 14.5.3 The reinforcement theory of motivation Reinforcement theory is the basic premise that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Suggests that behaviours followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently and that behaviours followed by negative consequences will not. (NB: See Figure 14.6 shows how behaviour can be rewarded using the reinforcement theory. Organisation can reward individuals as they move closer to the desired behaviour (positive reinforcement). They can do this by rewarding desired behaviour with either intrinsic or extrinsic rewards Another way of reinforcing desired behaviour is through avoidance. He or she is motivated to act in the desired way in order to avoid the undesirable result. Reinforcement can also be negative and we can distinguish two kinds of negative reinforcement, namely punishment and extinction. Managers use punishment or disciplinary action to discourage (weaken) undesirable behaviour. This is not the most effective form of reinforcement. Managers can also use extinction to weaken behaviour, especially behaviour that they previously rewarded. If the manager does not react, the subordinates undesirable behaviour will become extinct. Various strategies for scheduling reinforcement as possible, such as the following:-. Continuous reinforcement takes place when managers reinforce all desired behaviours. The fixed interval schedule provides reinforcement at fixed times, regardless of behaviour. The variable interval schedule also uses time as the basis of reinforcement. The fixed ration schedule provides reinforcement after a fixed number of performances. The variable ration schedule influences the maintenance of desired behaviour the most by varying the number of behaviours required for each reinforcement. 64/ -64Management applications of reinforcement theory Five steps that managers should follow:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identity critical, observable, performance-related behaviours that are the most important to successful job performance. Measure how often workers engage in these behaviours. Analyse the causes and consequences of these behaviours to help managers create conditions that produce the critical behaviours identified. Use positive and negative reinforcement to increase the frequency of these critical behaviours. Evaluate the extent to which the reinforcement has actually changed workers behaviour. 14.6. MONEY AS A MOTIVATOR Money influences peoples work performance. Money satisfies the lower-order needs of Maslow and Herzbergs hygiene factors according to the respective theories. Equity theory suggests that we use pay as a measure of fair treatment by comparing it our outputs. The expectancy theory, money is a motivator if employees perceive that good performance results in a monetary reward that they value highly. The reinforcement theory suggests that money is a reward to reinforce behaviour that leads to a positive job performance. 14.6 DESIGNING JOBS THAT MOTIVATE 14.7.1 Job enlargement Job enlargement involves horizontal workloading adding a greater variety of tasks to an existing job. A disadvantage of job enlargement is that it increases the variety of task, but it does not alter the challenge that the work offers. 14.7.2 Job enrichment It involves the vertical extension of jobs. Vertical workloading occurs when the person responsible for the actual job now performs the planning and the control of work. Job enrichment in its simplest form implies the addition of the following to the workers activity: Measurable goals Decision-making responsibility Control and feedback (NB: See Figure 14.7 - Job enrichment) 14.7.3 The job characteristics model Job characteristics suggests that certain core job dimensions create critical psychological states which lead in turn to certain beneficial personal and work outcomes. (NB: See Figure 14.8 The Job characteristic Model) 65/ -65The five core dimensions in the model are skill, variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Skill variety. The greater the variety of tasks that a worker can use his or her various skills for, the more challenge the job will offer. Task identity. Tasks are frequently so over-specialised that a worker can do only part of the total job, which leads to low job satisfaction. Task significance. Indicates the extent to which the task influences the lives or work of other people. Autonomy. Refers to the control a worker has over decision making and way he or she performs the task. Feedback. The worker receives direct and clear feedback on the effectiveness of his or her performance. According to Hackman and Oldham, these core dimensions create the following three critical psychological states: 1. 2. 3. Meaningfulness of the work. The first three factors contribute to a tasks meaningfulness. Responsibility for outcomes of the work. Autonomous jobs make workers feel personally responsible and accountable for the work they perform. Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities. Managers use the responses to the JDS to predict the degree to which a job motivates the workers. They use and index known as the Motivating Potential Score (MPS). Skill variety + Task identity + Task significance x Autonomy x Feedback 3 The higher the MPS for a job, the greater the likelihood of beneficial personal and work outcomes. Management applications of the job characteristics model The Job characteristics model can guide managers to redesign jobs with a view to enhancing their motivating potential by: Combining tasks, enabling workers to perform the entire job. Forming natural units that allow workers to be identified with the work they have done. Establishing client relationships. Loading jobs vertically, allowing greater responsibility and control over work. Providing workers with feedback on the results of their work and keeping feedback channels open. 66/ -66- CHAPTER 15 COMMUNICATION AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 15.2. