JitterManual
334 Pages

JitterManual

Course Number: EE 101, Spring 2011

College/University: Barclay

Word Count: 92999

Rating:

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JITTER Tutorials and Topics Table of Contents Copyright and Trademark Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 About Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Kansas >> Barclay >> EE 101

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

and JITTER Tutorials Topics Table of Contents Copyright and Trademark Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 About Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 2D/3D Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Ease of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 More Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 How to Use The Jitter Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Matrices: What is a Matrix? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A Video Screen is One Type of Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 What is a Plane? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 The Data in a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Attributes: Editing Jitter object parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What are Attributes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Setting Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Jitter Object Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Querying Attributes and Object State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Tutorial 1: Playing a QuickTime Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 How Jitter Objects Communicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Causing Action by Jitter Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Arguments in the Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Tutorial 2: Create a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 What's a Matrix? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 The jit.matrix object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 The jit.print Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Setting and Querying Values in a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 The jit.pwindow Object -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Filling a Matrix Algorithmically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Other jit.matrix Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Tutorial 3: Math Operations on a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Operation @-Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Math Operations on Multiple Planes of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Modifying the Colors in an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Sizing it Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 1 Table of Contents Tutorial 4: Controlling Movie Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Obtaining Some Information About the Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Starting, Stopping, and Slowing Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Time is on My Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Scrubbing and Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Tutorial 5: ARGB Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Color in Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Color Components: RGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 The Alpha Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Color Data: char, long, or float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Isolating Planes of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Color Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Automated Color Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Tutorial 6: Adjust Color Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 The jit.scalebias Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Math with char Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Some More Examples of Math with char Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Adjust Color Levels of Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Adjust Planes Individually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Reassign Planes of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Reading and Importing Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Tutorial 7: Image Level Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Brightness, Contrast, and Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Hue and Cry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Tutorial 8: Simple Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Mixing Two Video Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 The jit.xfade Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Automated Crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Tutorial 9: More Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Mixing and Crossfading Made Explicit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Mixing Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Combine Matrices Using Other Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 jit.scalebias vs. jit.op with the * Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 2 Table of Contents Tutorial 10: Chromakeying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 The jit.chromakey Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 The suckah Object -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 The Blue Screen of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Tutorial 11: Lists and Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Matrix Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 The jit.fill Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 The offset Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Using the multislider Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Using the zl Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Using the jit.fill Object with Multiple-plane Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Using the jit.fill Object with 2D Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 The jit.spill Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 The jit.iter Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Tutorial 12: Color Lookup Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Lookup Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Generating the Lookup Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 The jit.gradient Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Tutorial 13: Scissors and Glue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Cut it Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Routing the Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 The Glue That Keeps It Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Tutorial 14: Matrix Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Positioning Data in a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 The jit.window Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 From One jit.matrix to Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Isolate a Part of the Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Flip the Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Resize the Output Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Moving the Image Data Around in the Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Changing, Resizing, and Moving the Source Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 One More Word About Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Hue Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Full Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 3 Table of Contents Tutorial 15: Image Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Rotating and Zooming with the jit.rota Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Basic Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Automated Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Zoom In or Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Beyond the Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Some Adjustments--Anchor Point and Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Rotary Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Tutorial 16: Using Named Jitter Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Order of Importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 What's in a Name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 The Destination Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Jumping the Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 Tutorial 17: Feedback Using Named Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Jitter Matrix Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 The Game of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Tutorial 18: Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Getting Drunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 The Feedback Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Downsampling and Upsampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Tutorial 19: Recording QuickTime movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Your Mileage May Vary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 On the Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Off the Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Tutorial 20: Importing and Exporting Single Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Import and Export From the jit.matrix Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 QuickTime Export and Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Jitter Binary Export and Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 Import and Export From the jit.qt.movie Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 The exportimage Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 General Export From the jit.qt.movie Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 The jit.textfile Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 4 Table of Contents Tutorial 21: Working With Live Video and Audio Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 The Basics of Sequence Grabbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 First Grab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Switching Between Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Grabbing for Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Grabbing to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Grabbing Video to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Tutorial 22: Working With Video Output Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 End of the Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Just Passing Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Tutorial 23: Controlling Your FireWire Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Plug and Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 PLAY and WIND groups (VTR mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Avez-vous le Temps? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 RECORD Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 Tutorial 24: QuickTime Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 The Dialog Box Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 To the Max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Listing and Loading Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Parameter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 Listing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 In Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 Making Changes to Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Tweening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Saving and Loading Parameter Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 Using QuickTime Effects in QuickTime Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Tutorial 25: Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Color Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 The jit.findbounds Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 Tracking a Color in a Complex Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Using the Location of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Playing Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Playing Tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Deriving More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 5 Table of Contents Tutorial 26: MIDI Control of Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 The MIDIVideo Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 Mapping MIDI Data for Use as Video Control Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Using send and receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Using MIDI Notes to Trigger Video Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Routing Control Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Routing Around (Bypassing) Parts of the Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 User Control of Video Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 Tutorial 27: Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 The Sound Output Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Poke~ing Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 Sync or Swim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Putting it All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 Tutorial 28: Audio Control of Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Audio as a Control Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Tracking Peak Amplitude of an Audio Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 Using Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 Focusing on a Range of Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Audio Event Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Using Audio Event Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 Tutorial 29: Using the Alpha Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 The jit.lcd Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 Make Your Own Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 The Alpha Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 Tutorial 30: Drawing 3D text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 Creating a Drawing Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 GL Objects in the Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 Common 3D Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256 Tutorial 31: Rendering Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Drawing and Swapping Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Setting a jit.pwindow Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 Setting a jit.matrix Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 Multiple Renderers and Drawing Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 6 Table of Contents Tutorial 32: Camera View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Tutorial 33: Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Wireframe Mode and Culling Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271 RGBA Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 Erase Color and Trails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275 Blend Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 Antialiasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 Tutorial 34: Using Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 What is a Texture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Creating a Texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Textures and Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 Converting an Image or Video to a Texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 Interpolation and Texture size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Mapping Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 Tutorial 35: Lighting and Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 The OpenGL Lighting Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 Moving the Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Specular Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Diffuse Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294 Ambient Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295 That's Ugly! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 Directional vs. Positional Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298 Tutorial 36: 3D Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299 Review and Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299 Reading a Model File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299 Model Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Lighting and Shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Texture Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302 Drawing Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304 Material Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307 7 Table of Contents Tutorial 37: Geometry Under the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 Matrix Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 Geometry Matrix Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 Processing the Geometry Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 Drawing Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 Appendix A: QuickTime Confidential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 The Structure of QuickTime Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Time in QuickTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 Optimizing Movies for Playback in Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Audio Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Video Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Movie Dimensions and Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 Our Favorite Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 Appendix B: The OpenGL Matrix Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 Matrices, Video and OpenGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 When You Need This Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 GL Matrix Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 Draw Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 The Connections Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 The Geometry Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 Appendix C: A Jitter Bibliography For Your Further Reading Pleasure: Jitter Reference List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 OpenGL and 3D Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 2D Graphics and Vector Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 Video Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 Generative Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 Linear Algebra and Mathematical Matrix Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 8 Copyright and Trademark Notices This manual is copyright 2002-2004 Cycling '74. MSP is copyright 1997-2004 Cycling '74--All rights reserved. Portions of MSP are based on Pd by Miller Puckette, 1997 The Regents of the University of California. MSP and Pd are based on ideas in FTS, an advanced DSP platform IRCAM. Max is copyright 1990-2004 Cycling '74/IRCAM, l'Institut de Rcherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique. Jitter is copyright 2002-2004 Cycling '74--All rights reserved. Credits Jitter Documentation and Reference pages: Jeremy Bernstein, Joshua Kit Clayton, Christopher Dobrian, R. Luke DuBois, Randy Jones, and Gregory Taylor Cover Design: Lilli Wessling Hart Cover Photo: Sue Costabile Graphic Design: Joshua Kit Clayton and Gregory Taylor Video and image materials: Toni Dove, Susan Gladstone, and Mark McNamara 9 About Jitter Jitter is a set of over 130 new video, matrix, and 3D graphics objects for the Max graphical programming environment. The Jitter objects extend the functionality of Max4/MSP2 with flexible means to generate and manipulate matrix data--any data that can be expressed in rows and columns, such as video and still images, 3D geometry, as well as text, spreadsheet data, particle systems, voxels, or audio. Jitter is useful to anyone interested in real-time video processing, custom effects, 2D/3D graphics, audio/visual interaction, data visualization, and analysis. Since Jitter is built upon the Max/MSP programming environment, the limitations inherent in fixed purpose applications is eliminated. You are able to build the programs you want to use, rather than being forced to work around someone else's idea of how things should be done. This power is not to be underestimated, so please use it wisely. Video Although the Jitter architecture is general, it is highly optimized for use with video data, and performs with breathtaking speed. A robust set of mathematical operators, keying/compositing, analysis, colorspace conversion and color correction, alpha channel processing, spatial warping, convolution-based filters, and special effects deliver the building blocks for your own custom video treatments. Jitter includes extensive support for Apple's QuickTime architecture, such as the playback of all QT supported file formats, real- or nonreal-time file creation, editing operations, import/export capabilities, integrated real-time QT effects, video digitizing, QTVR, file format conversion, and more. QuickTime audio may be routed into MSP to exploit MSP's powerful audio processing capabilities. For the production environment, Jitter provides support for digital video (DV) camera control as well as input and output via FireWire, and multiple monitor support for performance situations. Important Note: Video Output Components support is only available for the Macintosh at the present time. 2D/3D Graphics Jitter's integrated 2D/3D graphics support provides the tools to use hardware accelerated OpenGL graphics together with video, including the ability to texture 3D geometry with video streams in real-time, convert audio and video streams directly into geometry data, and render models, NURBS, 2D/3D text, and other common shapes. There is even low level access to geometry data and the majority of the OpenGL API for those who need to be closer to the machine. Ease of Use Jitter is tightly integrated with Cycling '74's Max/MSP graphical programming environment which lets you visually connect data processing objects together with patch cords to create custom applications in a similar manner to analog modular synthesizers. This visual framework provides the power to build your own unique video effects, realtime video mixers, audio visualizers, image to audio synthesizers, algorithmic image generators, batch converter/processor programs, or whatever your heart desires. You can share the programs you develop with other Max/MSP users and create standalone applications just as is currently possible 10 Introduction with Max/MSP. A free Runtime version is available that runs any application created with Max/ MSP/Jitter. Matrices Jitter's strength and flexibility comes from the use of a single generalized matrix data format when working with video, 3D geometry, audio, text, or any other kind of data. Jitter matrices may be composed of one of four data types: char (8 bit unsigned int), long (32 bit signed int), float32 (32 bit floating point), or float64 (64 bit floating point). Matrices may have up to 32 dimensions, and may have up to 32 planes. This common representation makes the transcoding of information effortless. You can experiment with interpreting text as an image, converting video images to 3D geometry, turning audio into a particle system, or playing video data as audio. The possibilities are unlimited. Jitter has all the fundamental mathematical tools required to work with this numerical representation. The jit.op object alone provides over 60 arithmetic, bitwise, exponential, logical, and trigonometric operators. The multitude of operators in jit.op are particularly useful for experimenting with video compositing. And Jitter's support for linear algebra, particle systems, Fourier analysis and resynthesis, string processing, cellular automata, and Lindenmeyer systems allows for even further experimental possibilities. More Details Jitter objects also make available many aspects of their internal state in ways which will be new to even the most seasoned Max/MSP veterans. Jitter introduces the notion of attributes, internal variables which may be set and queried, thus permitting easier management of object state. As a means of convenience, Jitter objects can be created with attribute arguments of the form "@<attribute-name> <attribute-value>"--greatly reducing the need for excessive use of the loadbang object. Jitter objects can work with matrices of arbitrary size and are designed so that they can adapt to the type and size of data that they receive. A single program may have many objects working with different types and sizes of data at once, and there are tools to easily convert from one type or size to another. All matrices that are passed between objects are named entities similar to the buffer~ object in MSP. Referenced by name, a single matrix may be accessed by multiple objects, allowing for creative feedback networks, in-place processing, and memory conservation. There is a publicly available Jitter SDK with the source code of over 30 objects taken directly from the Jitter object set, so third party developers can extend the already overwhelming possibilities Jitter provides. This kind of extensibility is one of the strength's Max/MSP is already known for. We hope that you have as wonderful an experience using Jitter as we had making it. Please do not hesitate to let us know how we can make it better. Enjoy, The Jitter Team 11 Introduction How to Use The Jitter Documentation The Jitter documentation assumes you understand the basic Max concepts such as object, message, patcher, symbol etc. as described in the Max tutorials. This manual contains 37 tutorials that you can use to explore some of the basic capabilities of the software. The documentation begins with a basic introduction to the features of Jitter, followed by an introduction to two fundamental concepts in the software: matrices and attributes. If you like getting into things immediately, you can start learning Jitter by skipping to the tutorials, but these two Topics provide a thorough grounding that may be very useful to your understanding. Each tutorial is accompanied by a Max patcher found in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The idea is to explore the tutorial patcher as you read the chapter in this manual. For an in-depth examination of the features of each Jitter object, you can use the Jitter Reference folder in HTML format. The Jitter Reference is located in the JitterReference folder, located in the patches folder in your Max/MSP folder. You can also launch the Jitter Reference by choosing JitterReferenceLauncher from the Max/MSP Extras menu. There is a also help file for each object, and you can launch the object's reference page within the help file. Before delving into the reference materials, you may wish to read the guide to the object reference linked to at the top of the main Object Reference page. This guide is located in the following places: Macintosh: /Applications/MaxMSP 4.3/patches/JitterReference/reference-guide.html Windows: C:\Program Files\Cycling `74\MaxMSP 4.3\patches\JitterReference\reference-guide.html The appendices in this manual provide additional information about QuickTime formats, the OpenGL matrix format, and a list of sources for further reading 12 Matrices What is a Matrix? A matrix is a grid, with each location in the grid containing some information. For example, a chess board is a matrix in which every square contains a specific item of information: a particular chess piece, or the lack of a chess piece. White has just moved a pawn from matrix location e2 to location e4. For the sake of this discussion, though, let's assume that the "information" at each location in a matrix is numeric data (numbers). Here's a matrix with a number at each grid location. A spreadsheet is an example of a two-dimensional matrix. We'll call each horizontal line of data a row, and each vertical line of data a column. On roadmaps, or on chessboards, or in spreadsheet software, one often labels columns with letters and rows with numbers. That enables us to refer to any grid location on the map by referring to its column and its row. In spreadsheets, a grid location is called a cell. So, in the example above, the numeric value at cell C3 is 0.319. The two pictures shown above are examples of matrices that have two dimensions, (horizontal) width and (vertical) height. In Jitter, a matrix can have any number of dimensions from 1 to 32. (A one-dimensional matrix is comparable to what programmers call an array. Max already has some objects that are good for storing arrays of numbers, such as table and multislider. There might be cases, though, when a one-dimensional matrix in Jitter would be more useful.) Although it's a bit harder to depict on paper, one could certainly imagine a matrix with three dimensions, as a cube 13 Matrices What is a Matrix? having width, height, and depth. (For example, a matrix 3 cells wide by 3 cells high by 3 cells deep would have 3x3x3=27 cells total.) 19 20 21 10 11 12 1 4 7 2 13 14 15 25 26 3 22 23 24 27 5 17 18 16 6 8 9 A 3x3x3 matrix has 27 cells. And, although it challenges our visual imagination and our descriptive vocabulary, theoretically (and in Jitter) one can even have matrices of four or more dimensions. For these tutorials, however, we'll restrict ourselves to two-dimensional matrices. A Video Screen is One Type of Matrix A video screen is made up of tiny individual pixels (picture elements), each of which displays a specific color. On a computer monitor, the resolution of the screen is usually some size like 1024 pixels wide by 768 pixels high, or perhaps 800x600 or 640x480. On a television monitor (and in most conventional video images), the resolution of the screen is approximately 640x480, and on computers is typically treated as such. Notice that in all of these cases the so-called aspect ratio of width to height is 4:3. In the wider DV format, the aspect ratio is 3:2, and the image is generally 720x480 pixels. High-Definition Television (HDTV) specifies yet another aspect ratio--16:9. In 14 Matrices 160 120 240 320 640 1024 What is a Matrix? these tutorials we'll usually work with an aspect ratio of 4:3, and most commonly with smallerthan-normal pixel dimensions 320x240 or even 160x120, just to save space in the Max patch. 480 720 600 800 768 Relative sizes of different common pixel dimensions A single frame of standard video (i.e., a single video image at a given moment) is composed of 640x480=307,200 pixels. Each pixel displays a color. In order to represent the color of each pixel numerically, with enough variety to satisfy our eyes, we need a very large range of different possible color values. There are many different ways to represent colors digitally. A standard way to describe the color of each pixel in computers is to break the color down into its three different color components --red, green, and blue (a.k.a. RGB)--and an additional transparency/opacity component (known as the alpha channel). Most computer programs therefore store the color of a single pixel as four separate numbers, representing the alpha, red, green, and blue components (or channels). This fourchannel color representation scheme is commonly called ARGB or RGBA, depending upon how the pixels are arranged in memory. Jitter is no exception in this regard. In order for each cell of a matrix to represent one color pixel, each cell actually has to hold four numerical values (alpha, red, green, and blue), not just one. So, a matrix that stores the data for a frame of video will actually contain four values in each cell. A: R: G: B: A: R: G: B: 255 218 111 218 255 218 111 217 A: R: G: B: A: R: G: B: 255 218 111 218 255 218 111 217 A: R: G: B: A: R: G: B: 254 218 112 217 254 218 112 217 etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. Each cell of a matrix may contain more than one number. A frame of video is thus represented in Jitter as a two-dimensional matrix, with each cell representing a pixel of the frame, and each cell containing four values representing alpha, red, 15 Matrices What is a Matrix? green, and blue on a scale from 0 to 255. In order to keep this concept of multiple-numbers-percell (which is essential for digital video) separate from the concept of dimensions in a matrix, Jitter introduces the idea of planes. What is a Plane? When allocating memory for the numbers in a matrix, Jitter needs to know the extent of each dimension--for example, 320x240--and also the number of values to be held in each cell. In order to keep track of the different values in a cell, Jitter uses the idea of each one existing on a separate plane. Each of the values in a cell exists on a particular plane, so we can think of a video frame as being a two-dimensional matrix of four interleaved planes of data. G B A R The values in each cell of this matrix can be thought of as existing on four virtual planes. Using this conceptual framework, we can treat each plane (and thus each channel of the color information) individually when we need to. For example, if we want to increase the redness of an image, we can simply increase all the values in the red plane of the matrix, and leave the others unchanged. The normal case for representing video in Jitter is to have a 2D matrix with four planes of data-- alpha, red, green, and blue. The planes are numbered from 0 to 3, so the alpha channel is in plane 0, and the RGB channels are in planes 1, 2, and 3. The Data in a Matrix Computers have different internal formats for storing numbers. If we know the kind of number we will want to store in a particular place, we can save memory by allocating only as much memory space as we really need for each number. For example, if we are going to store Western alphabetic characters according to the ASCII standard of representation, we only need a range from 0 to 255, so we only need 8 bits of storage space to store each character (because 28 = 256 different possible values). If we want to store a larger range of numbers, we might use 32 bits, which would give us integer numbers in a range from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. To represent numbers with a decimal part, such as 3.1416, we use what is called a floating point binary system, in which some of 16 Matrices What is a Matrix? the bits of a 32-bit or 64-bit number represent the mantissa of the value and other bits represent the exponent. Much of the time when you are programming in Max (for example, if you're just working with MIDI data) you might not need to know how Max is storing the numbers. However, when you're programming digital audio in MSP it helps to be aware that MSP uses floating point numbers. (You will encounter math errors if you accidentally use integer storage when you mean to store decimal fractions.) In Jitter, too, it is very helpful to be aware of the different types of number storage the computer uses, to avoid possible math errors. A Jitter matrix can store numbers as 8-bit integers (char), 32-bit integers (long), 32-bit floatingpoint (float32) or 64-bit floating-point (float64). Some Jitter objects store their numerical values in only one of these possible formats, while others can store their values in several, or all, of them. By default, nearly every Jitter object automatically adapts its internal matrices to the format (size and type) of any matrix sent to its left inlet, assuming that it supports that format. For instance, the jit.op object will accept any format matrix, so if you send a 4x3 float32 matrix to a jit.op object, it will adapt its internal matrices to match that incoming matrix. This default behavior is called adapt mode. Note that adaptation is based only on matrices received in an object's left inlet. If an object doesn't support the format of the incoming matrix, it will return an error. The jit.scalebias object only accepts 4 plane char matrices, so if you send it that 4x3 float32 matrix, it will return an error because it can't adapt to a float32 matrix. However, in adapt mode, the jit.scalebias object would adapt its internal matrices to match the size of an incoming 4 plane char matrix. Technical note: You can use the jit.matrix object to easily convert data from one matrix format to another. In the case described above, sending our 4x3 float32 matrix through a jit.matrix 4 char 4 3 object will convert it to a matrix format compatible with the jit.scalebias object. This point is covered in more detail in the Tutorials. Adapt mode facilitates the construction of Jitter patches that are type, planecount and dimension independent--the same network of Jitter objects can process data of all formats. There may be times, though, when you want to restrict your patch to a single data format. To override adapt mode, you can do one of two things: 1. You can create an object with typed-in arguments that specify its format, which will disable adapt mode. For instance, the object jit.op 2 float32 3 3 will only accept 2 dimensional, 2 plane float32 matrices, and will return errors if you try to send it anything else. 2. You can send the message adapt 0 to an adaptive object. This "freezes" the object's internal matrices at their current state, and disables adaptation. When an object is non-adaptive, it will continue to process matrices that are of the same format, but which have differently-sized dimensions (e.g. our jit.op 2 float32 3 3 object will process a 2 plane 17 Matrices What is a Matrix? float32 5x5 matrix). In this case, though, it will respond to that incoming matrix as follows: If the incoming matrix is larger than the object's internal matrix, only the portion of the matrix that overlaps the internal matrix will be processed. If the incoming matrix is smaller, any cells outside of the bounds of the incoming matrix will be set to 0. The illustration below should clarify this point: The consequences of non-adaptation While adapt mode is off, you can manually adjust the planecount, type or dimensions of an object's internal matrices by sending planecount, type and dim messages to the object. For additional information about these messages, refer to the Object Reference entry for "group-mop". To (re-)enable adaptation, simply send the message adapt 1 to a non-adaptive object. Important concept: In cases where we're using Jitter to manipulate video, perhaps the most significant thing to know about data storage in Jitter matrices is the following. When a matrix is holding video data--as in the examples in the preceding paragraphs--it assumes that the data is being represented in ARGB format, and that each cell is thus likely to contain values that range from 0 to 255 (often in four planes). For this reason, the most common data storage type is char. Even though the values being stored are usually numeric (not alphabetic characters), we only need 256 different possible values for each one, so the 8 bits of a char are sufficient. Since a video frame contains so many pixels, and each cell may contain four values, it makes sense for Jitter to conserve on storage space when dealing with so many values. Since manipulation of video data is the primary activity of many of the Jitter objects, most matrix objects use the char storage type by default.For monochrome (grayscale) images or video, a single plane of char data is sufficient. 18 Attributes Editing Jitter object parameters What are Attributes? Attributes are a new way to specify the behavior of Max objects. Most Jitter objects use attributes for the different variables that make up their current internal state. The good old Max counter object Many Max objects, such as the counter object shown above, take a number of arguments to determine how they behave. The order of these arguments after the object's name determines how the object interprets them. In the example above, the first argument to counter sets the direction in which the object counts; the second and third arguments determine the minimum and maximum values that the object counts between. Since these values are simply given to the object as numbers, their ordering is important. With some Max objects (counter is one of them) the number of arguments you give has some effect on the way in which they are interpreted. If you supply counter with only two arguments, they will be understood by the object as the minimum and maximum count, not the direction and minimum count. Because the position and number of arguments are crucial, there is no way, for example, to create a counter object with a predefined direction and maximum count using only two arguments. The arguments to an object are often seen as initial values, and Max objects typically have ways to modify those values through additional inlets to the object or special messages you send the object. You can change the direction and maximum count of a counter object by sending integers into its second and fifth inlets, respectively. These will override the default values supplied by the arguments. Similarly, you can change the minimum count of the object by sending the message min followed by an integer into the left inlet. While this system works well when a Max object only has two or three variables that define its behavior, Jitter objects often have many, many more variables (sometimes dozens). If all of these variables depended on the order of inlets and object arguments, you would spend all day searching the reference manual and never have time to do any work with Jitter! 19 Attributes Setting Attributes Editing Jitter object parameters Jitter objects, unlike Max objects, can be told how to behave by using attributes. You can type attributes into an object box along with the Jitter object's name, or you can set (and retrieve) attributes through Max messages after the object is created. A Jitter object with attributes after the object name The Jitter object shown above, called jit.brcosa, has three typed-in attributes. Typed-in attributes are set in object boxes by using the @ symbol followed by the name of the attribute and one or more arguments (which could be any kind of Max data: ints, floats, symbols, or lists). You can enter as many attributes as the object recognizes, in any order, after the object's name. While you may not know what the jit.brcosa object does yet, you can infer a little bit about the object based on the names of the attributes and what type of data they have assigned to them. Important: There is no space between the @ sign and the name of the typed-in attribute you want to set. The @ character tells the Jitter object to interpret the word attached to it as an attribute name instead of an argument value for a previous attribute. Also Important: Jitter objects can have both typed-in attributes and typed-in arguments. See the Jitter Object Arguments section below for details. As with Max objects, the information you give a Jitter object to set its initial behavior is generally something you can change after the object is created. Attributes can be changed at any time by sending messages to the object as shown below. Attributes can be changed with Max messages This jit.brcosa object has its brightness attribute set to 1.1 initially, but we've changed it to 1.0 by sending the message brightness 1 into the object's left inlet. You can change virtually any attribute by sending a message with the attribute's name, followed by the relevant arguments, into a Jitter object's left inlet. As with Max objects, Jitter objects have default values for their parameters. The jit.brcosa object above only has typed-in attributes initializing its brightness value, but other attributes are set to their default values. We'll show you how to find out what attributes an object uses below. In the 20 Attributes Jitter Object Arguments Editing Jitter object parameters example above, we can change the values of the object's contrast and saturation attributes using messages, overriding whatever default values the object has supplied. There are four pieces of information that most Jitter objects use that can be entered either as typed-in attributes or typed-in arguments. In fact, they are always attributes, but Jitter objects automatically handle them correctly when they are used as arguments. Jitter objects can have arguments, too! The jit.rota object, shown above, clearly has one attribute initialized: theta. But what does the other stuff mean? If you supply arguments for a Jitter object that processes Jitter matrix data (and most Jitter objects do), the arguments are interpreted as: 1. The planecount of the output matrix. 2. The type of the output matrix. 3. The size, or dimension list (dim), of the output matrix. Now that we know this, we can determine that the jit.rota object above will output a matrix that is made up of 4 planes of char (8-bit integer) data with two dimensions of 320 by 240 cells. Important: Jitter object arguments, if used, must appear before any attributes are set. Otherwise the Jitter object will misinterpret the arguments as values for the attribute, not arguments to the object. These arguments can also be set by attributes that are consistent for all Jitter objects that output matrix data: planecount, type, and dim. They can be set as unordered typed-in attributes or changed with messages. The three objects below, for example, are identical. Arguments or attributes? You decide. 21 Attributes Editing Jitter object parameters The first object has its output matrix attributes set using typed-in arguments. The second object has the planecount and type set using typed-in arguments, but uses a typed-in attribute for the dimension list. The third object uses typed-in attributes to set everything. If you prefer, you can initialize an object's attributes using messages triggered from a loadbang object as shown below. Yet another way to initialize your attributes Querying Attributes and Object State An additional (and very useful) feature of attributes is that you can ask a Jitter object to tell you what value it currently has stored for any given attribute. You do this by querying the attribute with the Max message get followed (with no space) by the name of the attribute you want to know about. The resulting value is output by the Jitter object as a message (beginning with the attribute's name), sent out the object's right outlet. Querying an attribute for a Jitter object Using get to find the values of attributes lets you discover the current value of an attribute, even if you never set the attribute in the first place. For example, the patch below discovers some of the 22 Attributes Editing Jitter object parameters default values of the jit.plur object. The Max route object lets you easily separate the values for each of the attributes. Finding out the default values of object attributes Two messages you can send to any Jitter object, getattributes and getstate, output all the attributes used by the object. Finding out your options... The getattributes message causes the Jitter object to output the message attributes followed by a list of all the attribute symbols that Jitter object understands. Experimenting with a few Jitter objects will quickly show you that many of these, such as outputmode, type and dim, are fairly standard. Others (such as mask in the jit.brass object) will have special meaning for the object that uses them. 23 Attributes Editing Jitter object parameters The getstate message dumps out all the attributes for the Jitter object as if every conceivable attribute query had been performed all at once. Finding an object's state You can then use route, unpack, and other Max objects to extract the attributes as you need them. Later in the tutorials, you will encounter several Jitter objects where the attributes change based on calculations performed on the input matrix (or a file that has just been opened by the object). Querying the relevant attributes is how you can find out the result of the object's calculation. Summary Jitter attributes are a powerful tool for managing the parameters of complex objects. You can use attributes to initialize, change, and find out the current values stored in Jitter objects, and the attachment of each value to a fixed attribute name eliminates the need to remember typed-in argument ordering or the role of each inlet in a complex object. 24 Tutorial 1 Playing a QuickTime Movie This first tutorial demonstrates one of the simplest yet most useful tasks you can perform with Jitter: playing a QuickTime movie in a window. Open the tutorial patch 01jPlayAMovie.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. There are two Jitter objects in this patch: jit.qt.movie and jit.window. The jit.window object automatically opens a window on your computer screen. The jit.qt.movie object allows you to open an existing QuickTime movie, and begins to play it. Click on the message box containing the message read countdown.mov. This causes the jit.qt.movie object to open the QuickTime movie file countdown.mov and begin reading from it. The read message opens a QuickTime movie file. By default a the jit.qt.movie object will begin playing a movie as soon as it opens it. (Alternatively, you can alter that behavior by sending the jit.qt.movie object an autostart 0 message before opening the file, but for now the default behavior is fine.) Notice, however, that even though we've said that the jit.qt.movie object is playing the movie, the movie is not being shown in the Movie window. Here's why: Each object in Jitter does a particular task. The task might be very simple or might be rather complicated. What we casually think of as "playing a QuickTime movie" is actually broken down by Jitter into two tasks: 1. Reading each frame of movie data into RAM from the file on the hard disk 2. Getting data that's in RAM and showing it as colored pixels on the screen. 25 Tutorial 1 How Jitter Objects Communicate Playing a QuickTime Movie The first task is performed by the jit.qt.movie object, and the second by the jit.window object. But in order for the jit.window object to know what to display, these two objects need to communicate. We've said that jit.qt.movie object's primary job is to open a QuickTime movie and read each frame, one after another, into RAM for easy access by other Jitter objects. To do this, the jit.qt.movie object claims a particular portion of the Max application's allotted memory, and consistently uses that one location in memory. Jitter keeps track of locations in RAM by assigning each one a name. (You don't always need to know the actual name of the location in memory, but Jitter objects do need to know them in order to find the information that's being held there.) Important Concept: The most important thing that Jitter objects communicate to each other is a name, referring to a matrix--a place in memory where data is stored. (We'll explain the meaning of the word "matrix" in more detail in the next tutorial chapter.) Jitter objects output a message that only other Jitter objects understand. That message is the word jit_matrix followed by a space and the name of a matrix where data is stored. This message is communicated from one Jitter object to another through a patch cord in the normal Max manner. (But, just as MSP objects' patch cords look different from other Max patch cords, the patch cords from Jitter objects' outlets that send the jit_matrix message have their own unique look.) The receiving Jitter object receives the message in its inlet (most commonly the left inlet), gets the data from the specified place in memory, modifies the data in some way, and sends the name of the modified data out its left outlet to all connected Jitter objects. In this way, tasks are performed by each object without necessarily knowing what the other objects are doing, and each object gets the data it needs by looking at the appropriate place in memory. Most Jitter objects don't really do anything until they get a jit_matrix message from another Jitter object, telling them to look at that matrix and do something with the data there. In many cases a Jitter object will generate a unique name for its matrix on its own. In other cases, it is possible (and even desirable) to tell an object what name to use for a matrix. By explicitly naming a matrix, we can cause objects to use that same memory space. You will see examples of this in future tutorial chapters. Causing Action by Jitter Objects What causes one Jitter object to send a jit_matrix message to another object? Most Jitter objects send out a jit_matrix message when they receive the message outputmatrix or bang. (These two messages have the same effect in most Jitter objects.) The other time that an object sends out a jit_matrix message is when it has received such a message itself, and has modified the data in some way; it then automatically sends out a jit_matrix message to inform other objects of the name of the matrix containing the new data. To restate the previous paragraph, when an object receives a jit_matrix message, it does something and sends out a jit_matrix message of its own. When an object receives outputmatrix or bang, it sends out a jit_matrix message without doing anything else. 26 Tutorial 1 Playing a QuickTime Movie So, in our example patch, the jit.qt.movie object is "playing" the QuickTime movie, constantly storing the current frame of video, but the jit.window object will only display something when it receives a jit_matrix message from the jit.qt.movie object. And that will only happen when the jit.qt.movie object receives the message bang (or outputmatrix). At that time, jit.window will display whatever frame of video happens to be currently playing in the movie (that is, the frame that's currently stored by the jit.qt.movie object). In order to make jit.window update its display at the desired rate to show a continuously progressing video, we need to send the message bang to the jit.qt.movie object at that rate. The movie is playing in the jit.qt.movie object, but we need to send it a bang message each time we want to display a frame. Click on the toggle object marked "Play" to start the metro object. This will send out bang at the rate of 25 times per second (every 40 milliseconds). That should be fast enough to display every frame of this video. As long as the bang messages continue, you will see the movie displayed in the Movie window. jit.window displays the contents of a matrix: in this case a frame of a QuickTime movie. Click on the toggle to stop the metro object. The jit.window object stops updating the Movie window, so you will now just see a still image of whatever frame was last displayed. The movie is still "playing"--and the jit.qt.movie object is still updating its memory frame-by-frame-- but jit.window is now oblivious because the jit.qt.movie object is no longer sending messages. 