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication can be described as the process of transmitting information and meaning. (NB: See Figure 15.2 Steps in the communication process) Communication takes place between a sender and a receiver. The sender initiates the communication. Encoding takes place when the manager translates the information on the organisations goals into a series of symbols for communication. The sender has to select a channel for transmitting the message. Following channels: oral, non-verbal, or written. Noise may be described as any factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with the transmission of the communication message. External noise, such as phone ringing or a noisy air conditioner may also disturb the message. The receiver is the person whose senses perceive the senders message. Decoding is the process in which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information. 15.3 ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION Managerial communication occurs in three forms: 1. Intra-persona 2. Interpersonal 3. Organisation communication. In intra-personal communication, managers receive, process, and transmit information to themselves. In interpersonal communication, messages are transmitted directly between two or more people. In organisational communication, information is transferred between organisations or between different units or departments. 15.3.1 Organisational communication networks. There are two primary organisational communication networks: 1. 2. The formal communication network The informal communication network. The formal network is communication that follows the hierarchical structure of the organisation. It follows the prescribed path of the hierarchical chart and tends to be explicit in terms of who should be talking to whom about what. The informal network involves communication that does not follow the hierarchical path or chain of command. Works much faster than the formal network. 67/ -67- Management has more control over the formal network while employees have more control over the informal network. 15.3.2 Formal communication Organisational communication flows in four directions: downwards, upwards, horizontally, and laterally. (NB: See Figure 15.3 Communication flows) The major purpose of downward communication is to provide subordinates with information on organisational goals, strategies, policies etc.. Downward communication is likely to be filtered, modified, or halted at each level. Delegation is a downward communication process. The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. Horizontal communication occurs between people on the same level of the hierarchy and is designed to ensure or improve coordination of the work effort. Lateral communication takes place between people at different levels of the hierarchy and is usually designed to provide information, coordination, or assistance to either or both parties. 15.3.3 Informal communication Commonly called the grapevine information can begin with anyone and can flow in any direction. The grapevine derives its existence from employees social and personal interests. Rumour and the grapevine are not the same. Rumours are information with a factual base and may just as easily be communicated via formal as informal channels of communication. The grapevine is always present, speedy, and largely accurate. 15.4 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATON (NB: See Figure 15.4 Barrier to effective communication) 15.4.1 Intra-personal factors Perception can be defined as the process in which individuals arrange and interpret sensory impressions in order to make sense of their environment. People tend to see and her only what they are emotionally prepared to see and hear. Select favourable messages and ignore unpleasant ones. This phenomenon is known as selective perception and it may be a barrier to effective communication. 15.4.2 Interpersonal factors. The relationship between superior and subordinate is often based on the way each treats the other and how this reciprocal behaviour is interpreted. Trust plays a major role in the effectiveness of organisational communication . Honesty and openness are prerequisites. Honesty, competence, enthusiasm, and objectivity give credibility to a source. refers to the perceived characteristics of an information source. Credibility 68/ -6815.4.3 Structural factors Differences in status are signified by job titles, imposing offices, the allocation of a parking bay etc:Evidence indicates the following:1. People generally prefer to communicate with individuals of higher status. 2. 3. 4. 5. People of higher status generally communicate more with one another than they do with people of lower status. The wider the difference in status is, the greater is the likelihood that information will flow. In conversations, people with high status generally dominate. People with low status often attempt to gain the favour of those with higher status by displaying respecting. The changes that messages undergo as they are successfully communicated from layer to layer are known as the serial transmission effect. The process of reducing the number of layers in the vertical management hierarchy is called delayering. Spatial constraints refer to physical distances between workers. The shorter the physical distance the more frequently they will interact. 