27 Tutorial 1 Playing a QuickTime Movie You can verify that the movie is still progressing by clicking on the button object just below the metro object. The will cause the jit.qt.movie object to send a jit_matrix message to jit.window, which will update the Movie window with the current frame. If you do this a few times, you will see that the movie has progressed in between clicks of the mouse. (The movie is a tensecond countdown, playing in a continuous loop.) To summarize, the jit.qt.movie object is continually reading in one video frame of the QuickTime movie, frame by frame at the movie's normal rate. When the jit.qt.movie object receives a bang message, it communicates the location of that data (that single frame of video) to jit.window, so whatever frame the jit.qt.movie object contains when it receives a bang message is the data that will be displayed by jit.window. Arguments in the Objects The jit.qt.movie object in this tutorial patch has two typed-in arguments: 320 240. These numbers specify the horizontal and vertical (width and height) dimensions the object will use in order to keep a single frame of video in memory. It will claim enough RAM to store a frame with those dimensions. So, in the simplest case, it makes sense to type in the dimensions of the movie you expect to read in with the read message. In this case (since we made the movie in question ourselves) we happen to know that the dimensions of the QuickTime movie countdown.mov are 320x240. If we type in dimension arguments smaller than the dimensions of the movie we read in, the jit.qt.movie object will not have claimed enough memory space and will be obliged to ignore some of the pixels of each frame of the movie. Conversely, if we type in dimension arguments larger than the dimensions of the movie we read in, there will not be enough pixels in each frame of the movie to fill all the memory space that's been allocated, so the jit.qt.movie object will distribute the data it does get evenly and will fill its additional memory with duplicate data. The jit.window object has five typed-in arguments: Movie 5 41 325 281. The first argument is a name that will be given to the matrix of data that jit.window displays. That name will also appear in the title bar of the movie window. It can be any single word, or it can be more than one word if the full name is enclosed between "single smart quote" characters. (single smart quotes are the characters `and', obtained by typing option-] and shift-option-].) The next two arguments indicate the x, y screen coordinates of the upper-left corner of the display region of the movie window, and the last two arguments provide the x, y coordinates of the lower-right corner of the display region. (Another way to think of these four numbers is to remember them as the coordinates meaning "left", "top", "right", and "bottom".) We have chosen these particular numbers because a) they describe a display region that is 320x240 pixels, the same size as the movie we intend to display, and b) when we take into account the dimensions of the window borders, title bar, and menu bar that the Operating System imposes, the entire window will be neatly tucked in the upper-left corner of our usable desktop. (It's possible to make the window borders and title bar disappear with a border 0 message to jit.window, but the default borders are OK for now.) We have typed the value of 40 in as an argument to metro to cause it to send out 25 bang messages per second. The QuickTime movie actually has a frame rate of exactly 24 frames per second, so 28 Tutorial 1 Playing a QuickTime Movie this metro will trigger the jit.qt.movie object frequently enough to ensure that every frame is made available to jit.window and we'll get to see every frame. The jit.qt.movie object actually understands many more messages besides just bang (way too many to try to explain here). In the upper-right corner of the Patcher window, we've included an example of one more message, simply to demonstrate that the progress of the QuickTime movie can be controlled in the jit.qt.movie object independently of the rate at which the metro object is sending it bang messages. The message time, followed by a number, causes the jit.qt.movie object to jump immediately to a specific time location in the movie. Click on the button object labeled "Restart". This sends a message of time 0 to the jit.qt.movie object. causing it to jump to the beginning of the QuickTime movie, and then sends a 1 message to the toggle to start the metro object and begin displaying the movie. Summary To play a QuickTime movie, use the jit.qt.movie object to open the file and read successive frames of the video into RAM, and use the jit.window object to display the movie in a separate window. Use typed-in arguments to specify the dimensions of the movie, and the precise coordinates of the display area on your screen. Jitter objects communicate the information about a particular frame of video by sending each other the name of a matrix--a place in memory where that information is located. When a Jitter object gets a matrix name, it performs its designated task using the data at that location, then sends out the name of the modified data to other Jitter objects. Almost all Jitter objects send out a name (in a jit_matrix message) when they receive the message bang (or outputmatrix). Thus, to show successive frames of a video, send bang messages at the desired rate to a jit.qt.movie object connected to a jit.window object. Tracing the messages and roles of each object 29 Tutorial 2 Create a Matrix What's a Matrix? This tutorial chapter demonstrates some ways to manage numerical data in a matrix. If you are in doubt about what a matrix is, please first read the chapter titled "What's a Matrix?" in the Topics section. To summarize here, a matrix is a scheme for storing and modifying large sets of numerical data, by placing the values in a virtual grid. By storing data in a matrix, we can easily identify a particular value by its location in the grid, and we can modify many values at once by referring to all or part of a matrix. In the previous tutorial chapter, we used the jit.window object to open a window and display the contents of a matrix as colored pixels. The matrix being displayed was from the jit.qt.movie object, an object that continually fills its matrix with the current frame of a QuickTime video. The fact that jit.window was displaying a video, however, was just because that happened to be the contents of the matrix it was being told to display; but in fact any numerical values in a matrix can be visualized similarly. The example patch for this tutorial will show an even simpler example that should help strengthen your understanding of a matrix, the central idea of Jitter. The jit.matrix object Open the tutorial patch 02jCreateAMatrix.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Create a 16x12 storage space for single 8-bit values. The jit.matrix object simply creates a matrix, a storage space in memory. We can then store and retrieve numerical values in the matrix, and we can use other objects to print the values or display them visually. The arguments for the jit.matrix object are an optional [name] argument (not included in this example), the [planecount] (how many values will be stored in each cell of the matrix), the [type] of data (how many bytes to use to represent each number), and then the [dim] (short for "dimensions", describing how large the matrix will be). We use the brackets [] to indicate that this is not the actual word you type in as an argument, but rather a description of the meaning of the argument. The object in this example will create a matrix with 1 plane (one number in each 30 Tutorial 2 Create a Matrix matrix location), using the char data type (single-byte values), with dimensions 16x12 (which equals 192 cells). From this we can deduce that the matrix is capable of holding 192 individual numerical values, with each value ranging from 0 to 255 (that's the range of a single byte). Note: We always describe the dimensions of a two-dimensional matrix in x,y (width, height) format, meaning that we first state the extent of the horizontal dimension, then the vertical dimension. This column major convention is consistent with the way these dimensions are commonly discussed in video and computer screen layout (a 640x480 video image, for example). An alternative way to think of this is that we first state the number of (vertical) columns of data, then the number of (horizontal) rows. You might want to note, however, if you're applying matrix techniques of linear algebra in Jitter, that this column major format is different from the way matrices are commonly described in linear algebra, which states rows first, then columns (i.e., row major). We've connected a button object to the inlet of the jit.matrix object. You'll recall that Jitter objects send out their matrix name when they receive a bang message in their left inlet, so this button will permit us to trigger the jit.matrix object to send out its matrix name (in the form of a jit_matrix message). The jit.print Object Create a 16x12 storage space for single 8-bit values. Beneath the jit.matrix object there is another new Jitter object, jit.print. This object accepts a matrix name (i.e., a jit_matrix message) in its inlet, and formats the values of the matrix--the sheer number of which can be pretty unwieldy--for printing in the Max window. It prints the formatted values directly to the Max window, much like Max's print object, and then passes the matrix name out its left outlet in a jit_matrix message (in the normal manner for Jitter objects). Click on the button object marked "output". This causes the jit.matrix object to communicate its matrix name to a jit.print object that formats the values and prints them in the Max window. In the Max window you will now see the text left: jit_matrix [somename]. The word left shows us that this was printed by the print left object, so we can see that that is what came out of the outlet of the jit.matrix object. Because we didn't choose a name for that matrix (we didn't provide a name as the first typed-in argument to the jit.matrix object), jit.matrix assigned a name of its own choosing. It tries to generate a unique name that's not likely to be used elsewhere, so it usually chooses 31 Tutorial 2 Create a Matrix something strange like "u330000007". In this case we don't really care what the name is, but it does tell the jit.print object what matrix of data to format for printing. Below that, you will see all of the values in this particular matrix, formatted neatly in 16 columns and 12 rows. Those came from the jit.print object. They're really 0 right now, because we haven't placed anything else in the matrix yet. Setting and Querying Values in a Matrix In the previous chapter we saw how an entire matrix could be filled automatically with frames of color data from a QuickTime movie. It is also possible to place numerical values in specific individual cells of the matrix, and retrieve values from specific locations. The objects immediately above jit.matrix in this example show a few messages you can use for setting and getting values in a matrix. The messages setcell and getcell allow you to access specific values in a matrix. You can store values in a particular matrix location with the setcell message. The syntax for doing so is: setcell [cell coordinates] val [value(s)]. For example, the message setcell 0 0 val 127 to our jit.matrix would set the value of the very first cell of the matrix (i.e., the cell in the upper-left corner) to 127. This is because we number the cell coordinates in each dimension starting with 0 and going up to 1 less than the extent of that dimension. So, in this matrix, locations in the x dimension are numbered from 0 to 15 and locations in the y dimension are numbered 0 to 11. Thus, the cell in the lower right corner would be described with the cell coordinates 15 11. The combination of the pack 0 0 0 object and the message box helps us to format a proper setcell message for the jit.matrix object. First we set the x and y positions where we want to store the value, then we specify a value to be stored there. With the x and y positions at 0 0, use the 32 Tutorial 2 Create a Matrix number box labeled "value" to send the number 127 into the left inlet of pack 0 0 0. This will cause the message setcell 0 0 val 127 to be sent from the message box to the jit.matrix. The message setcell 0 0 val 127 sets the value of cell position 0, 0 to 127. (If there were more than one plane in this matrix, we could set the values in a particular plane of a cell, or in all planes of the cell. However, this matrix has only one plane, so we'll leave that for another time.) Just to demonstrate what we said earlier about the numbering of cell positions, try sending the message setcell 15 11 val 255 to the jit.matrix. First enter the number 15 into the "x position" number box and the number 11 into the "y position", then enter the number 255 in via the "value" number box. Now click on the button marked "output" to see how the matrix has been changed. Once again the entire matrix will be printed in the Max window via jit.print. Notice that the values in cell positions 0, 0 and 15, 11 have been changed to 127 and 255. The message setcell 15 11 val 255 sets the value of cell position 15, 11 to 255. 33 Tutorial 2 The jit.pwindow Object -- Create a Matrix In your Patcher window you may have noticed a change in the black rectangular region. The upper-left and lower-right corners of it have changed. (If you covered it with your Max window, you may have to click the "output" button once more to see this change.) The jit.pwindow object displays numerical values as colors (or grayscale values). This region is a user interface object called jit.pwindow. In the object palette it appears like this: The jit.pwindow cursor in the object palette When you choose this object from the palette and click in the Patcher window, it creates a small rectangular object. (You can click in the grow bar in the lower-right corner of the object to adjust its dimensions.) This object is pretty much equivalent in function to the jit.window object, but it displays matrix data inside the Patcher window, rather than in a separate window. So, here we see quite literally the display of numerical values (in this case, char data in the range from 0 to 255) as color. Because there is only one plane in this matrix we're displaying, the display is monochrome--that is, grayscale. The 0 values are totally black, and the other values are some level of gray, up to 255 which is totally white. Thus, the 255 value at cell 15, 11 is displayed as white, and the 127 value at 0, 0 is displayed as a 50% gray, halfway between black and white. You might say, "That's all very well, but it will be pretty tedious to fill a large matrix this way." And you'd be right. But of course Max allows us to write another part of the program that will automate the process. 34 Tutorial 2 Filling a Matrix Algorithmically Create a Matrix Double-click on the patcher fillmatrix object to open the subpatcher window fillmatrix. This subpatcher generates 192 different values, one for each position in the matrix, by feeding different numbers into a mathematical expression. You can generate values algorithmically to fill the cells of a matrix. When the Uzi 12 object receives a bang message, (from the button labeled "fill" in the main Patcher window) it quickly counts from 1 to 12 out its right outlet and sends a bang message for each count out its left outlet. Those bang messages trigger the Uzi 16 object, so that it sends out numbers from 1 to 16 each time. We subtract 1 from these numbers so that they actually go from 0 to 11 and from 0 to 15, and we use the resulting numbers as y and x positions in the matrix. For each of the 12 y positions, the Uzi 16 object specifies all the x positions, and then uses those numbers in a mathematical expression (in expr) to calculate the value to be stored at that position. These numbers are sent out the outlets, and are used to create well-formed setcell messages in the main patch, just as we did by hand earlier. The mathematical expression here is relatively unimportant. It could be any formula that generates an interesting pattern of data. In this case we have chosen a formula that will produce a sinusoidal gradation of brightness in each column, and the will cause the overall brightness of the columns to increase from left to right (i.e., as x increases). Close the fillmatrix subpatch window and click on the button labeled "fill". The matrix is filled with values (generated by the Uzi objects in the subpatch) in a single tick of Max's scheduler. Now click on the button labeled "output" to view the contents of the matrix. The numerical values will be printed in the Max window, and displayed in the jit.pwindow. Even for a small 16x12 matrix like this, it's tough for us to perceive a trend in numerical data just by looking at a printout of numbers in the Max window. However, the display in the jit.pwindow gives us a very clear and immediate idea of how the values vary within the matrix. This demonstrates one of the benefits of visualization of numerical data. 35 Tutorial 2 Other jit.matrix Messages Create a Matrix You can no doubt imagine other ways to fill a matrix algorithmically in Max, and in fact we'll demonstrate other ways in later tutorial chapters. There are many other messages understood by jit.matrix, more than we can demonstrate fully here. On the right side of the Patcher we show a couple of other handy messages for filling a jit.matrix instantly with all the same values. The clear message to the jit.matrix object sets all its values to 0, and the setall message (the word setall followed by a value) sets every position in the matrix to that value. We also demonstrate the getcell message. The word getcell followed by a location in the matrix (x and y positions) will cause jit.matrix to send the cell coordinates and value of that position out its right outlet. Enter a y value and then an x value into the number box objects above the getcell $1 $2 message box, and observe what is printed in the Max window. Note that the value at that matrix position is reported out the right outlet of the jit.matrix object. Query the value(s) at matrix position 8, 6; reports cell 8 6 val [value(s)] In future tutorial chapters you will see various ways to use values retrieved from a matrix. Summary The jit.matrix object creates a storage space for a named matrix of data, with whatever dimensions, planes, and data type you specify. This matrix can be filled with data from another Jitter object (such as jit.qt.movie), or by messages such as setall [value] to set the value in all cells or setcell [position] val [value(s)] to set a specific cell. You can use an algorithm elsewhere in the patch to fill the matrix according to a formula or a set of rules. To get the data in a specific cell, you can use the getcell [position] message. To see all of the numerical data printed out in the Max window, use the jit.print object to format the matrix data and print it. 36 Tutorial 2 Create a Matrix To see the matrix data displayed as colors, use the jit.pwindow object. This is similar to the use of the jit.window object demonstrated in Tutorial 1. In this tutorial we viewed numerical data that we generated ourselves, rather than digital video as in the preceding chapter. The principle of storage is the same in both cases. Whether a matrix is used to store color information for each pixel from a frame of digital video, or abstract numbers which we wish to view as color, the numbers in both chapters are stored in a two-dimensional matrix and are easily displayed in a jit.window or jit.pwindow. 37 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on a Matrix This tutorial shows how you can perform simple mathematical operations on the data stored in a Jitter matrix. We'll show you how to use the jit.op object to perform arithmetic scaling of matrix cells, or of individual planes within those cells. Open the tutorial patch 01jMathOperations.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch is split into three simple examples of mathematical operations you can perform with the jit.op object. The jit.op object performs mathematical operations on entire matrices of data at a time rather than individual numbers. Adding a constant value to all cells in a matrix. The first example shows a jit.matrix object hooked up to a jit.op whose output is viewable by a jit.pwindow object. Every time you change the number box hooked up to the right inlet of the jit.op object a bang message will cause a new matrix to be sent out from the jit.matrix object. As you can see from its arguments, the jit.matrix object is generating a 4x3 matrix of single-plane char data (i.e. data in the range 0-255). The jit.pwindow object will visualize this matrix for you as a grayscale image. Dragging the number box will change the level of grey shown in the jit.pwindow from black (0) to white (255). It's important to realize that the jit.matrix object is putting out a Jitter matrix that has all its cells set to 0. If you were to connect the jit.matrix and jit.pwindow objects together and bypass the jit.op, you would see a black image, no matter how many times you send a bang message to the jit.matrix object. The jit.op object is adding a value (as defined by the number box) to all the cells in the Jitter matrix sent between the jit.matrix and the jit.op objects. 38 Tutorial 3 Operation @-Sign Math Operations on a Matrix We said above that the jit.op object adds a value to all the cells in its input matrix. The jit.op object adds a value (rather than, say, dividing or multiplying) because of the value of its op attribute. The op attribute is a symbol (or a list of symbols, as we'll see in a moment) that defines what math the jit.op performs on its input matrix. In this case, we can see that the op attribute is set to the value of +, which means that it performs simple addition on any matrix that arrives in its left inlet. The integer value in the right inlet is added to all the cells in the matrix. This value is referred to as a scalar, because it adds the same value to the entire matrix (in Tutorial 9 we show how jit.op can do math using two Jitter matrices as well). Important note: Changing the scalar value in the right inlet of the jit.op object does not output a new matrix. If you were to disconnect the patch cord between the number box and the button object, the jit.pwindow object would stop showing you anything new. The reason for this is that as with most Max objects, most Jitter objects only output data when something comes into their leftmost inlet. In the case above, each time you change the number box, the jit.op object stores the new scalar value. As soon as that happens, the button object sends a bang message to the jit.matrix object, causing it to send a new Jitter matrix (with all its values set to 0) into the left inlet of the jit.op object, triggering an output matrix which you can see. If you choose the Enable command from the Trace menu, and then step through the message order with the Step command, you will see how this plays out. (See the "Debugging" chapter of the Max 4.0 Tutorials and Topics manual for details about how to trace Max messages with the Trace feature.) The scalar value can also be supplied as a constant by using the val attribute of jit.op. For example, if we always wanted to add 134 to all the cells of an incoming Jitter matrix, we could use this object and dispense with the number box: Setting a scalar as an attribute. Similarly, if we wanted to change the mathematical operation performed by any given jit.op object, we could send the message op followed by the relevant mathematical symbol into the object's left inlet. 39 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on Multiple Planes of Data Math Operations on a Matrix The second example shows a more complicated instance of using jit.op to add values to an incoming matrix. Using separate scalars for each plane of a matrix This patch is similar to the first one, with the important difference that we are now working with a 4-plane matrix. This is shown by the first argument to the jit.matrix object that generates the matrix we're using. The jit.pwindow now shows things in color, interpreting the four planes of Jitter matrix data as separate color channels of alpha, red, green, and blue. Our jit.op object in this example has a list of four symbols for its op attribute: each symbol sets the mathematical operation for one plane of the incoming matrix. In this patch we're going to pass the first (alpha) plane through unchanged, and add numbers to each of the other planes. (You can mix and match operators like this to your heart's content.) The pak object feeding the right inlet of our jit.op object takes four integers and packs them into a list. The only difference between pak and the Max pack object is that pak will output a new list when any number is changed (unlike the pack object, which needs a new number or a bang message in the left inlet to output a new list). The four numbers in the list generated by pak determine the scalars for each plane of the matrix coming into the jit.op object. In the example above, plane 0 will have nothing added to it (the first argument of the op attribute is pass). Planes 1, 2, and 3, will have 161, 26, and 254 added to them, respectively. Our jit.pwindow object will interpret the cells of the output matrix as lovely shades of magenta (even though we see only one color, there are in fact 12 different cells in the matrix, all set to the same values). Important Note: If we decided to use only one value for the op attribute of the jit.op object above (and only used one number as a scalar), jit.op would use that mathematical operator and scalar value for all planes of the incoming matrix. 40 Tutorial 3 Modifying the Colors in an Image Math Operations on a Matrix The third example shows a use of the jit.op object on a matrix that already has relevant data stored in it: Multiplying individual planes with scalars Click the message box importmovie colorbars.pict. The importmovie message to the jit.matrix object loads a single frame of an image from a picture or QuickTime movie file into the Jitter matrix stored by the object. It will scale the picture on the disk to the dimensions of its own matrix (in this case, 320 by 240). 41 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on a Matrix Clicking the button object shows you image calibration color bars in the jit.pwindow on the right of the patch. In this case, our jit.op object has its arithmetic operators set to pass for the alpha plane and * (multiply) for the other planes. Since we're working with a 4-plane image, we set each of the scalars using a list of 4 floating-point numbers. Values of 1. in planes 1 through 3 will show you the image as it appears originally: All scalars at 1. If you set the scalars to 0., 1., 0., and 0., you should see the following image: The mean reds. All of the planes (except plane 1) of the matrix containing the color bars have been multiplied by 0. This will eliminate the alpha, green, and blue planes of the matrix, leaving only the red (plane 1) behind. 42 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on a Matrix Setting intermediate values (such as 0., 0., 1. and 0.5) as the scalars for the jit.op object will give you an image where the color bars look different: Pretty, isn't it? In this case, the alpha channel is ignored and the red channel is zeroed. The blue plane's values are all half of what they were. The green channel (plane 2) is left untouched. Important Note: Some mathematical scalars in jit.op are expressed as floating-point numbers, and some are expressed as integers. This depends on the relevant operator (defined by the op attribute), as well as the type of the input matrix. Since all the examples in this tutorial use char matrices, it makes sense to use integers when adding to them (any floating-point numbers will be truncated, as the matrix data needs to remain as integers in the range 0-255). If we were using a float32 matrix as our input, it would make perfect sense to add floating-point numbers to it. Similarly, it's reasonable to multiply a char matrix by a floating-point scalar (240 * 0.5 = 120, an integer). However, since the matrix output by jit.op will still be a char matrix (see note below), you will still only get values in the range of 0-255. If you experiment with the scalar values you will see that you can easily make some of the color bars disappear or merge with neighboring bars. This is because the color bars are all set to standard color values with similar ranges. If you show only one channel at a time (by setting all planes but one to 0), four of the seven bars along the top will show color. We have demonstrated the + and * operators in this tutorial, but in fact the jit.op object can perform a great many other math operations. For a complete list of the possible operators, see the reference page, or double-click on the p op_list subpatch in the jit.op help file. Sizing it Up When you create a jit.pwindow object, it will appear in the Max window as 80 pixels wide by 60 pixels tall. You can change its size using its grow box, just like many of the user interface objects in 43 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on a Matrix Max. If you want to change its size precisely, you can do so using its Inspector or by sending it the size message followed by a width and height, in pixels: Changing the size of a jit.pwindow If you send a jit.pwindow object of a certain size (in pixels) a matrix with a different size (in cells), the jit.pwindow object will scale the incoming matrix to show you the entire matrix. If you send a very small matrix to a very large jit.pwindow, you will see pixelation (rectangular regions in the image where the color stays exactly the same). If you send a small jit.pwindow a large matrix, varying degrees of detail may be lost in what you see. Important Note: in the example above, our jit.matrix holding the color bars had a size (specified by its dim list) of 320 by 240 cells, a planecount of 4, and a type of char. The jit.op object (and most Jitter objects you will encounter) recognizes that information and adapts to perform its calculation on the entire matrix and output a matrix of the same specifications. If we were to change the jit.matrix object to some different size, the jit.op object would instantly recognize the change and re-adapt. The jit.pwindow object also adapts to the incoming matrix, but in a slightly different way. If the incoming matrix is smaller than its own dimensions, it uses duplicate data to fill all of its pixels. (This results in the pixelation effect described in the previous paragraph.) If the incoming matrix is larger than its own dimensions, it will be obliged to ignore some of the data, and will only display what it can. So, even though the jit.pwindow objects in the tutorial patch never match the size (in cells) of their matrix input, they do their best to adapt to the size of the jit.op object's matrix. The jit.pwindow in the last example shows you as much as it can of the entire matrix output by the jit.op object, but it has to ignore every other row and column in order to fit the 320x240 matrix it receives into its own 160x120 display area. Summary The jit.op object lets you perform mathematical operations on all the data in a Jitter matrix at once. You can perform calculations on the matrix cells in their entirety or on each plane separately. The mathematical operation that jit.op will perform is determined by its op attribute, which can be typed in as an @op [operator] attribute argument or provided by an op [operator] message in the left inlet. For multiple-plane matrices (such as color pictures and video), you can specify the operation for each plane by providing a list of operators (e.g. op pass * * *), and you can provide 44 Tutorial 3 Math Operations on a Matrix different scalar values for each plane. In Tutorial 9 you will see how you can use a second Jitter matrix to act in place of a simple scalar. You can set the size of a jit.pwindow object with a size [width] [height] message. The jit.pwindow will do its best to adapt to the size of any matrix it receives. It will duplicate data if the incoming matrix is smaller than its dimensions, and it will ignore some data if the incoming matrix is larger than its own dimensions. Most Jitter objects do their best to adapt to the dimensions, type, and planecount of the matrix they receive. In the case of jit.op, it does not have specified dimensions of its own, so it adapts to characteristics of the incoming matrix. 45 Tutorial 4 Controlling Movie Playback This tutorial expands on what we've learned thus far about playing back QuickTime movies in Jitter. We'll learn how to get some useful information about the movie that you're playing, as well as how to manipulate the playback of the movie by changing its speed, volume, and loop points. Open the tutorial patch 04jControllingMoviePlayback.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The two Jitter objects in this patch should already be familiar to you: jit.qt.movie and jit.pwindow. The rest of the patch will let you experiment with changing the playback behavior of the movie you have loaded into the jit.qt.movie object. The left side of the patch should seem very familiar to you from the very first tutorial: Open and play the movie. 46 Tutorial 4 Controlling Movie Playback Open the file crashtest.mov by clicking the message box that says read crashtest.mov. The movie clip should begin playing as soon as it is read into the jit.qt.movie object. Since this movie has a soundtrack, you should begin to hear some music as soon as the movie is loaded. The movie soundtrack will come out of the Sound Manager. If you normally use an ASIO driver with MSP, you will need to connect and set up your Sound Manager outputs so that you can hear them. You won't see anything in the jit.pwindow because, even though the movie is playing, the jit.qt.movie object needs a bang message to send a matrix out to the jit.pwindow. Start the metro object by clicking on the toggle box connected to its inlet. You will see the movie's image appear in the jit.pwindow object. Don't worry about the gettime message yet; we'll get to that below. Obtaining Some Information About the Movie The first thing we want to do with this QuickTime movie is get some information about it. The Jitter attribute system lets us query information about Jitter objects at any time, and use that information in our Max patch. Attribute information is always retrieved by sending get messages to a Jitter object's left inlet. We then parse the Max messages the object sends out its rightmost outlet in response (see What Are Attributes? for more details). Automatically querying the jit.qt.movie object. The middle of the tutorial patch contains a Max route object connected to the right outlet of the jit.qt.movie object in our patch. Jitter attributes are always output by objects in the same format that you would set them with in your patch: the name of the attribute followed by whatever information the object needs to set that attribute. 47 Tutorial 4 Controlling Movie Playback When you tell a jit.qt.movie object to open a movie for playback (by sending it the read message), the object sends a message out its right outlet to tell you that it has found your movie and understood how to play it. If you were to connect a print object to the right outlet of the jit.qt.movie object in the patch and reload the movie in the patch, you would see the following printed in the Max window: read crashtest.mov 1 If for some reason the object can't locate the crashtest.mov file, you will see a number other than 1 after the name of the file. This message has two purposes: first, to let you know that the movie file has been successfully located and opened; second, so that you can use this message to trigger subsequent actions in the Max patch. If we look at the first argument to the route object, you will see that we've told it to look for a message that begins with read. The rest of that message is sent to an unpack object which splits up the remaining list of a symbol (containing the name of the movie) and a number, which indicates success (1) or failure (-1 or 0) in opening the movie. The select object then sends out a bang message if the movie is opened successfully. The bang then triggers the message box above it, which is in turn connected back to the jit.qt.movie object. The message box contains the following list of attribute queries, which are parsed by the same route object that dealt with the read message described above: getfps, gettimescale, getduration, getrate, getvol. This series of messages will find out the current values stored in the jit.qt.movie object for the attributes fps, timescale, duration, rate, and vol. We don't know what those mean yet, but we now have a mechanism by which we can get these attributes every time we successfully load a new movie into the jit.qt.movie object. Starting, Stopping, and Slowing Down Some simple movie playback controls The top of the tutorial patch contains some controls to change the playback behavior of the jit.qt.movie object. Sending a stop message to the jit.qt.movie objects will freeze the movie's playback at the current point in the movie. Sending a start message will resume playback where you last left off. Any soundtrack that exists in the movie file will stop playing when the movie's playback is halted. Stopping and starting the movie has no effect on the jit.qt.movie object's matrix output, which is still controlled by the metro object. If you stop the movie with the metro object on, you will still receive a new matrix at the rate of the metro object (in this case, 25 times per second), even though all the matrices will be the same. 48 Tutorial 4 Controlling Movie Playback Changing the rate of the movie will change the speed at which it plays back its video and audio content. Positive rate values will make the movie go forward, with a value of 1 signifying normal playback speed. Negative values will make the movie go backwards. A rate of 0 will stop the movie. The jit.qt.movie object takes a floating-point number as the argument to its rate attribute, so a value of 0.5 will make the movie play at half speed, and a value of -2.3 will make the movie play backwards at a bit more than double speed. If you play around with this value, you will note that the soundtrack will speed up, slow down, and play backwards to remain in sync with the video. Once the movie reaches its last frame (or first frame, if you're playing it backwards), it will loop to the opposite end of the file. This behavior can be changed by setting the loop attribute of the jit.qt.movie object with a value of 0 (no looping), 1 (regular looping), or 2 (palindrome looping). The vol attribute controls the volume (loudness) of any soundtrack component the movie has. A value of 1 equals full volume, and a value of 0 will turn the sound off. In this patch, both the rate and the vol attributes are initialized by the message box in the middle of the patch when the film is loaded. This way they will reflect the values stored in each new QuickTime movie (see below). Time is on My Side When a jit.qt.movie object opens a new movie, it reads in a lot of information (contained in the movie's header) about the movie, including how long it is, how many frames of video are in the movie, and how fast it is meant to be played. We use this metadata to control the movie's playback. Important note: unlike many Jitter attributes, which are set either by you or the object itself, many attributes used by the jit.qt.movie object are dependent on the current movie file. Different movie files will generate different settings for many of the attributes discussed in this tutorial. The first three attributes we queried, duration, timescale, and fps, tell us about how the movie file deals with timing. The duration attribute tells us the total length of the movie. This value is not expressed in milliseconds or frames, but in QuickTime time units. The actual length of each time unit depends on the timescale of the movie. The movie's timescale is the timing resolution of the movie per second. Dividing the duration of a movie by its timescale will tell you the approximate length of the movie, in seconds. Our crashtest.mov file, for example, has a duration of 2836 time units and a timescale of 600. The movie should run for about 4.73 seconds. If we want to move two seconds into the movie, we could set the jit.qt.movie object the message time 1200 (1200 time units divided by a timescale of 600 units/second gives us 2 seconds). The fps, or frames per second, of a movie tells us how many individual video images exist in the movie every second. The higher the fps of a movie, the smoother the apparent motion of the movie will be (assuming, that is, that the individual frames are all in some way unique). Some common fps rates are 15, 24, 29.97, and 30. Our movie file in this example runs at 15 frames per second, which works out to a new frame of video every 40 time units, or about every 66.7 milliseconds. If we divide the duration of crashtest.mov by the number of time units per frame in the movie, we can determine that the movie file has 70 frames. If we wanted to, we could get the total number of 49 Tutorial 4 Scrubbing and Looping Controlling Movie Playback frames in the movie by querying the jit.qt.movie object with the getframecount message, but then we wouldn't get to do the fun math! Displaying and setting the current playback frame The area at the bottom of the patch contains two controls for further manipulating the movie's playback. The number box on the left displays the frame that the movie is currently playing. This value is being updated by the gettime message sent into the jit.qt.movie object by the metro object at the top of the patch; each time a new frame is output the time is updated. If you stop the movie's transport (by sending jit.qt.movie a stop message), you can "scrub" through the movie by dragging on the number box. The movie will jump to the frame specified as an argument to the frame message. Setting loop points in a movie Loop points (pairs of time values which specify the beginning and end of a loop) can be sent to a jit.qt.movie object by setting the looppoints attribute with two integer arguments. The rslider in the tutorial patch lets you select regions of the movie that the jit.qt.movie object will loop between. The size of the rslider has been set to the duration of the movie through the attribute query we performed when the movie was loaded. You can reset loop points by sending the jit.qt.movie object a looppoints message with no arguments (an example of this is at the top of the patch, along with a query message that highlights the entire rslider). Summary The jit.qt.movie object offers a number of simple attributes that allow you to change the way QuickTime content is played. You can stop and start movie playback with those messages. The rate 50 Tutorial 4 Controlling Movie Playback attribute lets you change the speed and direction of movie playback. You can control the volume of a movie's soundtrack with the vol attribute. You can get important information about the current movie loaded into the jit.qt.movie object by querying attributes such as duration, timescale, and fps. You can go to specific frames in a movie with the frame message, and you can set and retrieve looppoints for the movie. You can query the current time position of a movie by sending the jit.qt.movie object a gettime message. More powerful functions, such as editing and saving movies, can be accomplished and will be discussed in later tutorials. 51 Tutorial 5 ARGB Color Color in Jitter In this chapter we'll discuss how color is handled in Jitter. We'll focus on the numerical representation of a color, and conversely the visualization of numbers as color. A thorough discussion of color theory--knowledge of how light and matter produce our sensation of color-- is well beyond the scope of this tutorial, as is a discussion of the many ways to represent color information digitally. If you wish to learn more about color theory and/or digital representations of color, you can find some other sources of information listed in the Bibliography. Here we present one method of representing color and how that representation is handled in Jitter matrices. Color Components: RGB It's possible to produce any desired color by blending three colors of light--red, green, and blue-- each with its own intensity. This is known as additive synthesis--generating a color by adding unique amounts of three "primary" colors of light. (The opposite of this is subtractive synthesis: mixing colored pigments, such as paint, which absorb certain colors of light and reflect the rest.) Thus, we can describe any colored light in terms of its intensity at the three frequencies that correspond to the specific colors red, green, and blue. In Jitter, this is the most common way to describe a color: as a combination of exact intensities of red, green, and blue. For each pixel of an image--be it a video, a picture, or any other 2D matrix--we need at least three values, one for each of the three basic colors. Therefore, for onscreen color images, we most commonly use a 2D matrix with at least three planes. The Alpha Channel A fourth plane is often useful for what is known as the alpha channel--a channel that stores information about how transparent a pixel should be when overlaid on another image. We won't deal with the alpha channel specifically in this tutorial chapter, but we mention it here because its inclusion is standard in most Jitter objects that deal specifically with representations of color. In most cases, the alpha channel is stored in the first plane (which is plane 0, because planes of a matrix are numbered starting from 0), and the RGB values are in planes 1, 2, and 3. Tutorial 5 Color Data: char, long, or float ARGB Color It's fairly standard in computer applications to use 8 bits of information per basic color value. 8 bits gives us the ability to express 256 (2 to the 8th power) different values. This means that if we use 8 bits for red, 8 for green, and 8 for blue, we can express 16,777,216 (224) different colors. That's a sufficient variety of colors to cover pretty thoroughly all the gradations we're able to distinguish. So, if we only need 8 bits of resolution to represent each basic color value, that means that the 8-bit char data type is sufficient to represent the value in each plane of a four-plane matrix of color information. We could use the long, float32, or float64 data type, and Jitter will certainly let us do that, but we'd be using much larger data types than we really need. Since a full-frame video image can contain a very large number of pixels (a 640x480 image has 307,200 pixels), it often makes most sense--in order to conserve memory and speed up processing--to use the char data type. When a matrix contains 8-bit char data, we can think of those 8 bits as representing numbers from 0 to 255, or we can think of them as representing gradations between 0 and 1 (i.e. as a fixed-point fractional number). When a Jitter object containing char data receives numerical values from other Max objects, it usually expects to receive them in the form of floats in the range 0 to 1. It will make the internal calculations necessary to convert a float from Max into the proper char value. (There are a few exceptions to this rule. For example the jit.op object can accept either floats in the range 0-1 or ints in the range 0-255 in its right inlet, as demonstrated in Tutorial 3.) For more on the use of the char data type in Jitter matrices, see the manual chapter "What's a Matrix?". Isolating Planes of a Matrix Open the tutorial patch 05jARGBcolor.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. At the top of the patch you are given two different colorful source materials. One is a video of an arcade game, and the other is the standard set of color bars for used for video calibration. You can choose to see one or the other by turning on the one of the metro objects (to repeatedly sending bang messages to the object containing the matrix you want to see). View a video or a still image Click on the toggle marked "Show movie" above the metro 30 object to view the video. 53 Tutorial 5 ARGB Color This example patch breaks up a 4-plane matrix of color information into four 1-plane matrices, in order to allow you to see--and modify--each plane individually. We achieve this with an object called jit.unpack. Just as the Max object unpack breaks a list into individual numbers, jit.unpack breaks a multi-plane matrix into individual 1-plane matrices. You can type in an argument to tell jit.unpack how many planes to expect in the incoming matrix, but by default it expects four planes since that's the norm for color data. We're interested in seeing the contents of the red, green, and blue planes, so we send planes 1, 2 and 3 to individual jit.pwindow objects. In this case we're not interested in the alpha channel, so we don't bother to display plane 0. Unpacking a multi-plane matrix as single-plane matrices Here you can see the content of each color plane, in the form of three monochrome images. The lighter pixels indicate higher values for that color. By sending each matrix to a jit.op object, we obtain individual control over the strength of each color, and can alter the color balance. We then send the individual (altered) matrices to a jit.pack object to recombine them as a 4-plane matrix, for display in the jit.pwindow. 54 Tutorial 5 ARGB Color Try, for example, reducing the intensity of green and blue to 0.12, to create a redder image. Reducing the intensity of certain colors to alter the color balance Color Rotation To demonstrate another color trick, we've sent each color plane through a gate object, so that each matrix can be routed to a different inlet (color plane) of jit.pack. In this way, the meaning of each plane can be reassigned, and we can try all the permutations of possible color assignments by choosing a setting from the coll object on the left side of the patch. Drag on the number box marked "Rotate RGB planes" to try different reassignments of the three color planes. (Note that plane 0 is sent directly through from jit.unpack to jit.pack; it's the 55 Tutorial 5 ARGB Color jit_matrix message coming in the left inlet of jit.pack that triggers output of the matrix to the jit.pwindow.) If you choose item 3 in the coll, you get the result shown below. The individual color planes are reassigned; the red and green planes are swapped here. The example above shows the original green and blue planes reduced by a factor of 0.12, and the gates are set so that the red and green planes are swapped when they're sent to jit.pack, resulting in an image with more green in it. The coll object contains all the possible permutations of assignments of the RGB planes. Double-click on the coll object to see its contents. 0, 0 0 0; 1, 1 2 3; 2, 1 3 2; 3, 2 1 3; 4, 2 3 1; 5, 3 1 2; 6, 3 2 1; Permutations of RGB plane assignments The elements in the list coming out of the coll are unpacked and sent to assign the outlets of the three gate objects. The number sent into coll is also sent to a umenu (in Label mode) to show the color rotation in words--in this case "Green-Red-Blue". 56 Tutorial 5 Automated Color Changes ARGB Color For one more exercise in color modification, we've made an automated process for continually changing the scaling and rotation of colors. Click on the toggle marked "Automate color changes". The scaling factors for the three color planes all change continually. Double-click on the patcher colorgames object to see the contents of the subpatch. [colorgames] subpatch The subpatch uses line objects to send values that progress from 0.5 to 1 for each of the color scaling factors. The red factor changes over the course of 3 seconds, green in 4 seconds, and blue every 5 seconds. (The three line objects thus come into sync once every 60 seconds.) Every 60 seconds, a new color rotation is selected by the metro-counter combination. Close the [colorgames] subpatch window. You can try all of these same color modifications on different source material. Click on the toggle marked "Show movie" to stop the metro object. (Note that we also use this toggle to start and stop the movie playing in the jit.qt.movie object. There's no reason to keep the movie playing if we're not even watching it.) Now click on the toggle marked "Show colorbars" to display the color bars. Experiment with changing the scaling factors and rotation on this image. Summary When a jit.window or jit.pwindow receives a single-plane 2D matrix, it displays the values as a monochrome (grayscale) image. When it receives a 4-plane 2D matrix, it interprets the planes as alpha, red, green, and blue values, and displays the resulting colors accordingly. This ARGB representation in a 4-plane matrix is the most common way of representing colors in Jitter. Because each of the basic colors only requires 8 bits of precision to represent its full range, it's common in Jitter to use the char data type for color data. Thus, most of the QuickTime-related objects (such as jit.qt.movie) and many of the objects specifically designed for manipulating colors 57 Tutorial 5 ARGB Color (such as jit.brcosa and jit.colorspace, which are demonstrated in later tutorial chapters) expect to receive 4-plane 2D matrices of char data. (Many other objects adapt readily to other types of data, though. Check the reference documentation for the object in question when you're in doubt.) You can think of the char data as representing values 0 to 255, or you can think of them as representing fractional values from 0 to 1. Most of the time, objects that contain char data expect to receive numerical values from other Max objects specified as floats in the range 0 to 1. The jit.unpack object splits a multi-plane matrix into individual single-plane matrices. The jit.pack object combines single-plane matrices into a single multi-plane matrix. By treating each plane separately, you can control the color balance of an image, or even reassign the meaning of the individual planes. 58 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels The jit.scalebias Object This tutorial elaborates on the color discussion of the previous chapter, and introduces an object that is specially designed for modifying the ARGB color planes of a matrix: jit.scalebias. The term scale in this instance refers to the process of scaling values by a certain factor; that is, multiplying them by a given amount. The term bias refers to offsetting values by adding an amount to them. By combining the processes of multiplication and addition, you can achieve a linear mapping of input values to output values. Because jit.scalebias is concerned with modifying ARGB color information in an image, it handles only 4-plane matrices of the char data type. (See Tutorial 5 for a discussion of ARGB color and char data.) Math with char Data As mentioned in the previous chapter, 8-bit char data can be represented as whole number values from 0 to 255 or as fractional values from 0 to 1. In Tutorial 2, for example, we saw that the jit.print object reports char data as integer values from 0 to 255. However, in many cases where we modify char values within a matrix (by changing one of its attributes), the Jitter object will expect to receive the attribute value as a float. Because this can be a little confusing, we've provided a demonstration in this tutorial patch. 59 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels Open the tutorial patch 06jAdjustColorLevels.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Click on the patcher explain_scalebias object in the middle of the patch to see the contents of the subpatch [explain_scalebias]. A demonstration of float math on char data. In the above example, we have created a very small matrix. It has 4 planes of char data, but it has only a single cell. This will to allow us focus on what happens to a single numerical value in the matrix. You can see that we have set the value in plane 2 (the green plane) to 100. At the left side of the example, you can see how this whole number value would be represented as a fractional value between 0 and 1: in this case it's 0.392, which is 100/255 of the way from 0 to 1. The jit.scalebias object will multiply the values by a certain amount--specified by the scale attribute--and then will add a certain amount to the values--specified by the bias attribute. When that matrix is altered by the jit.scalebias object, all of the values will be treated as floats for purposes of calculation, then will be re-stored in the matrix as char data. The scale and bias attributes are set here with the scale 2.0 and bias 0.2 messages. The scaling factor (the multiplier) is 2.0 in this case, and the bias (the offset that gets added afterward) is 0.2. So, to understand what is going on inside jit.scalebias, we have to think of the green value as 0.392 times 2.0 plus 0.2, which equals 0.984. The jit.iter object reports the values in each plane of each cell (there's only one cell in this matrix), and we can see that the value (when stored in the matrix as a char) is 251 (or 0.984 on a scale from 0 to 1). 60 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels (Just as a mental exercise, can you calculate the values jit.scalebias will produce in the red and blue planes in the above example? Since the values in those planes in the original matrix are 0, the values in the resultant matrix will be 0 times 2.0 plus 0.2, which equals 0.2, which is equal to 51 on a scale from 0 to 255. So the RGB values being displayed by the jit.pwindow object at the bottom are 51 251 51.) Some More Examples of Math with char Data If the preceding explanation was crystal clear to you, you might want to skip over these additional examples. But in case you're still not totally clear on how math operations with char data (and jit.scalebias in particular) work, here are a few more examples. One by one, click on each of the presets in the preset object, proceeding from left to right. In the paragraphs below we explain each of the preset examples. 1. The value in the green plane of the original matrix is 255. (This is equal to 1.0 on a scale from 0 to 1.) The jit.scalebias object multiplies this by 0.5, which results in an internal value of 127.5; however, when storing the value as a char, jit.scalebias truncates (chops off) the fractional part, and stores the value as 127. This yields a rather imprecise result. (127 on a scale from 0 to 255 is equal to 0.498 on a scale from 0 to 1, as opposed to the 0.5 we would expect.) But that's the best we can do with 8-bit char data. In cases where you need greater precision than that, char data is not for you. You would need to use a matrix of long, float32, or float64 data, and use jit.op @op * and jit.op @op + objects instead. 2. The original value is 100, and we double it (scaling factor 2.0) and get the expected result of 200. There is no loss of precision in this case. 3. The original value is 100 (0.392). We scale it by a factor of 1.0, which leaves it unchanged, then we add -0.2 to it--that is, we subtract 0.2 from it--to get a result of 49 (that is, 0.192). 4. 0.392 times 2.0 plus 0.2 = 0.984. On a scale from 0 to 255, that's 251. 5. This example and the next one show what happens when the result of the multiplication and addition operations exceeds the capacity of an 8-bit char. jit.scalebias will simply clip (limit) the result to the maximum or minimum limit of a char. Here, 0.392 times 4.0 equals 1.568 (that is, 100 times 4 equals 400), so the result is set to the maximum allowable, 255. 6. In the other direction, 0.392 minus 0.5 equals -0.108, so the result is set to 0. 7. It's noteworthy that these imprecisions and limits only occur at the point when the result is restored as a char. Up until then, the values are calculated internally as floats, so the precision is retained. Even though the multiplication takes the internal value beyond the 0-1 range, no limiting occurs internally, and the addition operation can bring it back into range. Here, 0.392 times 3.0 (= 1.176) minus 0.5 equals 0.676. When this is stored as a char, however, a small imprecision occurs. 0.676 on a scale from 0 to 255 equals 172.38, but the fractional part is truncated and the stored value is 172 (i.e., 0.675). 