15.4.4 Technological factors Technological factors have an impact on the effectiveness of the communication media as well as the amount of information available. We have included language, meaning, and non-verbal cues under technological factors. The use of an incorrect communication medium may also be a barrier to effective communication. Three basic kinds of communication medium can be used, namely: written, oral, and multimedia. 1. Written media include e-mail, faxes, newsletters, and so on. 2. Oral media include face-to-face discussions, telephone conversations, lectures, and video conferences. 3. Multimedia transmission refers to written/oral, written/visual, and written/oral/visual media. (NB: See figure 15.5 Effective applications of communication media) Information overload occurs when an individual receives so much information that he or she is overwhelmed by it. 15.5 HOW MANAGERS CAN BECOME BETTER COMMUNICATORS 15.5.1 The sender encodes the message and selects the channel. To overcome perception barriers, the message that is to be communicated must be analysed in terms of its tone and content. In formulating the message, choice of words is important. One should avoid using jargon or unfamiliar terminology. 69/ -69The content of the message should arouse curiosity and interest. The sender should keep the message simple and specific. 15.5.2 The sender transmits the message. The most significant barrier during this stage in the communication process is noise. Noise is anything that interferes with the transmission of the message. 15.5.3 The receiver decodes the message and decides whether feedback is needed. Common barriers at this stage in the communication process are trust and credibility, differences in communication skills, and emotional factors. The sender should try to send clear, correct messages, based on facts. 15.6 THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONPROCESS. TECHNOLOGY ON THE E-mail has become popular with managers for several reasons: 1. 2. 3. A manager doesnt have to wait long for a response because information can usually be sent, returned, and recalled in moments; E-mail is relatively inexpensive; and It increases productivity by eliminating the need for paper-handling steps. One disadvantage of e-mail is that employees who might never confront co-workers face-to-face are less hesitant to explode at others via e-mail. A business portal is a specific companys gateway to Internet-based information. Business portals allow specific categories of employees to access useful information pertaining to their organisation. The business portal saves employees hours of time looking for irrelevant data: it also converts data into information that is timely, accurate, relevant and understandable. Wireless communication can also be used to e-mail, share files, and tap into the company computer anytime from anywhere. Telecommuting allows organisations to recruit and hire people all over the world. 15.7 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 15.7.1 A definition of conflict Conflict is defined as the interaction of interdependent people who perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realisation of these goals. Three general characteristics of conflict, namely incompatible goals, interdependence, and interaction. Conflict involves the expression of incompatibility. Conflict can be both destructive and productive. It can destroy work relationships or create a needed impetus for organisation change and development. At the interpersonal level, individual members of the organisation may have incompatible goals. Inter-group conflict involves aggregates of people within an organisation. 70/ -70Inter-organisation conflict involves disputes between two or more organisations. 15.7.2 Managing organisation conflict. Avoidance is a technique by which the conflicting parties withdraw from a conflict. Problem solving involves a face-to-face meeting of the conflicting parties for the purpose of identifying the problem and resolving it through open discussion. Conflict is to formulate a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each other of the conflicting parties. Smoothing playing down differences between conflicting parties, emphasizing common interests. When each of the conflicting parties gives up something of value, this is called compromise. Management may decide to use authoritative command to resolve the conflict and to communicate. 15.7.3 Negotiation A definition of negotiation Negotiation can be defined as a process of interaction (communication) between parties, directed at reaching some form of agreement that will hold and that is based upon common interests, with the purpose of resolving conflict, despite widely dividing differences. This is achieved basically through the establishment of common ground and the creation of alternatives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Negotiation is an exchange of information through communication, with the purpose of reaching an agreement between conflicting parties who have certain things in common and disagree on others. Second, negotiation is regarded as process, not an event. Third, the process should be directed at reaching some form of agreement, preferably a win-win situation. Fourth, common ground does not refer to what the parties have in common, but what they could become together. Fifth, the definition refers to the creation of alternatives, which implies flexibility in the process. Finally, the definition refers to agreements that hold. 15.7.4 The negotiation process These steps are discussed below:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Setting goals. Formulation of the goals that are to be achieved in the negotiation process. Analyse the situation. Analysis of ones own and ones opponents position. Identity issues. Issues are matters that will be discussed with the opponent. Analyse information on opponents. Obtain information on opponents, such as their objectives, needs, personalities, financial position. Consider legal and financial implications. Legal advice may be obtained. Decide on tactics. Factors to be considered are the place and time of the meeting, the layout of the room, the composition of the negotiating team. Schedule feedback. Schedule regular feedback sessions to review their performance and improve their effectiveness in future round of negotiation. 