61 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels 8. For no change, the scaling factor should be 1 and the bias offset should be 0. Try some more values yourself, until you're satisfied that you understand jit.scalebias and the results that occur with 8-bit char data. When you have finished, close the [explain_scalebias] window. Adjust Color Levels of Images Now let's apply jit.scalebias to color images. In the top left corner of the tutorial patch, you can see a familiar configuration: a jit.qt.movie object with a message box to load in a movie and a metro object to trigger jit_matrix messages from the jit.qt.movie object. In this patch we'll modify the matrices with multiplications and additions in jit.scalebias. Load in a picture or a movie. Click on the message box read chilis.jpg to read in a JPEG picture. Note that we're reading a still image--not a video--into the jit.qt.movie object. QuickTime can handle a wide variety of media formats, including still images in PICT or JPEG format. The jit.qt.movie object treats still images just as if they were 1-frame-long videos. The output of jit.qt.movie will go to jit.scalebias for processing, and will then be displayed in the jit.pwindow. (You can ignore the jit.matrix object for now. We'll discuss its use later in this chapter.) The scale and bias values can be changed by modifying the scale and bias attributes of the jit.scalebias object. Click on the toggle to start the metro object. Try dragging on the number box above the scale $1 message box, to increase the value of the scale attribute to 1.25. Boost the brightness of the image; with scale, higher values get boosted more. This will increase all non-zero values in all four planes of the image by a factor of 1.25 (a 25% increase). Note that multiplication has the effect of increasing larger values by a greater amount 62 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels than smaller values. For example, if the red value of a particular cell in the original matrix is 200, it will be increased to 250 (a net increase of 50), while the blue value of the same cell might be 30 and would be increased to 37 (a net increase of 7). Try increasing the scale attribute to a very large value, such as 20. Values that were 13 or greater in the original matrix will be pushed to the maximum of 255 (and even the very small values will be increased to a visible level), creating an artificially "overexposed" look. Try decreasing the scale attribute to a value between 0 and 1. As you would expect, this darkens the image. A scale value of 0 or less will set all values to 0. Return the scale attribute to 1. Now try adjusting the bias attribute. This adds a constant amount to all values in the matrix. Positive values lighten the image, and negative values darken it. Boost (or reduce) the level of all values by a constant amount. Here are a couple of more extreme scale and bias settings you might want to try. Set the scale value to 40 and the bias value to -20. This has the effect of pushing almost all values to either 255 or 0, leaving only a few colors other than white or black. Now try setting the scale value to 1 and the bias value to 1. This has the effect of inverting the color scheme by making all high values low and all low values high. Reducing the scale value even further (to, say, -4 or -8) creates a similar inversion, but only values that were low in the original will be boosted back into the 0-1 range by the positive bias value. Adjust Planes Individually You can adjust the levels in each plane individually in a jit.scalebiasobject, using the attributes ascale, abias, rscale, rbias, etc. Set the scale value back to 1 and the bias value back to 0. Then experiment with adjusting each color plane independently by providing new values for the appropriate attributes. Adjust levels for each color plane 63 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels We've made the process a bit more "interactive" by giving you a controller that lets you adjust the scaling of all three color planes at once. When you click or drag in the swatch object, it sends out a three-item list representing the RGB color values at the point where your mouse is located. Those values are expressed on a scale from 0 to 255, so we use the vexpr object to change all values in the list to the 0 to 1 range. We then use an unpack object to break that list into three separate floats, and we use those values to alter the rscale, gscale, and bscale attributes of the jit.scalebiasobject. Values from a swatch used as attribute values for the jit.scalebiasobject Drag on the swatch object to scale the RGB planes all at the same time. (Since this produces scaling values in the range 0 to 1, you're effectively reducing all the levels, so this will generally darken the resulting image somewhat.) You can try all of these operations on different images. Read in some other colorful images such as colorswatch.pict or wheel.mov (or any other image) and experiment with adjusting the color levels. Reassign Planes of a Matrix In the previous tutorial we used jit.unpack and jit.pack objects to reassign the planes of a matrix. There is another way to do that, using the planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object. In this 64 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels example, we pass the matrix output of the jit.qt.movie object through a jit.matrix object just so that we can demonstrate the planemap attribute. We can reassign the planes of a matrix as it goes through jit.matrix The planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object allows us to "map" (assign) any plane of the incoming matrix to any plane of the outgoing matrix. The word planemap is followed by as many numbers as there are planes in the matrix (four in this case). Each place in the list stands for an output plane (the first place stands for output plane 0, the second place for output plane 1, etc.), and the value of that number states the input plane that will be assigned to it. By default, the planemap values are 0 1 2 3 (etc.), so that each plane in the input matrix is assigned to the same plane in the output matrix. But we can change those assignments as we like. For example, if we send the jit.matrix object the message planemap 0 3 2 1, we are assigning input plane 3 to output plane 1 (since the value 3 is in the list location for output plane 1), and input plane 1 to output plane 3. Effectively, we're swapping the red and blue color planes of the image. Click on the message box read wheel.mov and start the metro object to display the movie. (Set the scale attribute of the jit.scalebias object to 1 and the bias attribute to 0, so that you're seeing an unaltered image in the jit.pwindow.) Now, in the bottom right portion of the patch, click on the message box planemap 0 3 2 1 to swap the red and blue planes in the matrix. Click on the message box planemap 0 1 2 3 to go back to the normal plane mapping. If we set all three of the RGB output planes to the same input plane, we get equal values in all three RGB planes, resulting in a grayscale image. Click on the message box planemap 0 1 1 1 to see this effect. The value 1 is in the list location for each of the three RGB planes, so the red plane of the original is used for all three RGB planes of the output matrix. To rotate through all of the different color plane rotations, we've filled a coll object with various plane mappings (similarly to the way we did in the previous chapter), and we will send those assignments to the jit.matrix object to change the settings of its planemap attribute. 65 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels Double-click on the patcher rotatecolorplanes object to see the contents of the subpatch. It simply counts from 1 to 6, to step through the different mappings stored in the coll object in the main patch. (And when it's turned off it sends out the number 1 to reset to the default plane mapping.) Close the [rotatecolorplanes] window. Click on the toggle above the patcher rotatecolorplanes object to step through the different plane mappings at the rate of one setting per second. Change the rate number box above the right inlet to a smaller value (say, 80) to see a flickering effect from rapid plane reassignment. In the next tutorial chapter, you'll see how to rotate image hue in a subtler way, using jit.hue, and you'll see other ways to adjust color levels with the jit.brcosa object. Reading and Importing Images In this tutorial patch, we loaded three different kinds of images into the jit.qt.movie object: PICT and JPEG still images, and a QuickTime movie. It may seem a little strange to read still images into an object made for playing movies, but in fact QuickTime can read many types of media files, and the jit.qt.movie object knows how to read them all. (You could even read an AIFF audio file into a jit.qt.movie object, listen to it with start and stop messages, jump to different locations with the time attribute, etc.! Of course, you won't see any visual matrix info in that case.) For still images, it's just as easy to load them directly into a jit.matrix object with the importmovie message, as demonstrated in Tutorial 3. If you import a QuickTime movie that way, only one frame of the movie will be stored in the jit.matrix. In this patch, we used a jit.qt.movie object to load in all the images. The first reason is because one of the things we wanted to load was a movie (not just one frame of the movie). The second reason is because we wanted to demonstrate the planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object. The planemap attribute is only appropriate if there is an actual input matrix (a jit_matrix message coming in the left inlet). If we imported the images directly into a jit.matrix with importmovie, the planemap attribute would have no effect. Summary The jit.scalebias object uses multiplication and addition to modify all the values in a particular plane of a 4-plane char matrix--or all planes at the same time. The scale attribute is a factor by which each value in the matrix will be multiplied; the bias attribute is an amount to be added to each value after the multiplication takes place. The scale and bias attributes affect all four planes of the matrix. To affect only one plane at a time, use the attributes for that particular plane, such as ascale, abias, rscale, rbias, etc. You must supply the values for these attributes as floats (numbers containing a decimal point). To perform the multiplication and addition operations, jit.scalebias treats the char values as fractional values in the range 0 to 1, performs the math with floats, then converts the results back to chars 66 Tutorial 6 Adjust Color Levels (whole numbers from 0 to 255) when re-storing them. Results that exceed the range 0 to 1 will be limited to 0 or 1 before being converted back to char. You can reassign planes of a matrix using the planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object. The arguments to planemap are the output planes listed in order, and the values in the list are the input planes to be assigned to each output plane. So, for example to assign the plane 1 of an input matrix to all four planes of the output matrix, the attribute setting should be planemap 1 1 1 1. The jit.scalebias object provides a powerful tool for adjusting color levels in a 4-plane char (ARGB color) matrix. More such tools are presented in the next tutorial chapter. 67 Tutorial 7 Image Level Adjustment This tutorial shows how to adjust levels of brightness, contrast, and saturation in Jitter matrices that contain image data. We will also look at the concept of hue and hue rotation. Open the tutorial patch 07jImageAdjustment.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch has two new objects in it: jit.brcosa, which allows you to control brightness, contrast, and saturation of an image stored in a Jitter matrix, and jit.hue, which lets you rotate the hue of an image: Open and view the image. Open the file colorwheel.pct by clicking the message box that says read colorwheel.pct. View the movie by clicking the toggle box to start the metro object. You should see a color wheel appear in the jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch: The Color Wheel of Fortune The jit.pwindow object shows us the image after it has passed through our two new objects. We'll talk about jit.brcosa first, and then get to jit.hue. 68 Tutorial 7 Brightness, Contrast, and Saturation Image Level Adjustment The jit.brcosa object takes a 4-plane char Jitter matrix and, treating it as ARGB image data, allows you to alter the brightness, contrast, and saturation of the processed matrix. The three attributes are called, not surprisingly, brightness, contrast, and saturation. The default values of 1.0 for the three attributes result in the matrix passing out of the object unchanged: Using the jit.brcosa object Change the attributes of the jit.brcosa object and observe how the output matrix changes. The brightness of an image refers to its overall lightness or darkness when compared to a reference color (usually black). Changing the brightness attribute is equivalent to multiplying the values in the matrix by that value. A brightness value of 0 will turn the image to black; values above 1.0 will gradually increase all non-0 cell values until they clip at white (255). A value of 0.5 will significantly darken the image, reducing its natural range of 0-255 to 0-127. Some brightness values are shown below on the color wheel: The color wheel with brightness values of 0.5, 1.5, and 10, respectively Note that cell values clip at 0 and 255 when altered in this way. This is why the rightmost image, with a brightness of 10, is mostly white, with color showing only in areas where one or more of the visible color planes (RGB, or planes 1, 2, and 3) are 0 in the original matrix. Image contrast can be expressed as the amount the colors in an image deviate from the average luminosity of the entire original image (see below). As the contrast attribute of jit.brcosa is increased above 1.0, cell values above the average luminosity of the entire matrix are lightened (increased), and values below the average are darkened (decreased). The result is a dynamic expansion of the 69 Tutorial 7 Image Level Adjustment matrix image so that light values get lighter and dark values get darker. Settings for contrast below 1.0 reverse the process, with darker tones getting lighter and lighter tones getting darker until, at a contrast value of 0.0, you only retain the average grey luminosity of the entire image. Negative values invert the color of the image with the same amount of overall contrast. Technical Detail: The average luminosity of a matrix can be computed by averaging the values of all the cells in the matrix, keeping the planes separate (so you get individual averages for Alpha, Red, Green, and Blue). The three visible planes are then multiplied by the formula: L = .299*Red + .587*Green + .114*Blue The value L will give you the average luminance of the entire matrix, and is used by jit.brcosa to determine the threshold value to expand from when adjusting contrast. Here are some example contrast settings: The color wheel with contrast settings of 0.3, 2, -1, and 100 The first example shows the color wheel with its contrast drastically reduced (the cell values are all close the average luminosity of the matrix). The second example shows an increased contrast. Note how the lighter shades in the middle of the color wheel begin to approach white. The third example shows a negative contrast setting. The colors are inverted from the original, but the average luminosity of the matrix is the same as in the original. The last example shows the result of a massive contrast boost. Cell values in this example are polarized to 0 or 255. Image saturation reflects the ratio of the dominant color in a cell to the less dominant colors in that cell. As saturation values decrease below 1.0, all color values in a cell will become more similar and thus de-saturate towards grayscale. Values above 1.0 will push the colors farther away from one 70 Tutorial 7 Image Level Adjustment another, exaggerating the dominant color of the cell. As with contrast, a negative value for the saturation attribute will invert the colors but retain the same luminosity relationship to the original. The color wheel with saturation values of 0.2, 2 and -1 The first image is de-saturated, so each cell value in the matrix is being drawn toward the value of the luminosity of that cell. The second image is over-saturated, so the individual colors are much brighter (or darker) than their originals. The third image maintains the original luminosity of the color wheel but inverts the colors. Hue and Cry The jit.hue object allows you to rotate the hue of the input matrix. Setting the hue_angle attribute rotates the hue of the input matrix a specified amount in degrees: The hue_angle attribute rotates the hue of the input matrix. The hue of a matrix cell can be thought of as its basic color (e.g. magenta). Image hue is visualized as a rainbow (or a color wheel like the one we've been using) which goes from red to green to blue and back to red again. This value (which is specified in degrees from 0-360), along with the saturation and lightness of the image, can be used to describe a unique color, much in the same way that a specific series of RGB values also describe a unique color. By rotating the hue of an image forward, we shift the red part of the color spectrum so that it appears green, the green part of the spectrum to blue, and the blue part to red. A negative hue rotation shifts red into blue, etc. 71 Tutorial 7 Image Level Adjustment Hue rotations in increments of 120 degrees will transpose an image exactly one (or more) color planes off from the original hue of the image. Technical Detail: Our eyes perceive color through specialized receptors in our retina called cones (another type of receptor exists that responds to low levels of light but doesn't distinguish color--these receptors are called rods). Cones in our eyes are differentiated by the wavelength of light they respond to, and fall into three categories: L-sensitive receptors which respond to long wavelength light (red), M-sensitive receptors which respond to medium wavelength light (green), and S-sensitive receptors which respond to short wavelength light (blue). Just as our auditory system is weighted to be more perceptive to frequencies that are within the range of human speech, the distribution of cones in our eyes is weighted towards the middle wavelengths which are most crucial to perceiving our environment. As a result, we have roughly twice as many green receptors in our eyes as the other two colors. This explains why the luminance formula (above) allocates almost 60% of perceived luminosity to the amount of green in an image. Camera technology has been developed to emulate the physiology of our eyes, so cameras (and film) are also more sensitive to green light than other colors. Click the toggle box to automate the hue_angle of the color wheel. Note that when the hue_angle reaches 360 degrees, the original matrix image is restored. Our color wheel at various hue rotations (0-360 degrees) Summary The jit.brcosa and jit.hue objects allow you to modify the brightness, contrast, saturation, and hue of an input matrix. You use the two objects to perform tasks such as dynamic level adjustment (e.g. autoexposure), color correction, or idiosyncratic hue displacement. 72 Tutorial 8 Simple Mixing Mixing Two Video Sources One of the most common and useful things to do with video is to mix two images together. The simplest form of video mixing is achieved by just adding the two images together, with the intensity of each of the two images adjusted in whatever proportion you desire. By fading one image up in intensity while fading the other down, you can create a smooth crossfade from one image to the other. Jitter provides an object that accomplishes mixing and crossfading for you, called jit.xfade. Technical Detail: This type of mixing involves adding each value in one matrix to the corresponding value in the other matrix--cell-by-cell and plane-by-plane--and outputting a matrix that contains all the sums. If we just did that, however, we would get an output image in which all the values are greater than in either of the input images, so the result would be lighter than the originals (and some of the values might even clip at 255 if the matrices contain char data). Therefore, it's normal to scale down the intensity of one or both of the images before adding them together. For example, to get an equal mix of the two images, we would scale them both down by an equal amount (say, by a factor of 0.5) before adding them. The jit.xfade Object The jit.xfade object takes a matrix in each of its two inlets, scales the values of each matrix by a certain amount, adds the two matrices together, and sends out a matrix that contains the resulting mix. The scaling factor for each of the two input matrices is determined by the object's xfade attribute. The xfade value is a single (float) number between 0 and 1. That value determines the scaling factor for the matrix coming in the right inlet. The matrix coming in the left inlet is scaled by a factor of 1-xfade. So, if you gradually increase the xfade value from 0 to 1, the output matrix will crossfade from the left input to the right input. Open the tutorial patch 08jSimpleMixing.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Two source videos are read in automatically by the loadbang object. Start the metro object. You'll see only the left 73 Tutorial 8 Simple Mixing video at first. Drag on the hslider to change the xfade value, which will give you a mix of the left and right matrices. A value of 0.5 gives an equal mix of left and right matrices Automated Crossfade A crossfade is one of the most common ways of making a transition from one image to another. It might be very gradual--over the course of several seconds--or it might be quite rapid, lasting a fraction of a second, to make a sudden transition that is slightly smoother than a jump cut. In the upper left portion of the patch, we've made an automated fader from video A to video B (or vice versa). The crossfade can take any amount of time; you can specify the transition time with the number box. Automated process to send a continuously changing xfade value Using the number box, set a slow transition time (say, 5000 ms) so that you can see the effect of the crossfader. Click on right side of the Go To switch to fade to video B. The Go To switch is actually a small hslider with a range of 2 and a multiplier of 100, so the only two values it can send out are 0 and 100. Clicking on the right side of the switch sends out the value 100, the pack object sends out the message 100 5000, and the line object sends out continuous values 74 Tutorial 8 Summary Simple Mixing from 0 to 100 (one new value every 50 ms) over the course of five seconds. Those values are then multiplied by 0.01 to give a smoothly changing xfade value from 0 to 1. Adding two matrices together is the simplest way to do A-B mixing of video images. To achieve the desired balance of the two images, you first scale each matrix by a certain factor. You can crossfade from one image to another by decreasing the scaling factor of one image from 1 to 0 as you increase the scaling factor of the other image from 0 to 1. The jit.xfade object makes it easy to mix and/or crossfade two matrices. Its xfade attribute determines the balance between the two matrices. Changing the xfade value continuously from 0 to 1 performs a smooth A-B crossfade. You can use the line object or any other Max timing object to automate crossfades. 75 Tutorial 9 More Mixing Mixing and Crossfading Made Explicit In the previous chapter we explained how the jit.xfade object uses scaling (multiplication) and addition to mix two matrices together in varying proportions. In this tutorial we'll use the jit.scalebias and jit.op objects to perform those mathematical operations ourselves. This will provide us with a few advantages. First, it will allow us to demonstrate the mathematics of mixing and crossfading explicitly. Second, it will allow us to demonstrate how jit.op can perform math operations using two matrices as its inputs. (In Tutorial 3 we showed jit.op in action with scalar values operating on a single matrix.) Third, it will allow us to specify balance settings (scaling factors) for the two matrices independently, providing more flexibility than the jit.xfade object. Finally, because jit.op can implement so many different kinds of math operations, we can try other means of combining matrices to see different visual effects. Mixing Revisited Open the tutorial patch 09jMoreMixing.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Multiplication and addition to mix /crossfade matrices (replicating jit.xfade) Here you see each of two different videos being scaled down (darkened) by some factor between 0 and 1 with jit.scalebias. Below that, you see a slightly new wrinkle in the use of jit.op: the input to both inlets is a matrix. When we do this, jit.op performs the specified math operation on every 76 Tutorial 9 More Mixing single value individually, pairing each value in the left matrix with the corresponding value in the right matrix. This lets us add all the values in the two matrices, effectively mixing the images. Note: In cases where the dimensions, planecount and data type of the two matrices are not the same, the jit.op object uses the attributes of the matrix that's coming in the left inlet. If the matrix in the right inlet is larger or smaller than the matrix in the left inlet (has greater or fewer dimension or planes, or cells in a particular dimension), it will be automatically resampled to the size of the matrix in the left inlet. If the data type of the matrix in the right inlet does not match the data type of the matrix in the left inlet, values in the right inlet's matrix will be converted before calculations are performed. (For example, if the right matrix is of type float32 and the left matrix is of type long, value in the right matrix will have their fractional part truncated before calculations are performed. This is the general behavior of multiple-inlet objects in Jitter, including jit.op. Be aware, though, that a small number of objects do not link their non-left inlets to the left inlet. This will be noted in the Object Reference entry for these objects. Another note: In MSP you can add to audio signals together simply by sending them in the same inlet, because all audio signal inlets perform an automatic addition of signal vectors internally when more than one signal patch cord is attached to an inlet. This is not the case with Jitter matrix inlets. Therefore, if you want to add two matrices cell-by-cell, as we're doing in this example, you should use a jit.op object with the op attribute set to +. The result of these multiplications and this addition is comparable to what the jit.xfade object performs internally. You can verify this by using the controls in the top right part of the patch-- which are nearly identical to those of the previous chapter--to crossfade the videos. Start the metro object and use the Mixer slider to perform a crossfade from video A to video B. Note that we send the crossfade value directly as the scale attribute for the B video, and at the same time we use a !- 1 object to scale the A video by 1 minus that value. That way, the sum of the two scaling factors always equals 1, as it does in jit.xfade. Combine Matrices Using Other Operators Addition is perhaps the most obvious operation to perform with two matrices, but it's not the only one possible. By changing the op attribute of the jit.op object, we can try out many other operations to see what kind of visual effect they create. Set a very gradual crossfade time in the Transition Time number box (say, 10000 ms). Choose an operator other than + in the Operator pop-up menu. Now click on the Go To switch to begin the crossfade. You can see how that particular operator looks when implemented with two video matrices. The pop-up menu contains a few of the many operators provided by jit.op. Here's a brief description of each operator in the menu. 77 Tutorial 9 + -m Add the values of B to A. More Mixing Subtract the values of B from A, then perform a modulo operation to wrap the result back into the desired range. Use whichever value is greater, A or B. max absdiff Subtract the values of B from A, then use the absolute value of that difference. | "Bitwise Or"; using binary number values, whenever a bit is 1 in either A or B, set it to 1 in the result. "Bitwise Exclusive Or"; using binary number values, whenever the bits of A and B are not the same, set that bit to 1 in the result, otherwise set the bit to 0. If the value in A is greater than the value in B, set the result to 1 (or char 255), otherwise set it to 0. If the value in A is less than the value in B, set the result to 1 (or char 255), otherwise set it to 0. If the value in A is greater than the value in B, use the A value in the result, otherwise set it to 0. If the value in A is less than the value in B, use the A value in the result, otherwise set it to 0. ^ > < >p <p If you want to see what other operators are available, check the Object Reference documentation for the jit.op object. If you'd like, you can drag directly on the number box objects above the jit.scalebias objects, to set the balance levels independently (i.e. differently from the way our crossfade scheme sets them). You can also try values that exceed the 0 to 1 range. jit.scalebias vs. jit.op with the * Operator We chose to use the jit.scalebias object in this patch to perform the scaling multiplications instead of using jit.op with the * operator. Why? When jit.op is performing operations on char data (as we are doing in this patch), it limits its val attribute to the range 0.-1. (when specified as a float) or 0255 (when specified as an int). In cases where we want to multiply char data by some amount from 0. to 1., jit.op is just fine. But if we want to multiply char data by some other amount, then jit.scalebias is the correct object to use because it permits scale factors that exceed the 0 to 1 range. jit.scalebias is only for handling 4-plane char matrices, but that's OK because that's what we're scaling in this example. So, in this patch, since we're operating on 4-plane char matrices, and since we want you to have the ability to try scaling factors that exceed the 0 to 1 range, we have used jit.scalebias. 78 Tutorial 9 Summary More Mixing You can use the jit.op object to perform various math operations using the values from two different matrices. jit.op performs the specified math operation on every value individually, pairing each value in the left matrix with the corresponding value in the right matrix. When the dim, planecount, and type attributes of the two matrices differ, jit.op uses the attributes of the matrix in the left inlet. Different math operators can create a variety of visual effects when used to combine two video images. 79 Tutorial 10 Chromakeying This tutorial explains how to perform chromakeying with two source movies using the jit.chromakey object. We will also learn how to find out the color of any pixel on the screen. Open the tutorial patch 10jChromakey.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. When you open the tutorial patch, Max will automatically read two movies (oh.mov and traffic.mov) into two jit.qt.movie objects by sending appropriate read messages to those objects with a loadbang object: Initializing the patch via loadbang. Additional parameters we need for this patch are also initialized by the loadbang, which is connected to the message box on the right of the patch. The message box initializes the rest of the patch by sending messages to named receive objects elsewhere in the patch (see Tutorial 25: Managing Messages, in the Max4TutorialsAndTopics.pdf). Click the toggle box to start the metro object. You should see images appear in the three jit.pwindow objects in the patch. Note that the toggle box not only starts and stops the metro object, but also starts and stops the movie transport of the two jit.qt.movie objects. 80 Tutorial 10 Chromakeying The lower half of the tutorial patch (with two of the three jit.pwindow objects) looks something like this: The jit.chromakey object Click with the mouse on the blue region of the left-hand jit.pwindow object (i.e. the area behind the man's head in the movie). The third jit.pwindow object (in the lower-right hand of the patch) will look like this: How the heck did he get in front of that fence? 81 Tutorial 10 The jit.chromakey Object Chromakeying Chromakeying--the process of superimposing one image on top of another by selective replacement of color--is accomplished in Jitter by the jit.chromakey object. By specifying a color and a few other parameters, jit.chromakey detects cells containing that color in the first (left-hand) matrix and replaces them with the equivalent cells in the second (right-hand) matrix when it constructs the output matrix. The result is that cells from the first matrix are superimposed onto the second. Since any color is fair game for the chromakey, try clicking elsewhere in the lefthand jit.pwindow. Different colors will be knocked out of the man's face to reveal the traffic. The disappearing face trick (part one) Historical note: Bluescreen compositing, or the process of shooting live footage against a blue matte background only to replace the blue with a separate image later, has been around since the late 1930s. Originally a very expensive film process involving expensive lithographic color separation, bluescreen (and its slightly less common sibling, greenscreen) has evolved into the most commonplace (and effective) special effect in film, television, and video. The ability to perform chromakeying (the technical term for the process) using analog (and later digital) video superimposition has only made it more ubiquitous. Video chromakeying is often referred to in the television industry as CSO (Color Separation Overlay), the name given to the process by the BBC team that developed it in the 1960s. Petro Vlahos, a bluescreen innovator in the 1960s, was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1994, an acknowledgment of how indispensable the technology had become. The jit.chromakey object uses the color attribute to define the center color to in the chromakey (called the reference color). This attribute is set as a list of values for as many planes as exist in the matrices that are being keyed. The tol attribute specifies a range of values around the key color. Colors within this range will be keyed as well. When using jit.chromakey with char matrices (e.g. video), the attributes are specified in a floating point range 0 to1, which is then mapped to the 0255 range necessary for char data. To set the color attribute for a solid green chromakey, therefore, you would set the attribute as color 0 0 1.0 0, not 0 0 255 0. A tol range of 0.5 will key all values within half of the chromatic distance from the reference color (computed as the sum of the magnitudes of 82 Tutorial 10 Chromakeying difference in each plane between the reference color and the actual cell value). A tol range of 0 will treat only the exact reference color as part of the chromakey. Try clicking on the blue region in the lefthand movie again, and play with the tol attribute to see how the chromakey output changes. At low tolerance, some of the bluescreen in the left image will remain in the keyed output. At a very high tolerance, parts of the man's face may disappear. The suckah Object -- In the tutorial patch, the color attribute to jit.chromakey is set by clicking on an invisible object. If you unlock the patch, you will see a region of concentric red squares that sit on top of the left-hand jit.pwindow object: The suckah object The region is a Max user interface object called suckah, which appears on the object palette like this: The suckah object in the object palette The suckah object reports the RGB values of any pixel on the screen that the suckah object overlays. It reports these values as a list of integers out its outlet when you click in the object in a locked patch. For example, clicking on a region of solid blue that has a suckah on top of it will cause the suckah to send out the list 0 0 255. 83 Tutorial 10 Chromakeying To set the color attribute for our jit.chromakey object, we take the RGB list that comes out of the suckah object and send it through a prepend 0, which adds an alpha value of 0 to the front of the list. The resulting ARGB list is then divided by 255 using the vexpr object to scale it to the range of 0-1. The message is then completed by the prepend color. The final message is then sent to jit.chromakey. The Blue Screen of Death The jit.chromakey object has additional attributes: minkey, maxkey, and fade. When a matrix arrives in the left inlet, jit.chromakey creates a grayscale (1-plane) mask internally, based on that matrix. Cells in the incoming matrix that have color values within the tolerance (tol) range are set to the maxkey attribute's value (the default is 1) in the mask. Regions outside the tolerance range are multiplied by the minkey attribute (default is 0). If the minkey and maxkey are set to 0 and 1, the resulting image should look white where the keying should take place, and black where the original image is to be retained. The resulting mask and its inverse are then multiplied by the right and left matrices, respectively. The results of the multiplication are then added to form the composite image. The following diagram shows you a pictorial overview of the process: The two sources, their masks (with minkey at 0 and maxkey at 1) and the composite chromakey. 84 Tutorial 10 Chromakeying As you can see, the maxkey attribute sets the strength of the righthand matrix in the output, while the minkey attribute sets the strength of the lefthand matrix. If we were to reverse the minkey and maxkey attributes, the chromakey would be reversed, and the following would happen: The composite effect with the minkey at 1 and the maxkey at 0 (reverse chromakey). The fade attribute allows for an amount of interpolation between the area being keyed and the area not being keyed. This lets you create a soft edge to the chromakey effect. Colors in the left matrix that are slightly out of bounds of the key tolerance range, yet that are within the range of tol + fade from the reference color, are interpolated between their original (unkeyed) color and the color in the same cell of the right matrix. The amount of interpolation is based on how great the fade value is, and how far the color in question lies outside the tolerance range. Try experimenting with different tol, fade, minkey, and maxkey values for different colors. Watch how the five attributes interact for different keying effects, and how the minkey and maxkey values complement one another. Accurate chromakeying can be a challenging process. Correct values for the tol and fade attributes are essential to make sure that the correct regions in the first image are keyed to the second image. In general, very detailed key images will show slight aliasing in spots where the colors rapidly move between keyed and non-keyed regions. In addition, a single key color (e.g. blue) almost never suffices for a complete key, so a range of values must always be used. You will often find, however, that the color you want keyed out of part of the image is somewhat present in the region you want to retain! Balancing all of these factors to get the most convincing effect is the hardest part of using the jit.chromakey object. 85 Tutorial 10 Summary Chromakeying The jit.chromakey object lets you do two-source chromakeying in Jitter. You can set a color range for the key using the color and tol attributes, and use the fade, minkey, and maxkey values to define how the two matrices work in a composite. The suckah user interface object allows you to easily select colors as they appear on the screen by setting the object over a jit.pwindow. Clicking the suckah object will give you the color of the pixel just clicked on the screen. 86 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices This tutorial shows how to use Max lists to fill all or part of a matrix, and how to retrieve all or part of a matrix's contents as a list. We will also demonstrate the use of matrix names to access the contents of a matrix remotely, a concept that will be demonstrated further in Tutorials 12, 16, and 17. Matrix Names Open the tutorial patch 11jListsAndMatrices.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the yellow region in the upper left corner of the patch, you'll see a blue jit.matrix object. The first argument gives the matrix a specific name, smallbox. The remaining arguments say that the matrix will have 1 plane of char data, and that the matrix will have only one dimension with 12 cells. This matrix has a unique name: smallbox. In Tutorial 2 we explained that every matrix has a name. If we don't give a matrix a name explicitly, Jitter will choose a name arbitrarily (usually something strange like "u040000114", so that the name will be unique). The name is used to refer to the place in the computer's memory where the matrix's contents are stored. So, why give a name of our own to a matrix? That way we'll know the name, and we can easily tell other objects how to find the matrix's contents. By referring to the name of a matrix, objects can share the same data, and can access the matrix's contents remotely, without actually receiving a jit_matrix message. Jitter's use of the matrix name to refer to its memory location is analogous to the way Max's value object works. You can have many value objects with the same name, and you can store a numeric value in any one of them and retrieve the same value from any other one of them. But there is really only one memory location for that name, so they are all sharing the same data. In a like manner, you can have more than one jit.matrix object with the same name, and they will all share the same data. Some other objects, such as jit.fill, can access the contents of that matrix just by knowing its name. 87 Tutorial 11 The jit.fill Object Lists and Matrices In Tutorial 2 we showed how to place a numeric value in a particular matrix location using the setcell message, and how to retrieve the contents of a location with the getcell message. Now we will show how to use the jit.fill object to place a whole list of values in a matrix. (Later in this chapter we'll also show how to retrieve many values at once from a matrix.) In the upper left corner of the patch there is a message box containing a list of twelve numeric values. It's attached to a jit.fill smallbox object. The smallbox argument refers to a matrix name. jit.fill puts a list of values in the named matrix Click on the message box to send the list of values to the jit.fill smallbox object. The jit.fill smallbox object places those values in the matrix named "smallbox". To verify that this is true, click on the button above the jit.matrix smallbox object to display the contents of the "smallbox" matrix. The values are printed in the Max window by jit.print, and displayed as levels of gray by jit.pwindow. In this example, the list was exactly the right length to fill the entire matrix. That need not be the case, however. We can place a list of any length in any contiguous portion of a 1D or 2D matrix. The offset Attribute By default, jit.fill places the list of values at the very beginning of the matrix. You can direct the list to any location in the matrix, though, by setting jit.fill's offset attribute. The portion of the patch numbered 2 demonstrates the use of the offset feature. First specify the offset, then provide the list 88 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices This example chooses a cell index at random, uses that random number as the argument to an offset message to the jit.fill graybox object, then sends a 16-element list to be stored starting at that index in the graybox matrix. Click on the toggle to start the metro object. Every half-second, the 16-element list will be written to a new location in the "graybox" matrix. Find the jit.matrix graybox 1 char 256 object in the center of the window. Click on the button above it to display its contents in the jit.pwindow. The list has been written to four locations in the "graybox" matrix You can use the clear message to zero the contents of the "graybox" matrix, then display it again as the metro object writes the list into new random locations. When you're done, turn off the metro object. Using the multislider Object So far we've shown how to put a predetermined list of values into a matrix. When you want to generate such a list of numbers interactively in Max and place them in a matrix in real time, you'll need to use a Max object designed for building lists. We'll look at two such objects: multislider, and zl. The multislider object displays a set of individual sliders, and it sends out the position of all of its sliders at once as a list of values. It sends out the whole list when you click in the window to move any of the sliders, and it sends the list again when you release the mouse button. In part 3 of this patch, we've set up a multislider to contain 256 sliders that send values from 0 to 255, so it's just right for sending a list of 256 char values to the jit.fill graybox object. Use the mouse to draw in the multislider, setting its 256 sliders. When you release the mouse button, the list of 256 values is sent out to the jit.fill graybox object. Notice how the brightness of the matrix cells corresponds to the height of the sliders. As soon as jit.fill receives a list in its inlet, it writes the values into the named matrix (at the position specified by the offset attribute). As soon as this is done, jit.fill sends a bang message out its left outlet. You can use that bang message to trigger another action, such as displaying the matrix. In the first two examples we deliberately avoided using the bang from the left outlet of jit.fill, in order to make it quite clear that jit.fill writes into the named matrix remotely without being physically connected to the jit.matrix object. The bang out of jit.fill's left outlet is convenient, though, for triggering the output of the matrix as soon as it has been filled. 89 Tutorial 11 Using the zl Object Lists and Matrices In some situations you might want to use a matrix to store numeric messages that have occurred somewhere in the patch: MIDI messages, numbers from a user interface object, etc. The setcell and getcell messages to jit.matrix are useful for that, but another way to do it is to collect the messages into a list and then place them in the matrix all at once with jit.fill. The zl object is a versatile list-processing object that can help you collect individual numbers into a list. It has many possible modes of behavior, depending on its first argument. When its first argument is group, it collects the messages received in its left inlet until it has amassed a certain number of them, then sends the numbers out as a single list. (The values are grouped in the order in which they were received.) So, in part 4 of the patch, we have placed a zl group 256 object that will collect 256 values in its left inlet, and when it has received 256 of them it will send them out its left outlet as a list (and clear its own memory). Move the uslider up and down to generate 256 input values for the zl object. When zl has received 256 numbers, it sends them as a list to jit.fill graybox --which writes them into the "graybox" matrix--then sends a bang message to the jit.matrix graybox 1 char 256 object to display the matrix. zl sends a 256-element list into the "graybox" matrix, then ends a bang message to the jit.matrix object to display the result 90 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices If you have a MIDI keyboard controller attached to your computer, you can use the modulation wheel of the MIDI keyboard to move the uslider. (The interaction between MIDI and Jitter is explored in detail in later tutorial chapters.) The Macintosh OS comes equipped with a built-in MIDI system called CoreMIDI. You can use the Audio MIDI Setup application found in /Applications/Utilities to specify the ports, interfaces and MIDI devices in your MIDI setup. On the Windows OS, all MIDI devices which are installed correctly on your system and appear in the Sounds and Audio Devices Properties (Start - Settings - Sounds and Audio Devices) are available to Max/MSP for MIDI I/O. Values are doubled to occupy the range 0-254, making them useful as char data for the matrix You can change the length of the list that zl collects, by sending a new list length in the right inlet from the List Length number box. And you can say where in the matrix you want to put it, by sending an offset message to jit.fill from the Location number box. By varying the list length and location, you can put any number of values into any contiguous region of the matrix. Try changing the List Length of zl (to, say, 100) and setting the Location of jit.fill's offset attribute (to, say 50), then move the uslider some more to put a list of values into that particular location in the matrix. You can combine parts 2, 3, and 4 of the patch to fill the "graybox" matrix in different ways. Using the jit.fill Object with Multiple-plane Matrices jit.fill works fine with multiple-plane matrices, but it can only fill one plane at a time. The plane that jit.fill will access is specified in its plane attribute. In part 5 of the patch, we've created another 91 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices matrix, with four planes of char data this time, named colorbox. We've set up three multisliders and three jit.fill objects, each one addressing a different color plane of the "colorbox" matrix. Filling each plane independently Drag on the three colored multislider objects to fill each of the three color planes. This is a convenient way to generate different curves of intensity in the RGB planes of a matrix. The jit.pwindow that's showing the matrix is actually 256 pixels wide, so each of the 64 cells of the matrix is displayed as a 4-pixel-wide band. If you turn on the interp attribute of the jit.pwindow, the differences between adjacent bands will be smoothed by interpolation. Click on the toggle above the interp $1 message box to send the message interp 1 to jit.pwindow. (Note that this also sends a bang message to the jit.matrix object to re-display its contents. The same as the previous example, but with interpolation turned on in jit.pwindow 92 Tutorial 11 Using the jit.fill Object with 2D Matrices Lists and Matrices So far, all of our examples have involved one-dimensional matrices. What happens when you use a list (which is a one-dimensional array) to fill a two-dimensional matrix via jit.fill? The jit.fill object will use the list to fill as far as it can in the first dimension (i.e. it will go as far as it can the specified row), then it will wrap around to the next row and continue at the beginning of that row. We've made it possible for you to see this wrapping effect in action. Click on the button labeled 2D. This will change the jit.matrix colorbox object to contain a twodimensional 8x8 matrix, and will also resize the jit.pwindow to a more appropriate shape. Whenever you change the dimensions of a matrix, it loses its contents, so you will need to click in the three multisliders again to fill the matrix anew. You are still sending a 64-element list to each of the jit.fill objects, and they fill each of the eight rows of the matrix with eight elements. Important: Although we don't demonstrate the use of the offset attribute with a 2D matrix in this patch, it's worth mentioning that when the name attribute of jit.fill names a 2D matrix, the offset attribute requires two arguments: one for the x offset and one for the y offset. jit.fill only works for 1D and 2D matrices. The same example, with each list wrapped around in an 8x8 matrix (shown uninterpolated) 93 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices The same example, displayed with interpolation The jit.spill Object The complementary object to jit.fill is jit.spill. It takes a jit_matrix message in its inlet, and sends the matrix values out its left outlet as a Max list. You may have noticed that while you were using part 5 94 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices of the patch, the jit.spill object in part 6 was sending the values of plane 1 (red) out its left outlet and setting the contents of a message box. The contents of plane 1 of the "colorbox" matrix, displayed as a Max list Although not demonstrated in the patch, jit.spill also has listlength and offset attributes that let you specify exactly how many values you want to list, and from exactly what location in the matrix. If you need to have the values as an immediate series of individual number messages rather than as a single list message, you can send the list to the Max iter object. Get a few values from the matrix and make them into separate messages The jit.iter Object For times when you need to retrieve every value in a matrix, there is an object called jit.iter. When it receives a jit_matrix message in its inlet, it sends out an as-fast-as-possible sequence of messages: the cell index (out its middle outlet) followed by the value(s) in that cell (out its left outlet) for every cell of the matrix in order. For a large matrix, this can be an awful lot of Max messages to try to send out in a single tick of Max's scheduler, so when it's done reporting all of the values in a matrix jit.iter sends a done message out its right outlet. 95 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices In part 7 of the patch there is a jit.iter object which receives the matrix information from the jit.matrix graybox 1 char 256 object. We use a swap object to switch the order of the cell index (coming out the middle outlet of jit.iter) and the cell value (coming out the left outlet of jit.iter). We then use the value of that cell as the y-value we want to store in the table object, and we use the cell index as the x-axis index for the table. Click on the multislider object to send its contents to jit.fill (which will in turn bang the jit.matrix object and communicate its contents to jit.iter. Then double-click the table object to open its graphic window and see that it contains the same values as the "graybox" matrix. Note that this technique of using jit.iter to fill a table works well with a modest-sized onedimensional one-plane matrix because a table is a one-dimensional array. However, the matrix of a jit.qt.movie object, for example, has two dimensions and four planes, so in that case the output of jit.iter's middle (cell index) outlet would be a two-element list, and the output of the left (value) outlet would be a four-element list. What are ya gonna do with all those numbers? Still, for one-dimensional matrices, or small 2D matrices, or even for searching for a particular value or pattern in a larger matrix, jit.iter is useful for scanning an entire matrix. Summary For placing individual values in a matrix, or retrieving individual values from a matrix, you can use the setcell and getcell messages to jit.matrix (as was demonstrated in Tutorial 2). For placing a whole list of values in a matrix, or retrieving a list of values from a matrix, use the objects jit.fill and jit.spill. These objects work well for addressing any plane of a 1D or 2D matrix, and they allow you to address any list length at any starting cell location in the matrix. The multislider and zl objects are useful for building Max list messages in real time. With multislider you can "draw" a list by dragging on the sliders with the mouse. With zl group you can collect many individual numeric values into a single list, then send them all to jit.fill at one time. You specify the starting cell location in the matrix by setting the offset attribute of jit.fill (or jit.spill). The jit.fill object requires that you set its name attribute (either by sending it a name [name] message 96 Tutorial 11 Lists and Matrices or by typing in a [name] argument), specifying the name of the matrix it will fill. It accesses the matrix using this name, and sends a bang message out its outlet whenever it has written a list into the matrix. You can use that bang message to trigger other actions. In Tutorials 12, 16, and 17 we show some practical uses of accessing a matrix by its name. To output every value in an entire matrix, you can send the matrix to jit.iter. 97 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables In this tutorial we will explore how to use color lookup tables to remap data inside a Jitter matrix. We'll also look at different strategies for generating lookup tables as matrices. Lookup tables are simply arrays of numbers where an input number is treated as an address (or position) in the array. The table then outputs the number stored at that address. Any function--a graph where each x value (address) has a corresponding y value (output)--can be used as a lookup table. Max objects such as funbuff, table, and the MSP buffer~ object are common candidates for use as lookup tables. In this tutorial, we'll be using Jitter matrices in much the same way. Open the tutorial patch 12jColorLookup.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch shows two new objects: jit.charmap, which maps input cell values to new output values according to a lookup table matrix, and jit.gradient, which generates color gradients. Read the images 98 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables The top left of the patch shows a jit.qt.movie object in which you can read two different files. The object is initialized (via loadbang) with the file colorwheel.pct loaded into it. You can also load in the movie rain.mov by clicking on the message box that says read rain.mov. You should feel free to alternate between the two image sources throughout the tutorial. Start the metro object by clicking the toggle box at the top of the patch. You will see the color wheel appear in both the jit.pwindow at the top and the jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch. In addition, you will see a gradient appear in a third (rectangular) jit.pwindow at the bottom. The output of jit.charmap and the lookup table matrix The bottom of the patch contains the jit.charmap object, which we will use in this tutorial to remap cell values in the image. The object has two inlets, the left one of which is connected from our jit.qt.movie object at the top of the patch. The right inlet has a one-dimensional, four-plane char jit.matrix connected to it with a name (colortable) and a width of 256 cells. This is the lookup table that jit.charmap uses to remap the color values of the cells in the lefthand matrix. The receive object (abbreviated r) with the name ctable receives data from elsewhere in the patch and sends it to the jit.matrix. For example, at the top of the patch, turning on the toggle box will send a bang message to the jit.matrix, causing it to send out its matrix message (jit_matrix colortable) to both the jit.pwindow and the right inlet of jit.charmap. Lookup Tables Lookup tables (which are often called transfer functions) are arrays of numbers where an input number is `looked up' as an index in the table. The number stored at that index (or address, or position) is then retrieved to replace the original number. The jit.charmap object replaces every 99 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables value in every plane in every cell of its (leftmost) input matrix with values stored at the relevant indices in the lookup table that arrives as a matrix in its right inlet. For example, assume that the matrix we send to jit.charmap contains a cell with the values 100 50 35 20 in its four planes. The object looks up each plane individually at the relevant position in its lookup table matrix and replaces it. If our lookup table has the value 73 at cell 100 in the first plane, 25 at cell 50 in the second plane, 0 at cell 35 in the third plane, and 203 at cell 20 in the fourth plane, our output cell will contain the values 73 25 0 203. Lookup tables for a jit.charmap object should be one-dimensional matrices of 256 cells with the same number of planes as the matrix you want to remap. This is because the possible range of values for char matrices is 0-255, so 256 numbers are need to cover the full range of the lookup table. Generating the Lookup Table The upper-right side of the tutorial patch contains three multislider objects that let you design the transfer functions for planes 1-3 of the lookup table matrix colortable: Filling the lookup table matrix with values from a multislider The multislider objects (which have 256 integer sliders in the range 0-255) send their lists to the jit.fill objects below them. These objects replace the values currently stored in planes 1-3 (i.e. Red, Green, and Blue) of the matrix colortable with the values from the multislider objects. (See Tutorial 11.) When the matrix has been edited with the new values, the jit.fill objects send out a bang message, which we send to the jit.matrix on the right of the patch that connects to the right inlet of jit.charmap. We're ignoring plane 0 in this tutorial because it only contains Alpha values when we treat 4-plane Jitter matrices as video. The jit.matrix and jit.fill objects in our patch share the same name (colortable). As a result, the two objects read from and write to the same matrix, allowing one object (jit.fill) to generate data that the other object (jit.matrix) can read from without having to copy data between two separate 100 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables matrices. This is similar to how many MSP objects (e.g. peek~, play~, groove~) can share sample data stored in a single buffer~. See Tutorials 11, 16, and 17 for more information on using named matrices. Do some freehand drawing in the multislider objects, to see how this affects both the lookup table (the smaller of the jit.pwindow objects) and the output image from the jit.qt.movie object. Remember to switch back and forth between the two image sources. If you want to reset any of the planes to a y=x transfer function (i.e. a straight ascending line that leaves all the values unchanged), you can click the button object above the relevant multislider object. The subpatchers called p clear initialize the multislider objects with an Uzi. Important note: Like many Max objects, Jitter objects retain matrices stored in one inlet even if a new matrix arrives in another inlet. The metro object in this patch, therefore, only needs to trigger the jit.qt.movie object. The jit.matrix that contains the lookup table to jit.charmap only needs to output its value to the object when the data stored in it actually changes. Here are some lookup tables and their results: Three sets of multislider objects and their resulting color lookup tables and output color wheels In the first example, the red and blue transfer functions are approximately inverted while the green is normal. The result is that high values of red and blue in the input image yield low values on the output, and vice versa. This is why the white background of the color wheel now looks green (the cell values of 0 255 255 255 have been mapped to 0 0 255 0). The second example has the green plane completely zeroed (the transfer function set to 0 across the entire span of input values). The red and blue planes are also set to 0 up to a threshold, at which point they ramp up suddenly (the red more suddenly than the blue). As a result the majority of the colorwheel is black (especially in the `green' area). The red plane only becomes visible in very high values (i.e. the magenta in the background of the color wheel). The third example has the red plane mapped normally. The green plane has a parabolic shape to it, where the extreme values are mapped high and the medium shades are mapped low. The blue plane is normal except for a range in the midtones, where it is zeroed. This nonlinearity is visible as a red `fault line' across the top and down the right side of the colorwheel. As you can see, there are infinite ways to remap the cell values of these matrices. We'll now investigate another object, which lets us remap the color values in a more precise manner. 101 Tutorial 12 The jit.gradient Object Color Lookup Tables The lower right area of the tutorial patch shows a method for generating lookup tables using the jit.gradient object: Using the jit.gradient object The jit.gradient object generates single dimension char matrices that transition smoothly between two specified cell values. The start and end attributes are lists that specify these cell values. For example, a start attribute of 0 0 0 0 and an end attribute of 0 0.5 1.0 0.5 will generate a gradient that goes from black (at cell 0 in the matrix) to pale green (at the last cell in the matrix). We've given our jit.gradient object the relevant arguments to make it 256 cells wide, so that it can be stored in our colortable jit.matrix when it changes. Note that jit.gradient takes floating point numbers in its attribute lists to specify char values (i.e. a value of 1.0 in the attribute specifies a char value of 255). The attributes are formatted by taking the RGB list output of the Max swatch objects and converting them to ARGB floats. After the attribute has been sent to the jit.gradient object, the object is given a bang message from the trigger object to cause it to output its matrix into the jit.matrix object on the left of the patch. Try selecting some colors in the swatch objects. The start and end attributes will specify the boundaries of the lookup table, so values in the input image will have a duotone appearance, 102 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables morphing between those two colors. The multislider objects at the top of the patch will reflect the correct lookup tables generated by the jit.gradient object. Using color gradients as lookup tables The first example shows an inverted image. The start of the lookup table is white (start 0 1.0 1.0 1.0) and the end of the lookup table is black (end 0. 0. 0. 0.). As a result, input values of 0 are mapped to 255, and vice versa (y=255-x). The second and third examples show duotone gradients that remap the color wheel's spectrum to between red and orange (example 2) and olive and cyan (example 3). Notice how, depending on the original colors at different points in the color wheel, the gradient curve becomes steeper or more gradual. The third attribute of the jit.gradient object is the cheby attribute, which specifies a curve to follow when morphing between the start and end values in the matrix. The cheby attribute takes a list of floating point numbers as arguments. These arguments are the amplitudes of different orders of Chebyshev polynomials (see below). These special function curves create different effects when used in lookup tables. The multislider in the tutorial patch that sets the cheby attribute lets you specify the relative amplitude of the first eight Chebyshev polynomial curves, which have the following shapes (if you view them as progressing from black to white): Gradients generated using Chebyshev orders 1-4 (top row) and 5-8 (bottom row) 103 Tutorial 12 Color Lookup Tables Technical note: Chebyshev polynomials are commonly used as transfer functions in waveshaping audio signals in digital synthesis algorithms (they have special properties that allow them to distort sinusoidal waveforms into harmonic spectra equivalent to the amplitudes of different orders). The MSP lookup~ object can be used with a function loaded into a buffer~ to do the equivalent process in audio signal processing that we're doing in this tutorial with image. See Tutorial 12: Synthesis: Waveshaping in the MSP manual for more details. Reset the start and end points of the gradient (by clicking the message box objects above them) and slowly change the multislider that controls the cheby attribute. Watch how the color wheel changes as colors disappear and reappear in different regions. When you use the cheby attribute in the jit.gradient object, you can get some very interesting color warping effects even if you leave the start and end points of the gradient at black and white. Here are some examples with our movie clip rain.mov: The effect of different gradient curves on the color spectrum of the rain The lefthand image shows an unprocessed still image from the rain movie. The middle image shows what happens to the color spectrum when the gradient is generated using a second order Chebyshev polynomial (the darkest area in the image is now in the middle of the color spectrum). The righthand image shows a more complex gradient, where the color spectrum shows numerous peaks and troughs. The multislider objects at the top of the patch reflect the current state of our lookup table (the matrix generated by our jit.gradient object is sent to a jit.iter object inside of the p showit subpatch, where the numbers are grouped to set the state of the multislider objects). Try generating a gradient and then modifying the lookup table by hand by changing the multislider objects. This lets you use the jit.gradient object as a starting point for a more complicated lookup table. 104 Tutorial 12 Summary Color Lookup Tables You can map cell values in char Jitter matrices using the jit.charmap object. The right inlet of jit.charmap takes a 256-cell matrix that defines the lookup table (or transfer function) to be applied to the incoming matrix data. You can define the lookup table using several strategies, including using jit.fill to generate the matrix from Max lists, or using the jit.gradient object to generate color gradients between a start and end cell value according to a curve shape specified by the cheby attribute. 105 Tutorial 13 Scissors and Glue In this tutorial we'll learn how to use two simple objects to slice and combine rectangular regions of two-dimensional Jitter matrices. Open the tutorial patch 13jScissorsAndGlue.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch shows two Jitter objects that neatly complement each other: jit.scissors, which cuts a matrix into equally sized smaller matrices, and jit.glue, which pastes multiple matrices into one matrix. We'll also take a brief look at a Max object called router, which lets you easily route Max messages from multiple sources to multiple destinations. Read the movie The top left of the patch is straightforward enough. The loadbang object automatically sends the read traffic.mov message to the jit.qt.movie object, which then loads our movie of traffic footage. Start the metro object by clicking the toggle box at the top of the patch. You will see the traffic appear in the large jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch. More interestingly, you will see the traffic image cut into quadrants, each of which appears in a separate jit.pwindow object off to the right side. 106 Tutorial 13 Cut it Up Scissors and Glue The jit.scissors object is responsible for splitting the Jitter matrix containing the traffic footage into four smaller matrices: The jit.scissors object The jit.scissors object cuts a Jitter matrix of any size, type, or planecount into smaller Jitter matrices that are then sent out independent outlets of the object. The rows and columns attributes specify how many smaller matrices are created each time the object receives a new matrix in its inlet. In our tutorial patch, the jit.scissors object is splitting the image into four smaller matrices (2 columns and 2 rows). These separate matrices come out individual outlets of the object in column-major order (i.e. the object assigns outlets to the smaller matrices from left-to-right and then from top-tobottom). Two very important things you should know about jit.scissors: 1) The number of outlets that jit.scissors has is determined at object creation. Therefore the rows and columns attributes will only create outlets when they are specified in the object box. For example, typing jit.scissors @rows 10 @columns 2 will create an instance of jit.scissors with 20 matrix outlets (plus the usual right outlet for attribute queries), but simply making a jit.scissors object with no arguments will only give you one matrix outlet. You can change the rows and columns attributes with Max messages to the object, but you won't be able to add outlets beyond what those initially created by the object. 2) The size (dim) of the matrices put out by jit.scissors is equal to the size of the slices of the matrix, not the entire original matrix. For example, the four smaller matrices in our tutorial patch are each 160x120 cells, not 320x240. 107 Tutorial 13 Routing the Matrices Scissors and Glue The four smaller matrices output by jit.scissors in our patch are each sent to two different places: to jit.pwindow objects so we can see what's going on, and to a Max object in the middle of the patch called router. The colored patch cords illustrate where each smaller matrix is sent. The Max router object The router object is a combination of the Max gate and switch objects. It takes two arguments (the number of routable inlets and the number of routable outlets) and is controlled by messages sent to the leftmost inlet. Most of the messages that router understands are identical to the MSP object matrix~. As a result you can use router with the matrixctrl object with ease. The four inlets to the right of the router object take their input from the four matrix outlets of our jit.scissors object. A receive object assigned to the symbol routeit gets messages from the lower-right of the tutorial patch, which controls our router object. The four leftmost outlets of the router object are connected to a jit.glue object, which we'll talk about in a moment. Controlling the router Sending the message patch followed by an inlet number and an outlet number to a router object will make a virtual connection between that inlet and that outlet in the object. Any message arriving at that inlet will be instantly forwarded to the relevant outlet. If an inlet was previously connected to that outlet, a patch message will sever that connection in favor of the new one. The radiogroup objects in this patch control which outlets of the router our four small Jitter matrices (arriving at the inlets) are sent to. The inlets and outlets number up from 0, so the 108 Tutorial 13 Scissors and Glue message patch 2 1 makes a connection between the third routable inlet and the second outlet of the router object. Click on some of the radiogroup controls, and watch how the output image in the lower jit.pwindow changes. Notice how with the router object you can make the matrices cut from the traffic image appear in any of the four quadrants of the composite image at the bottom. The Glue That Keeps It Together The jit.glue object at the bottom of the patch does the effective opposite of jit.scissors. The rows and columns attributes specify inlets, not outlets, and a composite matrix is output which is made up of the incoming matrices laid out in a grid. Sending the same matrix to all four inlets of jit.glue Important Note: As with jit.scissors, jit.glue can only create new inlets and outlets when the object is created, so the rows and columns attributes present in the object box will determine how many inlets the object has. Also, the size (dim) of the output matrix generated by jit.glue will be equal to the size of all the smaller matrices put together (e.g. our four 160x120 matrices in this patch will yield one 320x240 matrix). One final point worth making about jit.glue is that its default behavior is to only output a composite matrix when a new matrix arrives it its leftmost inlet. If we were to disconnect the leftmost inlet of our jit.glue object, we would no longer get any new output matrices from the object. The syncinlet attribute lets you make jit.glue sent its output in response to a different inlet. A syncinlet value of -1 will cause jit.glue to output new composite matrices when it gets new matrices at any inlet. While this sounds like a good idea in theory, it can quickly bog down the frame rate of your Jitter processes with lots of redundant work. 109 Tutorial 13 Summary Scissors and Glue The jit.scissors object cuts a matrix into smaller, equal-sized rectangular matrices. The jit.glue object takes equal-sized rectangular matrices and pastes them back together into a composite matrix. The rows and columns attributes of both objects determine their number of outlets or inlets, respectively, when given at object creation, as well as the way in which the matrix is sliced up or composited. The router object lets you arbitrarily connect Max messages from multiple inlets to multiple outlets in a similar fashion to the MSP matrix~ object. 110 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning Positioning Data in a Matrix In this tutorial we discuss some ways to take a portion of one matrix and place it in some different location in another matrix. There are various reasons you might want to reposition the location of data. We'll be focusing especially on visual effects, but the techniques we show here are useful for any sort of task that involves moving matrix data around. We'll show how to isolate a region of a matrix, place it at a particular position in another matrix, resize it (which can be useful for visual effects such as stretching, pixelation, and blurring), and move it around dynamically. Open the tutorial patch 14jMatrixPositioning.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The jit.window Object In the bottom-left corner of the patch there is a jit.window object. We introduced this object in Tutorial 1; it creates a separate window for displaying the contents of a matrix. In most of the other tutorial chapters we have used the jit.pwindow object instead. jit.window and jit.pwindow are pretty similar--aside from the obvious difference that one opens a separate window while the other uses a rectangular region within the Patcher window--and they share many of the same attributes and messages. There are a few differences, though, so we'll use jit.window this time in order to demonstrate a couple of its unique characteristics. You probably can't see the Display window that has been opened by the jit.window object, because it's hidden behind the Patcher window. However, if we want to, we can make the Display window be a floating window--one that always "floats" on top of every other window in Max while still letting us interact with the foreground Patcher window. To do this, we must turn on the floating attribute of jit.window with a floating 1 message. (The floating attribute is 0 by default.) 111 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning Click on the toggle box labeled Display as floating window to send a floating 1 message to jit.window. Make the window "float" in front of all other windows Note that the screen coordinates we've typed into the jit.window object for the display area--450 60 770 300--specify a display area 320 pixels wide by 240 pixels high. (For an explanation of how to specify screen coordinates for the jit.window object, see Tutorial 1 and/or the Note later in this chapter.) From One jit.matrix to Another Now we will load in a picture and try some modifications. Click on the message box importmovie sunset.jpg to load a picture into the jit.matrix object at the top of the patch. Turn on the metro object labeled Display On/Off to begin sending bang messages to jit.matrix. The bang sends the matrix (through jit.hue) to a second jit.matrix object before displaying the image with jit.window. In that second jit.matrix object we'll be able to modify attributes to change what part of the matrix we display. The matrix goes (through the jit.hue object) to another jit.matrix, then to jit.window We've saved several preset configurations for the window's user interface objects in a preset object in the middle of the patch. 112 Tutorial 14 In the preset object, click on preset 1. Matrix Positioning This changes the dimensions of the lower jit.matrix object to 16x12, by sending a dim 16 12 message to it. The dim message changes the dimensions of the matrix in jit.matrix The matrix coming in has the dimensions 320x240, but the receiving jit.matrix has dimensions of only 16x12, so it tries its best to display the entire matrix it receives, but it necessarily has to discard much of the information. This results in a very pixelated image. (The term pixelation refers to the mosaic effect that results from using an insufficient viewing resolution--an insufficient number of pixels--to represent an image faithfully.) Even though the jit.window object is capable of displaying the full-resolution 320x240 image (because of the window dimensions typed in as arguments), the matrix it is receiving is only 16x12 now. It "expands" the 16x12 matrix to 320x240 for display purposes, duplicating pixels as it needs to. Try dragging on the two number box objects labeled Change actual matrix dimensions to see different pixelation effects. Interpolation Now set the number box objects back to 16 and 12, and click on the toggle labeled Interpolate to smooth pixelation in the blue region at the bottom of the patch to send an interp 1 message to jit.window. Turn on interpolation in jit.window Now the jit.window object--instead of simply duplicating pixels of the 16x12 matrix to make a bunch of 20x20-pixel blocks--interpolates between values in the incoming matrix as it expands it to 320x240. That is, as it expands the image, it creates a smooth gradation of colors between each cell value and its neighboring values in the incoming matrix, so all of the transitions from cell to cell in the displayed 320x240 matrix are as gradual as possible. The interpolation causes extreme blurring because the size difference between the incoming matrix and the display is so great. 113 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning Click on the toggle again to turn off the interpolation. This sends an interp 0 message to jit.window, setting its interp attribute to 0 (off). Enter some new matrix dimensions into the number box objects labeled Change actual matrix dimensions so that the image is not quite so pixelated: say, 80 and 60. (You should see that now the pixelated blocks are each only 4x4.) Click on the toggle to turn interpolation back on. Notice that in this case the blurring is not so extreme because interpolation occurs over only 4 pixels. Click on the toggle again to turn off the interpolation. Now find the other toggle with the same label, just above the jit.matrix object, and click on it to turn on interpolation within jit.matrix (not jit.window). Interpolation doesn't do much when you're reducing the size of the matrix Notice that this doesn't have very much effect. That's because jit.matrix still only has a 80x60 matrix to send out. Interpolation in this case (when we're reducing the size of the matrix rather than enlarging it) is pretty ineffectual. Click on that toggle again to turn off interpolation in jit.matrix. Isolate a Part of the Matrix Now we'll look at ways to focus on a particular portion of a matrix. In the preset object, click on preset 2. Now you see only a small portion of the picture. This preset restores the dimensions of our jit.matrix object back to 320x240. But we can still isolate a particular part of the matrix, without altering the actual dimensions of the full matrix, using some different attributes: srcdimstart, srcdimend, and usesrcdim. Notice that we have sent three new messages to jit.matrix to set those three attributes: dimstart 40 150, dimend 119 209, and usesrcdim 1. These messages let us specify a subset of the full matrix coming in the inlet, and send those values out as a full-sized (in this case 320x240) matrix. This smaller subset of the incoming matrix gets "expanded" (cells are duplicated as needed) within jit.matrix itself, to fill the size of the outgoing matrix. The usesrcdim 1 message says, "Use the input matrix subset that I've specified, instead of the full input matrix." (By default the usesrcdim attribute is set to 0, so the srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes are ignored.) In the messages for setting the srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes, the words srcdimstart and srcdimend are followed by cell indices describing the starting and ending points within each dimension. With our dimstart 40 150 and dimend 119 209 messages, we have told jit.matrix 114 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning to use a specific 80x60 region from cell 40 to 119 (inclusive) in the horizontal dimension and from cell 150 to 209 in the vertical dimension. Note: In this chapter we've discussed three different ways of specifying rectangular regions! It's important to be clear what we're specifying in each case. In jit.window we typed in screen coordinates for the display area of the window. In the computer's operating system, screen coordinates are specified in terms of the point at the upper-left corner of a pixel. The upper-left corner of the entire screen is 0,0; the point two pixels to the right of that (the upper-left corner of the third pixel from the left) is 2,0; and the point 5 pixels down from that (the upper left corner of the sixth pixel down is 2,5. To describe a rectangular area of the screen, we type in arguments for the left, top, right, and bottom limits of the rectangle's coordinates. In the dim attribute to jit.matrix, we provided dimension sizes for the object's matrix: the number of cells in each dimension. In the srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes, we're stating (inclusive) cell indices within the matrix. Remember that cells are given index numbers that go from 0 to one less than the number of cells in that dimension. (Planes are indexed similarly, by the way.) So for a 320x240 matrix, the indices for the cells in the first dimension go from 0 to 319, and the indices for the cells in the second dimension go from 0 to 239. To set the source dimensions for the jit.matrix object, we need to specify the range of cells we want to start at, using srcdimstart followed by a starting cell index for each of the matrix's dimensions, and using srcdimend followed by the cell indices for the end of the range in each dimension. These different ways of describing regions can be confusing, but if you think carefully about exactly what it is that you're specifying, you'll be able to deduce the proper way to describe what you want. We're using only an 80x60 pixel range of the incoming matrix as the source, but the destination matrix is 320x240. Once again, this expansion of a smaller matrix into a larger one causes a pixelation effect. This time, though, the expansion occurs inside jit.matrix (i.e. between its "source" region and its "destination" size), rather than between jit.matrix and jit.window (as we did earlier when we reduced the actual dimensions of the jit.matrix). Therefore, if we want to smooth out the pixelation by interpolating, we must do it in jit.matrix. There's no point in turning on interpolation in jit.window, since it's already receiving a 320x240 matrix from jit.matrix. If you want to verify this, turn on the toggle to send an interp 1 message into jit.window. It has absolutely no effect because we're trying to interpolate a 320x240 matrix into a 320x240 display area, so no change occurs. Turn off that same toggle to set the interp attribute of jit.window back to 0. Now use the other toggle to send an interp 1 message into jit.matrix. This time we get the smoothing effect we desire. Try entering new values into the number box objects to change the arguments of the srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes. This lets you isolate any particular region of the picture as your "source" area. Of course, the dimensions you choose for your source area will determine the distortion that the picture undergoes when it's expanded to fill a 320x240output matrix. 115 Tutorial 14 Flip the Image Matrix Positioning You might assume that the arguments of the srcdimend attribute (the ending cell indices of the source region) should be greater than the index numbers for the srcdimstart attribute. But that need not necessarily be so. In the preset object, click on preset 3. Now the picture is has been flipped vertically. The top and bottom have been flipped in the second dimension. This example shows that if you specify an ending cell index in the vertical dimension that is less than the starting index, jit.matrix will still relate those indices to the starting and ending points in the vertical dimension of the destination matrix, effectively reversing the up-down orientation of the values. (This statement assumes that you have not done the same sort of flip to the orientation of the destination matrix!) You could do the same sort of flip in the horizontal (first) dimension to flip the image horizontally. If you flip the source region in both dimensions you get the same visual effect as if you had rotated the image 180. In the preset object, click on preset 4. In this example we've flipped the source region in both dimensions, reduced the size of the source area to 160x120, and smoothed out the pixelation by turning on the interp attribute. Resize the Output Matrix Just as we specified the "source" region of the matrix, we can also specify a destination for that source. This still does not change the size of the output matrix; that will still be 320x240, as determined by the dim attribute. However, this does change the region into which the specified "source" region will be placed. The source region of the input matrix will be placed in the destination region of the output matrix (with expansion/contraction as necessary). Cells of the output matrix that lie outside the destination region will remain unchanged. In the preset object, click on preset 5. The entire input matrix has been squeezed into an 80x60 rectangle in the center of the output matrix. The first thing to notice is that the usesrcdim attribute has been turned off, so that we're back to using the entire input matrix as the source. (The srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes are now being ignored.) The usedstdim attribute has been turned on, so the input will be placed in whatever part 116 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning of the output matrix we specify. The dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes have been set to specify the cells in the center of the matrix as the destination: dstdimstart 120 90 and dstdimend 199 149. We've turned the interp attribute off because we're contracting the image rather than expanding it. Notice also that we've turned on the toggle labeled Erase previous image. This sends the number 1 into the if $2 then clear object. The if part of the statement is now true, so every time the object receives a message in its left inlet it will send out the message clear. This clears the contents of the jit.matrix object immediately after displaying the image, to prepare jit.matrix for the next matrix it will receive. That ensures that the values in all the cells outside the destination region will be 0, so the unused region of the output matrix will be displayed as black. Change some of the values in the number box objects that provide the destination dimensions, to move (and resize) the picture within the Display window. Now turn off the toggle labeled Erase previous image, to suppress the clear messages. Change the arguments of dstdimstart and dstdimend some more, and notice what's different this time. The previous destination regions are still being drawn in the Display window because those cells in the matrix have not been cleared, and they are left unchanged if they're outside the new destination region. This gives the effect of leaving "trails" of the previous image behind. We can potentially use these artifacts for their particular visual effect. If the matrix is not cleared, old destination areas will be left behind if they're outside the new destination region. For continuous changes, this leaves a "trail" of past images. 117 Tutorial 14 Moving the Image Data Around in the Matrix Matrix Positioning By setting up an automated Max process that modifies the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes, we can move the data around in the matrix, making the image seem to move around in the display. In the preset object, click on preset 6. This starts an automated process inside the patcher move_around subpatch that provides a continuous stream of new arguments for the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes. The toggle above the patcher turns on this process, and the number box gives a time, in milliseconds, for each move to a new destination. Double-click on the patcher move_around object to see the contents of the subpatch. So far, we're only using the right half of the subpatch. The destination-moving process in the subpatch [move_around] The "rate" value coming in the right inlet is a time interval for the metro object. This object periodically ends bang messages to four random objects which choose new left, top, right, and bottom cell indices at random. These destination points are sent, along with the time value, to line objects. The line objects send out new values every 50 ms (the rate at which we're displaying the image) to gradually move the destination region to these new random points. Outside the subpatch, those values are used as arguments for the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes of the jit.matrix object. This subpatch contains a couple of tricks worth noting. The first trick is that we've made it so the arguments for dstdimend can potentially exceed the 320x240 range of the matrix. For example, we use a random 640 object for the horizontal dimension, then subtract 160 from the result to give us an ending cell index from -160 to 479. We do this to increase the likelihood of a larger destination area so that we can see a larger view of the image as it moves around, and it also means that the image will more frequently move all the way to the edge of the window. It's noteworthy that we can 118 Tutorial 14 Matrix Positioning specify destination boundaries that are beyond the limits of the actual cells in the matrix, and jit.matrix will place the image in that area to the best of its ability (clipping it off when it exceeds the limits of the matrix dimensions). The second trick is a trivial but useful detail: we use a sel 0 object to detect when the metro object gets turned off, and we use that to trigger a stop message to each of the line objects so that they don't continue sending out values after the user has turned off the process. Close the [move_around] subpatch window. Changing, Resizing, and Moving the Source Image Now we'll automate changes to the source image, as well. In the preset object, click on preset 7. In much the same manner as we did for the destination area, we're now continually changing the source area of the image. In effect, we're now seeing a constantly changing view of some rectangular subset of the source matrix (using srcdimstart and srcdimend) while also constantly resizing that view and moving it around in the window (using dstdimstart and dstdimend). Because the source and destination rectangles are chosen randomly by the [move_around] subpatch, the image sometimes gets flipped, too. We have turned on the interp attribute in the jit.matrix object to smooth out the pixelation that would occur when the source image gets stretched. To get a slightly clearer view of what's going on, try turning on the toggle marked Erase previous image. One More Word About Dimensions This tutorial has shown how to change the dimensions of a jit.matrix object, and how to specify source and destination regions within that object. For ease of discussion and visualization, we've used a two-dimensional matrix, and specified source and destination rectangles within the matrix. But we should point out that these ideas can also be employed with matrices that have any number of dimensions. (The number of arguments for srcdimstart, srcdimend, dstdimstart, and dstdimend should correspond to the number of dimensions in the jit.matrix object.) For example, if we have a three-dimensional matrix, these arguments can be used to specify a hexahedron in the virtual 3D space of the matrix. Note: In certain Jitter objects that deal exclusively with 2D matrices, such as jit.qt.movie, source and destination regions will always be rectangular areas. So in those objects the source and destination areas are defined in single attributes called srcrect and dstrect, which take four arguments to specify the bounding (left-top and right-bottom corner) cells of the rectangles. 119 Tutorial 14 Hue Rotation Matrix Positioning Just to add a little additional color variety, we've placed a jit.hue object between the two jit.matrix objects. (jit.hue is described in detail in Tutorial 7.) In the preset object, click on preset 8 to see jit.hue in action. Modify the hue angle This preset turns off usedstdim, but keeps usesrcdim on, and keeps interpolation on in jit.matrix to blur the expanded image. The automated process in the patcher rotate subpatch continually rotates the hue angle of jit.hue. Double-click on the patcher rotate object to see the contents of the subpatch. The contents of the [rotate] subpatch The value coming in the right inlet provides a time, in milliseconds, to complete a 360 hue rotation. When a 1 comes in the left inlet, the number 360 is combined with that time value to instruct the line object to go from 0 to 360 in that amount of time, sending out a new angle value once every 50 milliseconds. Note that the first typed-in argument of the line object contains a decimal point. This instructs line to send out float values rather than ints, for greater precision (and because the hue_angle message of jit.hue expects a float argument). When line reaches 360, its right outlet sends out a bang. We use that bang to set the internal value of line back to 0, then we re-bang 120 Tutorial 14 Close the [rotate] subpatch window. Matrix Positioning the pack object to start the next rotation. When a 0 comes in the left inlet, the sel 1 object passes it directly to line to stop line and reset the hue angle to 0. In the preset object, click on preset 9. This combines virtually all of the automation and image -manipulation techniques of the patch. The changes of destination dimensions of jit.matrix are set to 200 ms this time, creating a more rapid rhythmic effect. Full Screen Display When you've got your Max patch creating just the images that you want, and you want to display your results in a somewhat more elegant way, you can instruct jit.window to fill your entire screen. jit.window has an attribute called fullscreen; when fullscreen is on, the jit.window uses the entire screen as its display area. You can also use the hidemenubar message to Max to hide the menu bar (see "Messages to Max" in the Topics section of the Max documentation for details). Note: The fullscreen and hidemenubar attributes of the jit.window object are available on Macintosh systems only. There are a few things to remember about using the fullscreen capability of jit.window. First of all, once you have filled your screen with an image (and especially if you have also hidden the menubar), you will no longer be able to use your mouse to turn fullscreen off. So you will need to program into your Max patch some method of returning the fullscreen attribute to 0. Secondly, only one jit.window can fill any one screen at any one time. If you have more than one jit.window object vying for access to the full screen, the jit.window object that has most recently had its fullscreen attribute set to 1 will fill the screen. Also, even when a jit.window is fullscreen, its resolution is determined by its actual dimensions (that is, by the arguments of its rect attribute). So if the rect attribute describes a 320x240 rectangle, that will be the resolution of your image, even though your screen dimensions are much greater than that. At the bottom of our patch, we've included the capability to turn the fullscreen attribute of jit.window on and off (and hide/show the menu bar) with the space bar of your keyboard. 121 Tutorial 14 Try toggling fullscreen on and off with the space bar. Matrix Positioning Using the space bar to switch the window to full screen display For a more abstract visual effect, try importing the colorswatch.pict image into the jit.matrix at the top of the patch,then try the different presets. In this tutorial, we've used a still image as our source material so that you could easily see the effects being demonstrated, but there's no reason that you couldn't use a video (from jit.qt.movie or some other video source) as your basic material. (You might want to copy the contents of this patch to a new Patcher window and modify the top-left part of it to try that out.) Summary There are several ways to isolate and reposition certain data in a matrix. The dim attribute of jit.matrix sets the actual dimensions and size of the matrix. By turning on the usesrcdim and usedstdim attributes of jit.matrix, you can instruct it to use a particular portion of its input and output matrices, which are referred to as the "source" and "destination" regions of the matrix. You specify the cell boundaries of those regions with the srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes (to set starting and ending cells as the boundaries of the source region) and the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes (for the destination region). These attributes do not change the actual size of the matrix, but they specify what part of the input matrix will be passed out in what part of the output matrix (when usesrcdim and usedstdim are on).If the source and destination regions are different in shape or size, jit.matrix will either expand or contract the source region to fit it in the destination region. This results in either duplication or loss of data, but can provide interesting stretching or pixelation effects. The source and destination regions can be altered dynamically with numbers provided by some other part of your Max patch, for interactive or automated modification of the size, shape, and position of the image. When the interp attribute is on, jit.matrix interpolates (provides intermediate values) between values when a dimension of the destination region is greater than that of the source region. This smooths out pixelation effects, and blurs the changes between values in adjacent cells. The jit.window object displays whatever size matrix it receives, using whatever display rectangle has been specified for it in its rect attribute. If the size of the incoming matrix differs from the size of the display area, the image will be expanded, or contracted, or distorted by jit.window. This, too, can be used for stretching and pixelation effects. jit.window also has an interp attribute which, when turned on, smooths out the pixelation caused by this expansion and stretching. To fill the entire screen with an image, you can turn on jit.window's fullscreen attribute, and you can hide the menu bar with a ;max hidemenubar message. (Just remember to leave yourself some way to get your Patcher window back in the foreground.) We've demonstrated the techniques of resizing, repositioning, flipping, and interpolating matrix data to create visual effects such as stretching, distorting,blurring, and pixelation. 122 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation Rotating and Zooming with the jit.rota Object Jitter provides an easy way to rotate an image, and/or zoom it in or out, with an object called jit.rota. Rotation and zoom are common and useful video effects, and by combining them in different ways in jit.rota you can also achieve a variety of kaleidoscopic effects. jit.rota takes a matrix of video data (or any other sort of image) in its inlet, and sends out a version that has been zoomed, rotated, and otherwise distorted based on the settings of the object's attributes. Basic Rotation Open the tutorial patch 15jImageRotation.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The QuickTime video dishes.mov is read into the jit.qt.movie object automatically by a bang message from loadbang. To see the video, click on the Display toggle to start the metro object. The video is a three-second left-to-right camera pan over a set of dishes. However, the loop attribute of the jit.qt.movie object has been initialized to 2, so the movie loops back and forth, giving the illusion of a back-and-forth pan. Note: Many attributes of Jitter objects use only the arguments 1 and 0 to mean "on" and "off ", so it's reasonable to assume that the loop attribute of jit.qt.movie is the same. While it's true that loop 0 turns looping off and loop 1 turns it on, loop 2 causes the video to play forward and then play backward when it reaches the loopend point, rather than leaping to the loopstart point. The theta attribute of jit.rota determines the angle of rotation around a central anchor point. Drag on the Rotation Angle number box to rotate the video. Positive (or increasing) values cause counter-clockwise rotation, and negative (or decreasing) values cause clockwise rotation. The angle of rotation--a.k.a. the angle (theta)--is stated in radians. A value of 0--or any multiple of 2 (i.e., 6.283185)--is the normal upright positioning. A value of 123 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation (i.e. 3.141593)--or any odd multiple of --is the fully upside-down position. Experiment until you understand the relationship between the theta values and the behavior of jit.rota. Technical Detail: jit.rota does a lot of internal calculation using trigonometry to determine how to rotate the image. If you're not a trigonometry buff, you might not be used to thinking of angles in terms of radians. In everyday conversation we more commonly use degrees, with a full rotation being 360. In trigonometry, it's more common to use radians, where a full rotation equals 2 radians. That's because a circle with a radius of 1 has a circumference of exactly 2, so you can refer to an angle by referencing the point where it would intersect the unit circle. (For example if you started at a point on the unit circle and traveled a distance of exactly /2 around the circumference, you would end up at a 90 angle--i.e. an angle of /2 radians--from where you started, in reference to the circle's center.) Also, in trigonometry we consider a positive change in angle to be a counter-clockwise rotation around the unit circle, whereas in everyday life you might more commonly think of a clockwise motion as being intuitively "positive" or "increasing" (like the passage of time). So, to convert a clockwise rotation in degrees into the same rotation in radians, you would need to multiply the degree angle by 2, then divide by 360. Automated Rotation Besides rotating the image by hand, you can also write an automated process in Max that will supply continually changing rotation angles. In the previous chapter we wrote a subpatch called rotate that used the line object to increase the angle of hue rotation continually from 0 to 360. In this chapter we do something similar, but this time we use the bang message from the metro object that's displaying the movie to increase the angle of rotation. To keep it "user-friendly" we show the user degrees of angle rotation rather than radians (we convert degrees to radians inside the subpatch), and we also display the rotation speed as "rotations per second." In the number box labeled Degrees per bang, enter the number 6. This will cause the rotation angle to increase by 6 degrees with each bang message from the metro. Since the metro object sends out a bang message 20 times per second (once every 50 ms), we know that we can calculate the number of rotations per second by the formula d*20/360--that is, d/18--where d is the degrees of angle increase per bang. Now click on the toggle marked On/Off to begin the automated rotation. 124 Tutorial 15 Double click on the patcher rotate object to see the contents of the subpatch. Image Rotation Automated rotation in the [rotate] subpatch We convert what the user specifies as "degrees per bang" into an amount in radians, by multiplying the degrees by 2 and dividing by 360. (See the Technical Detail sidebar above.) When a bang message comes in the left inlet, if rotation is turned on then the bang gets passed through and it causes an increase of angle rotation to be added into the accum object. Note that a negative "degrees per bang" amount works fine, too, and causes a counter-clockwise rotation of the image. When the total rotation angle exceeds 2 (or -2), we use a modulo operation to bring it back into range (resetting the value in the accum object) before sending it to the outlet. When rotation gets turned off, we detect that fact with a sel 0 object, and reset the theta angle to 0. Close the subpatch window. Click on the On/Off toggle to stop the automated rotation. Zoom In or Out The other main feature of jit.rota is its zooming capability. The amount of zoom is determined by jit.rota's zoom_x and zoom_y attributes. These permit you to zoom in or out in the horizontal and vertical dimensions independently; or you can zoom both dimensions simultaneously by changing both attributes at once. Drag on the number box labeled Zoom to zoom in and out. Values greater than 1 expand the image (zoom in), and values less than 1 shrink the image (zoom out). You can change the zoom of the x and y dimensions independently by entering values directly into those number box objects. (Negative zoom values flip the image as well as resize it.) When we zoom in on the image--say, with a zoom value of 2--we still retain reasonably good image quality because we've turned jit.rota's interp attribute on with an interp 1 message. If you turn interp off, you will get pixelation when you zoom in. When you're zooming out, interp has no appreciable effect, so it's pretty much a waste of the computer's time. (See Tutorial 14 for a 125 Tutorial 15 Beyond the Edge Set the zoom of both dimensions to some small value, such as 0.25. Image Rotation discussion of pixelation and interpolation.) However, interpolation does improve the look of rotated images, even when they've been shrunk by zooming out. When the image does not fill the entire display area because of shrinking or rotation, jit.rota has to decide what to do with the rest of the matrix that lies outside the image area. At present jit.rota is setting all the cell values outside the image area to 0, making them all black. The way that jit.rota handles the cells that lie outside the image boundaries is determined by its boundmode attribute. The different available boundmode settings are presented in the pop-up menu labeled Space outside the image in the upper-right corner of the patch. We initialized the boundmode value to 1, which instructs jit.rota to clear all the outlying cells. Here is the meaning of each of the boundmode settings: 0 1 2 3 4 Ignore: Leave all outlying cells unchanged from their previous values. Clear: Set all outlying cell values to 0. Wrap: Begin the image again, as many times as necessary to fill the matrix. Clip: For all the outlying cells, continue to use the values of the boundary cells of the image. Fold: Repeat the image, flipped back in the opposite direction. For special effects when the image is zoomed out, try setting the boundmode attribute to 2 (wrap) for a "Warhol" duplicate image effect, or 4 (fold) for a kaleidoscope effect. Now try turning the automated rotation back on, to combine rotation and zoom, and modify the different parameters (Degrees per bang, Zoom, and Space outside the image). When you have finished experimenting, turn off the automated rotation and return the zoom attributes (zoom_x and zoom_y) to 1. Some Adjustments--Anchor Point and Offset Up to now we've been using the center of the image as the center point of the rotation. However, you can actually choose any point around which to rotate the image. The central anchor point of the rotation is set with the anchor_x and anchor_y attributes. Right now those attributes are set to 160 and 120, but you can change them in the number box objects labeled Anchor point. Try different anchor points, and drag on the Rotation Angle number box to see the effect. Some anchor point settings you might want to try are 0,0 or 40,30 or 160,120 or 320,240. You might want to set the boundmode attribute to 1 so that you can see the effects of different rotations more clearly. Note that the anchor_x and anchor_y values are specified relative to the upper-left corner of the matrix, but they may exceed the bounds of the matrix's dimensions. 126 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation In addition, you can move the image to a different location in the output matrix after zooming and rotation take place, using the offset_x and offset_y attributes. To see this most effectively, first click on the message box above the pvar object in the lower right corner of the patch. This will set the rotation angle, boundary mode, zoom, and anchor points back to the settings we used at the outset of this chapter. (We have given names to the relevant user interface objects so that we can communicate with them via pvar.) Now set the Zoom number box to some value between 0 and 1, to zoom out on the image. Use the Location offset number box objects to move the image around by changing the offset_x and offset_y values. Try this in conjunction with boundmode 4, to see its utility in the "kaleidoscope" mode. When you have finished, reset the Location offset values to 0. Rotary Control We've devised one more way for you to rotate the image. Click in the jit.pwindow display object and, with the mouse button held down, drag in a small circular motion around the center of the object. jit.pwindow tracks your mouse movements and, as long the mouse button is down, it sends coordinate information (and other mouse information) out its right outlet in the form of mouse messages. The first two arguments of the mouse message are the x and y coordinates of the mouse, relative to the upper left corner of jit.pwindow. We use those coordinates to calculate the angle of 127 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation the mouse relative to the center of the jit.pwindow, and we send that angle to jit.rota as the argument to the theta attribute. You can use the mouse location in jit.pwindow as control information 128 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation Technical Detail: Do you really want to know how we did that calculation? If so, read on. If we think of the center point of the jit.pwindow as the origin point 0,0, and we think of the current mouse location relative to that as being a point along a circle around the origin, then we can describe a right triangle based on those two points. By taking the arctangent of the mouse's coordinates y/x, we get the angle of the mouse relative to the center of jit.pwindow. theta So we take the incoming x and y coordinates, and the first thing we do is convert them so that they're relative to the center of the jit.pwindow. We do that by subtracting 160 from the x dimension coordinate (so the x values will now go from -160 to 160) and multiplying the y coordinate by 1 (so values will increase as we go up, instead of down) then adding 119.5 to it. (If we added exactly 120, then every time we had a y coordinate of 120 from jit.pwindow we'd be trying to divide by 0 in expr, which is an undefined mathematical operation.) Once we have converted the x and y coordinates, we take the arctangent of y/x to get the angle in radians, then multiply that angle value by -1 to make clockwise rotation of the mouse cause clockwise rotation of the image. This method only works within a 180 span, because the arctangent function can't tell the difference between a mouse location and its opposite point on the circle. (The calculation of y/x will be the same for both points.) So, every time the y coordinate of the mouse goes into the bottom half of the jit.pwindow, we add an offset of - to the theta angle to distinguish those locations from their counterparts on the opposite side. (That's the last part of the expression.) Note that this expression only works relative to the point 160,120 in the jit.pwindow. If we wanted to make an expression that works for the central point of any size jit.pwindow, we'd need to get the jit.pwindow's dimensions with a getsize message, and use the size values as variables in our expression. As the math books say, "We'll leave that as an exercise for the reader." Summary The jit.rota object provides an easy way to rotate an image with its theta attribute, specifying an angle of rotation, in radians. It also provides an easy way to zoom in and out on an image with its zoom_x and zoom_y attributes. You can change the central point of the rotation with the anchor_x and anchor_y attributes, and you can move the resulting image in the output matrix with the offset_x and offset_y attributes. You can change the way that jit.rota treats the matrix cells that lie 129 Tutorial 15 Image Rotation outside of the resulting image with the boundmode attribute. Using all of these capabilities in combination, you can get image-duplication and kaleidoscope effects in addition to simple zoom and rotation. Zooming and rotation involve some rather intensive internal calculation by jit.rota, so these operations make substantial demands on the computer's processor. If you're curious, the formulae for these calculations are in the jit.rota.help file. There are additional attributes, not covered in this tutorial, that give you access to virtually every coefficient in the rotation formula, presenting you even more possibilities for distorting and rotating the image. These, too, are shown in jit.rota.help. To manage the control of so many attributes at once, you can devise automated Max processes to generate attribute values, and/or interactive controls to change the values with gestures. 