71/... -71The actual negotiation process will normally go through the emotional, political, problemdefining, constructive, and socio-emotional phases. Phase 1: Phase 2: Emotional phase. The climate for negotiation is established. The climate is largely determined by the socio-emotional leader. Political phase. A task leader may emerge. Phase 3: Phase 4: Phase 5: Problem-definition phase. The group attempts to define the problem, offers trade-offs, and implements the agreement. Constructive phase. The group deals with the problem constructively. Final socio-emotional phase. Closure of the meeting takes place. (NB: See Figure 15.6 The negotiation process) CHAPTER 16 CONTROLLING 16.1 INTRODUCTION The term Control has a specific meaning, namely the process by which management ensures that the actual activities fit in with the predetermined goals and planned activities. 16.1.1 The nature of control The aim of control is to keep deviations to a minimum. In a sense control is supervisory it supervises and measures the progress made towards attaining a particular goal. Control is a continuous process and is interwoven with planning, organizing, and leading. The control system informs management of the following: A control process is necessary in an organisation for the following reasons. Activities are proceeding according to plan. Things are not proceeding according to plan. The situation has changed. 16.1.2. The importance of control A control process is necessary in an organisation for the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Control is exercised to ensure that all activities at all levels of the organisation are in accordance with the organisations goals. (NB: See Figure 16.1 - The link between planning and controlling) Control is applied to ensure that the organisations resources are deployed in such a way that it attains its goals. Control usually results in better quality. An organisation is to reach its goals according to plan, control is necessary. The complexity of organisations is another factor. Larger organisation the greater the number of people the greater is the need for control. 72/ -72Competition is a significant factor. Control can also help to minimize costs and limit the accumulation of errors. Control facilitates delegation and treamwork. THE CONTROL PROCESS 6. 7. 8. 16.2 Control is the process in which management ensures resources are meaningfully deployed so that the mission and goals of the organisation can be attained. (NB: See Figure 16.2 The control process). The process includes setting standards, measuring actual performance, evaluating any deviations and taking steps to rectify deviations. Step 1. Establishing standards of performance A performance standard is a projection of expected or planned performance. performance standards can therefore be developed and they include the following: Profit standards Market share standard Productivity standards Staff development standards Suitable Performance standards enable management to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable performance and to keep abreast of the strategy and plans. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a popular control tool that ensures clear standards. Standards are set in areas such as finance, customer satisfaction, internal processes and learning and innovation. The Six Sigma method tries to eliminate mistakes. Sigma refers to a deviation. Step 2: Measuring actual performance Collecting data and reporting on actual performance are ongoing activities. Step 3: Evaluation deviations Determining whether performance matches standards entails evaluating differences between actual performance and the predetermined standards. Step 4: Taking corrective action Aimed at achieving or bettering the performance standard and ensuring that differences does not recur in the future. If actual performance does not match the performance standard, management has three options: 1. 2. 3. 16.4. Actual performance can be improved to attain the standard. The strategy can be revised to attain the performance standards set. The performance standards can be lowered or raised. AREAS OF CONTROL 73/ -73Figure 16.3 illustrates the focal points, or the key areas of control. (NB: See Figure 16.3) The control of physical resources entails factors such as inventory control, quality control, and control of equipment. Financial resources are situated in the center of the other resources because most control measures or techniques are quantified in financial terms. The control of information sources concerns accurate market forecasting, adequate environmental scanning, and economic forecasting. Control of human sources involves orderly selection and placement, control over training and personnel development. 