130 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices In this tutorial we'll learn how to use the name attribute of the jit.matrix object to write matrix data from multiple sources into the same matrix. We'll also look at how to scale the size of matrices when they are copied into a new matrix, and how to use the Max low-priority queue to deprioritize Max events in favor of more time-consuming tasks. Open the tutorial patch 16jNamedMatrices.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch is divided into five colored regions. The middle (light blue) region contains two jit.qt.movie objects. A loadbang object reads two movies (rain.mov and traffic.mov) into the jit.qt.movie objects when the patch is opened: Reading in the movies Unlike the tutorial patches we've looked at before, the jit.qt.movie objects in this patch use send and receive objects to communicate with the rest of the patch. The receive objects named m1 and m2 forward messages to the two jit.qt.movie objects. The output matrices of the two objects are then sent (using send objects) to receive objects named movie1 and movie2 elsewhere in the patch. 131 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices The yellow region at the top of the patch contains the metro object that drives the Jitter processes in the patch: The metro object drives one of the two message box objects Click the toggle box to start the metro. The three jit.pwindow objects in the patch will start to display an image. Order of Importance The metro object goes through a Ggate object and an object called jit.qball (about which we will have something to say later) into a gate object. The bang messages sent by the metro are routed by the gate to one of two message box objects. Our final output matrix (in the jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch) will change depending on which message box gets a bang message. Click the two message box objects attached to the left inlet of the gate (1 and 2). Notice how the jit.pwindow at the bottom changes: The final output matrix changes depending on the message ordering of the patch. 132 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices The two message box objects both send bang messages to the same three named receive objects (m1, m2, and output). The difference between the two is the order in which they send the messages. The lefthand message box (driven by the metro when the gate is set to 1) sends the first bang message to the receive object labeled m2, then the receive object labeled m1, and then the receive object labeled output. This causes the right jit.qt.movie object (containing the traffic footage) to send out a matrix, followed by the left jit.qt.movie object (with the rain movie). Finally, the jit.matrix object at the bottom of the patch receives a bang message, causing our final matrix to be sent out. The righthand message box (driven by the metro when the gate is set to 2) reverses the order of the two bang messages driving our jit.qt.movie objects (the left jit.qt.movie outputs a matrix first, followed by the right jit.qt.movie object). The order in which these messages occur only becomes relevant when we look into what happens between the two jit.qt.movie objects and the final jit.pwindow object. What's in a Name? Once our jit.qt.movie objects receive their bang messages, they output a matrix to the send objects below them, which in turn pass their matrices over to receive objects named movie1 and movie2. The receive objects (in two identical regions at the right of the patch) are connected to jit.pwindow objects as well as two named jit.matrix objects: The named jit.matrix object Both of the jit.matrix objects at the right of the patch (as well as the jit.matrix object at the bottom of the patch above our final jit.pwindow) have a name. The name attached to all three of these objects is composite. The result of this is that all three of these jit.matrix objects share the same matrix data, which is contained in a Jitter matrix called composite. Once we know that our two jit.qt.movie objects write data into the same Jitter matrix (via two separate jit.matrix objects sharing the same name) we can understand why the ordering of the bang messages is important. If the left jit.qt.movie sends out its matrix first, it writes data into the composite matrix, followed by the right jit.qt.movie, which writes data into the same matrix. If the 133 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices two matrices write to any cells in common (see below), the matrix that gets there last will overwrite any data that was in those cells before. Important Note: If you are ever unsure about the order in which things are happening in your Max patch, you can do a Trace of the patch to see the way in which your patch executes. If you choose the Enable command from the Trace menu, and then turn on the metro object, you can step through the patch with the Step command to see how it executes. (See the "Debugging" chapter of the Max Tutorials and Topics manual for details about how to trace Max messages with the Trace feature.) The Destination Dimension The two jit.matrix objects on the right of the tutorial patch have their usedstdim attribute set to 1. This allows us to scale the matrices sent by our jit.qt.movie objects so that they only write to a certain region of the composite Jitter matrix. Play around with the number box objects labeled x origin, y origin, and scale connected to the two subpatchers labeled p coords. Notice how you can move and resize the two images from the jit.qt.movie objects in the composite matrix. Picture within a picture The subpatches p coords contain identical helper patches to format the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes for the jit.matrix objects. These attributes specify the upper left and lower right coordinates, respectively, to use when copying data into our composite Jitter matrix. The usedstdim attribute simply tells the jit.matrix object to use those attributes when copying data. When 134 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices usedstdim is set to 0, the incoming matrix is scaled to fill the entire matrix referred to by the jit.matrix object. Scaling the input matrices before the are written into our shared matrix The three numbers that we send into the subpatches get formatted by the Max objects inside to generate a list that describes the upper left and lower right areas of the output matrix which we want to fill with our input matrix. The message box before the outlet uses $ substitution to replace the relevant arguments for the attributes with numbers from the list. 135 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices The last thing that happens after our two matrices have been written into the composite matrix is that a bang message is sent to the receive object named output: The final result The region at the bottom of the tutorial patch contains a third named jit.matrix object. The bang sent by the metro goes through a trigger object that sends a bang message to the jit.matrix (causing it to output its matrix to the jit.pwindow) followed immediately by a clear message. The clear message erases (zeroes) all the cells in the Jitter matrix named composite. If we didn't clear the matrix, changing the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes of any of the jit.matrix objects could result in cells left over from a previous output location of our movies. Jumping the Queue The jit.qball object at the top of the patch provides an invaluable service in the event that Max can't keep up with our demands. The metro object (which is sending out bang messages every 50 milliseconds) is driving three separate operations (writing the two matrices from the jit.qt.movie objects into our named Jitter matrix, as well as displaying the data and clearing the matrix so we can start over). The jit.matrix object writes data into its internal Jitter matrix (in this case our named composite matrix) in a way that allows it to be usurped by a subsequent message. It also allows other Max events that are scheduled at a higher priority to happen while it works on a task. This makes it possible to display the matrix (or write more data into it) before the previous operation has finished, causing flicker and other unexpected results. The jit.qball object places messages input into the object at the back of Max's low priority queue where they too can be usurped by another message. This way, if jit.qball gets a bang message from the metro object before all the current Jitter tasks are complete, it will wait until everything else in the low priority queue is finished before sending out the bang. Similarly, if another bang comes along before that first bang has been sent (i.e. if it takes more than 50 milliseconds for the rest of the patch to do everything), the first bang will be usurped (jettisoned) in favor of the second. This allows you to set a maximum 136 Tutorial 16 Using Named Jitter Matrices hypothetical rate of events in a Max patch without having to worry about events accumulating too rapidly for the objects in the patch to keep up. Click on the Ggate object labeled "jit.qball bypass switch" so that the output of the metro object bypasses the jit.qball object. The composite image in the jit.pwindow at the bottom will start to flicker, indicating that messages are arriving out of order. Normally, sending a bang message to a Jitter object will usurp an already pending event in that object (e.g. a bang message that has already arrived but hasn't been dealt with yet by the object). However, the jit.qball object gives us this kind of control over multiple chains of Jitter objects, automatically usurping events ("dropframing") to guarantee that messages arrive in the right order. Summary By giving a single name to multiple jit.matrix objects, you can write into and read from a common Jitter matrix in different parts of your patch. You can scale a Jitter matrix while copying it into the internal matrix of a jit.matrix object by using the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes and by setting the usedstdim attribute to 1. The jit.qball object allows you to de-prioritize Max events by placing them in the low-priority queue where they can be usurped by subsequent events if there isn't enough time for them to execute. 137 Tutorial 17 Feedback Using Named Matrices This tutorial shows a simple example of using named jit.matrix objects in a feedback loop. We'll use a matrix of random values to seed an iterative process (in this case, Conway's Game of Life). Open the tutorial patch 17jMatrixFeedback.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The tutorial patch generates an initial matrix of randomized values with the jit.noise object: The jit.noise object The jit.noise object generates a Jitter matrix full of random values. The dim, planecount, and type attributes of the object determine its output matrix (in this instance, we want an 80 x 60 cell matrix of one-plane char data). Our random cell values (which are initially in the range 0 -255) are then set to true (0) or false (255) by the jit.op object. The > operator to the jit.op object takes the value from the number box (arriving at the right inlet of the object) and uses it as a comparison operator. If a cell value is below that value the cell's value is set to 0. Otherwise the cell is set to 255. Sending a bang message to jit.noise will generate a new random matrix. Try changing the number box attached to the jit.op object. Click the button attached to the jit.noise object to generate a new matrix each time. Notice how higher comparison values yield fewer white (255) cells. The small jit.pwindow below the jit.op object shows you the random matrix. The one-plane matrix data is correctly interpreted by the jit.pwindow object as grayscale video. 138 Tutorial 17 Jitter Matrix Feedback Feedback Using Named Matrices The quantized noise we've generated at the top of our patch goes from the jit.op object into a jit.matrix object with the name of cellular: Two named jit.matrix objects in a feedback loop This jit.matrix object, which receives bang messages from a metro object at the top of the patch, is connected to an object called jit.conway, the output of which is hooked up to another jit.matrix with the same name (cellular) as the first. The result of this is that the output of the jit.conway object (whatever it does) is written into the same matrix that its input came from, creating a feedback loop. Start the metro object by clicking the toggle box. The jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch will show you the output of the jit.conway object. If you want to start with a fresh random matrix, you can always copy a new matrix into the feedback loop by clicking the button attached to the jit.noise object. The matrix from the jit.op object will go into our shared cellular matrix and will be used in the feedback loop. The Game of Life The jit.conway object performs a very simple cellular automata algorithm called the `Game of Life' on an input matrix. Developed by John Conway at Princeton University, the algorithm simulates cycles of organic survival in an environment with a finite food supply. The cells in the matrix are considered either alive (non-0) or dead (0). Each cell is compared with the cells surrounding it in space. If a live cell has two or three live neighbors, it stays alive. If it has more or less than that number, it dies (i.e. is set to 0). If a dead cell has exactly three live neighbors it becomes alive (i.e. is set to 255). It's that simple. 139 Tutorial 17 Feedback Using Named Matrices Every time the jit.conway object receives an input matrix it performs one generation of the Game of Life on that matrix. Therefore, it makes sense to use the object inside of a feedback loop, so we can see multiple generations of the algorithm performed on the same initial set of data. For example, the initial random matrix: Some random matrix values Generates the following matrices in the first four iterations through the jit.conway object: The first four generations of the Game of Life performed on the dataset above After seeding the feedback loop with a random matrix, you can turn on the metro object and watch the algorithm run! The Game of Life is designed in such a way that the matrix will eventually stabilize to either a group of self-oscillating cell units or an empty matrix (a dead world). In either case you can just bang in a new set of numbers and start all over again. Summary You can use the name attribute of the jit.matrix object to create feedback loops in your Jitter processing. By using two jit.matrix objects with the same name at either end of an object chain, you create a patch where the output of the chain gets written to the same Jitter matrix as the input comes from. The jit.noise object generates matrices of random numbers of any type, dim, or planecount. The jit.conway object, which works best within such a feedback loop, performs simple cellular automation on an input matrix. 140 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling This tutorial demonstrates a more complicated example of when to use named jit.matrix objects, as well as how to use jit.matrix objects to upsample and downsample an image. Open the tutorial patch 18jMatrixIteration.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The upper left-hand corner of the patch contains a jit.qt.movie object that has a still image (the file fuzz_circle.jpg) loaded into it when the patch opens. Read the image Start the metro object by clicking the toggle box above it. You should see an image appear in the jit.pwindow in the lower right of the tutorial patch: Our little comet 141 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling The fuzz_circle.jpg file contains an image of a white circle with a black background, which is being scaled in size to appear as a small circle inside of our final matrix. The real fuzz circle Getting Drunk The top part of the patch writes the image from the jit.qt.movie into the first jit.matrix object in the chain. a bang message generated by the bangbang object changes the dstdimstart and dstdimend attributes of the jit.matrix object with each frame, randomly varying the coordinates using Max drunk objects. Note that our first jit.matrix object has its usedstdim attribute set to 1, so that it will scale the input matrix: The drunk part of the patch This first jit.matrix, therefore, simply serves to scale the circle image to fit in a small (80 by 60) region of our output matrix. Note that the message box that formats the coordinates for the scaled image also clears the matrix with every frame (with a clear message), so that there are no artifacts 142 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling from a previously written image. The Max drunk objects vary the placing of the circle, causing it to jitter around (no pun intended). Click somewhere in the jit.pwindow in the lower right corner of the patch. The circle will jump to the position you clicked, and begin to move from there. The result of a mouse click in the jit.pwindow is sent to the receive object with the name winclick. This message is then stripped of its selector (mouse) and the first two elements (the x and y position of the mouse click) are extracted by the unpack object. These coordinates are then used to set the new origin for the drunk objects. The Feedback Network Once our circle image has been scaled and placed appropriately by the jit.matrix object, our patch enters a feedback chain that centers around a pair of jit.matrix objects sharing a matrix named blurry: The feedback loop in our patch This section of the patch contains four jit.matrix objects (not including the one at the top which scales down the circle image). Two of the objects share a name (blurry) and are used simply to store and retrieve previous matrices generated by the rest of the patch. The topmost jit.matrix object sends its matrix to the rightmost inlet of the first jit.op object in the patch. In addition, it sends a bang message to the first named jit.matrix object using a bangbang object, causing it to output its stored matrix (called blurry). This matrix eventually ends up in the left inlet of the jit.op, where it is then displayed (by the jit.pwindow) and multiplied by a scalar (the second jit.op object). It eventually overwrites the previous blurry matrix (by going into the bottom named jit.matrix 143 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling object). Without worrying about what the intermediate Jitter objects do, you can see that the blurry matrix will hold some version of the previous `frame' of our circle image: A scaled-down and illustrated map of our patch The new and old images are combined by the first jit.op object using the max operator. The max operator compares each cell in the two matrices and retains the cell with the highest value. The 144 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling second jit.op object (with the * operator) serves to darken our image by multiplying it by a scalar (set by the number box on the right of the patch that is sent to the receive object named fb): The feedback amount determines how much the image is darkened before being stored in the blurry matrix. Change the feedback amount of the patch by playing with the number box labeled Feedback on the right of the patch. Notice how the trails after the circle increase or decrease when you move the circle by clicking in the jit.pwindow, depending on how the feedback amount is set. Downsampling and Upsampling The final step in our image processing algorithm concerns the part of the patch in between the first named jit.matrix, which sends out the matrix saved there during the previous frame by the jit.matrix at the bottom, and the first jit.op object, which composites the previous matrix with the new one: Using jit.matrix objects for resampling of an image The two jit.matrix objects colored green in the tutorial patch are used to resample the blurry image matrix coming out of the jit.matrix object above them. The first of the two jit.matrix objects has its dim attribute set to 4 x 4 cells. This size can be changed by setting the attribute with the number box 145 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling at the top left with the caption Pixelation. This number gets sent to the receive object named dim above the jit.matrix object. Change the pixelation of the trails Change the number box labeled Pixelation in the blue region of the tutorial patch. Notice how the circle trails change. By downsampling the image matrix, the jit.matrix object copies the 320x 240 matrix from its input into a much smaller matrix, jettisoning excess data. The result is a pixelation of the image that you can control with the dim of the matrix. The second jit.matrix object upsamples the matrix back to a 320x 240 matrix size. This is so that when subsequent Jitter objects process the matrix, they will have a full resolution image to work with and will output a full resolution matrix. The jit.streak object adds a nice effect to the pixelated trails by randomly `streaking' cells into their neighbors. The prob attribute of jit.streak controls the likeliness that any given cell in the matrix will be copied onto a neighboring cell. Our jit.streak object has a prob attribute of 0.5, so there's a 50% chance of this happening with any given cell. Technical Detail: By default the, jit.streak object copies cells towards the right. Changing the direction attribute will alter this behavior. There is also a scale attribute that determines the brightness of the `streaked' cells as compared to their original values. The help patch for the jit.streak object explains more about how the object works. 146 Tutorial 18 Iterative Processes and Matrix Re-Sampling Our effects chain with intermediate jit.pwindow objects to show the processing Summary Pairs of named jit.matrix objects can be used effectively to store previous iterations of a Jitter process. These techniques can be used to generate video delay effects by combining the previous matrix with the current one using matrix compositing objects such as jit.op. You can also use jit.matrix objects to resample an image (using the dim attribute), both to perform an algorithm more efficiently (the smaller the matrix, the faster it will be processed by subsequent images) and to create pixelation effects. The jit.streak object performs random cell streaking on an input matrix by copying cells over to their neighbors according to a probability factor (set by the prob attribute). 147 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies This tutorial shows how you can record a single matrix or a sequence of matrices to disk as a QuickTime movie. We'll demonstrate the use of the jit.qt.record object for recording in real time and non-real time. Along the way, we'll also show you how to adjust some of the settings of the output movie. Like most Jitter objects, the jit.qt.record object operates according to an event-driven model rather than a time-driven one--frames sent to a record-enabled jit.qt.record object are appended to the movie in progress as "the next frame" based on the timing characteristics of the output movie, without regard for the relative time between the arriving frames. This results in very smooth movies with consistent timing between frames, but it requires some preparation before recording. The jit.qt.record object also offers a time-driven (realtime) method of recording in addition to the default mode described in this tutorial. Although the realtime mode might seem simpler to use, the recorded output won't be as smooth because frames of the incoming movie will usually be dropped fairly regularly during recording. You can set the time-driven mode for the jit.qt.record object by using the realtime message, but it is quite different from the non-realtime or event-driven operation described in this tutorial. Your Mileage May Vary Each and every matrix that arrives at a recording jit.qt.record object must be compressed before becoming part of your output movie. The speed of this compression depends on several factors: the speed of your processor and your disk drive, and--most importantly--the type of compression used (referred to as the codec, short for compression/decompression). The examples in this tutorial will use the Photo-JPEG codec. It should yield fairly consistent results from machine to machine without a lot of high CPU usage and disk access. On older or slower systems, it's possible that you'll notice some timing inaccuracy with the first set of examples for this tutorial. If you do, don't worry; the second part of this tutorial will show you how to achieve excellent results on even the most modest system by working in non-realtime mode. 148 Tutorial 19 On the Clock Recording QuickTime movies Open the tutorial patch 19jRecording.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The first example shows a very basic recording setup. Notice that the jit.qt.record object takes two arguments (320 and 240) that specify the width and height of any movies we record with this object. A simple recording patch Click the message box that says read countdown 15.mov to load a movie into the jit.qt.movie object, and start the metro object by clicking on the toggle box connected to its inlet. You will see the movie's image appear in the jit.pwindow object, since the jit.qt.record object passes any matrices it receives out its left outlet. (The jit.robcross object in this patch is a simple edge detector that we're using to process the matrices passing through it). Click the message box that says write 15. jpeg. to start writing the movie (we'll look at the contents of the message box in more detail in a moment). A file Dialog Box will appear, prompting you for a file name. When you enter a valid name and click the Save button, recording begins to the filename you've chosen (For the purposes of example, let's assume you've named your movie myfilename.mov.). Click the stop message box to stop recording. 149 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies The jit.qt.record object sends a message out its right outlet after a write operation to confirm that the movie was successfully written. Since we've connected that outlet to a print object in our patch, we can see the results by looking at the Max Window. If everything went as expected, you should see print: write myfilename.mov 1 in the Max Window. If there was a problem, the number after the filename will not be a 1. Click the read message box attached to the jit.qt.movie object and read in the movie you just recorded. How does it look? Let's examine the write message to the jit.qt.record object for a moment. The write message puts jit.qt.record into a record-enabled mode. The actual recording doesn't begin until the object receives a matrix in its inlet. The write message can take several optional arguments to specify a file name, frame rate, the codec type, the codec quality and the timescale for the output movie. In this example we're only using two arguments (15. and jpeg) to specify the frame rate (15. indicates 15 frames per second) and the codec type (jpeg indicates Photo-JPEG) of the output movie. For a full description of all the arguments for the write message, see the Object Reference entry for the jit.qt.record object. Note that we have the metro object set to send a bang message every 66.67 milliseconds. This is done to match the input movie's frame rate. If you change the metro object's rate and record a few more movies, you will see that a faster metro rate causes the movie to be longer and slower, while a slower metro rate results in a shorter, faster movie. This happens because of the event-driven model being used by jit.qt.record. 150 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies The second example patch is a little more complicated, but it has two important additions (and several minor ones). Same idea, different patch First, we're automatically detecting the frame rate of the original movie (using the getfps message), and using it to set both the rate of the metro object driving jit.qt.record and the output movie's frame rate, as well. Let's look at that portion of the patch in detail: When a movie is successfully loaded into the jit.qt.movie object, the object sends the message read filename.mov 1 out its right outlet (if the read operation is unsuccessful, the number will not be 1). We're using the route object to retrieve this message. The unpack s 0 object breaks up the remaining elements of the message. We're not interested in the file name, only in the success or failure of the read operation, so we've attached nothing to 151 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies the left outlet of unpack, and attached a select object, which tests for the integer 1, to the right outlet. If our read operation was successful, the select object will output a bang message. The bang is used to send the message getfps to the jit.qt.movie object, which will respond by sending the message fps [fps] out its right outlet. The [fps] message element is a floating-point number representing the movie's frame rate. This value is sent from the route object's middle outlet, and used to set the metro object's speed and the output movie's frame rate. This patch includes a second improvement. Rather than locking the entire patch to the frame rate of the original movie, we've added a jit.matrix object with thru turned off to "collect" the output of the patch, and we're using a second metro to send it bang messages at the correct frame rate for the jit.qt.record object. This permits the rest of our patch to operate independently, at as fast or slow a rate as we want, with only the very last part of the patch specifically timed to the recording process. Finally, we've added a neat crosshatching filter (the jit.hatch object) with its own editing control (the number box and the grid $1 message box objects). You can use this to modify your movie while you're recording it and watch the effects on playback. You can substitute any kind of Jitter object or patch you want at this point in the recording patch and modify what you record in real time. Off the Clock Both of the previous patches have a problem: under high processor loads, these patches will drop frames. In many cases, this is not a problem, and the patches we've looked at are well suited to recording in any context, including live performance. But how can we record a sequence in which every frame in an original movie has a corresponding frame in the output movie? How do you render movies in Jitter so that, even under heavy processor or disk load, every processed frame is captured? There is a way. The jit.qt.movie object's framedump message offers a non-realtime playback mode that works perfectly with jit.qt.record. 152 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies Scroll all the way down in the Patcher window to see the third example. Non-realtime recording with framedump On first inspection, the third example patch may not seem a lot more complicated than the previous one. But don't be fooled--this unassuming patch will bring even the speediest computer to its knees. Click the message box countdown.mov to load a movie into the jit.qt.movie object, start the metro object by clicking on the toggle box connected to its inlet and watch the jit.fpsgui object's framerate output display located at the bottom of the patch. If you get more than 10 fps, you have a much nicer computer than we do. 153 Tutorial 19 Recording QuickTime movies While this patch runs slowly in real time, it does a great job of creating a QuickTime movie in nonrealtime. Using the jit.qt.movie object's framedump message and the jit.qt.record object, the patch will capture every frame of the original movie, process it, and produce an output movie of identical length. Here's how it works: the framedump message tells the jit.qt.movie object to stop playing its movie, and then sends each frame out, one at a time. (N.B. You don't need to send a bang or outputmatrix message to the jit.qt.movie object for the frames to be sent.) Because of the way the Max scheduler works, a new frame will not be sent until the previous frame has been fully processed and recorded. Let's try it out. Click on the toggle box connected to the inlet of the metro object to turn it off. (Sending a bang message to the jit.qt.movie object during the framedump operation will cause an extra frame to be sent, which is not what we want.) We've connected the button on the top left corner of the patch to both the pack object that sends the write message, and the framedump message. Press the button, enter a file name when the File Dialog appears, and wait for the movie to render. When the framedump is finished, the jit.qt.movie object sends the message framedump done from its right outlet. The example patch uses that message to trigger a stop message to jit.qt.record. The example patch also takes advantage of the fact that the jit.qt.record object sends a matrix out its left outlet after recording a frame. We're using that frame to trigger a bang message to a counter object that is driving the grid attribute of the jit.hatch filter. This creates a repeatable sequence of processing changes that happen as the QuickTime movie is captured. Click on the "read" message box to open the movie you've just created. Turn on the metro to display the movie. Click on the toggle box connected to the gate object to see your new movie. This switches the jit.qt.movie object's output directly to the jit.pwindow, instead of through the processing objects. Summary The jit.qt.record object provides event-driven ways to record Jitter matrices as QuickTime movies. You can record the output of a Jitter patch in real time as you manipulate your patch, or out of real time, in render-like operation. You can use the jit.qt.movie object's framedump message to process an entire movie file without dropping any frames. This method lets you record high quality movies regardless of the load being placed on your computer's processor. 154 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices This tutorial shows how you can export a single matrix to disk from Jitter. demonstrate We'll the variety of options available, including QuickTime still picture formats, text and ASCII formats and Jitter's own .jxf file format. In the previous tutorial, we learned how to save a sequence of matrices as a QuickTime movie-- and we can save a single matrix using the same techniques. Since the data that Jitter works with can describe much more than series of images, it makes sense that there should be several additional options for exporting individual matrices. Import and Export From the jit.matrix Object The jit.matrix object offers two types of single-matrix import/export: QuickTime movie and Jitter binary (.jxf). Both formats permit import and export of a single matrix. We'll discuss both, starting with the movie format. QuickTime Export and Import The QuickTime movie format is identical to the format we learned about in the last tutorial-- Recording QuickTime Movies. The only difference is that, in this case, an exported output movie will be exactly one frame long. We can import a single frame of a movie, regardless of the movie's length. The messages importmovie and exportmovie are used to import and export a single matrix from the jit.matrix object. The exportmovie message conveniently uses the same format as the jit.qt.record object's write message. In fact, when you use the jit.matrix object's exportmovie message, the jit.matrix object is briefly creating an internal instance of a jit.qt.record object, and sending a write message to it with the arguments you've specified for exportmovie. Although that shouldn't change the way you think about it, it's pretty nifty. 155 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices Open the tutorial patch 20jImportExport.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The jit.matrix object's importmovie and exportmovie messages Click the message box that says read to load a movie into the jit.qt.movie object. Since we're only interested in a single frame, there's no metro in the patch. You'll also notice that there is a new attribute set for the jit.qt.movie object-- @autostart 0. Setting this attribute means that our movie will not begin playing automatically. We can choose a frame of the loaded movie we want to export, using the number box connected to the message box containing the message frame $1, bang. Why are the colors all messed up? They're messed up because we're using the planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object to remap the planes of the incoming movie from 0 1 2 3 (alpha, red, green, blue) to 0 3 2 1 (alpha, blue, red, green). We'll see why in a few moments. Click the message box exportmovie myframe.mov 30. jpeg to export the frame as a QuickTime movie. As with jit.qt.record, we're specifying the frame rate and codec (30. and jpeg). We're also specifying a file name, myframe.mov. The exportmovie message automatically closes the file after writing the frame to it. To load the single frame we've just exported, we'll use the importmovie message. Since we want to be certain that we're really importing the frame we just exported, we'll clear the jit.matrix 156 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices object first. Click on the message box that says clear, bang. This message clears the matrix and then outputs it to the jit.pwindow, which should now appear entirely black. Now, click the message box that says importmovie, bang. A file Dialog Box should appear, and you should locate and read myframe.mov. The movie should have been saved in the same folder as the tutorial patch. If you can't find it there, your file browser's find or search commands to locate the file on your disk drive. The frame you just exported should now be back in the jit.pwindow. The importmovie message takes an optional first argument which specifies a file name. You're probably wondering what that second importmovie message is for. If you try to import a multi-frame movie into jit.matrix, the object assumes that you want the first frame, unless you specify a time value that you'd prefer. In this example, we've asked for time value 600 which is one second in from the beginning of a normal QuickTime movie--remember from Tutorial 4 that most QuickTime movies use a timescale of 600, which means they have 600 time values per second. Try reading another QuickTime movie by clicking on the message box importmovie 600, bang. The jit.pwindow should now be showing a frame from one second into that movie. You'll notice that the colors in the frame are not switched around this time. This is because we are importing an image matrix directly into the object. Since the jit.matrix object's planemap attribute only affects matrices that arrive via its inlet, no plane remapping occurred. Jitter Binary Export and Import Jitter offers its own binary format for single-matrix export, called .jxf. The Jitter binary format is simpler to use than the QuickTime format, and .jxf stores your data without any of the data losses associated with the various codecs you need to use with the QuickTime format. Additionally, the 157 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices .jxf format supports matrices of all types, dimensions and planecounts, whereas the QuickTime format is only capable of storing 4-plane char matrices (images). Using .jxf format with the jit.matrix object The patch shown above uses the Jitter binary format, which is selected using the write and read messages. While it is very similar to the previous example patch, there are some important differences: The write message only takes a single argument that specifies the name of the output file. Since the .jxf format is always a single matrix of uncompressed data, we don't need any other arguments. The read message doesn't need a time argument (since a .jxf file will only have a single matrix in it). Like the importmovie message, read will take an optional argument for the file name. The read and write messages cause the jit.matrix object to send confirmation messages out the object's right outlet. We've connected that outlet to a print object, so you can see those messages in the Max Window. Both techniques described in this section are available to the jit.matrixset object as well, and function in similar ways. 158 Tutorial 20 Import and Export From the jit.qt.movie Object Importing and Exporting Single Matrices The jit.qt.movie object offers two export methods you can use to save movie frames as QuickTime still images, rather than movies. The first method exports single frames as image files. The second method exports an entire movie as a sequence of image files, called an Image Sequence. You may find this way of working preferable if you're using images you generate with Jitter for page layout, or if you're using the images in conjunction with other graphic processing software like Photoshop or GraphicConverter. The jit.qt.movie object can export and import QuickTime movies in a number of non-movie formats. For the purposes of this tutorial, we're only going to cover still image export. For a more comprehensive listing of import and export options available in jit.qt.movie, please consult the object's Object Reference entry and help file. The exportimage Message Let's start with the simpler of the two methods: the exportimage message to the jit.qt.movie object. Using exportimage, we can save the current movie frame as an image file. This method allows you to save your image in one of several standard graphic formats, including JPEG, PNG and TIFF. The jit.qt.movie object's exportimage message Click the message box read to read in a QuickTime movie. Use the number box to navigate to a frame you'd like to export as a still image. 159 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices Click on the ubumenu object. The object contains a list of the still image file types available. Choosing one of these items will send the exportimage message to the jit.qt.movie object (by way of the pak object), with your chosen file type as an argument. A file Dialog Box will appear, where you can enter a file name for the image file you're about to create. The jit.qt.movie object will automatically append the correct file name extension (.png, .jpg, .tif, etc.) to the filename when it exports the image, so you don't need to add them. Click Save to continue. That's it. To verify that your export was successful, look in the Max Window. The jit.qt.movie object sends the message exportimage myfile 1 from its right outlet after a successful exportimage operation (myfile is the file name you chose). If exportimage was unsuccessful, the number will not be 1. You can either reopen the file in Max, by reading it into jit.qt.movie, or switch to the file browser and open it in your favorite image viewing application. The exportimage message takes an optional int argument to call up the export Dialog Box. Click on the message box exportimage 1 to see it. First, you'll be prompted for a file name. Then, before exporting the image file, the Dialog will appear, where you have the option to change the file type, and set file type-specific options for the exportimage operation. The full format of the exportimage message is exportimage [file name] [file type] [dialog flag]. All of the arguments are optional. If you omit the file type and dialog flag, the exportimage operation will use the last file type you specified. PNG is the default if there is no saved file type. General Export From the jit.qt.movie Object We can also use jit.qt.movie to save an entire movie file as an Image Sequence--a series of still images, one for each frame. This process relies on a slightly more complicated export mechanism. In QuickTime, every movie can potentially have a different set of available exporters--for example, you might want to export the sound tracks in a QuickTime movies as CD audio or AIFF files. Or you may be able to export your Photo-JPEG video tracks as a DV stream. Some movies might permit several image export formats, while others are limited to just a few. Because of this 160 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices potentially shifting landscape of options, we've attempted to make exporting in jit.qt.movie as flexible as possible. And that added flexibility will require a little extra explanation. Generalized export from jit.qt.movie Click the message box read garbage.mov, to read in that file. We're using this movie because it's only one second long. You may use the number box to navigate around the movie, if you like. Click on the message box getexporterlist. This causes jit.qt.movie to send a list of available exporter components from its right outlet, preceded by the word exporterlist. Our patch breaks that list up and places the list into an ubumenu for easy access. Click on the ubumenu to view the list. Our list contains entries like AIFF, BMP, FLC, HEURIS MPEG and several others. You probably recognize several of the formats offered. Choose the Image Sequence item. This causes the message box exporter $1 to send the Image Sequence exporter's index number (which is the same as its position in the ubumenu item list) to jit.qt.movie. Important Detail: Since each movie could potentially support different exporters, this index number might change from movie to movie for the same exporter component. Click on the message box export 1. A file Dialog Box will appear, prompting you for a file name. We'd suggest that you create a new folder for saving the sequence, since the operation generates several files. Enter a valid file name and click Save. 161 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices You should now see a special Dialog Box appear, permitting you to adjust the options specific to the exporter you chose, such as file type and frame rate, in the case of the Image Sequence exporter. (Notice that the same file type options are available as with the exportimage operation.) If you leave the frame rate field empty, the export operation will use the movie's native frame rate to generate the images. Each exporter may have its own options. This Dialog Box will only appear when there is a 1 (which we call the options flag) at the end of the export message to jit.qt.movie. The export message also accepts an optional file name before the options flag. You should only need to use the export 1 message once, whenever you start using a new exporter. While you're using the same exporter, the jit.qt.movie object will remember the options after you've specified them the first time. Try clicking the message box export now. No Dialog Box will appear for the exporter options, and the file will be exported with the same options as before. Alternatively, you can use the exportsettings and exportimagesettings messages to set up an exporter without having to perform an actual export. You should see a progress Dialog Box appear briefly. When it disappears, you can check in the Max Window to verify that the operation was successful--jit.qt.movie will send the message export myfile 1 if it was. (The number will not be 1 if there was a problem.) If you switch to the Finder and look in the folder where you chose to save the Image Sequence, you should see several files, named sequentially. You've successfully exported your movie as an Image Sequence. Open a couple of the files up and verify that they show different frames. Returning to Max, click on the message box export fulldialog. The fulldialog argument is another flag to the export message, telling the jit.qt.movie object to open the full QuickTime export dialog, which permits you to set file name, exporter and exporter options all at once. Technical Detail: When you use the fulldialog flag, jit.qt.movie won't know which exporter you chose while inside the Dialog Box. In order for the jit.qt.movie object to remember what your current exporter is, you must use the exporter message. The jit.textfile Object Had enough? Sorry--there's more, but let's take a little break from image data. Jitter matrices can be used to manage all sorts of data, including text. The jit.textfile object provides a convenient interface for importing and exporting text files to and from Jitter. Once you've imported a text file, you can edit it, or send it to other objects for further processing or display as you would with any Jitter matrix. Or you might export a Jitter- generated text file, and continue to work on it in your word processor. In this section, we're going to take a quick look at the jit.textfile object's import and export abilities. You may recall from the What Is A Matrix? chapter that one of Jitter's data types, char, is the size of a single character. With the notable exception of certain complex character sets (such as Japanese), 162 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices most languages use the char type for computer representation. The correspondence between the numbers and letters has been standardized in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, usually referred to as ASCII. One of the interesting things about the ASCII code is that the regular characters used in the English alphabet can be represented in less than half of the space available to the char type (26 uppercase plus 26 lowercase plus 10 numerals is only 62 characters, compared to the 256 different values that chars can represent). Furthermore, all of these regular characters fall in the first half of the char range (specifically, between 32 and 126). The following example patch will take advantage of that fact. String processing in Jitter with jit.textfile 163 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices This patch sends encoded text messages via Jitter matrices. Here's how to use it: Let's begin by encoding a message. Choose an encode key--a password that will be used for encoding (and later, decoding) your message. Enter your encode key in the textedit object labeled "encode key". Enter the message you want to encode in the larger textedit object labeled "code text", at the top of the patch. For the purposes of this example, you should limit your message to regular English language characters--no accented characters, please. Press the button labeled make code to encode your text. This causes the contents of the two textedit objects to be sent to two jit.str.fromsymbol objects. These two objects convert the contents of their respective textedit objects from Max symbols into matrices. The resulting two matrices are then added using the addition mode of the jit.op object, producing a new encoded matrix that is then sent to the jit.textfile object, It doesn't matter that the two pieces of text (and therefore the two matrices) are different sizes. Jitter automatically scales the right-hand matrix of the jit.op object to the size of the left-hand matrix, stretching it or shrinking it as necessary. You might modify the test patch and use a jit.print object to view the output of each object, and then compare it against the output of jit.op, to see exactly what's happening. Double-click on the jit.textfile object. This causes the object's text editor window to open, displaying the encoded message. To verify that the encoding was successful, enter your encode key into the textedit object labeled "decode key", and click on the button labeled "read code". Your original message will appear in the textedit object at the bottom of the patch. We'll look at this process in a moment. Click the message box that says "write" to save the message to disk so you can retrieve it later to send to your secret message buddy (don't forget to give them the encode key!). A file Dialog Box will open, where you can enter a file name and click Save to save your message to a text file. You can open this text file with any text editor application. The write message takes an optional argument to specify a file name. There's a secret message waiting for you, too. Click the message box "read secret.txt". The read message reads a text file from disk. In this case, we're using its optional file name argument. Without that argument, a file Dialog Box would open, allowing you to locate a text file on your disk drive. Double-click on the jit.textfile object again, and verify that there's a new encoded message in the editor window. Close the editor window when you're ready. You can decode this message by entering the decode key Jitter in the textedit object labeled "decode key", and clicking on the button labeled "read code". Did you get our message? Like Max's Text object, jit.textfile will output a single line in response to the line message. In Jitter, the line will be sent as a string matrix. A string matrix is a matrix using the char data type with one dimension and one plane. The matrix is composed of a sequence of characters 164 Tutorial 20 Importing and Exporting Single Matrices ending with a zero (0). This is the format generated by jit.str.fromsymbol, and the format expected by jit.str.tosymbol. We're using the line 0 message to output the first line of jit.textfile (our encoded text) and send it to the jit.op object for decoding. The decoder simply reverses the encoding process--we use the subtraction mode of the jit.op object to subtract the key matrix from the encoded message matrix, leaving the original text. The decoded matrix, containing all the letters of the decoded text, is then sent to the jit.str.tosymbol object, where it is converted back into the form of an ordinary Max message, suitable for display in the textedit object. If we wanted this patch to work properly with extended Roman characters, such as accented letters, we'd need to make a couple of modifications. For extra credit, you might try to figure out a way to do that. Hint: the secret is in the op attribute to jit.op. Summary Jitter offers several methods for importing and exporting single matrices from and to disk. The jit.matrix object (and the jit.matrixset object, not demonstrated in this chapter) allow single matrices to be saved as single-frame QuickTime movies, using the same parameters as the jit.qt.record object's write message. The jit.matrix and jit.matrixset objects also support the Jitter binary (.jxf) format-- an uncompressed format specially suited to Jitter matrices. The jit.qt.movie object's exportimage message lets you export a matrix as a single frame image in any of a number of image formats, and the export message lets you store video frames as an Image Sequence. In addition to images, Jitter matrices can be used to manage other kinds of data, such as text. The jit.textfile object provides a convenient interface for importing and exporting text files to and from Jitter matrices. The jit.str.tosymbol and jit.str.fromsymbol objects provide conversion between Max symbols and string matrices. These objects provide one of the means by which data can be translated to and from Jitter's matrix data format. 165 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input This tutorial demonstrates how to use Jitter in conjunction with a QuickTime-compatible image capture device--such as a webcam, a DV camera, or a PCI video input card--to grab video sequences and use them as matrices, or record them directly to disk. We can also use Jitter to record sound directly to disk as a QuickTime movie. At this time, the jit.qt.grab object requires a 3rd party QuickTime VDIG component under Windows. We are currently aware of two: WinVDIG (free, http://www.vdig.com/WinVDIG/) Abstract Plane (~$40 USD, http://www.abstractplane.com/products/vdig.jsp) The jit.qt.grab object will not function with most Windows-ready devices without one of these installed in your system. The Basics of Sequence Grabbing When we capture video images from an input device, we are actually working with a sequence of images. In Tutorial 20, we created a sequence of images using the export operation of the jit.qt.movie object. This time, we'll use the jit.qt.grab object to grab a sequence of images. The jit.qt.grab object provides an interface to one of QuickTime's components--the general mechanism used by QuickTime to extend its functionality. Components can include software modules that provide interfaces for new video codecs, or an interface between software and various kinds of hardware, or tasks like image capture and sound output. We've already used a QuickTime component in Tutorial 20 when we used the export message, and we'll be looking at other QuickTime component-based Jitter objects in the next several tutorials.. The patch examples in this Tutorial assume that you have a QuickTime-compatible image capture device powered on and attached to your computer. 166 Tutorial 21 First Grab Working With Live Video and Audio Input Open the tutorial patch 21jSequenceGrabbers.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Grab it like you want it Notice that the jit.qt.grab object takes two arguments (320 and 240) that specify the width and height of the matrix output by the object. They also represent the dimensions of the internal buffer into which any captured data will be placed. The matrix will always be a 4-plane char matrix. Click the message box that says getvdevlist. This message causes the jit.qt.grab object to search for available video capture devices. The jit.qt.grab object will then send the names of any devices it finds out the right outlet in the form of a list preceded by the symbol vdevlist. In our patch, we're using iter to break the list up, and placing the device names in an ubumenu. Our list only has one item, DV Video, but yours may include different items. Click on the ubumenu and select the device you'd like to use. This causes the message box that says vdevice $1 to send the index of the selected video capture device (which is the same as its position in the ubumenu) to the jit.qt.grab object. If you don't explicitly choose a vdevice, the jit.qt.grab object defaults to the first selection in the list (equivalent to sending a vdevice 0 message) when it opens the component connection. Click on the message box that says open. The open message tells the jit.qt.grab object to open a connection to the sequence grabber component--to create a component instance--for the video capture device you've selected. Until you send the open message, the jit.qt.grab object will simply output its last matrix when you send it a bang or outputmatrix message--no sequence grabbing will occur. 167 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input Click on the toggle attached to the metro object, to start sending bang messages to the jit.qt.grab object. You should now see your captured video signal in the jit.pwindow. If you don't see your video signal, check the Max Window and see if the jit.qt.grab object reported any errors. It may be possible that your device is in use by another application, or that it has gone to sleep (our video camera sleeps after about 3 minutes of non-use, for example). If your device supports multiple inputs, read on. If you have multiple devices connected to your computer, you can use the vdevice attribute to switch between them, even after sending the open message to the jit.qt.grab object. To close the component connection, click on the message box that says close. Leave this patch open; we'll return to it in a moment. Switching Between Inputs The video capture device you're using may support several different inputs. For instance, a CapSure Card supports s-video and composite inputs, and an ATI Rage 128 Pro supports s-video, composite and tuner inputs. FireWire DV generally supports a single input. In this section, we'll learn how to list those inputs and switch between them. Re-open the jit.qt.grab object's component connection by clicking on the message box that says open. Click on the message box that says getinputlist. This causes the jit.qt.grab object to send a list of available inputs for your chosen device out the right outlet preceded by the symbol inputlist. The patch breaks this list up using the iter object and sends it to the ubumenu on the right of the patch. 168 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input Click on the rightmost ubumenu to see a list of inputs available to your device. Our DV camera reports that it has one input: YUV component (DV). Our CapSure card reports composite and s-video inputs, as shown in the screen shot: Setting device inputs To change your input, select an item from the ubumenu. This causes the message box that says input $1 to send the index of the selected input (which is the same as its position in the ubumenu) to the jit.qt.grab object, which will switch to your selection. If you don't explicitly choose an input, the jit.qt.grab object defaults to the first selection in the list (equivalent to sending an input 0 message) when it opens the component connection. You should now see your captured video signal (from your chosen input) in the jit.pwindow. When you're done, click the message box that says close to close the component connection. Some video capture devices don't work properly in the jit.qt.grab object's default mode (vmode 0, or sequence grabber mode). If you find that the jit.qt.grab object is acting erratically, try sending it the message vmode 1 (vdig mode). This enables a method of video capture that is more reliable on certain capture devices. Grabbing for Quality For webcams, the normal operating mode of the jit.qt.grab object provides speed and good quality. For other higher resolution capture devices such as analog video-capture boards or DV 169 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input cameras, we'd like to be able to adjust the quality of the sequence grabber to get the most out of them. High quality mode, with source and destination rects Double-click on the p device_input subpatcher. The Patcher window that opens contains everything you need to set your vdevice and input settings. Once you've done this, close the subpatch window. Click the message box that says open to start the component connection. Click on the toggle attached to the metro object. You should now see your captured video signal (from your chosen input) in the jit.pwindow. To enable high quality mode, we need to send the message vmode 2 to the jit.qt.grab object. Enter the numeral 2 in the number box attached to the message box that says vmode $1. If your 170 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input capture device supports a high quality mode, you'll probably see the image in the jit.pwindow change slightly. If your device does not support high quality mode (vmode 2), you may see no change, or some undesirable result, like distorted image proportions or noise. Should this occur, return to sequence grabber or vdig mode (vmode 0 or vmode 1) and skip the rest of this section. To compare the different quality modes and settings, let's zoom in on a detail of the captured signal. Click on the toggle attached to the message box that says usesrcrect $1. Sending the message usesrcrect 1 causes the jit.qt.grab object to capture only the portion of the input signal specified by the source rectangle attribute, srcrect. By default, the srcrect attribute is set to the full frame of the input signal. Change the values of the number box objects attached to the pak srcrect 0 0 320 240 object. This will generate a message to set the srcrect attribute. The srcrect message arguments refer to the left x, top y, right x and bottom y coordinates of the input frame, respectively. You should see the image changing to reveal only the portion of the input frame you specify. For best results, choose two numbers that have the same 4:3 aspect ratio as the input frame. Let's do some comparisons. First, switch the vmode setting back to 0 or 1, depending on what you were using before (reminder: vmode 1 (vdig mode) is only necessary and supported on specific capture devices). Compare the image quality to vmode 2 (high quality mode). On our system, using a DV camera, the image becomes noticeably crisper, and aliased edges are tightened up. Click on the ubumenu object. The object contains a list of available quality settings for vmode 2 (the settings have no effect in sequence grabber and vdig modes). Choosing an item from the ubumenu will cause the item's index number to be sent to the jit.qt.grab object, via the message box that says codecquality $1. Select some different quality settings, and observe the changes-- both in terms of image quality and frame rate (displayed on the jit.fpsgui object). The default setting for codecquality is max (equivalent to sending a codecquality max or codecquality 4 message to the jit.qt.grab object). You should experiment with your hardware to determine the best settings for your system. For example, using the vmode 2 in conjunction with the codecquality min and codecquality low modes actually looks worse than vmode 0 on our system. While vmode 2 offers control over the capture quality, it will not necessarily improve the image quality over the jit.qt.grab object's default capture mode. You can also specify the portion of the output matrix the captured frame will occupy--a destination rectangle--with the dstrect attribute. To enable the destination rectangle, click on the toggle attached to the message box that says usedstrect $1. By default, the destination rectangle is set to the dimensions of the jit.qt.grab object's output matrix. Change the values of the number box objects attached to the pak dstrect 0 0 320 240 object. As with the srcrect message, the dstrect message arguments refer to the left x, top y, right x and 171 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input bottom y coordinates of the output matrix. You should see the image changing to occupy only the portion of the output matrix you specify. Notice that the pak object is connected to a t l clear object, which causes a clear message to be sent to the jit.qt.grab object before sending the dstrect message. You could modify the patch to see what happens if you don't send the clear message. When you're done, click the message box that says close to close the component connection. Grabbing to Disk You can save grabbed sequences directly to disk as a QuickTime movie, if you prefer. When you do this, the jit.qt.grab object writes straight to the hard disk without sending out any matrix output. With only a few minor differences, this process is similar to the one described in Tutorial 19. But this time, we'll be recording audio, too. You should quit or disable any applications or settings that interrupt processing on your machine while recording to disk, such as Internet applications or network filesharing. 172 Tutorial 21 Grabbing Video to Disk Working With Live Video and Audio Input Grabbing to disk We've encapsulated the vmode, srcrect and dstrect settings we just looked at in the p mode_rect subpatch. You can access them by double-clicking on the object if you'd like to change them. Note, however, that the vmode attribute does not affect the grab to disk operation. Double-click on the p device_input subpatch. The Patcher window that opens contains everything you need to set your vdevice and input settings. Once you've done this, close the subpatch window. Click the open message box to start the component connection. Click on the toggle attached to the metro object. You should now see the captured video signal from your chosen input in the jit.pwindow. The jit.qt.grab object, by default, has its write_video attribute set to on (1). To reflect this, we've used loadbang to turn on the toggle attached to the message box that says write_video $1. If you 173 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input wanted to disable writing video and only write audio, you would send a write_video 0 message and a write_audio 1 message to the jit.qt.grab object. For now, leave the toggle connected to the message box that says write_audio $1 turned off (by default, the write_audio attribute is set to off (0)). Click on the write grabfile.mov 15. jpeg normal message box. You've probably noticed that this message looks like the write message that we send to jit.qt.record object to start recording. Except for the lack of a timescale argument, the write message to the jit.qt.grab object is formatted identically--grabfile.mov is the file name, 15. refers to the output movie's frame rate, jpeg specifies the Photo-JPEG codec, and normal specifies normal codec quality. All of the arguments are optional; if we omit the file name, a file Dialog Box will appear. The remaining settings, if omitted, will retain their previous values. If there are no previous values, the default values for the capture device will be used. Technical detail: There is an important difference in the formatting of the write message to the jit.qt.grab object if you plan to record separate video and audio (split) files. For more information, consult the Object Reference entry and help file for the jit.qt.grab object. Recording begins immediately after you send the write message. While we are recording, the jit.qt.grab object doesn't output any matrices. We can tell because the jit.fpsgui object's display isn't changing. You can use the write_preview attribute to switch matrix output on and off while recording. The write_preview attribute is off (set to 0) by default. Click on the toggle attached to the message box that says write_preview $1 to enable matrix output while recording. Your recordings will be smoother if you leave write_preview off. Click the message box that says stop to stop the grab to disk operation, but leave the patch open. The jit.qt.grab object sends a message out its right outlet after a write operation to confirm that the movie was successfully recorded. Since we've connected that outlet to a print object in our patch, we can see the results by looking at the Max Window. If everything went as expected, you should see print: write grabfile.mov 1 in the Max Window. We can also record sound to disk using the technique just described. There are two ways to choose the sound device for a jit.qt.grab object: 1. Use the snddevice and sndinput messages to set sound device and sound device input. This method is very similar to the method we used to list the video devices and inputs, except that we use the getsnddevlist and getsndinputlist messages instead of the getvdevlist and getinputlist messages. 2. Use the Operating System's sound control panel to adjust all of the device and input settings at once. 174 Tutorial 21 Working With Live Video and Audio Input While this is the method we're going to use for this tutorial, you might find it instructive to try making an altered copy of the example patch for the message-based method. You can use the p device_input subpatcher as a model. There is a Video Settings Dialog Box available for changing video device and input settings, as well. You can access it by sending the settings message to the jit.qt.grab object. Click the message box that says snd_settings. The sound control panel will appear. Using the pop-up menus and other controls, adjust the sound input settings to your preference. Close the Dialog Box by clicking OK. Click on the toggle attached to the message box that says write_audio $1 to enable audio for the grab to disk operation. Click the write grabfile+snd.mov 15. jpeg normal message box. The recording will begin immediately as before, but sound will also be recorded to the movie. Click the message box that says stop to end the recording. Locate the movie on your hard drive, and open it in QuickTime Player (or Max, if you prefer) to verify that sound was recorded with the movie. Click the close message box to close the component connection. If you investigate the Sound and Video Settings Dialog Boxes, you will notice that both offer numerous options for controlling the input settings of each device--brightness, saturation, gain, etc. All of these parameters may be modified directly from Max/Jitter, although it's beyond the scope of this tutorial to describe their operation. Please refer to the Object Reference entry and help file for the jit.qt.grab object for more information. Summary The jit.qt.grab object allows you to grab images from any QuickTime-compatible video input device. The object offers both Max-based and Dialog Box interfaces for listing devices and inputs, switching between them, and controlling image quality. The srcrect and dstrect attributes can be used to crop and position a captured image within a Jitter matrix. The jit.qt.grab object also provides a mechanism for recording video and sound directly to disk as a QuickTime movie. 175 Tutorial 22 Working With Video Output Components Important Note: Video output components support is only available for the Macintosh at the present time. This tutorial demonstrates how to use Jitter in conjunction with a QuickTime-compatible video output device--such as a DV camera--to send matrices and video sequences directly to hardware, bypassing your computer's analog video output. We'll explore the jit.qt.videoout object, and return to the jit.qt.movie object to explore its video output capabilities. The patch examples in this tutorial assume that you have a DV camera attached to your computer's FireWire port, powered on and in VTR mode. However, the techniques described will work with any device that has a QuickTime video output component. End of the Line You can place the jit.qt.videoout object as the final object in a Jitter patch and send processed Jitter matrices directly to a video output device. You'll find that this process is very similar in operation to the jit.qt.grab object that we used in the previous tutorial. The jit.qt.grab and jit.qt.videoout objects both require that you create a component connection before they can do their work. In the case of the jit.qt.videoout object, that means a connection to a video output device. And, as in the previous tutorial, we'll need to specify the settings we want to use by creating a listing of all our available devices and output modes and choose the settings we want before we use the jit.qt.videoout object. Since we're already familiar with that procedure from working with the jit.qt.grab object in the last tutorial, using the jit.qt.videoout object will be easy. 176 Tutorial 22 Working With Video Output Components Open the tutorial patch 22jVideoOutput.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. jit.qt.videoout in action Click the read dozer.mov message box to read an example movie. Take a moment and look at the patch. By now, you should be familiar with the processes we're using to transform the movie: we separate out a single plane of a matrix using the jit.unpack object, and sent it to the jit.op object. You'll notice that the jit.op and the jit.rota objects are using named matrices to communicate between the jit.rota object's output matrix and the jit.op object's right input matrix without using any patch cords. Yep--it's the cool Jitter feedback loop in action. Turn on the toggle attached to the metro object to start the patch. You'll notice that jit.qt.videoout appears to have no effect. Until we send it an open message, the object simply passes any matrix received via its inlet directly to its outlet. Don't click the open message box just yet--we still have some setup work to do. 177 Tutorial 22 Working With Video Output Components Click the message box that says getvoclist. Sending a getvoclist message to the jit.qt.videoout object causes it to send out its right outlet a list of messages preceded by the symbol voclist. The items in this list refer to each available video output component -- voc, for short. This list of available video outputs is routed through an iter object and from there into the ubumenu on the left, from which we can easily make our selection. On our system, the list contains a single item: FireWire. If the video output component is registered with QuickTime, it will appear in the voclist and can be opened even if the hardware isn't available. If there is no hardware available, the jit.qt.videoout object will report a 200 error in the Max window when you send matrices to it. Important Note: Video output component support is only available for the Macintosh at the present time. Select the FireWire output component from the ubumenu. This causes the item's index number (which is the same as its position in the ubumenu) to be sent to the jit.qt.videoout object, via the voc $1 message. If you don't select anything, the first item in the list will be used as the default component. This is equivalent to sending the message voc 0 to the jit.qt.videoout object. Click on the message box that says getvocmodes to retrieve a list of available modes for the output component you chose. The resulting list, preceded by the symbol vocmodes, is routed through iter and into the righthand ubumenu. Our list contains two items: Apple FireWire NTSC and Apple FireWire PAL. Select the output mode you'd like to use from the ubumenu. Your selection will depend on your FireWire hardware--our camera is NTSC, so we're using Apple FireWire NTSC mode. This causes the item's index number (which is the same as its position in the ubumenu), to be sent to the jit.qt.videoout object, via the vocmode $1 message box. If you don't select anything, the first item in the list will be used as the default mode. This is equivalent to sending the message vocmode 0 to the jit.qt.videoout object. Now we're ready to start sending data to our output device. Click the open message box to start the component connection. After a few moments, you should see the same image on your device's display as you see in the jit.pwindow in the patch. If you are getting errors in the Max window, and not seeing any video on your hardware device, check to make sure that your device hasn't gone to sleep. We have control over other aspects of the output, too. While the specific codec we use is hardware-specific (Apple FireWire always uses the DV codec for output, for example), we do have control over the codec quality of our output. Try selecting different values in the ubumenu connected to the codecquality $1 message and compare the results on your output device. You should be able to improve speed at the expense of a small loss in image quality by using the Minimum Quality (codecquality 0) or Low Quality (codecquality 1) settings. The default is Normal Quality (codecquality 2). 178 Tutorial 22 Just Passing Through Working With Video Output Components If you want to send a movie directly from your disk drive to an output device and you don't need to process any of your data using Jitter, you can use the jit.qt.movie object. You would typically want to do this only when the movie on your disk is already in the proper format for the video output component you're using--for example, if you're using a FireWire output device, the file should be already be compressed with the DV codec at the standard image resolution and frame rate. Using jit.qt.movie with output components While using jit.qt.movie with output components doesn't look very different from using the jit.qt.videoout object, there is one important difference: The jit.qt.movie object doesn't use the open or close messages. You send the jit.qt.movie object a voc message with an argument of 0 or greater to open a component connection, and close the connection and return the jit.qt.movie to normal operation by sending the message voc 1. The argument to the voc message specifies the output component, just as with jit.qt.videoout. Other than that, the two objects access video output components identically. Click the message box that says read to load a DV-encoded QuickTime movie from your disk drive. These usually have the file extension .dv at the end of their file name. Because these movies tend to be large, we've chosen to not include one with the tutorial package. Click on the toggle object attached to the metro. Your movie will be shown in the jit.pwindow. You may notice that the display is skipping frames; that's because DV movies contain a lot of 179 Tutorial 22 Working With Video Output Components data. Don't worry--the playback will improve when we switch to the video output component. Technical note: Playback improves when we switch to the video output component because the movie is no longer being decompressed in software before it's displayed--it's passing directly to the hardware where it is processed (as necessary) there. Use the getvoclist and getvocmodes message box objects and the ubumenu objects to select your preferred device and output mode as we did in the previous chapter. When you set the output device (via the voc $1 message box), the movie will stop playing in the jit.pwindow, and should begin playing on the display of your output device. If your DV movie includes sound, the sound will play on the output device, as well. If your movie is correctly encoded for your output device, playback will be smooth. Click the message box that says voc 1 to disconnect from the output component. Playback will return to normal mode, and the movie should display in the jit.pwindow object again. Important: You may have noticed that the jit.qt.movie object that we've created has dimensions of 320x240, even though DV movies are generally 720x480. When we switch to the output component, the movie is sent to your selected output device at the movie's native size, without regard for the dimensions of the jit.qt.movie object's output matrix. Summary The jit.qt.videoout object provides a way to send processed Jitter data directly to a device supported by QuickTime video output components--such as a DV camera--over FireWire. If you don't require Jitter processing and would like to send a properly encoded QuickTime movie directly from your disk drive to a supported output device, use the voc message to the jit.qt.movie object. 180 Tutorial 23 Controlling Your FireWire Camera This tutorial describes how to use Jitter to control the transport of a FireWire-based DV camera or deck using the jit.avc object. This object provides a simple interface for communicating between Jitter and your DV device, and lets you control and automate your FireWire DV device using the Max interface. AV/C (an abbreviation for Audio Video Control) is the official name for the protocol that communicates between a computer and an external device such as a DV camera. The exact specification used is called the AV/C Tape Recorder / Player Subunit. You can find a copy of the entire specification online at http://1394ta.org/Technology/Specifications/specifications.htm. The specification breaks the different types of transport controls you can use into three main groups: 1. The WIND group is used to move the media forward and backward, without playing it. WIND group commands include stop, fast forward and rewind. 2. The PLAY group contains commands used to play media while moving forward or backward at various speeds. Examples include play, pause, slow forward and slow reverse. 3. The RECORD group is used to insert data on media. These three groups are fully implemented in the jit.avc object. Additionally, the object supports a custom message, which lets you send any command to your hardware, even those not directly supported by the jit.avc object. The patch examples in this tutorial assume that you have a DV camera or deck attached to your computer's FireWire port and powered on. Plug and Play The jit.avc object's hardware connection has to be explicitly opened and closed, as is the case for the jit.qt.grab and jit.qt.videoout objects we've used in the previous tutorials. Using the jit.avc object is a little simpler, though--it communicates only with a single type of device. 181 Tutorial 23 Basics Controlling Your FireWire Camera Open the tutorial patch 23jFWCameraControl.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. jit.avc and friends Click the getdevice message box. This causes the jit.avc object to look for a compatible device attached to your computer. If it finds one, the object sends the device's name from its outlet, preceded by the symbol device. With our Sony DV camera attached, jit.avc sends the message device Sony DV. In the patch, we're using the route and prepend objects to set the contents of the blank message box to the name of the located device. If jit.avc cannot find any compatible devices, an error message will be posted to the Max Window. If you receive an error message, double-check your cable connections between your camera/ deck and computer, and make sure that the device is powered on. Click the message box that says open. This causes jit.avc to open a connection to the device it found. Technical note: We don't need to do any configuration prior to sending the open message to the jit.avc object. Unlike objects like jit.qt.grab and jit.qt.videoout, which can switch between multiple input or output devices, jit.avc communicates with a single "device"--the DV component-- which supports a single piece of hardware. 182 Tutorial 23 PLAY and WIND groups (VTR mode) Controlling Your FireWire Camera This portion of the tutorial assumes that you have a DV cassette (with data already recorded on it) loaded in your device, and that you are in VTR mode. Use the play, stop, pause, rewind and ff message box objects (one at a time) and observe the behavior of your FireWire device. It should be responding as if you'd pressed those buttons on the unit itself. Click on the ubumenu object to view a partial list of PLAY group messages. These messages consist of the word play followed by an additional symbol describing the specific type of PLAY group operation. Double-click on the p avc_play_commands subpatch to see brief descriptions of the messages we've placed in the ubumenu. A full list of supported messages can be found in the Object Reference entry for the jit.avc object. Use the ubumenu to send a few of these messages to the jit.avc object to check their effect. To check the current tape time, click the gettime message box. This causes the jit.avc object to send the current time from its outlet as a list of four integers preceded by the symbol time. We're using route and unpack objects to display those integers in the number box objects at the bottom of the patch. The numbers represent hours, minutes, seconds and frames, respectively. Click the message box that says close to turn off the connection between jit.avc and your DV device. 183 Tutorial 23 Avez-vous le Temps? Controlling Your FireWire Camera The following patch uses the gettime message to do something useful--it causes an attached DV device to play the first minute of a loaded tape, and then rewinds and starts over. You might use a patch like this to automate a video installation, for example. Automating DV transport with jit.avc Make sure that you have at least 1 minute of recorded material on your loaded DV cassette. Otherwise, the patch won't work properly. Modifying the patch to perform error checking would probably be an instructive exercise for the motivated reader. Click on the message box that says open to open the connection between the jit.avc object and your device. Click on the toggle attached to the metro object. This causes two things to happen: the trigger object causes a rewind message to be sent to your device, and the metro is turned on, sending a gettime message to jit.avc every 100ms. We're using the route object to send jit.avc object's response message (time [hour] [minute] [second] [frame]) to the unpack object at the top of the patch. The individual time values are unpacked, 184 Tutorial 23 Controlling Your FireWire Camera multiplied and added to determine the total number of frames that the current time represents. Actually, our frame count is a little inaccurate. DV time has 29.97 frames per second, not 30. For simplicity, we've rounded up. For the purposes of this exercise, the math is close enough. Next, we test the frame count against the numbers 0 and 18122115 using the select object. Why? When a DV device can't find time code (which is the case when it's fully rewound and stopped), it reports the current time as either 0 0 0 0 or 165 165 165 165, depending on the device model. Since (0 * 10800) + (0 * 1800) + (0 * 30) + 0 = 0, and (165 * 10800) + (165 * 1800) + (165 + 30) + 165 = 1812215, we can use these numbers to determine if the tape has been fully rewound. If our frame count does equal 0 or 1812215, then we send a bang message to the play message box to start playback. The jit.avc object also offers an advanced message called gettransport that reports the exact state of the device's transport using special numerical codes, which we might have used in preference to the method above. For our purposes, though, this is fine, and a little bit cleaner. For more information on gettransport, refer to the Object Reference entry and help file for the jit.avc object. If our frame count does not equal 0 or 1812215, then we are either rewinding or playing. Now, we want to make sure that we stop playing after approximately one minute, or 1800 frames (60 seconds * 30 frames). We test the frame count against 1800 with the > 1800 object and, if it sends out a 1, the sel 1 object will bang the rewind message box and start the process all over again--that's all there is to it. When you're ready, turn off the toggle. This will both disable the metro and send a final rewind message to your DV device, just for neatness. Click on the message box that says close to close the connection between jit.avc and your device. Some FireWire DV devices support an additional message, time, which causes the device to wind to the specified location on a loaded tape (the location is described by four integers, in the same format as noted above). DV cameras do not support this message, generally speaking. Please refer to the help file for the jit.avc object for an example of building an auto-wind function in Max. RECORD Group If your DV device is a camera, it likely has two modes of operation: VTR mode and Camera mode. VTR mode is used for tape playback and non-camera (line-level) recording. Camera mode is used for recording directly from the camera portion of the unit. In VTR mode, all of the PLAY and WIND group commands are available, plus the RECORD group. In Camera mode, only the RECORD group commands are available (since you can't rewind while recording!). You can use either mode for this portion of the tutorial. 185 Tutorial 23 Controlling Your FireWire Camera The RECORD group provides two primary messages: record and recpause. The record message starts recording, while the recpause message places the unit into record pause mode. Time-lapse with the jit.avc object This simple little patch is all that's necessary to set up time-lapse recording with jit.avc. It records 1 second of material every 30 seconds. Let's go through it: Click the message box that says open to start the connection between jit.avc and your DV device. Before we turn it on, let's examine the patch to see what's going to happen. Every second, the metro object will send a bang message to the counter. When the counter hits 0, the sel 0 object will output a bang message, first to the record message, and then to the delay object. After the specified delay (we've chosen 1000 ms.), the recpause message will be sent to jit.avc. We've supplied some number box objects so that you can change the counter and delay values. Make sure that your DV device is receiving input (either from its built-in camera, or from a line-level source). Then, turn on the toggle attached to the metro, and watch your DV device for a few minutes--time-lapse videography was never so easy! When you're ready, turn off the toggle and click the message box that says close to close the connection between jit.avc and your DV device. Summary The jit.avc object provides a way to control and automate your FireWire DV device, such as a DV camera or deck, using the Max interface. It offers complete control over the WIND, PLAY and RECORD group commands. 186 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects This tutorial describes the basic operation of the jit.qt.effect object--Jitter's interface to Apple's QuickTime Effects architecture. We'll learn how to set up and configure the object, discuss the difference and use of tweenable and non-tweenable parameters and apply a few effects to Jitter matrices. We'll also learn how to create QuickTime Effects tracks inside of movies. QuickTime contains a large number of built-in effects, including transitions (wipes and fades), filters and standalone (render) effects, collected under the general system known as QuickTime Effects. While QuickTime Effects are slow compared to many of Jitter's transitions and filters, there are some unique effects available that Jitter does not include. The other difference between using QuickTime Effects and Jitter filters is that QuickTime Effects can be embedded as tracks inside a QuickTime movie, in a similar way as audio or video tracks. The QuickTime Effects architecture uses a single interface to support a wide variety of different effects, each of which may require different numbers of parameters and parameter types-- QuickTime Effects use the same interface to describe effects which don't use any input sources at all (such as the Fire or Cloud effects), effects which require a single input source (such as Blur or Gain) and effects that require two inputs (such as the Chromakey effect). So it should come as no surprise that the jit.qt.effect object is one of the most complex objects in the Jitter package. But don't worry--we'll be taking it one step at a time in this tutorial. The Dialog Box Interface The quickest and easiest way to access QuickTime Effects and to become acquainted with them is to use QuickTime's standard Dialog Interface. The following patch will let you do just that. 187 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects Open the tutorial patch 24jQTEffectsDialogInterface.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Exploding QuickTime effects By clicking on both of the message box objects that say read, load QuickTime movies into the two jit.qt.movie objects. Turn on the toggle attached to the metro object to start the patch. You will see your movies in the two smaller jit.pwindow objects. On the larger jit.pwindow object, you should see the lefthand movie. Since we haven't actually selected a QuickTime effect, the jit.qt.effect object is just passing the matrix received in its left inlet through its outlet. 188 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects Click on the dialog message box. This causes the jit.qt.effect object to display the standard QuickTime Effects Dialog Box. You can select any available effect, and set any of the parameters for it. Here's an example of what the Dialog box looks like under QuickTime version 5--we've selected the Explode effect: The QuickTime 5 Effects Standard Dialog Box interface All available QuickTime Effects are shown in the scrollable window on the left. Your list may look slightly different from this example--especially if you've added extra effects to your system. As you select different items from the list, the preview window on the bottom-left of the patch changes to show you an example of what the effect does. The adjustable parameters for the effect are shown on the right part of the window. Go ahead and try a few different effects, and experiment with different parameters. Choose an effect, set the parameters, and click on the OK button to see your changes in the patch. To try another effect, just click on the dialog message box again and choose another effect. Note that some of the effects use both matrix inputs to jit.qt.effect, some only use one, and some don't use the incoming matrix at all, except for timing purposes. You'll notice that a number of effects offer two values for each parameter. For instance, in the Explode effect's parameter panel shown above, all three parameters have two values. These are known as tweenable parameters, because the effect will interpolate between the two values 189 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects entered. If you look at the jit.qt.effect object in our patch, you'll notice that it has a typed-in value of 60 for the steps attribute, indicating that any tweened parameters should interpolate over 60 steps (60 incoming matrices). We'll discuss tweened parameters in more detail later on in this tutorial. When you've had your fill of the QuickTime Effects Dialog Box, click on the toggle to turn off the patch. To the Max Every effect and option that you saw in the QuickTime Effects Dialog Box is available when using Jitter, too. Here's where things become a little bit complicated, and here's where we can help you out. While you were experimenting with the last patch, you probably noticed that each effect had a different number of parameters, each with completely different parameter types. For example, let's compare the Blur and Cloud effects. The Blur filter effect has one parameter in the form of an enumerated list of values (the menu), while the Cloud render effect has three parameters--two of which specify RGB colors, and the third of which is a floating-point number representing the degree of rotation. How will you know how many QuickTime Effects parameters you need to control, and what kind of data you need to send for each one? We've created a patch we hope you'll use if you want to use QuickTime Effects from with Jitter. Our patch handles all the QuickTime Effects information by listing all the variables on the fly, as you make selections in Jitter. We've created an interface in the Max patch that interprets this information in a clear way that you can use and adapt for your own purposes. You should feel free to use our patch--at least until you're comfortable enough to make something similar for yourself. We promise it will save you a lot of hassle and frustration. In the jitter-examples folder installed with Jitter, you'll find a whole set of QuickTime Effects helper patches, in the folder jit.qtfx.helpers. Each of these patches isolates and documents the functionality of a single QuickTime Effect--and we've made helper patches for all of them. You can use these helper patches as though they were normal Jitter objects, and ease your entry into the rich but complex world of QuickTime Effects. Listing and Loading Effects To generate a list of available effects using jit.qt.effect, we use the geteffectlist message. This causes a series of messages to be sent out the object's right outlet, one message for each available effect. Each of these messages is in the format effectlist [index] [name] [code], where index is an index number (starting at 0), name is the plain English name for the effect, and code is a 4-letter code used to describe the effect. Open the tutorial patch 24jQTEffectsMaxInterface.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Don't worry about the jit.qt.movie objects for now. Let's start by looking at the other parts of the patch first. 190 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects Click on the message box that says geteffectlist. We're using a route object to separate out messages beginning with the symbol effectlist, formatting the messages with sprintf, and then appending them to the ubumenu. Click on the ubumenu to see the list of available effects. It should contain the same items as the list that appeared on the left side of the QuickTime Effects Dialog Box. To load an effect for use in jit.qt.effect, we use the loadeffect message. The loadeffect message takes a single argument, which can be either the index number or the 4-letter code of the desired effect. In this example, we're using the effect's index number (which is the same as the item's position in the ubumenu) to load effects into jit.qt.effect via the loadeffect $1 message. Now that we've loaded our effect, it's time to list and specify the parameters for our effect. Parameter Types Let's take a moment and look over the various parameter types used by QuickTime Effects. When the jit.qt.effect object reports available parameters, it describes the type of each parameter and any limitations placed on the values. You'll need this information to set the parameters properly. The types are: long: (long integer) an integer value fixed: (fixed-point) floating-point value, usually between 0. and 1.0. double: (double-precision floating point) floating-point value rgb: (RGB color) 3 integers between 0 and 255, describing an RGB color bool: (Boolean) an integer value, 0 or 1 enum: (enumerated list) a list of integer indices, in which each index is associated with a specific value (the indices are not necessarily consecutive) text: (text) This type is not currently supported from Max (you can use effects with text parameters from the Dialog Box) imag: (image) This type is not currently supported from Max (you can use effects with image parameters from the Dialog Box) Listing Parameters To generate a list of available parameters for your selected effect, we use the getparamlist message. This causes a series of messages to be sent out the jit.qt.effect object's right outlet, one message for each available parameter, plus a "header message". 191 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects The header message is sent first. It is in the format paramhead [name] [code] [params] [sources], where name is the plain English name for the effect, code is the 4-letter code, params is the number of parameters the effect has, and sources is the number of input sources used by the effect. Although some QuickTime Effects report the ability to use 3 sources, the jit.qt.effect object only supports up to 2-source effects at present. After the header message comes the series of parameter messages, in the format paramlist [index] [name] [code] [tween] [type] [variable]. The index argument is the index number of the parameter (starting at 0), name is the plain English name of the parameter, code is the 4-letter code for the parameter, tween is an integer describing the parameter's tweenability (0 = always tween, 1 = never tween, 2 = optionally tween), type is the type of parameter (from the list above), and variable is zero or more additional arguments which indicate permitted values, depending on the parameter type. They are: long: [min (optional int)] [max (optional int)] fixed: [min (optional float)] [max (optional float)] double: [min (optional float)] [max (optional float)] rgb: rgb_range (which is just a reminder that RGB values are from 0 - 255) bool: none enum: [index (int)] [value (int /symbol)] ... (these repeat in pairs until all enumerated values are described) text: [max characters (optional int)] [max lines (optional int)] imag: none In Practice In our patch, when you select an effect from the ubumenu, a bang is automatically sent to the getparamlist message box. The subpatcher p interpret contains an algorithm that automatically 192 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects takes the information we've just described and formats it for readability (If you'd like to see how it works, double-click on the patcher object). Take a look at the portion of the patch shown above. The three outlets from the p interpret patcher are attached to the inlets of the three objects below--the message box, ubumenu and textedit object. The message box contains the formatted paramhead message. The ubumenu contains the formatted paramlist messages. The textedit object displays the additional parameter data. Above, you see the information reported for the Blur effect. We see that it's called `blur', has a 4-letter code of `blur', takes only one parameter and one source. Parameter 0, the first parameter, represents the amount of blurring, and has a 4-letter code of `ksiz'. This parameter is an enumerated list, and cannot be tweened. In the textedit object, we display the correspondence between the indices and their actual values. Choose a few other effects from the left-hand ubumenu, and see how the information displays change. Choose different parameters from the right-hand ubumenu to get a feel for how the different parameters are described. Making Changes to Parameters Load some movies into the two jit.qt.movie objects by clicking on the read message box objects and turn on the toggle attached to the metro to start the patch. In the left-hand ubumenu, choose the transition effect called `radial' (in our ubumenu, it's at index 24). Looking at the parameter display, we see that `radial' has seven parameters and takes 2 sources. In the jit.pwindow, you should see your left-hand movie playing. 193 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects The effect's first parameter is called `percentage'. It's a fixed-point parameter, and, by consulting the textedit object, we see that it takes a minimum value of 0, and a maximum value of 1. In the example patch, find the display pictured in the screen shot above. It's located toward the upper right of the patch. This is our parameter editor. The value in the blue number box represents the parameter number. We'll use the yellow number box objects to set values for the chosen parameter. Each time you change one of the yellow number box objects, the pak object sends a param message to jit.qt.effect to set the parameter values. We've set up the patch so that when you change the blue number box, the parameter information display automatically changes to display the parameter you've chosen. Behind the scenes, we're using another message to jit.qt.effect called getparam to retrieve the current values of the parameter. For now, let's just edit the first parameter. Make sure the blue number box is set to 0. Now, adjust the first yellow number box to values between 0 and 1. You should see the image in the jit.pwindow change as you do. The right-hand screen shot, above, shows an example. Change the parameter number to 1. From the information display, we see that parameter 1 is an enumerated list that controls the wipe type. You can scroll down in the textedit object to see the full list of types. Try entering different indices in the leftmost yellow number box to try them out. You can always switch back to parameter 0 to see the effect at different percentage values. 194 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects Let's skip to parameters 4 and 5 (parameters 2 and 3 control horizontal and vertical repeat values--feel free to try them out). Change to parameter 4 (border width, which takes a fixedpoint number between 0 and 20) and set the parameter value so that you see a border appear at the edge of the wipe. Now, change to parameter 5. This parameter sets the RGB color of the border. Using all three yellow number box objects, set the parameter to 0 255 0. The border should appear bright green, as pictured below. Finally, change to parameter 6, (soft edges). Parameter 6 is a Boolean value (the equivalent of a check box in the Dialog Box). If you set this parameter to 1 (on), the border will be drawn anti-aliased. You've now successfully negotiated jit.qt.effect and worked with every major parameter type. Tweening Like any other Jitter object, we use messages to control jit.qt.effect parameters using messages. Additionally, we can take advantage of QuickTime Effect's built-in support automatic interpolation between parameter values, or tweening. As we saw in the first part of this tutorial, using tweened parameters is fairly straightforward. Now, we're going to control them from Max. You'll recall that tweened parameters change from an initial value to a target value over a specified number of steps. Setting these values from a patch differs only slightly from the method we just used. Instead of setting parameters using the param message, we use a pair of messages, param_a and param_b, which represent the initial and target values, respectively. 195 Tutorial 24 Locate the portion of the patch shown in the screen shot, above. QuickTime Effects Select the `cloud' render effect from the left-hand ubumenu. The parameter information display should indicate that `cloud' has 3 parameters and takes no sources. If you quickly browse through the parameters, you'll see that they are all marked `tween-optional', which means that we can tween them all if we like. Let's set our initial values. Click on the blue ubumenu, and change the selection to param_a. This sets the first item in the pak object, so that any parameter changes are now sent to the jit.qt.effect object as a param_a message. The `cloud' effect's first parameter, parameter 0, sets the RGB color of the cloud. Let's go for red. Using the yellow number box objects, set this parameter's value to 255 0 0. Parameter 1 sets the RGB color of the background. Anyone for black? Set this parameter to 0 0 0. Parameter 2 sets the cloud's rotation. We'll set up a full rotation for this example. Change this parameter to 0. Click on the blue ubumenu again, and select param_b. We'll set target values now. Set the cloud color to blue (0 0 255), the background color to yellow (255 255 0) and the rotation to 360. To actually see our tweened parameters, change the number box connected to the message box that says steps $1. Look at that sky change! Saving and Loading Parameter Files QuickTime Effects supports a special file type that we use to save and retrieve effect parameters, called .qfx. We can use .qfx files to back up parameter configurations that we'd like to recall later, or to move a parameter set from one patch to another (or from one application to another--.qfx files use a standard file type that any program that utilizes QuickTime Effects should know how to read). In Jitter, we also use .qfx files to create QuickTime Effects tracks in the jit.qt.movie object. 196 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects Locate the message boxes shown in the screen shot below in the lower right of the patch. Since we're confident that you'll want to hold on to the settings we just entered for the `cloud' effect, let's save them to disk. Click on the qfx_write message box. A File Dialog box will appear. Enter a filename and click on the Save button to write your parameter file to disk. The qfx_write message also accepts an optional filename as an argument, if you'd like to bypass the File Dialog box. We use the qfx_read message to retrieve a .qfx file. Click on the message box that says qfx_read luv.qfx. Make sure you have two movies running in the patch, and that your steps attribute is set to a value greater than 0. It's a little present from us to you, because we love you so much. If you are using the QuickTime Effects Dialog Box interface to set your effect parameters, you can access the functionality of the qfx_read and qfx_write messages with the Load and Save buttons at the bottom left of the Dialog Box. Using QuickTime Effects in QuickTime Movies QuickTime Effects can be used as special tracks inside of movies. A QuickTime Effects track uses existing video tracks as sources (if applicable) and renders the effect in real time, while the movie plays. The jit.qt.movie object lets you add effect tracks to an existing movie by using .qfx files to describe the effect and its parameters. Open the tutorial patch 24jQTEffectMovieTracks.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Turn on the toggle attached to the metro object to start the patch. Click on the read track1.mov message box to read in an example movie. 197 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects To determine the number of tracks this movie contains, click the message box that says gettrackinfo. This causes one or more messages to be sent out the jit.qt.movie object's right outlet, beginning with the symbol trackinfo, followed by several arguments. The format of the message is trackinfo [track index] [track name] [track type] [track enabled] [track layer]. Let's take a moment to look at this message. It reads trackinfo 1 `unnamed video' video 1 0. Since there is only one message, we know there is one track in track1.mov, at index 1. It is an unnamed video track. It's enabled, and at layer 0. QuickTime layers are numbered from 32768 to 32767. Tracks at lower layers are displayed in front of tracks at higher layers. If two tracks are at the same layer, the track with the higher track index is displayed in front. When you create a new track, QuickTime assigns it a layer of 0. If we wanted to know, without a doubt, what the track layout of track2.mov is, we could send the message gettrackinfo track2.mov to jit.qt.movie. Most track query commands--messages beginning with gettrack--accept a remote source (a file on disk, a URL or data in RAM) as an initial argument. Click on the message box that says copy track2.mov track 1 track 1. This message finds the movie track2.mov, and copies its first track (which we happen to know is a video track) to a new track in our current movie (the 1 tells jit.qt.movie to create a new track). Because the new track has the same layer as the existing track (0, in this case), it is displayed in front. Click on the gettrackinfo message box again. You should see two messages printed in the Max Window, indicating that we now have two tracks in our movie: print: trackinfo 1 `unnamed video' video 1 0 print: trackinfo 2 `unnamed video' video 1 0 Let's insert luv.qfx as an effect track in this movie. Take a look at the addfxtrack dialog 0 0 1 2 message: This message causes jit.qt.movie to present a File Dialog Box, in which you can choose a .qfx file to import as an effect track (if we replaced the reserved symbol dialog with a the name of a file, the object would load the file specified). The message format is addfxtrack [filename] [offset] [duration] [source track A] [source track B]. The offset argument refers to the starting position of the 198 Tutorial 24 QuickTime Effects effect in the movie. The duration argument specifies the length of the effect (in QuickTime time values). The source track A and source track B arguments specify the source tracks, by track index. A duration argument of 0 causes jit.qt.movie to calculate a maximum duration for the effect. For a 0-source effect, this value is the length of the movie (minus any offset). For a 1-source effect, it's the length of the source track (minus any offset). For a 2-source effect, the value is the length of the shortest of the two source tracks (minus any offset). Click the message box that says addfxtrack dialog 0 0 1 2. Find luv.qfx and click the Open button in the File Dialog Box. You should immediately see the luv.qfx effect applied to the two movie tracks as the movie plays. Click the gettrackinfo message box one last time. You should see the following in your Max window: print: trackinfo 1 `unnamed video' video 1 0 print: trackinfo 2 `unnamed video' video 1 0 print: trackinfo 3 ___effect_src2 video 1 0 print: trackinfo 4 ___effect_src1 video 1 0 print: trackinfo 5 ___effect_track video 1 32768 Apparently, our movie has acquired some new tracks, hasn't it? Applying an effect track to a movie will create between one and three new tracks--one track for the effect itself (named ___effect_track), and one track for each of the source tracks (named ___effect_src1 and ___effect_src2). You shouldn't change the names of these tracks-- the jit.qt.movie object relies on these track names for the deletefxtrack message, as we'll see. We use the deletefxtrack message to remove effects tracks from a movie. Click on the message box that says deletefxtrack. This will remove any tracks with the reserved names discussed above. Summary The jit.qt.effect object provides an interface to Apple's QuickTime Effects architecture. The object permits control over QuickTime Effects using a standard Dialog Box, or with Max messages. The jit.qt.effect object permits control over tweenable parameters, and offers import and export with the .qxf file format. The jit.qt.movie object can use .qxf files to generate effect tracks for QuickTime movies. 