16.4.1 The control of physical resources An organisations physical resources are its tangible assets, such as buildings, office equipment and furniture. Control systems for these resources involve usage procedures, periodic inspections, and stocktaking. Inventory control Inventory refers to the reserves of resources held in readiness to produce products and services as well as the end-products that are kept in stock to satisfy consumers needs. Inventory refers to four basic kinds of reserves such as raw materials, work in process, components, and finished products. Organisations keep inventories mainly for the following purposes: To satisfy the needs of customers and consumers; In the case of raw materials and components, to keep uncertainties in delivery and availability to a minimum. As a hedge during times of high inflation. In keeping inventories, the most expensive costs in the price of money, or interest, to finance inventories, followed by storage costs, insurance, and risk. (NB: See Table 16.1 Types of inventory, purpose, and sources of control) The following three control systems are relevant here: 1. 2. 3. The concept of economic ordering quantity (EOQ) is based on replenishing inventory levels by ordering the most economical quantity. The materials requirements planning (MRP) system was develop in the 1960s to eliminate the shortcomings of the EOQ. Inventories are ordered only when they are needed. The just-in-time (JIT) system is a refinement of the MRP system that originated in Japan. JIT is based on the premise that actual orders for finished products are converted into orders for raw materials and components, which arrive just in time for the manufacturing process. The success of this complex inventory control system depends largely on reliable deliveries of flawless components, stable relationships and a reliable labour force. Quality control 74/ -74The management approach that emphasizes the management of quality is known as total quality management (TQM). (NB: See Figure 16.4 - Managing quality). Quality control refers to the activities that management performs to ensure a level of quality that will satisfy the consumer, on the one hand, and have certain benefits for the organisation, on the other. The following steps: 1. 2. 3. The first step in quality control is the definition of quality goals or standards. The second step in quality control is measuring quality. The use of benchmarking. Statistical control methods to analyse product data with a view to quality. Third, quality control entails rectifying deviations and solving quality problems in an effort to keep the cost of quality as low as possible. 16.4.2 The control of financial resources Financial control concerns the control of resources as they flow into the organisation,financial resources that are held by the organisation and financial resources flowing out of the organisation. We examine two instruments of financial control: namely budgetary control and financial analysis. The budget This allocation of financial resources is done by means of the budget. A budget is a formal plan, expressed in financial terms, that indicates how resources are to be allocated to different activities, departments or sub-departments. A budgets contribution to financial control is as follows: It supports management in coordinating resources. It provides guidelines on the application of the organisations resources. It defines or sets standards that are vital to the control process. It makes possible the evaluation of resource allocation, departments, or units. (NB: See Table 16.2 Types of budget) The most important advantage of a budget is that it facilitates effective control by placing a money value on operations and in doing so enables managers to pinpoint problems. Budgets also facilitate coordination between departments and maintain records of organisational performance. Financial analysis Management can use financial analyses as an instrument of control. Certain financial ratio analyses enable management to control the organisations financial resources. (NB: See table 16.3 A few financial ratio analyses) 16.4.3 The control of information resources Relevant and timely information is vital in monitoring the progress of goal attainment. 16.4.4. The control of human resources 75/ -75The main instrument used to control an organisations human resources is performance management. This entails evaluating employees and managers in the performance of the organisation. resources) 16.5 (NB: See Figure 16.5 The performance management process for human LEVELS OF CONTROL The two basic levels of control within an organisation are strategic control and operations control. 16.5.1 Strategic control Strategic control is exercised at top management level and entails a close study of the organisations: Total effectiveness Productivity, and Management effectiveness Productivity can be defined as an economic measure of efficiency that summarises what is produced (output) relative to resources used (input) to produce it. Productivity can be increased in the following ways: 1. 2. Improving operations by spending more on research and development. Increasing employee involvement. Different reasons for low productivity in South Africa, here are some of these reasons: Insufficient education and training of the workforce, Obsolete technology and systems, A lack of awareness and knowledge of productivity And cultural and socio-political factors. The third dimension is measuring management effectiveness, which is in fact a management audit of an organisations main success factors. 