199 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie Color Tracking There are many ways to analyze the contents of a matrix. In this tutorial chapter we demonstrate one very simple way to look at the color content of an image. We'll consider the problem of how to find a particular color (or range of colors) in an image, and then how to track that color as its position changes from one video frame to the next. This is useful for obtaining information about the movement of a particular object in a video or for tracking a physical gesture. In a more general sense, this technique is useful for finding the location of a particular numerical value (or range of values) in any matrix of data. The jit.findbounds Object The object that we'll use to find a particular color in an image is called jit.findbounds. Since we're tracking color in a video, we'll be analyzing--as you might expect--a 4-plane 2-dimensional matrix of char data, but you can use the jit.findbounds object for matrices of any data type and any number of planes. Here's how the jit.findbounds object works. You specify a minimum value and a maximum value you want to look for in each plane, using jit.findbounds's min and max attributes. When the jit.findbounds object receives a matrix, it looks through the entire matrix for values that fall within the range you specified for each plane. It sends out the cell indices that describe the region where it found the designated values. In effect, it sends out the indices of the bounding region within which the values appear. In the case of a 2D matrix, the bounding region will be a rectangle, so the jit.findbounds object will send out the indices for the left-top and bottom-right cells of the region in which it found the specified values. Open the tutorial patch 25jColorTracking.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In this example we use the jit.qt.movie object to play a movie (actually an animation) of a red ball moving around. This is obviously a simpler situation than you will find in most videos, but it gives 200 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie us a clear setting in which to see how the jit.findbounds object works. Notice that we've used typedin arguments to initialize the min and max attributes of the jit.findboundsobject. Minimum and maximum values specified for each of the four planes There are four arguments for these attributes--one value for each of the four planes of the matrix that the jit.findbounds object will be receiving. The min attribute sets the minimum acceptable value for each plane, and the max attribute sets the maximum acceptable value. These arguments cause the jit.findbounds object to look for any value from 0 to 1 in the alpha plane, any value from 0.75 to 1 in the red plane, and any value from 0 to 0.1 in the green and blue planes. Since the data in the matrix will be of type char, we must specify the values we want to look for in terms of a decimal number from 0 to 1. (See Tutorials 5 and 6 for a discussion of how char values are used to represent colors.) We want to track the location of a red ball, so we ask the jit.findbounds object to look for cells that contain very high values in the red plane and very low values in the green and blue planes. (We'll accept any value in the alpha plane.) Click on the toggle to start the metro. As the red ball moves around, the jit.findbounds object reports the cell indices of the ball's bounding rectangle. Stop the metro, and examine the numbers that came out of jit.findbounds. You'll see something like this: The jit.findbounds object reports the region where the specified color appears The jit.findbounds object will report the region where it finds the desired values in all planes of the same cell. In this picture, the jit.findbounds object found the values we asked for somewhere in columns 120 through 159 and somewhere in rows 50 through 89 inclusive. This makes sense, since the red ball is exactly 40 pixels in diameter. Those cell indices describe the 40x40 square region of cells where the ball is located in this particular frame of the video. Note that the output of the jit.findbounds object from its first two outlets is in the form of two lists. The first outlet reports the starting cell where the values were found in each dimension and the second outlet reports the ending cell of the region in each dimension. (Since it's a 2D matrix, there are only two values in each list, and we use the unpack objects to view them individually.) 201 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie If we wanted to know a single point that describes the location of the ball in the video frame, we could take the center point of that rectangular region reported by the jit.findbounds object and call that the "location" of the ball. That's what we do with the expr objects. For each dimension, we take the difference between the starting cell and the ending cell, divide that in half to find the center between the two, and then add that to the starting cell index to get our single "location" point. Calculating the center point of the rectangle Notice that for the vertical dimension we actually subtract the vertical location coordinate from 239. That's because the cell indices go from top to bottom, but we would like to think of the "height" of the object going from bottom to top. (That's also how the uslider object behaves, so since we're going to display the vertical coordinate with the uslider, we need to express the coordinate as increasing from bottom-to-top.) We send the results of our "location" calculation to a hslider and a uslider to demonstrate that we are successfully tracking the center of the ball, and we show the coordinates in the number box objects. We also scale the coordinates into the range 0 to 1, to show how easily the horizontal and vertical location of the ball could potentially be used to modify some activity or attribute elsewhere in a Max patch. For example, we could use the vertical location to control the volume of a video or an MSP sound, or we could use the horizontal coordinate to affect the rotation of an image. Scale the location coordinates into the range 0-1, for use elsewhere in the patch. Tracking a Color in a Complex Image Well, that all worked quite nicely for the simple example of a plain red ball on a plain white background. But tracking a single object in a "real life" video is a good deal tougher. We'll show some of the problems you might encounter, and some tricks for dealing with them. Make sure the redball movie is stopped. Now double-click on the patcher bballtracking object to see A More Detailed Example. Click on the toggle labeled Start/Stop in the upper-left corner of the [bballtracking] subpatch to start the video. 202 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie This movie has objects with distinct colors: a red shirt, green pants, and a yellow-and-blue ball. Potentially it could be useful for color tracking. However, there are a few factors that make tracking this ball a bit harder than in the previous example. First of all, the top few scan lines of the video (the top few rows of the matrix) contain some garbage that we really don't want to analyze. This garbage is an unfortunate artifact of the imperfect digitization of this particular video. Such imperfections are common, and can complicate the analysis process. Secondly, the image is not highly saturated with color, so the different colors are not as distinct as we might like. Thirdly, the ball actually leaves the frame entirely at the end of the four-second clip. (When the jit.findbounds object can't find any instance of the values being sought, it reports starting and ending cell indices of -1.) Fourthly, if we want to track the color yellow to find the location of the ball in the frame, we need to recognize that the ball is not all one shade of yellow. Because of the texture of the ball and the lighting, it actually shows up as a range of yellows, so we'll need to identify that range carefully to the jit.findbounds object. Let's try to solve some of these problems. As we demonstrated in Tutorial 14, some Jitter objects allow us to designate a "source" rectangle of an image that we want to view that's different from the full matrix. In Tutorial 14 we demonstrated the srcdimstart, srcdimend, and usesrcrect attributes of the jit.matrix object, and we mentioned that the jit.qt.movie object has comparable attributes called srcrect and usesrcrect. Let's use those attributes of the jit.qt.movie object to crop the video image, getting rid of some parts we don't want to see. Click on the message box labeled Crop Source Image. This sends the cell indices of a new source rectangle that we want to view to the jit.qt.movie object, and tells the object to use that source rectangle instead of the full matrix. Notice that by starting at row 4 (that is, starting with the fifth row of the matrix), we crop out the garbage at the top of the image. We also chop 20 pixels off of the left side of the source image, so that the first bounce of the ball occurs exactly in the lower-left corner. Now we've focused on the part of the video we want to analyze. Next we'll deal with our other problems. Click on the small preset object labeled Setup in the lower-right corner of the window. This sets all the user interface objects to just the settings we desire. This sets the loop attribute of the jit.qt.movie object to 2 for back-and-forth playback, and it sets a loop endpoint at time 2160 (just at the moment when the 54th frame would occur) so that the movie now plays back and forth from frame 0 to frame 53 and back. The movie now plays just up to the moment of the first bounce of the ball on the pavement, then reverses direction. We have also sent some values to the jit.brcosa object (discussed in detail in Tutorial 7) to set its brightness, contrast, and saturation attributes just the way we want them. This doesn't exactly result in the best-looking image, but it does make the different colors more distinctive, and compresses them into a smaller range of values, making them easier for the jit.findbounds object to track. 203 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie And we've turned on the usesrcdim attribute of the jit.matrix object (in the center of the patch) so that it is now using the output of the jit.findbounds object to determine its source rectangle. You can see the tracked region displayed in the jit.pwindow labeled Show Tracked Region. Using the output of a jit.findbounds object to set srcdimstart and srcdimend attributes of a jit.matrix object The basic yellow of the ball has nearly equal amounts of red and green in it, so we set the min and max attributes of the jit.findbounds object to look for cells containing high values in the red and green planes and a low value in the blue plane. You can see that with careful settings of jit.brcosa and careful settings of the min and max attributes of the jit.findbounds object, we've managed to get very reliable tracking of the yellow part of the ball. Note: One fairly important detail that we haven't really discussed here is how to set the min and max attributes of the jit.findbounds object most effectively to track a particular color in a video. A certain amount of trial-and-error adjustment is needed, but you can get some pretty specific information about the color of a particular pixel by using the suckah object demonstrated in Tutorial 10. You can place the suckah object over the jit.pwindow of the video you want to analyze, click on the color you want to track, and use the output of the suckah object to get the RGB information of that cell. (The values from the suckah object are in the range 0-255, but you can divide them by 255.0 to bring them into the 0-1 range.) Using the Location of an Object So, at least in this particular situation, we've managed to overcome the difficulties of tracking a single object in a video. But now that we've accomplished that, what are we going to do with the information we've derived? We'll show a couple of ways to use object location to control sound: by playing MIDI notes or by playing MSP tones. Neither example is very sophisticated musically, but they should serve to demonstrate the basic issue of mapping location information to sound information. 204 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie We'll send the location data to two subpatches located in the part of the patch marked Use Tracking Info. We use a pack object to pack all of the output of the jit.findbounds object together into a single 4-item list, and then we use a gate object to route that information to the patcher playnotes subpatch (to play MIDI notes) or the patcher playtones subpatch (to play MSP tones) or neither (to produce no sound). Send the location information to one of two subpatches Note: In order for any of the tutorial examples involving MIDI or MSP to work, you'll need to have your equipment configured properly. The MIDI examples assume that you have a multitimbral synthesizer keyboard connected to Max's virtual MIDI port a. The MSP examples assume that you have MSP installed and that you have the Driver set to the proper output device in the DSP Status window. For more information on how to configure your equipment, consult the "Setup" section of the Max Getting Started manual, the "Introduction" section of the Max Tutorials and Topics manual, and the "Audio I/O" section of the MSP manual. Playing Notes In the ubumenu labeled Use Tracking Info, choose the menu item 1 = Play MIDI Notes. Doubleclick on the patcher playnotes object to see the contents of the [playnotes] subpatch. If you are not hearing any notes being played (and you've verified that the movie is still playing), try 205 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie double-clicking on the noteout a object and choosing a different MIDI synthesizer in the device dialog box. The contents of the [playnotes] subpatch In the [playnotes] subpatch we use the same sort of mapping formulae as we used in the first example to calculate the location coordinates of the ball and place the information in a usable range. We calculate the horizontal location and divide by 16 to get numbers that will potentially range from 0 to 19. We use the change object to ignore duplicate numbers (i.e. repeated notes), and then we look up the note we want to play in the table. Note: The basketball player's motion has no relationship to any particular musical scale, so taking the raw location data as MIDI key numbers would result in an atonal improvisation. (Not that there's anything wrong with that!) If we want to impart a tonal implication to the pitch choices, we can use the numbers generated by the horizontal motion of the ball as index numbers to look up notes of the scale in a lookup table. If you want to see (or even alter) the contents of the table, just double-click on the table object to open its graphic editing window. We use the vertical location of the ball--which we've mapped into the range 0-119--to determine the velocity values. The makenote object assigns the duration (200ms) to the notes and takes care of providing the MIDI note-off messages. The underlying pulse of the music (20 pulses per second) is determined by the speed of the metro that's playing the movie, but because the change object suppresses repeated notes, not every pulse gets iterated as a MIDI note. Close the [playnotes] subpatch window. Click on the message box labeled Crop and Flip Source Image. This sends a new source rectangle to the jit.qt.movie object to flip the image horizontally, which reverses the high-low musical effect of the [playnotes] subpatch. 206 Tutorial 25 Playing Tones Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie In the ubumenu labeled Use Tracking Info, choose the menu item 2 = Play MSP Tones. Doubleclick on the patcher playtones object to see the contents of the [playtones] subpatch. Use location of a color as frequency control information for MSP oscillators Here we're using the horizontal and vertical location coordinates of the basketball as frequency values for MSP oscillators. The equations we use to calculate those values are somewhat arbitrary, but they've been devised so as to map both coordinates into similar frequency ranges. The horizontal coordinate is used to control the oscillator in the left audio channel, and the vertical coordinate controls the frequency of the oscillator in the right channel. 207 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie We use the presence of incoming messages to turn MSP audio on (and fade the sound up), and if the messages are absent for more than 200 ms, we fade the sound down and turn the audio off. First message starts and fades in audio; lack of a message for 201ms fades out and turns off audio. Close the [playtones] subpatch window. Flip the video image horizontally by clicking on the message box objects labeled Crop Source Image and Crop and Flip Source Image to hear the difference in the effect on the MSP oscillators. Deriving More Information In this tutorial we've shown a pretty straightforward implementation in which we use the location coordinates of a color region directly to control parameters of sound synthesis or MIDI performance. With a little additional Max programming, we could potentially derive further information about the motion of an object. For example, by comparing an object's location in one video frame with its location in the preceding frame, we could use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the distance the object traveled from one frame to the next, and thus calculate its velocity. We could also calculate the slope of its movement ( y / x ), and thus (with the arctangent trig function) figure out its angle of movement. By comparing one velocity value to the previous one, we can calculate acceleration, and so on. By comparing an object's apparent size from one frame to the next, we can even make some crude guesses about its movement toward or away from the camera in the "z axis" (depth). Summary The jit.findbounds object detects values within a certain range in each plane of a matrix, and it reports the region in the matrix where it finds values within the specified range of each plane. This is useful for finding the location of any range of numerical data in any type of matrix. In 208 Tutorial 25 Tracking the Position of a Color in a Movie particular, it can be used to find the location of a particular color in a 4-plane matrix, and thus can be used to track the movement of an object in a video. Cropping the video image with the srcrect attribute of the jit.qt.movie object helps to focus on the desired part of the source image. The jit.brcosa object is useful for adjusting the color values in the source video, making it easier to isolate and detect a specific color or range of colors. We can use the output of the jit.findbounds object to track the location of an object, and from that we can calculate other information about the object's motion such as its velocity, direction, etc. We can use the derived information to control parameters of a MIDI performance, MSP synthesis, or other Jitter objects. 209 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video The MIDIVideo Relationship When Max was first developed it was mainly for interactive control of musical instruments via MIDI. As computer processor speeds increased, it became practical to use Max for processing audio signals directly with MSP, and to process large matrices of data such as video images with Jitter. The great power of Max is that it gives you access to all of the digital information in each of these domains --MIDI, audio, and video--and helps you program interesting correlations between them. This tutorial will focus on using incoming MIDI data to control aspects of video playback in Jitter. The two main benefits of using MIDI for controlling video are 1. the advantage of using a physical interface--a slider, wheel, etc.--rather than a mouse dragging an onscreen control 2. the potential to make interesting relationships between music and video in realtime performance. There are many available MIDI controllers that provide useful physical interfaces for video: banks of multiple sliders on fader boxes or digital mixers, jog wheels, etc. Even most synthesizer keyboards have buttons, sliders, wheels, and foot pedals in addition to the obvious piano-like keys. For this tutorial we'll limit ourselves to the controls that are commonly available on most MIDI keyboards. This tutorial assumes that you have a 61-key MIDI synthesizer keyboard with a modulation wheel and a pitchbend wheel, that the keyboard is connected to your MIDI interface, and that it's assigned to Max's virtual port a. The Macintosh OS comes equipped with a built-in MIDI system called CoreMIDI. You can use the Audio MIDI Setup application found in /Applications/Utilities to specify the ports, interfaces and MIDI devices in your MIDI setup. On the Windows OS, all MIDI devices which are installed correctly on your system and appear in the Sounds and Audio Devices Properties (Start - Settings - Sounds and Audio Devices) are available to Max/MSP for MIDI I/O. 210 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video In this tutorial patch we'll play a movie, we'll use the notes from the MIDI keyboard to move around in the movie, and we'll use various types of MIDI messages to apply effects to the video and modify it in real time. Mapping MIDI Data for Use as Video Control Parameters The data in MIDI channel messages (notes, pitchbend, aftertouch, etc.) is in the range 0 to 127. For the most part, the attributes of Jitter objects expect arguments in the range 0 to 1--especially when handling 4-plane 2D matrices of char data, as with video. So one of the first tasks we need to do is map the MIDI data into the appropriate range for controlling parameters of the Jitter objects. In the tutorial patch we show some examples of how to do this. Open the tutorial patch 26jMIDIControl,pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the yellow portion of the patch we have various MIDI input objects, for gathering the data generated by a keyboard controller attached to port a: ctlin a 1 for the modulation wheel, ctlin a 7 for the volume pedal, bendin a for the pitchbend wheel, and notein a for the keyboard. The most straightforward controls for our use are continuous controllers like the mod wheel and the volume pedal. It's a simple matter to map their values into the 0 to 1 range, just by dividing by 127. Map MIDI control data into a more useful 0-to-1 range Even though both controllers have a range from 0 to 127, the mod wheel's "normal" resting position is at 0 (modulation off), while the volume pedal's usual resting position is at some nonzero position such as 100 or 127 (volume on). Thus, they might be useful to us in slightly different ways for controlling video effects. The pitchbend wheel uses still another normal position. It's resting position is at 64, and it springs back to that position when released by the user. So we want it to give us a value of 0.5 when at rest. The problem is that 64 is not exactly half way between 0 and 127; if we simply divide by 127, a bend 211 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video value of 64 will give us a result of about 0.504. So we have to treat the "downward bend" and "upward bend" values differently, as shown in the following example. There are 64 pitchbend values below the central value, and 63 above the center. For the pitch information from the keyboard, the problem is a bit more complicated. First of all, most keyboards do not have keys for all pitches 0 to 127; the normal 5-octave keyboard sends out MIDI key numbers 36 to 96. But even more importantly, we're usually concerned not only with pitch "height" (where it lies in the 0 to 127 range), but also the musical significance of the pitch class (C, C#, D, etc.). In our patch, we use both ways of viewing pitch. We map the key range 36 to 96 into the 0-to-1 parameter range, and we derive the pitch class with a % 12 object. (All Cs will be 0, all C#s will be 1, etc.) Using the note-on key value to derive pitch height and pitch class In the above example we use a couple of other handy objects to thin out the incoming note data. The poly 1 1 object allows only one note-on message to go through at a time; it turns off the preceding note (sends it out with a velocity of 0) before passing the new note through. That's because we 212 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video only want to try to track one key number at a time. If the user plays with legato technique (plays a note before releasing the previous one) or plays several notes in a chord "simultaneously" (i.e., nearly simultaneously; nothing is really simultaneous in MIDI) it might be hard to tell which note our patch is actually tracking. The poly 1 1 object ensures that all notes except the most recently played one will be turned off in our patch, even if the notes are still being held down on the actual MIDI keyboard. The stripnote object suppresses note-off messages, so only the note-on key numbers will get through. We don't want to track the pitches as the notes are being turned off, we only want the get the key number when the note is first played. Note: We've set up the patch so that you don't really need a MIDI keyboard to try it out. You can play (silent) pseudo-notes by clicking on the keys of the kslider object, and you can generate other values by dragging on the number box objects labeled Mod., Vol., Bend, Key, and Vel. Needless to say, the mouse will be a bit less gratifying than a MIDI keyboard as a physical interface, but you can at least test the patch and try out the things that are explained in this chapter. Try out your MIDI keyboard (and wheels) to verify that MIDI messages are getting into Max OK. If not, double-click on the MIDI input objects to select the proper input device. Using send and receive The workings of this patch may be a bit difficult to follow because we make liberal use of the send and receive objects. We do this mainly to avoid what would otherwise be a ludicrous mess of patch cords. It's particularly appropriate here because we'll be sending so many messages into and out of the jit.qt.movie object from/to so many other places in the patch. So we use receive and send objects for the input and output of the jit.qt.movie object, and all other objects in the patch can now communicate with it remotely. We can communicate with jit.qt.movie no matter where it's located. Just in case you're not familiar with the use of a semicolon (;) in a message box, we'll take a moment to point out that you can put a semicolon, the name of a receive object, and a message in a 213 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video message box, and when that message box is triggered it will function exactly as if you had sent that message into a send object. See the following example. A semicolon in a message box is like using a send object. So, let's trace what happens when we send a read message to jit.qt.movie. Click on the red message box that says ; movieA read blading.mov; movieA vol 0. This opens the movie blading.mov. When jit.qt.movie has completed the movie-opening operation, it sends a read message out its right outlet. If it opened the file successfully, the full message will be read blading.mov 1. (If it was unsuccessful, the last argument will not be 1.) This message gets sent to the receive Arightoutlet object in the purple region in the bottom-left corner of the patch. We use the route objects to detect all the messages we expect to get out of that outlet and route the messages to the proper places elsewhere in the patch. The arguments of the read message get sent to the r read object in the green region in the bottom-right corner of the patch. With the zl ecils 1 and sel 1 objects we check to see if the last argument of the message was a 1. If so, that means that the read was successful, so we then go ahead and get the movie's attributes. If the movie was read in successfully, get its framecount, fps, rate, and dim attributes. 214 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video The remainder of the read message will be the name of the movie file, so we put that into a message box to show the user what file is now playing. If the read was unsuccessful, the sel 1object will trigger the message failed to read movie instead. (The delay object is there to ensure that the failure message gets put into the message box after the filename. Using MIDI Notes to Trigger Video Clips We have chosen to use the pitch class of the note played on the MIDI keyboard to decide where to go in the video. (There are, of course, many ways you could choose to use MIDI to navigate through a movie or select different video segments. This just happens to be the method we've picked for this tutorial. In a later tutorial chapter we demonstrate how to switch from one video to another.) So, we take the total number of frames in the movie (the framecount attribute of jit.qt.movie) and divide that by 12. We then use each note's pitch class (key % 12) to leap to a certain twelfth of the movie. The movie blading.mov is a 12-second long video consisting of twelve 1-second edits. So in this case each different pitch class takes us to a different scene of this short movie. (Of course, that's all very neat and convenient since we planned it that way. But by using the movie's actual framecount, we've made it so our patch will successfully divide a movie of any length into twelfths.) The pitch class (5) of F above middle C takes us to frame 75, 5/12 into the movie. The note-on velocity will turn on the toggle that starts the metro that sends a bang message to the jit.qt.movie object, and the note-off velocity will stop the metro. Click on the toggle labeled Show/Hide Display Window make the Display window visible. Play some notes on your MIDI keyboard (or click on the kslider) to leap to different points in the movie. 215 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video The jit.qt.movie object's matrices go to a send Aleftoutlet object, and eventually get to the jit.pwindow via a receive display object. Where do the jit_matrix messages go between send Aleftoutlet and receive display? They actually go into a subpatch for video effects processing. But before we examine that subpatch, we'll discuss how we intend to control those effects. Routing Control Information Earlier in this chapter we saw the various ways that the incoming MIDI data gets mapped into the 0-to-1 range for use in controlling Jitter attributes. If you look in the yellow region of the patch, you can see that that control information goes to five send objects: s pitch, s vel, s bend, s mod, and s vol. These are five different sources of MIDI control, and we will use them to control up to eight different video effects linked in a series. The effects link is something like this: movie -> rate control -> volume control -> brightness control -> saturation control -> edgedetection -> zoomin control -> pixelation -> zoomout control -> display window For maximum versatility, we'd like to be able to control any of those effects with any of our MIDI sources. To accomplish that, we use a combination of objects designed for just such a purpose: matrixctrl and router. The router object takes messages in its various inlets and routes those messages internally to any of its outlets that you specify. The matrixctrl object (designed for controlling the MSP matrix~ object and the Max router object, not for controlling Jitter matrices per se) provides a user-interface for specifying those routings. Take a look at the matrixctrl object in the blue region of the patch. Route fifth input (VOL) to second output (Volume) matrixctrl shows input sources on vertical grid lines and output destinations on horizontal grid lines. So, if we want to route the messages from the fifth source inlet of a router object to the second destination outlet, we need to click on the grid point where those meet. In this example, we're asking to route the vol data to control the volume effect. Clicking at that point on the matrixctrl grid sends a message to a router object that tells it to make this sourcedestination connection 216 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video internally. (Clicking again erases the red dot and breaks the connection in router.) In our program the router object is inside the patcher effects subpatch, but if they were in the same patch, their connection would look like the following example. router is the "patchbay" for Max messages, and matrixctrl is its user interface Routing Around (Bypassing) Parts of the Patch If we aren't using some of the video effects at a certain time (for example, maybe we don't want any zooming or pixelation), we'll want to bypass those particular effects. In the effects subpatch we'll use Ggate and gate objects to bypass some of the effects. To give the user easy control over which effects to use and which to bypass, we've set up checkboxes in the main patch, using the radiogroup object. When the user clicks on one of the checkboxes, radiogroup sends the on/off 217 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video status of all of the checkboxes out its outlet, and we can use that information to switch the routing of the Ggate objects in the subpatch. Zoom In, Pixelate, and Zoom Out effects are completely bypassed. Double-click on the patcher effects object to see the contents of the effects subpatch. The output of radiogroup is used to switch gate and Ggate objects in the subpatch. 218 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video In the subpatch, the receive Aleftoutlet object receives jit_matrix messages from the jit.qt.movie in the main patch. In the example above, the Ggate object routes the jit_matrix message around the p brightness subpatch--bypassing that effect--and the next Ggate object routes the message through the p saturation subpatch. Thus, the Ggate objects serve as Insert/Bypass switches for each effect, and the checkboxes in the radiogroup provide the user interface for those switches. At the end of this chain of effects, the matrix is finally passed to a send display object, which sends the matrix to the Display window. So, in the main patch we have two separate controls for the user to set up the routing of control data and effects. With the matrixctrl object MIDI data from a source (or more than one source) can be routed to any (or many) of the effects. With the radiogroup checkboxes, the user can elect to insert effects or bypass one or more effect entirely. Close the [effects] subpatch window. Use the checkboxes to select which video effects you want to insert, and use the matrixctrl to assign MIDI sources to the control of those effects. Play around with different combinations to see what types of control are most intuitive (and work in the context of a keyboard performance) for each effect. User Control of Video Effects Each video effect in this tutorial patch is pretty simple, so we won't describe each one in detail. We'll just point out a few traits that might be instructive as you decide how you want to apply realtime user control of video effects. Double-click on the patcher effects object once again to open the effects subpatch window. Double-click on the p brightness object to see a typical one of these video effect subpatches. The 0 to 1 data is scaled to the range 0 to 2 for controlling the brightness. The jit_matrix message comes in the left inlet and the control data (in the range 0 to 1) comes in the right inlet. The control data is scaled to an appropriate range, and is used to alter an attribute in a Jitter object, and the processed matrix is passed on out to the next effect in the chain. The p 219 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video saturation and p zoomin subpatches work pretty similarly. The p zoomout subpatch is also similar, but uses a slightly more involved mathematical expression, shown in the following example. The 0 to 1 data is remapped as an exponential curve from 1 to 0.125. In the above example the incoming control data (0 to 1) is used to calculate the exponent of a power of 2. When the control data is 0, the expression will be 20=1. When the control data is 1, the expression will be 2-3=0.125. Thus, the actual control value is flipped to have reverse meaning and to describe an exponential curve instead of a linear change. In the p edges subpatch, the object that's really creating the effect is a Sobel edge detection object called jit.sobel. What we're controlling is the mix between the original input image and the edgedetector's output. So we're really just controlling the xfade parameter of a jit.xfade object (described in detail in Tutorial 8). The p pixelate subpatch reduces the dimensions of the image matrix (a process known as downsampling), so that some of the data must be discarded and the image will be pixelated when it's displayed in the 320x240 Display window. (This method of pixelation is detailed in Tutorial 14.) We got the dimensions of the original image by retrieving the dim attribute of jit.qt.movie (back when we first read in the movie), so we use our control data to scale those dimensions by 220 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video some factor from 0 to 0.0625, and we use those new dimensions to set the dim attribute of a jit.matrix object, as shown in the following example. Downsampling an image causes it to be pixelated when it's upsampled to its original dimensions. The p rate and p volume subpatches are a bit different because we're not actually processing a matrix in those subpatches, we're just changing an attribute of jit.qt.movie in the main patch. The following example shows the contents of the p rate subpatch. Send the result to any r rate object, and also use it so set the rate attribute of jit.qt.movie Summary The physical interface afforded by MIDI controllers gives you a good way to control video in real time in Jitter, and particularly to make correlations between music and video. Each type of controller--keyboard, pitchbend wheel, modulation wheel, volume pedal, etc.--implies a different type of control mapping. All the data of MIDI channel messages falls in the range 0 to 127, but the way you map that data to control Jitter attributes varies depending on the effect you're trying to produce. In this patch, as a starting point we mapped all the pertinent MIDI data into the range 0 to 1, then we scaled that range as necessary for each video effect. Because Jitter objects receive so many different messages, it's often necessary to use a message box to construct the desired message. If you find yourself directing many different messages to the same place(s) from different parts of the patch, you might consider using the message box's 221 Tutorial 26 MIDI Control of Video remote message-sending capability--a semicolon plus the name of a receive object--to reduce the patch cord spaghetti in your patches. If you need to send Max messages from many different sources to many different destinations, and you need the ability to reconfigure the routing of source messages to the desired destinations, the router object functions well as a configurable "patch bay" for Max messages. The matrixctrl object provides a readymade user interface for configuring the internal sourcedestination patching within a router. in this patch, we used a matrixctrl and router to allow the user to direct any of five types of MIDI control data to any of eight different video effects. We used a radiogroup object to create a bank of checkboxes that act as Insert/Bypass switches for the video effects. 222 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix This tutorial shows how to copy an MSP audio signal into a Jitter matrix using an object called jit.poke~. Along the way, we'll investigate how to use the soundtrack from a QuickTime movie in the MSP signal network using the sound output component attribute of the jit.qt.movie object and a new MSP object called spigot~. This tutorial assumes familiarity with routing MSP signals using send~ and receive~. It also uses a simple delay network using tapin~/tapout~ objects. Tutorial 4 and Tutorial 27 in the MSP manual cover these topics. Open the tutorial patch 27jAudioIntoMatrix.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The jit.qt.movie object at the top left of the tutorial patch reads a QuickTime movie called rca.mov upon opening. Our jit.qt.movie object Start the metro object at the top of the patch by clicking the toggle box. You will see an image in the lefthand jit.pwindow object below the jit.qt.movie object. You won't see anything in the other jit.pwindow objects yet, nor will you hear any sound. Our jit.qt.movie object has two attributes set in its object box in addition to its dim attribute (320 by 240 cells). The loop attribute with a value of 2 tells the jit.qt.movie object to loop the movie as a palindrome. Once the playback of the movie reaches the end, it will play backwards to the beginning of the file, rather than looping around to the beginning and playing forward (the 223 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix default behavior, when the loop attribute is set to 1). If you watch the movie, you'll see that the arm manipulating the oscillator control moves up and then down again in an endless loop. The movie actually only contains footage of the arm moving upward, but the loop attribute we've used reverses the playback in the second half of the loop. The Sound Output Component The second attribute we've set in our jit.qt.movie object sets the Sound Output Component (soc) for that instance of the jit.qt.movie object. The name specified as an argument to the soc attribute (in this case gliss) specifies a new sound output component that MSP can use to acquire the soundtrack of the movie loaded into the jit.qt.movie object. By default, the soc attribute is set to none, which routes the movie's audio output directly to the Sound Manager. A named soc attribute routes the audio to a spigot~ object with the same name as the component, allowing you to access the audio signal in MSP: The spigot~ object The spigot~ object in the upper-right hand corner of the tutorial patch has an argument (gliss) which matches the soc attribute of our jit.qt.movie object. If a movie file loaded into that jit.qt.movie object has a soundtrack (which the rca.mov file conveniently does), the audio from the movie is sent out as MSP signals from the spigot~. Note that the spigot~ object has two outlets, which correspond to the left and right audio channels of the movie soundtrack. Our rca.mov file has a monaural soundtrack, so we only need to use one of the outlets in our patch. Important: The soc attribute of the jit.qt.movie object allows you to create a separate sound output component for each jit.qt.movie object in your patch. You can use as many spigot~ objects as you like, each with a unique name, to grab the audio from multiple QuickTime movies. It's important to note, however, that you can only have one spigot~ object per sound output component, and each jit.qt.movie object must have a unique soc attribute (unless, of course, the soc is set to none--the Sound Manager can take the sound from as many movies as you wish). Once you have multiple movie audio tracks as MSP signals you can mix them as you please. Start the dac~ object at the bottom of the patch by clicking the toggle box attached to it. You will see images appear in the remaining jit.pwindow objects and will see a signal level appear in 224 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix the meter~ object attached to the spigot~. If you turn up the gain~ slider attached to the dac~, you should begin to hear sound out of whatever device you currently have selected as your MSP audio driver. For more information on how to setup your computer's audio system with MSP, consult the Audio I/O Chapter in the MSP manual Receiving the audio signal from the spigot~ The soundtrack from the rca.mov file is sent as an MSP signal from the spigot~ object into a twotap delay line (generated by the tapin~ and tapout~ objects in the patch). The dry audio signal is sent to a send~ object with the name red attached to it; the two delay taps are sent to send~ objects named green and blue, respectively. The three audio signals are output by named receive~ objects and summed into the gain~ object at the bottom of the patch, allowing you to hear all of them at once. Adjust the delay times using the number box objects labeled Delay times (green/blue) attached to the tapout~ objects. You can adjust the delays up to a maximum length of 1000 milliseconds (the maximum delay time allocated by our tapin~ object). 225 Tutorial 27 Poke~ing Around Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix The righthand jit.pwindow object at the top of the tutorial patch shows the output of a jit.matrix named scope, which also gets bang messages from the metro object at the top of the patch: The output of the scope jit.matrix The scope Jitter matrix is generated by three jit.poke~ objects at the right of the tutorial patch, which write MSP audio signals into cells in the matrix. These cells, when displayed in the jit.pwindow object, portray an oscilloscope view of the movie soundtrack, with the dry and two delayed signals appearing as the colors red, green, and blue, respectively. The three jit.poke~ objects, writing into the scope matrix 226 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix The three similar regions at the right of the screen use the jit.poke~ object to write MSP signal data into our scope matrix. The jit.poke~ object takes three arguments: the name of the Jitter matrix to write into, the number of dim inlets to use, and the plane of the destination matrix to write numbers to. All three jit.poke~ objects in our patch write into the matrix scope. Since scope is a 2-dimensional matrix, we need 2 inlets to specify where to write the data (one inlet for the column and one inlet for the row). The three objects differ in that they each write to a different plane of the scope matrix. The first inlet of the jit.poke~ object provides the value to write into the matrix cell specified by the other two inlets, which take signals to specify the cell location. We use a sig~ object with a value of 1 to write a constant value into our current position in the scope matrix. The value of 1 gets interpreted as 255 when writing into a matrix containing char data (which is what we're doing in this case). The other two inlets in our jit.poke~ objects determine where in the output matrix they should write data (this set of coordinates defines the write pointer for the object--you could think of this as the location of the record head, only with two dimensions instead of one). The rightmost inlet receives the audio signal from our named receive~ objects and sets the vertical (dim 1) coordinate of the write pointer to correspond to the amplitude of the signal. The *~ and +~ objects in the patch scale the output of the audio signal from between -1 and 1 (the typical range for an audio signal) to between 0 and 239 (the range of the vertical dimension of our output matrix). Sync or Swim The middle inlet to our jit.poke~ object receives a sync signal that specifies where along the horizontal axis of the matrix we write the current amplitude from the audio signal. This signal is unrelated to the audio data coming from the movie--you could think of it as the horizontal 227 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix refresh rate of the virtual oscilloscope we've made in this patch. The sync signal is generated by a phasor~ object in the middle of the tutorial patch: Generating the horizontal sync signal for our jit.poke~ objects Our phasor~ object generates a repeating ramp signal from 0 to (nearly) 1. The *~ below it rescales this signal to generate values appropriate to the width of our matrix (0 to 319). This signal is then passed to a send~ object with the name h_sync, which forwards the signal to receive~ objects connected to the middle inlets of our jit.poke~ objects. The frequency of the phasor~ (specified by the number box connected to its first inlet) determines the rate at which our jit.poke~ objects scan from the left to right through the matrix. Try changing the frequency of the phasor~ by changing the number box labeled Horizontal scan rate (Hz). Notice how at higher frequencies you can see the waveform generated by the movie audio in more detail. If you set the rate to a negative value, the matrix will be written backwards (i.e. from right to left). The dry audio signal and the two delayed outputs are visualized as the three visible planes of our scope matrix (1, 2, and 3, or red, green, and blue). When the cells written by the jit.poke~ objects overlap, different color combinations will appear in the output matrix. 228 Tutorial 27 Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix Now that we understand how the matrix is being written, we need to look into how the matrix clears itself every time a horizontal scan is completed. The relevant parts of the patch are shown below: Detect when the horizontal sync resets and clear the matrix The change~ object outputs a value of 1 when the ramp generated by the phasor~ object is on the increase. When the phasor~ snaps back to 0 at the end of the ramp, change~ will briefly output a value of -1. The ==~ object, which outputs a 1 when the change~ object does, will output a 0 at that point. When the phasor~ begins to ramp again, the ==~ object will output a 1, triggering a bang message from the edge~ object (which detects a zero to non-zero transition in the last signal vector). The bang is then sent to a receive object named reset, which triggers a clear message to the jit.matrix object. As a result, our scope matrix is cleared every time the phasor~ restarts its ramp. 229 Tutorial 27 Putting it All Together Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix Our two Jitter matrices (the image from the jit.qt.movie object and the oscilloscope drawn by our jit.poke~ objects) are composited into a final matrix by the jit.op object: Compositing the two matrices using jit.op The op attribute we've specified initially for our jit.op object is *. As a result, our composite is made from the multiplication of the two matrices. Since most of the cells in our scope matrix are 0 (black), you only see the movie image appear in those cells and planes where the jit.poke~ objects have traced the waveform. Change the op attribute of the jit.op object by clicking on some of the message box objects attached to the prepend object to the right of the jit.pwindow showing the scope matrix. Notice how the different arithmetic operators change the compositing operation of the two matrices. 230 Tutorial 27 Summary Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix The soc attribute of the jit.qt.movie object lets you define a named Sound Output Component. The spigot~ object lets you access the soundtrack of a QuickTime movie as an MSP signal by giving it an argument that matches the soc attribute of the jit.qt.movie object playing the movie. You can use the jit.poke~ object to write data from MSP signals into a named Jitter matrix. The jit.poke~ object takes arguments in the form of the name of the matrix to write to, the number of inlets with which to specify cell coordinates, and the plane to write to in the matrix. The first inlet of jit.poke~ takes the value to be written into the matrix. Subsequent inlets take MSP signals that specify the cell location in the matrix in which data should be written. 231 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video Audio as a Control Source This tutorial demonstrates how to track the amplitude of an MSP audio signal, how to use the tracked amplitude to detect discrete events in the sound, and how to apply that information to trigger images and control video effects. Open the tutorial patch 28jAudioControl.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the upper-right corner of the patch we've made it easy for you to try out either of two video sources: the audio input of the computer or a pre-recorded soundfile. The pop-up menu lets you select one of two audio sources: adc~ or sfplay~ We've used a loadbang object (in the upper-middle part of the patch) to open an AIFF soundfile talk.aiff and a QuickTime movie dishes.mov, and to initialize the settings of the user interface objects with a preset. So, in the above example, the ubumenu has already selected the sfplay~ object as the sound source, the soundfile has already been opened by the open talk.aiff message, the rate of sfplay~ has been set to 1, and the output volume has been set to 0.5. The left channel of the sound source (the left outlet of the left selector~ object) is connected to another part of the patch, which will track the sound's amplitude. 232 Tutorial 28 Tracking Peak Amplitude of an Audio Signal Audio Control of Video To track the sound's amplitude for use as control data in Max, we could use the snapshot~ object to obtain the instantaneous amplitude of the sound, or the avg~ object to obtain the average magnitude of the signal since the last time it was checked, or the peakamp~ object to obtain the peak magnitude of the signal since the last time it was checked. We've elected to track the peak amplitude of the signal with peakamp~. Every time it receives a bang message, peakamp~ reports the absolute value of the peak amplitude of the signal it has received in its left inlet. Alternatively, you can set it to report the peak amplitude automatically at regular intervals, by sending a nonzero time interval (in milliseconds) in its right inlet, as shown in the following example. A non-zero number in the right inlet is a reporting time interval in milliseconds Every 10 milliseconds, peakamp~ will send out the peak signal amplitude it has received since the previous report. We've given ourselves the option of turning off the peakamp~ object's timer and using the metro that's controlling the video display rate to bang peakamp~, but the built-in timing capability of peakamp~ allows us to set the audio tracking time independently of the video display rate. Using Decibels We actually perceive the intensity of a sound not so much as a linear function of its amplitude, but really more as a function of its relative level in decibels (abbreviated dB). This means that more than half the sound pressure level we're capable of hearing from MSP resides in the bottom 1% of its linear amplitude, in the range between 0 and 0.01! For that reason, it's often more appropriate to deal with sound levels on the logarithmic decibel scale, rather than as a straight amplitude 233 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video value. So we convert the amplitude into decibels, using the p AtodB subpatch (which is identical to the AtodB subpatch used in the MSP Tutorial 4). The contents of the [AtodB] subpatch The [AtodB] subpatch takes the peak amplitude reported by peakamp~ and converts it to decibels, with an amplitude of 1 being 0 dB and all lesser amplitudes having a negative decibel value. Convert amplitude to a decibel value, relative to a reference amplitude of 1 Technical Detail: The formula for conversion of amplitude into decibels is: dB = 20 log10 ( A ) A0 where A0 is a reference amplitude and A is the amplitude being measured. The decibel scale is discussed in the "Digital Audio" and "Tutorial 4" sections of the MSP manual. Focusing on a Range of Amplitudes In many recordings and live audio situations, there's quite a bit of low-level sound that we don't really consider to be part of what we're trying to analyze. The sound we really care about may only occupy a certain portion of the decibel range that MSP can cover. (In some recordings the music is compressed into an extremely small range to achieve a particular effect. Even in many uncompressed recordings, the most important sounds may all be in a small dynamic range.) The level of the soft unwanted sound is termed the noise floor. It would be nice if we could analyze only those sounds that are above the noise floor. The patcher dBexpander subpatch lets us control the dB level of the tracked amplitude and set a noise floor threshold beneath which we want to ignore the signal. The subpatch takes the levels we do want to use, and expands them to fill the full range of the decibel scale from 0 dB down to 120 234 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video dB. In the following example, we have specified a noise floor threshold of 36 dB. The amplitude of the MSP signal at this moment is 0.251189, which is a level of 12dB. The subpatch expands that level (originally 12 in the range from 0 down to 36) so that it occupies a comparable position in the range from 0 down to 120. The resulting level is 40 dB, which is sent out the right outlet of the subpatch. The level relative to the noise floor is sent out the left outlet expressed on a scale from 0 to 1, which is a useful control range in Jitter. In this example, the input level of 12 dB is 24 dB greater than the noise floor; that is, it's 2/3 of the way to the maximum in the specified 36 dB range. Convert linear amplitude in the region above -36dB into full range You can apply this value as control data for Jitter. Turn on the toggle labeled Use Display Framerate. This will temporarily turn off the internal timer of peakamp~ and will use the bang messages from the metro instead. Turn on the toggle labeled Audio On/Off to start MSP audio processing. Click on the message box containing the number 1 above the sfplay~ object to start the playback of the sound file. Turn on the toggle labeled Display Movie to start the video playback. The peak amplitude of the audio is reported at the same rate as the movie matrix is displayed--every 25 milliseconds. The tracked decibel level--40 values per second--is displayed in the green and black multislider labeled expanded level. The level, mapped into the range 0 to 1, is used to change the val attribute of the jit.op object, affecting the displayed video. You can scale the range of that value up or down with the number box labeled Effect Strength. Values in the range 0.5 to 1.5 have the most effect on the image. Audio Event Detection In the preceding section we tracked the amplitude envelope of the sound and used the peak amplitude to get a new control value for every frame of the video. We can also analyze the sound on a different structural level, tracking the rhythm of individual events in the sound: notes in a piece of music, words in spoken text, etc. To do that, we'll need to detect when the amplitude increases past a particular threshold, signifying the attack of the sound, and when the sound has gone below the threshold for a sufficient time for the event to be considered over. We do this inside the patcher detectevent subpatch. In the main patch, we provide three parameters for the [detectevent] subpatch: the Note-on Threshold (the level above which the sound must rise to designate an "event" or "note"), the Min. Note Duration (a time the subpatch will wait before 235 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video looking for a level that goes back below the threshold), and the Min. Off Time (the amount of time that the level must remain below the threshold for the note to be considered ended). In the following example a "note" event will be reported when the level exceeds 30 dB, and the note will only be considered off when the level stays below 30 dB for at least 25 milliseconds. Since the subpatch will wait at least 50 ms before it even begins looking for a note-off level, the total duration of each note will be at least 75 milliseconds. When the level exceeds the threshold and reaches a local maximum, an audio event is reported. 