16.5.2 Operations control Operations control is therefore concerned with the organisations processes that entail transforming resources into products and services. (NB: See Figure 16.6 - Three forms of operations control) Preliminary control The purpose of preliminary control is to anticipate and prevent possible problems regarding any of the resources. Financial, physical, human, or information. Screening control 76/ -76- Screening control is action taken as resources are transformed into products and services in order to ensure that standards for product or service quality are met. Post-action control Post-action control focuses on the outputs of the transformation process and involves actions taken to fix a faulty output. Another form of post-action control is when an organisation takes action to minimize negative impact on customers due to faulty outputs. 16.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM 16.6.1 Intergration A control system is effective when it is integrated with planning, and when it is flexible, accurate, goal-oriented, timely, and not too complex. (NB: See Figure 16.7 - Integration of planning and control) 16.6.2 Flexibility The second characteristic of a control system is flexibility. This means that it should be able to accommodate change. 16.6.3 Accuracy A control system should be designed in such a way that it provides a goal-oriented and accurate picture of the situation. 16.6.4 Timeliness Timely control data is not obtained by means of hasty, makeshift measurement; control data should be supplied regularly. 16.6.5 Unnecessary complexity Unnecessarily complex control systems are often an obstacle because they can have a negative influence on the sound judgement of competent managers. A control system should be: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Integrated with the planning system Flexible Accurate Timely Simple 77/ CHAPTER 17 ETHICS, CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 17.1 ETHICS A definition of ethics is that it entails the code of moral principles and values that directs the behaviour of an individual or a group in terms of what is right or wrong. A code of ethics sets standards. (NB: See Figure 17.1 - Three areas of human behaviour) Human behaviour falls into three areas:The first area is where the legal system governs values and standards. At the other end is the area of free choice, where no laws govern the behaviour of individuals. Between these extremes lies the area of ethics. No specific laws govern yet there are certain standards of conduct. In the area of ethical behaviour, accountability is to norms, standards, and values of which the individual or organisation is aware, but which are not enforceable. An ethical dilemma arises in a situation where it is difficult to tell right from wrong because all the alternatives may have potentially negative consequences. 17.1.1 Levels of ethical decision making In business, most issues that managers have to confront fall into one of five levels, which are not mutually exclusive. These levels are illustrated in Figure 17.2 ( NB: See Figure 17.2 - The levels of ethical decision making) Individual level Ethical questions arise when people face issues involving individual responsibility, such as being totally honest when completing expense accounts, calling in sick, accepting a bribe or misusing organisational resources. Organisational level When ethical issues originate, the individual dealing with such issues should consult the organisations policies, procedures, and code of ethics to clarify the organisations stand on the issue. Association level At the association level, an accountant, lawyer, medial doctor, or management consultant may refer to their professional associations code of ethics for guidelines on conducting ethical business. 78/ -78- Societal level At the societal level, laws, norms, customs, and traditions direct the legal and moral acceptability of behaviour. International level At the international level, a mix of cultural, political, and religious values that influence decisions often confuses ethical issues. 17.1.2 Different approaches to ethical decision making. Managers should consider two factors:1. 2. 1. The approach that they can use to determine which alternative to choose in a decisionmaking situation; and What organisations can do to ensure that managers follow ethical standards in their decision making. Utilitarian approach A manager studies the effects of a particular action on the people directly influenced by it and takes a decision that will benefit the most people to the greatest extent. 2. Human rights approach The individual is entitled to fundamental freedom and rights that another individual cannot take away. An ethically correct decision is one that best protects the rights of those affected by it. (NB: See The Bill of Rights) 3. Justice approach The justice approach stated that ethical decisions should entail the equitable, fair, and impartial distribution of benefits and costs among individuals and groups. (NB: See - The shortcut ethical test 17.1.3 Steps in the ethical decision-making process (NB: See Figure 17.3 - Steps in the ethical decision-making process) Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4: Identify the problem It is important not to confuse the ethical problem with the associated symptoms or problems. Determine whose interests are involved. Determine the relevant facts. Determine the expectations of those involved. 79/ -79- Step 5. Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Weigh up the various interests Determine the range of choices Determine the consequences of these choices for all those involved. Make your choice 17.1.4 Managing ethics in the organisation What can organisations do to ensure ethical decision making? Lead by example Develop corporate code of ethics Create ethical structures. Manage whistle blowing Leading by example The Chief executive officer and senior managers need to be openly and strongly committed to ethical conduct and should provide constant leadership. Developing a corporate code of ethics An organisations code of ethics sets out the guidelines for ethical behaviour within the organisation. A code of ethics should provide employees with direction in dealing with ethical dilemmas. Creating ethical structures An ethics committee can be established to judge the doubtful ethical behaviour of employees. Managing whistle blowing The organisation protects whistle blowers by following a specific procedure when employees make confidential disclosures. 17.2 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Corporate social responsibility implies that a manager is obliged to take actions that also protect and enhance societys interests. 17.2.1 Levels of social responsibility (NB: See Figure 17.4 - Levels of social responsibility) 1. Social obligation Organisations owe it to society to make profits. According to the social obligation view, the generation of profits within the legal framework of the society in which the organisation operates represents socially responsible behaviour by the organisation. 80/ -80- 2. Social reaction The social reaction view holds that organisations owe society more than the mere provision of goods and services. Organisations should at least be accountable for the ecological, environmental, and social costs resulting from their actions. The most common type of social reaction takes place when civic groups go to an organisation and ask for donations e.g. scholarships. 3. Social responsiveness Social responsiveness refers to the socially responsible actions of organisations that exceed social obligation and social reaction. Organisations engaging in socially responsive behaviour actively seek to find solutions to social problems. includes civil responsibilities such as supporting or opposing public issues, and responding to the present and future needs of society by trying to fulfil them. 17.2.2 To whom is business responsible? Primary stakeholders are those identified in the micro-environment and market environment, whereas secondary stakeholders are present in the macro-environment of the organisation. Primary stakeholders Include the owners who are interested in the pursuit of profits, the achievement of goals. Shareholders and the board of directors consider the promotion of the organisations image, earnings per share, and profit sharing. Employees are concerned with training and development opportunities, their conditions of service, working conditions, remuneration, security, self-actualisation and job satisfaction. Suppliers are important stakeholders because they supply raw materials, loans, and credit to the organisation and the organisations decision and its socially responsible behaviour affect them. Customers are concerned with the provision of safe products of good quality, with service of a high standard, with product improvement, consumer protection, and marketing actions. Secondary stakeholders Include the local community, the country as a whole, and the international environment. Local communities demand social responsibility in areas such as: Environmental protection and ecological control; Low-cost housing; Support for health and medical services; Training and development of the local population; Donations to churches and religious institutions; Sponsorships for schools Preservation of historic buildings and heritage sites; The creation and promotion of an economic infrastructure. The political reforms in South Africa initiated in the early 1990s accelerated the social change process. The following factors played a role: 81/ -811. 2. 3. 4. Organisations decentralized some of their corporate social investment programmes to regional operations. They published more information about their spending and began networking with one another to share resources. Foreign organisaitons began exploring how they could contribute to redevelopment in SA. Local corporate social invement programmes linked up with the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) 17.2.3 Sustainability reporting People often refer to a companys economic performance as the bottom line because profit is usually the last item on the income statement. One of the problems on sustainability reporting is that it is difficult to measure the financial implications of environmental aspects and social activities. 17.3 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate governance is the system by reference to which organisations are managed and controlled and from which the organizations values and ethics emerge. King 11 identified seven characteristics of good corporate governance. (NB: See - Seven characteristics) 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Discipline Transparency. Transparency is the ease with which an outsider is able to make meaningful analysis of a companys actions. Independence Is the extent to which mechanisms have been put in place to minimize or avoid potential conflicts of interest that may exist. Accountability Individuals or groups need to be accountable for their decisions and actions. Responsibility Pertains to behaviour that allows for corrective action and for penalizing mismanagement. Fairness The rights of various groups have to be acknowledged and respected. Social responsibility A well-managed company will be aware of, and respond to, social issues, placing a high priority on ethical standards. ... View Full Document

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