236 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video To see the contents of the subpatch, double-click on the patcher detectevent object. Event-detection based on the amplitude exceeding a threshold The comments in the subpatch explain the procedure pretty succinctly. When a new level comes in the left inlet, two conditions must be satisfied: the level must be greater than the threshold and there must not already be a note on. If both those conditions are met, then we keep watching the amplitude until it stops increasing, at which point we consider the note to be fully on so we send the number 1 out the right outlet and send the peak level out the left outlet. We wait the "minimum note time", then open the gate to begin looking for indications (from the > object) that the level has gone below the threshold. Once such a level has been detected, we wait the "minimum off time" before deciding that the note is off. If another level above the threshold comes before the minimum off time has elapsed, the stop message is sent to the delay object and a new note-off level must detected. When the note is truly off, a 0 is sent out the right outlet, the fact that the note has 237 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video been turned off is noted (in the == 0 object), and the gate is closed again. It's now ready for the next time that the threshold is passed. Close the [detectevent] subpatch window. For this event-detector to work well on fastchanging sounds, the peak amplitude should usually be tracked at a fairly rapid rate. Turn off the Use Display Rate toggle so that the peakamp~ object will use its internal timer at an interval of every 10 ms. In the main patch you can see three demonstrations of ways to use the output of the [detectevent] subpatch. In the bottom right corner of the patch we use the 1 from the right outlet of patcher detectevent to trigger another subpatch, patcher flashbulbs, which places random colored dots in a display window. We take the value out of the left outlet of patcher detectevent and expand its range just the way we did for the original audio level, so that the value signifying the "note amplitude" can cover the full available range. We use that to trigger MIDI notes, and also to choose different pictures to display. Let's look at each of those procedures briefly. Using Audio Event Information The simplest use of an audio event is just to trigger something else when an event occurs. Whenever an audio event is detected, we trigger the patcher flashbulbs subpatch. That subpatch generates a 16x12 matrix of random colors, then uses scaling to turn most of the colors to black, leaving only a few remaining cells with color. When that matrix goes out to the main patch, those cells are upsampled with interpolation in the jit.pwindow and look like flashes of colored light. Subsequent level values from peakamp~ are used in the [flashbulbs] subpatch to bang a bline object, causing the colors to fade away after 20 bang messages. The [flashbulbs] subpatch 238 Tutorial 28 Audio Control of Video In the patcher pickpicture subpatch, we simply divide the event amplitudes up into five equal ranges, and use those values to trigger the display of one of five different pictures. In the following example, you can see the use of audio information to trigger MIDI notes. Peak level determines pitch and velocity of a MIDI note We use the expanded decibel value coming out of the right outlet of the patcher expander to derive MIDI pitch and velocity values. We first put the values in the range 0 to 120, then use those values as MIDI velocities and also map them into the range 96 to 36 for use as MIDI key numbers. (Note that we invert the range so as to assign louder events to lower MIDI notes rather than higher ones, in order to give them more musical weight.) The note durations may set by the Min. Note Duration number box, or they may be set independently by entering a duration in the number box just above makenote's duration inlet. You can experiment further with this patch in a number of ways: by changing the rate of the audio file with the Rate number box, by opening different soundfiles and movies, by choosing Sound Input from the ubumenu to use live sound input, and by changing the various tracking parameters such as Reporting Interval, Noise Floor Threshold, Note-On Threshold, and Min. Note Duration. 239 Tutorial 28 Summary Audio Control of Video We've demonstrated how to track the peak amplitude of a sound with the peakamp~ object, how to convert linear amplitude to decibels, and how to detect audio events by checking to see if the amplitude level has exceeded a certain threshold. We used the information we derived about the amplitude and the and peak events to trigger images algorithmically, select from preloaded images, play MIDI notes, and alter video effects. 240 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel In this tutorial we'll look at how to composite two images using the alpha channel of a 4-plane char Jitter matrix as a transparency mask. We'll explore this concept as a way to superimpose subtitles generated by the jit.lcd object over a movie image. Open the tutorial patch 29jUsingTheAlphaChannel.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The upper-lefthand region of the tutorial patch contains a jit.qt.movie object that reads the file ozone.mov when the patch opens. The metro object outputs a new matrix from the jit.qt.movie object every 33 milliseconds and polls the time attribute of the object (the current playback position of the movie, in QuickTime time units) by using a trigger object: Play back the movie, getting the current time position with each new matrix Start viewing the movie by clicking the toggle box attached to the metro. The jit.qt.movie object will start to output matrices as well as the current playback position within the movie. You should see the movie (with subtitles!) appear in the jit.pwindow at the bottom of the patch. Nice kitty 241 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel First, we'll look at how the subtitles are being generated. Then we'll investigate how we composite them with the image from the movie using the alpha channel. The jit.lcd Object The subtitles in our patch are generated by sending messages to the jit.lcd object (at the top of the patch). The arguments to jit.lcd specify the planecount, type, and dim of the matrix generated by the object (jit.lcd only supports 4-plane char matrices). The jit.lcd object takes messages in the form of QuickDraw commands, and draws them into an output matrix when it receives a bang message. We initialize our jit.lcd object by giving it commands to set its font and textface for drawing text and its foreground (frgb) and background (brgb) color (in lists of RGB values). We then clear the jit.lcd object's internal image and send out an empty matrix with a bang message: An initialized jit.lcd object Note: The jit.lcd object has the same complete set of QuickDraw commands and functions that are available in the Max lcd object. Though we'll be using it in this patch for the purpose of generating text images, jit.lcd can be used to generate all manner of 2-dimensional vector graphics as well. Tutorial 43 in the Max Tutorials and Topics manual demonstrates some of the features of the lcd object, all of which can be applied just as easily to jit.lcd. The jit.lcd object outputs its matrix into a jit.rgb2luma object, which converts the 4-plane image output by jit.lcd into a 1-plane grayscale image. The jit.rgb2luma object generates a matrix containing the luminosity value of each cell in the input matrix. This 1-plane matrix is then sent to a send object with the name alphamask and to a jit.pwindow object so we can view it. Note that the jit.pwindow object has its border attribute set to 1. As a result, we can see a 1-pixel black border around the white image inside. 242 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel Our jit.lcd object also receives messages from elsewhere in the patch (via the receive object named lcd attached to it). The subtitles are generated automatically by looking for certain times in the movie playback: Parsing the time values from the jit.qt.movie object The jit.qt.movie object outputs its current playback position with every tick of the metro object, thanks to the t gettime b object we have between the two. The time attribute is sent out the right outlet of the jit.qt.movie object, where we can use a route object to strip it of its message selector (time). We divide the value by 100 so that we can search for a specific time more accurately. Since the metro only queries the time every 33 milliseconds, it's entirely possible that we'll completely skip over a specific time--dividing the time value by 100 makes it easier to find the point in the movie we want. The time values are sent through a gate object where you can disable the subtitles if you so choose: Control the flow of the time values with a gate object Click the toggle box attached to the gate. The subtitles should disappear. You can resume the subtitles by clicking the toggle box again. 243 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel The subtitles are finally generated when the time values 21 and 40 make it past the gate object. The select object sends out a bang message when those values arrive. This triggers commands from the message box objects to jit.lcd: Performing the subtitling based on the time values The clear message to jit.lcd erases the drawing canvas, filling all the pixels with white (our chosen background color). The moveto message moves the cursor of the jit.lcd object to a specific coordinate from which it will draw subsequent commands. The write message draws text into the matrix using the currently selected font and textface. Once we've written in our subtitles, we send the object a bang message to make it output a new matrix. With every subtitle, we also send a bang message to a delay object, which clears and resends the matrix 1000 milliseconds later, erasing the title. Make Your Own Titles The region of the tutorial patch to the right (with the magenta background) lets you use the textedit object to generate your own subtitles. The number box labeled Offset determines the 244 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel horizontal offset for the text. The trigger object allows you to send all the necessary QuickDraw commands to the jit.lcd object in the correct order. Make your own subtitles Turn off the automatic subtitling with the toggle box above the gate. Type some text into the textedit box and hit the return key. The text will appear superimposed over the image. The new subtitle over the image Now that we understand how the titles are generated, lets take a look at how they get composited over the movie. The Alpha Channel The alpha channel of an ARGB image defines its transparency when it is composited with a second image. If a pixel has an alpha channel of 0 it is considered completely transparent when composited onto another image. If a pixel's alpha channel is set to 255 it is considered completely opaque, 245 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel and will show at full opacity when composited. Intermediate values will cause the pixel to fade smoothly between the first and second image. In 4-plane char Jitter matrices, data stored in plane 0 of the matrix is considered to be the alpha channel. Technical Detail: Color systems and software environments differ on whether the alpha channel describes the transparency or the opacity of an image. In QuickTime movies (and hence in Jitter) an alpha value of 255 means that the pixel is fully opaque. You may encounter programs where the opposite is true (i.e. an alpha value of 255 denotes full transparency). The mode attribute of the jit.alphablend object lets you treat the alpha channel in either way. The default mode of 0 treats increasing alpha values as more opaque, while setting the mode attribute to 1 causes the object to treat increasing alpha values as more transparent. The jit.alphablend object uses the values stored in the alpha channel (plane 0) of the matrix arriving in the left inlet to perform a crossfade (on a cell-by-cell basis) between the matrices arriving in its two inlets. Our patch replaces plane 0 of the jit.qt.movie object's output matrix with the output of the jit.lcd object. We then use this new alpha channel with the jit.alphablend object to crossfade between the movie and an inverted copy of itself: Inserting a new alpha channel with the jit.pack object We use the jit.unpack and jit.pack objects to strip the original alpha channel from our QuickTime movie. The 1-plane matrix containing the subtitle arrives at the jit.pack object from the receive object above it. Notice how the trigger object is used to force jit.pack to output new matrices even when no new matrix has arrived from the receive (jit.pack, like the Max pack object, will only output a matrix when it has received a new matrix or a bang message in its leftmost inlet). The jit.op object creates a negative of the original matrix from the QuickTime movie (by subtracting the matrix values from 255 using the !- operator). The jit.alphablend object then uses our new alpha channel--white values in the subtitle matrix cause the original image to be retained, while black values bring in the inverted image from the righthand matrix. Different techniques are often used for subtitling. The technique of superimposing white text over an image (sometimes with a black border around it) is far more common than the technique used here of filling an alpha mask with an inverted image. However, doing our subtitling this way gives us a perfect excuse to use the jit.alphablend object, and may give you more legible subtitles in situations where the background image has areas of high contrast. 246 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel The image below shows the compositing process with jit.pwindow objects showing intermediate steps: The compositing process, showing intermediate steps Summary The jit.lcd object offers a complete set of QuickDraw commands to draw text and 2-dimensional graphics into a Jitter matrix. The jit.rgb2luma object converts a 4-plane ARGB matrix to a 1-plane grayscale matrix containing luminance data. You can replace the alpha channel (plane 0) of an 247 Tutorial 29 Using the Alpha Channel image with a 1-plane matrix using the jit.pack object. The jit.alphablend object crossfades two images on a cell-by-cell basis based on the alpha channel of the lefthand matrix. 248 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text This tutorial shows you how to draw and position 3D text in a jit.window object using the jit.gl.text3d and jit.gl.render objects. Along the way, we will cover the basics of drawing OpenGL graphics using the jit.gl.render object. The jit.gl.text3d object is one of the many Jitter OpenGL drawing objects that work in conjunction with the jit.gl.render object. OpenGL is a cross-platform standard for drawing 2D and 3D graphics, designed to describe images so that they can be drawn by graphics coprocessors. These coprocessors, also known Graphics Processor Units or GPUs, speed up drawing operations enormously, allowing complex scenes made of textured polygons to be animated in real time. OpenGL graphics can help you create faster visual displays or interfaces without bogging down your computer's CPU. We refer to objects such as jit.gl.text3d and jit.gl.render as objects in the GL group Open the tutorial patch 30j3DText.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the lower left of the patch, there is a jit.window object named hello. This window will be the destination for our OpenGL drawing. Click on the toggle labeled Start Rendering. The toggle starts the qmetro object that sends bang messages to a trigger object. For each bang received at its inlet, the trigger object sends the message erase out its right outlet, and then a bang message out its left outlet. These messages are sent to the jit.gl.render hello object. Creating a Drawing Context All OpenGL graphics in Jitter are drawn with the aid of jit.gl.render objects. Each jit.gl.render object must refer to a named destination for drawing. You can specify this destination using an initial argument to jit.gl.render. So in this case, jit.gl.render hello creates a jit.gl.render object that will draw to the destination window that we have named hello. It's important to note that hello is not the name of the jit.gl.render object--only its destination. We refer to this combination of a jit.gl.render object and a named destination as a drawing context. A drawing context is required for OpenGL rendering. The objects on the left side of this patch are sufficient to build a valid drawing context, and so when you click on the toggle object, the message 249 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text jit.gl.render: building GL on window `hello' appears in the Max window. This tells you that the context is being created. A jit.gl.render object and a named destination create a drawing context GL Objects in the Context A variety of Jitter objects are provided for drawing different things into OpenGL contexts. These Jitter objects have names that all start with "jit.gl". Some examples are jit.gl.model (which draws 3D models), jit.gl.plato (which draws Platonic solids), and the jit.gl.text3d object, as seen in the upper right of the Tutorial patch. These objects all take the name of a drawing context as an initial argument, and are automatically drawn into that context by a jit.gl.render object each time it receives a bang message. So in this example, as long as the metro object is sending bang messages, the jit.gl.render object is performing the same set of operations: erase the screen, draw all objects, repeat. The only reason that the jit.gl.text3d object's output is not visible in the window is that it has no text string assigned to it. Let's remedy this. Click on the message box reading Hello\, Jitter!. This sets the text contained in the jit.gl.text3d object. You should now see the word "Hello" in the jit.window. Note that the comma in the text is preceded by a backslash; since commas normally 250 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text separate sequential messages in a message box, the backslash is needed to tell Max to treat the comma as an ordinary text symbol. Technical Detail: The qmetro object is needed in this patch because, unlike most previous tutorial patches, there are no jit.matrix objects present. In complex patches, the drawing or matrix calculations being repeatedly triggered by a metro object may not complete before the next bang is scheduled to arrive. In this example, this situation would occur if the text took more than 40 milliseconds to render. Normally, the Max scheduler would place this bang on its queue--a list of pending messages. Max is not normally allowed to drop messages from the queue. So in this patch, if each bang generated a sequence of events that take longer than 40 milliseconds, and no dropping of messages was allowed, the queue would eventually overflow, or run out of space to store additional pending messages. Then the scheduler would stop, and so would your show! This is probably not what you had in mind. The qmetro object (which is really just a combination of a metro object and the jit.qball object-- see Tutorial 16) helps you avoid this situation by dropping any bang messages that are still pending during a calculation. If a bang message is scheduled to occur while the rest of the patch is rendering, it will be placed in a queue. If that bang still hasn't been passed to the rest of the patch by the time the next bang occurs, the first bang will be usurped by the second, which will be placed next in the queue. And so on. Let's say the output of a metro object set to output a bang message every 10 milliseconds is sent to a jit.qt.movieobject, followed by some effects that take 100 milliseconds per frame to draw. So the jit.qt.movie object will receive 10 bang messages during the time the effects are being calculated. The jit.qt.movie object knows in this case that the processing is not yet complete, and instead of sending out ten jit_matrix messages next time it has a chance, it drops all but one. While the jit.qt.movie and jit.matrix objects have this capability built in, the jit.gl.render object does not. This is because the jit.gl.render object will often need matching groups of messages in order to draw a frame properly. In this example, the erase message is needed to clear the screen, and the bang message draws the text. If an erase message was dropped to avoid overflowing the queue, multiple bang messages might be processed in a row, and multiple copies of the text would be drawn at once, which is not what we want to do. As patches get more complex, different kinds of visual artifacts might result. So, the qmetro object is provided to let the designer of the patch decide what messages to drop from the queue. In this example, as in most cases, simply substituting qmetro objects for metro objects insures that the drawing will always look correct, and the queue will never overflow. Common 3D Attributes All Jitter OpenGL objects which all begin with "jit.gl" share a common set of attributes that allow them to be positioned in 3D space, colored, and otherwise modified--the ob3d group. Drawing 3D graphics can be a fairly complex task. The ob3d group simplifies this by insuring that the messages you learn to draw one 3D object will work with all of them, whenever possible. This group of common attributes are fully documented in the GL group section of the Jitter Object Reference. To introduce the 3D group here, we will demonstrate the position, rotation, scale and axes attributes by manipulating the jit.text3d object. 251 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text W can add a set of spatial axes to the jit.text3d object to make our spatial manipulations easier to see and understand--it's both easier to see how the text object is oriented, and also to see additional information about exactly where the object's origin is. Click on the toggle connected to the message box reading axes $1 in order to see the 3Dobject's axes. The 3D text at the origin The x axis, drawn in red, points to the right. Zero is at the center of the screen, and increasing x values move in the direction of the right of the screen. The y axis, drawn in green, points upwards, and the z axis, drawn in blue, points out of the screen towards you (since it is pointed directly toward you, you will only see a small blue dot). These axes represent the object's local coordinate system as it moves through the world. When a GL group object is first created, its local coordinate system is not rotated, translated, or scaled--it has the same coordinate system as the rest of the 3D world, by default The text "Hello, Jitter!" is displayed in the jit.window object's display area, but it starts at the center of the screen, so the final part is cut off. Let's move the text to the left. Set the number box labeled x in the Common 3D attributes section of the patch to the value 1. 252 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text The Number box sends a floating-point value to the pak object, which sends the message position followed by three numbers to the jit.gl.text3d object. As you change the value in the number box, you can see the text slide to the left until all of it is visible on the screen. Changing the position attribute We have just changed the position attribute of the jit.gl.text3d object. The position message can be followed by three number arguments that set the position of the object in three dimensions. If fewer than three numbers follow the position message, the axes are filled in the order [x, y, z], and the position of the object on the unspecified axes is set to 0. For example, sending the message position 5. will set the position of a GL group object to the location [5, 0, 0]. The operation of changing an object's position is called translation. Now, let's rotate the text. Set the number box objects labeled x, y and z directly above the pak rotation object in the Common 3D attributes section of the patch to the value 1. This sets the axis of rotation. 253 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text Drag the number box labeled angle to the value 320. You will see the text rotate around the axis into the position shown in this screenshot. The 3D text after translation and rotation Sending the message rotate followed by from one to four numbers sets the rotation attribute of an GL group object. The first number is an amount of rotation in degrees, counterclockwise around the object's axis of rotation. The other three numbers specify this axis of rotation as an [x, y, z] vector. As with the position attribute, some values following the rotation attribute can be dropped and default values will be understood. If the rotation message is followed by only one number, that number is understood to mean the angle in degrees, and the axis of rotation is [0, 0, 1]. This rotates the object around the z axis, or in other words, in the x-y plane of the screen. If two or more numbers accompany the rotation message, the first one always specifies the rotation angle, and following ones specify the vector of rotation in the order in which they appear. 254 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text Set the number box labeled x directly above the pak scale object to 0.5. This scales the 3D text by half along its local x axis. The 3D text after translation, rotation and scaling Note that the red axis scales along with the object. The dots along the line are now twice as close together as they were before the scale operation. The axes are always drawn in the GL group's local coordinate system, which in this case has been translated, rotated, and scaled with respect to the world coordinate system in the jit.gl.render object. It's important to consider the order of operations when performing geometry transforms. You can set the rotate, position and scale attributes of an object independently in any order you wish. But each time it is drawn, the object is transformed in the following order: 1. Scaling 2. Rotation 3. Translation Keeping this order is essential so that the attributes behave predictably. If rotation occurred before scaling, for example, a scale 0.5 message would scale the object not just in its x coordinate, but in some combination of x, y and z depending on the rotation of the object. 255 Tutorial 30 Drawing 3D text The following example shows the difference that performing operations in different orders makes. The order of operations makes all the difference Summary Creating a draw context is the first step to using OpenGL graphics in Jitter. A draw context consists of a named destination, such as a window, and a jit.gl.render object drawing to that destination. A variety of Jitter objects exist which draw OpenGL graphics in cooperation with jit.gl.render; their names all start with "jit.gl." The jit.gl.text3d object is one example. All the Jitter OpenGL objects share a common set of attributes for moving them in 3D space. This group of objects is referred to as the GL group. 256 Tutorial 31 Rendering Destinations In the previous tutorial, we saw how to draw OpenGL graphics into a jit.window using the jit.gl.render object. Now we will look at the other kinds of destinations into which a jit.gl.render object can draw, what to use them for, and how to switch between destinations. Open the tutorial patch 31jRenderDestinations.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the upper left is, among other objects, a jit.gl.render object with an argument of inky. We saw in Tutorial 30 that the initial argument to jit.gl.render specifies a named rendering destination. In the upper right of the patch, we have such a destination: the jit.window object named inky. Click on the toggle in the upper left of the patch labeled "Start Rendering". You should see a red ball appear in the jit.window object. The jit.gl.gridshape object is drawing the ball. Its first argument, inky, specifies the drawing context currently being drawn by the jit.gl.render object to the jit.window. The other arguments set the color and scale attributes of the ball. Draw a red ball in the window named inky Drawing and Swapping Buffers Clicking the toggle starts the qmetro object, which sends bang messages to the object t b b erase. This object first sends an erase message followed by a bang message to the jit.gl.render object, and then a bang message that is used elsewhere in the patch. When the jit.gl.render object receives the bang message, it draws all of the GL group objects which share its destination, then copies its offscreen buffer, if any, to the screen. An offscreen buffer is an area of memory not visible on the screen, the same size as the drawing destination. By default, all 257 Tutorial 31 Rendering Destinations drawing contexts have an offscreen buffer. Drawing is done into the buffer, which must then be copied to the screen in order to be seen. The offscreen buffer makes flicker-free drawing and animation possible, as we see here. Even though the buffer is being erased before the red ball is drawn each time, we never see the buffer in its erased state. To see what drawing looks like without the offscreen buffer, click on the message box doublebuffer 0 in the upper right of the patch. You will probably see the image start to flicker. This happens because the erase message now causes the window itself to be erased, not the offscreen buffer. The window remains blank for a short but indeterminate period of time before the red ball is drawn, so you can see the area under the ball flickering between red and the dark gray of the erased window. Click the message box doublebuffer 1 to remake the offscreen buffer and stop the flickering. Setting Fullscreen Mode Note: The fullscreen and hidemenubar attributes of the jit.window object are available on Macintosh systems only. The p fullscreen subpatch contains a key object, a select object, a toggle, a message box and an outlet object that sends the results of the subpatch to the jit.window object. This is standard Max stuff, so we won't go over it in too much detail-- the result is that the escape key toggles between sending the messages fullscreen 0 and fullscreen 1 to the jit.window object. (See the "Full Screen Display" section of Tutorial 14.) Press the `esc' key to change the jit.window object to fullscreen mode and back. The escape key seems to be a common way to toggle fullscreen mode, so we've used this setup in many of the example patches. It's important to note, however, that this is just a convention-- there's nothing built into Jitter that forces you to use one key or another for this purpose. You can use the fsmenubar message in conjunction with the fullscreen message to hide the menubar in addition to covering the screen. Setting a jit.pwindow Destination The jit.gl.render object can draw to three different kinds of destinations. The right side of the tutorial patch contains an object example of each destination: a jit.window, a jit.pwindow, and a jit.matrix. Right now we are rendering to the jit.window object. To change the destination to the jit.pwindow object, we need to first name the jit.pwindow object and then set the destinations of the jit.gl.render object and the jit.gl.gridshape object. Click on the message box name blinky above the topmost of the jit.pwindow objects. 258 Tutorial 31 Rendering Destinations This names the jit.pwindow object, which allows it to be used as a rendering destination. To switch the drawing to this destination, we need to send messages to both the jit.gl.render object and the jit.gl.gridshape object, telling them about the new destination. Click on the message box blinky in the Switch Destinations section of the patch. The symbol drawto is prepended to the message blinky, and the result is sent to the s dest object. Two objects receive this message--jit.gl.gridshape and t l b erase. The trigger object sends a sequence of messages to the jit.gl.render object, which tell it to: 1. Erase its current destination's draw buffer 2. Swap that buffer to the screen, visibly clearing the old destination, and 3. Switch future drawing to the new destination. The result is that the red ball is displayed on the jit.pwindow object at the right of the patch. Viewing our rendered output in a jit.pwindow object Setting a jit.matrix Destination In addition to drawing to jit.window objects and jit.pwindow objects, we can draw to jit.matrix objects. We introduced offscreen buffers in the discussion of jit.window destinations, above. When a 2D jit.matrix object is a rendering destination, the jit.matrix data is used as the offscreen buffer. This puts an image of an OpenGL scene into the same format as video data, so that any of Jitter's video-processing effects can be applied to the image. The jit.matrix object must meet a few criteria in order for OpenGL graphics to be drawn into it: It has to have four planes of char data. It has to have two dimensions. It has to be bigger than eight pixels in both width and height. 259 Tutorial 31 Rendering Destinations We have such a matrix in the bottom right corner of the tutorial patch. It is 160 pixels wide by 90 pixels high--the same dimensions as the jit.pwindow object below it. Click on the message box clyde in the Switch Destinations section of the patch to draw into the jit.matrix object. You should see a cyan ball on a light gray background. This is because the red ball image generated by OpenGL is processed through the jit.op object, which subtracts each color component from 255, inverting the image. Rasterizing the output into a jit.matrix There's one more important detail about drawing to jit.matrix objects. Note that underneath the qmetro object there's a trigger object t b b erase. The leftmost (and therefore last) bang message from this object is sent to the jit.matrix object into which we are drawing. This is necessary to see the image in the jit.pwindow. When the jit.gl.render object receives a bang message, it finishes constructing the drawing in the offscreen buffer belonging to the jit.matrix object. But to send the resultant matrix out for viewing or further processing, it's necessary to send a bang message to the jit.matrix object. Hardware vs. Software Rendering: One of the great advantages about using OpenGL for rendering graphics is that most of the work can be done by the graphics accelerator hardware in your computer, freeing the CPU up for other work such as generating audio. When drawing into jit.window objects or jit.pwindow objects, the hardware renderer can be used. Unfortunately, the hardware renderer cannot draw directly into jit.matrix objects. This is not a limitation inherent in OpenGL, and may change in the future. Now, however, this means that drawing directly into Jitter matrices is significantly slower than drawing to jit.window or jit.pwindow objects, especially for complex scenes or those involving textures. 260 Tutorial 31 Multiple Renderers and Drawing Order Rendering Destinations To move an OpenGL scene to a different destination, the jit.gl.render object as well as any GL group objects involved in drawing the scene must receive the drawto message. Why not just send a message to the renderer, telling it to move the entire scene? The reason is that each GL group object can have an independent destination, as well as each renderer. Objects in the GL group can be moved between multiple renderers. To see an example of why this might be useful, please look at the other patch for this tutorial. Open the tutorial patch entitled 31jMoreRenderDestinations.pat. At the right are three jit.pwindow objects named A, B and C. The message box objects above them are not strictly necessary, because once a jit.pwindow object has been named, its name is stored with it in the patch. But they are useful here as labels and as a reminder of what messages to send to name the objects. There are also three jit.gl.render objects in the patch. Each of them is pointed at a different destination. Click the toggle labeled Start Rendering. This repeatedly sends the erase message followed by a bang message to each of the three renderers. You should see a yellow circle within a blue circle in the topmost drawing destination. This simple OpenGL scene is created by the two jit.gl.gridshape objects in the bottom left of the patch. We can move each of these objects to any of the three drawing destinations present. Rendering to jit.pwindow A Click the topmost message box reading B in the Switch Destinations section of the tutorial patch. This changes the destination of the blue circle to the draw context named "B"--it now appears on the center jit.pwindow. Click the lower message box reading B in the Switch Destinations section of the tutorial patch. This changes the destination of the yellow circle to the draw context named "B". The two objects are reunited. 261 Tutorial 31 Rendering Destinations Each time a jit.gl.render object receives a bang message, it draws all of the GL group objects that have been added to its context. It draws the objects in the order in which they were added to the context. In this case, the yellow circle was added to the draw context named "B" after the blue circle, so it appears on top. To change this order, we can send the message drawto B to the jit.gl.gridshape object drawing the blue circle again. This will remove it from its present place in the list of objects for the context named B, and add it again at the end of the list. Click the upper message box reading B in the Switch Destinations section of the tutorial patch again. The blue circle should now obscure the yellow circle. The blue circle obscures the yellow one Summary We have introduced a flexible system for creating multiple OpenGL renderers and drawing destinations, and for moving objects in the GL group between them using drawto messages. Three Jitter objects can function as drawing destinations: jit.window, jit.pwindow, and jit.matrix. Each kind of destination has different uses. A jit.window object can be moved to different monitors and quickly enlarged to cover the screen. A jit.pwindow object keeps its location in the patch. A jit.matrix object may be used as an offscreen buffer for rendering. The output of the jit.matrix object is a rasterized image of the 3D scene, to which further video processing may be applied. 262 Tutorial 32 Camera View This tutorial shows you how to set up the camera view and how to position and rotate GL group objects using jit.gl.handle. It will cover the group of components which together make up the camera view: the camera's position, the point at which the camera is looking, the "up" vector, the type of projection, the lens angle, and the clipping planes. Open the tutorial patch 32jCameraView.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. In the middle left of the patch, there is a jit.window object named mister. This window will be the destination for our OpenGL drawing. You will notice that the jit.window object has an attribute argument @depthbuffer 1 to specify the creation of a depth buffer. A depth buffer allows the OpenGL renderer to determine which drawing command is visible at a given pixel based on the proximity of the geometry to the camera. Without depth buffering, OpenGL uses what is often referred to as the "Painter's Algorithm"--i.e. the visible results of drawing commands correspond to sequence in which they are performed. Click on the toggle object labeled Start Rendering. We now see large gray circle and some yellow lines. These are being drawn by two instances of the jit.gl.gridshape object. The jit.gl.gridshape object can draw a variety of 3D shapes, including spheres, tori, cylinders, cubes, planes, and circles. The grey circle we see drawn in the window is actually a sphere and is being drawn by section of the patch labeled Grey Shape. The yellow lines are actually a plane and are being drawn by the section of the patch labeled Yellow Plane. The yellow plane is being rendered with poly_mode 1 1, which means that the shape is being drawn with outlined polygons rather than filled polygons for both the front and back faces of the plane. If you 263 Tutorial 32 Camera View switch off the toggle object connected to the message box poly_mode $1 $1, you can see the plane rendered with filled polygons. The mister drawing context In the Grey Shape section of the patch, click on the message box scale 0.3 0.3 0.3 and then click on the message box containing shape torus. You should now see what looks like a grey doughnut. Click on the toggle object connected to the message box lighting_enable $1 and then click on the toggle object connected to the message box smooth_shading $1. We are now staring at a lit, smoothly shaded, 3D gray torus. By default, Jitter's GL group objects have lighting and smooth shading disabled, so it is necessary to turn these on. Lighting will be covered in detail in Tutorial 36. 264 Tutorial 32 Camera View Rendered shapes with smooth shading and lighting enabled In the Camera View section of the patch, click on the toggle object labeled jit.gl.render axes. You should see a red line from the center of the window to the right of the window and a green line from the center of the window to the top of the window. These are the x and y axes, respectively. They help us to determine the origin of our scene. Since the default camera position is at [0.,0.,2.], and the default lookat position is [0.,0.,0.], the camera is looking directly at the origin of our scene along the z axis. Hence, we do not see the blue line which represents the z axis along which the camera is looking. Under the camera position label, set the x value to be 1. Now the camera is at the position [1.,0.,2.], it is still looking at the position [0.,0.,0.], and the blue line of the z axis has become visible. The axes with a different viewing position 265 Tutorial 32 Camera View Now let's set the camera position x value to 6., y value to -6., and z value to 6. so that the camera position is [6,6,6]. You can see that the yellow plane and the axes are, in fact, finite. Viewing the edge of the plane So far, the y axis has always been pointing upwards with respect to the camera view. This is because the default "up" vector is [0.,1.,0.]--i.e. the unit y vector. Under the up vector label, let's set the y value to 0. and the z value to 1. We see that the view has rotated, and the blue line of the z axis is now pointing upwards. Using a different "up" vector You may have noticed, as we've moved the camera further away from the origin, that the torus, plane, and axes have become smaller. This is because the default viewing mode uses a perspective projection, which is similar to the way we see things in the 3-dimensional world we inhabit. If you are familiar with camera lenses, you may also know that depending upon the angle of the lens, objects will be smaller as the lens angle increases to accommodate a larger field of view. Similarly, we can change the lens angle of our perspective transformation to increase the field of view, and in doing so the objects will become yet smaller. 266 Tutorial 32 Camera View The default lens angle is 45 degrees, so let's change it to something like 60 degrees by changing the number box connected to the message box lens_angle $1. Using a 60-degree lens angle Another type of projection supported by OpenGL is the orthographic projection. This type of projection does not diminish the size of objects based on camera position. The orthographic projection is common to 3D CAD software used for tasks such as mechanical engineering. Many early video games like Q-Bert also used an orthographic projection. You can switch between the perspective projection and the orthographic projection by clicking on the toggle box labeled orthographic projection. The message ortho 1 will turn on orthographic projection. If you try moving the camera with orthographic projection turned on, you should not see the objects become any smaller. However, changing the lens angle will still change the field of view, and the size of objects relative to the view. Viewing our scene using orthographic projection Click on the toggle again to turn off the orthographic projection with an ortho 0 message. 267 Tutorial 32 Camera View Let's examine the clipping planes that determine the extent along the camera's view that will be rendered. OpenGL has a near clipping plane and a far clipping plane, and only geometry which lies in between these two planes will be rendered. These clipping planes are specified in units of distance from the camera along the viewing vector using the clip_near and clip_far messages. By default, the near clipping plane is set to 0.1 and the far clipping plane is set to 100. Try increasing the near clipping plane to 10 and decreasing the far clipping plane to 12. You should see the near and far edges of the yellow plane that fall outside the clipping planes disappear. Using a more constrained clipping plane Set the near clipping plane back to the default of 0.1 and the far clipping plane back to the default of 100. So far, the camera has always been looking at the origin [0.,0.,0.]. If we change the lookat position's x value to 3., the camera is now looking at [3.,0.,0.]. 268 Tutorial 32 Camera View Let's move the torus to the position [3.,0.,0.], by clicking on the message box containing position 3. 0. 0. in the section of the patch labeled UI Rotation and Position Control. The torus is now again located at the center point of the view, [3.,0.,0.]. Changing the viewing position and the position of the shape Not only did this send the position 3. 0. 0. message to the torus, but also to the jit.gl.handle object. The jit.gl.handle object is a GL group object that uses mouse information to move and rotate objects in the 3D scene. Like the jit.gl.gridshape object, the jit.gl.handle object requires a named draw context into which to draw. Unlike the jit.gl.gridshape object, it's also a user interface object that translates mouse activity in the draw context's destination to Max messages. In this patch, messages from the jit.gl.handle object are sent to the jit.gl.gridshape object. They are also sent to the route rotate position object and formatted so you can see exactly what is being sent. These messages are the only communication from the jit.gl.handle object--there is nothing going on "behind the scenes." If you click on the torus and drag the mouse, you will see the torus being rotated by the jit.gl.handle object as though it were a virtual trackball.You can move the torus left, right, up, and down by holding down the Command key on Macintosh or the Control key on Windows while dragging. You can move the torus towards you or away from you by holding down the Option key on Macintosh or the Alt key on Windows while dragging. Using the shift key as you perform any of the above mouse actions will constrain the action to a single axis. 269 Tutorial 32 Camera View Try manipulating the orientation of the torus by clicking on it in the jit.window object. Get a feel for how the jit.gl.handle object translates the 2-dimensional mouse information into 3dimensional rotation information. Using the jit.gl.handle object to manipulate the object's position As with the displayable axes of the jit.gl.render object, the jit.gl.handle object shows colored lines that correspond to the x (red), y (green), and z (blue) planes of the object being rotated. The lines appear as circles around the relevant object being "handled." The mouse controls the axes whose circles are nearest to the front of your current field of view. By manipulating the image so that those circles move to the back of the object, you can control a different pair of axes with the next mouse click. The modifier keys let you reposition the object by relocating it on the three axes. The jit.gl.handle object outputs the relevant messages to set the rotate and position attributes of the GL group object attached to it. Note that if you are displaying a GL context in a jit.pwindow, the Help in Locked Patchers option of Max (which you can change under the Options menu) needs to be disabled in order for zooming to work using jit.gl.handle. Otherwise, clicking while holding down the Option key on Macintosh or the Alt key on Windows will cause the help file for the jit.pwindow object to appear. Summary We have examined the several components which make up an OpenGL scene's camera view, and the necessary attributes of the jit.gl.render object which control them. The camera attribute specifies the camera position; up specifies the upwards vector; lookat specifies the position at which the camera is looking; ortho specifies whether to use an orthographic or perspective projection; and near_clip and far_clip specify the clipping planes. Lighting and smooth shading attributes can be enabled by setting the lighting_enable and smooth_shading attributes of the GL group object handling the geometry (in this case the jit.gl.gridshape object). The jit.gl.handle object lets us rotate and reposition GL group objects using the mouse and the modifier keys on the keyboard. The jit.gl.handle object takes the name of a valid draw context to attach itself to, and sends messages to any connected object that is also using that context, setting the rotation and position attributes of that object. 270 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending In the previous tutorial, you saw how to position the camera and objects in the GL group to construct an OpenGL scene in Jitter. After understanding this tutorial, you'll be able to hide selected polygons of a GL group object based on their spatial orientations, draw selected polygons in filled and wireframe modes, and add the results to the draw buffer using antialiasing and blending. Open the tutorial patch 33jPolyColorBlend.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Click on the toggle box labeled "Start Rendering." You should see a gray sphere in the pwindow in the tutorial patch. It is drawn by a jit.gl.gridshape object, connected to a jit.gl.handle object that allows you to control its rotation. The jit.gl.handle object's auto_rotate attribute is on, so once you rotate it the sphere will continue to rotate along the axis you set. If you like, give it a spin. The gray sphere Wireframe Mode and Culling Faces Just below the label "OpenGL Objects to Render" in the example patch is an object pak poly_mode 1 1. This object generates messages that set the polygon mode attribute of the jit.gl.gridshape object. 271 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending Click both toggle objects on above the pak poly_mode object. You should see the gray sphere in wireframe mode. The sphere in wireframe mode. Turning wireframe mode on allows you to see clearly that the jit.gl.gridshape object approximates a sphere using polygons--in this case, quadrilaterals. Every polygon drawn in OpenGL has a front side, defined as the side from which its vertices appear to wrap in a clockwise direction. Each polygon in a scene can, therefore, be categorized as either front-facing or back-facing, depending on whether its front side is pointed towards or away from the camera. OpenGL can automatically hide either front-facing or back-facing polygons, which can serve to speed up drawing greatly or highlight certain aspects of data being visualized. In Jitter, you can control polygon visibility on an object-by-object basis using the cull_face attribute. Set the number box above the prepend cull_face object to 1. The front-facing polygons of the sphere. 272 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending The cull_face attribute of a GL group object can be set to 0, 1 or 2. A setting of 0 shows all polygons in the object. A setting of 1 hides the back-facing polygons. A setting of 2 hides the front-facing polygons. With the current setting of 1, the wireframe sphere appears solid, because the hidden lines--polygon edges that would not be visible if the sphere were made of a solid material--are not drawn. The rotation (did you give it a spin?) convincingly depicts that of a real-world solid object. Set the number box above the prepend cull_face object to 2. The back-facing polygons of the sphere. Now the front-facing polygons are hidden. It's as if you are looking through the sphere and seeing only the inside part that faces towards you. You can see from this picture that the perspective is somewhat strange, but watching the rotation in the patch makes it really obvious that the scene is not drawn "normally." In general, setting cull_face 1 will do a good job of removing the polygons that should be hidden for solid, convex objects such as the sphere. But for objects that aren't solid, a combination of the front-facing and back-facing polygons may be in view. 273 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending Set the number box above the prepend cull_face object to 0, to show all the polygons. Set the left toggle box above the pak poly_mode object to 1 (on) and the right toggle box to 0 (off). Set the ubumenu above the prepend shape object to "opencylinder". Open cylinder, with solid front-facing polygons and wireframe back-facing polygons. Using this new shape, we can see the distinction between front- and back-facing polygons. The message poly_mode a b, given two integers a and b, sets the front-facing polygons to wireframe mode if a equals 1, and the back-facing ones to wireframe if b equals 1. RGBA Colors The colors of objects in the GL group are specified using the message color [R] [G] [B] [A], where R is the red component of the color, B is blue, G is green, and A is the alpha or opacity component. All values range from 0 to 1. Set the number box objects above the pak color... object to the values 1., 0., 0., 0.5. This specifies pure red at 50% opacity. You will see the color of the cylinder turn red, but the opacity is not visible. This is because blending, the mixing of pixels with those previously in the draw buffer, is turned off by default. 274 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending Click the toggle box above the blend_enable $1 message box to turn blending on for the jit.gl.gridshape object. You should see something like this: The red cylinder with blending enabled. ARGB vs. RGBA: If you've been using Jitter's video-manipulation objects, you know that colors in those objects are stored in planes and specified in arguments n the order A, R, G, B. In the GL group of objects, the order is RGBA, with alpha last, as we're seeing here. This may seem odd, so you are due bit of explanation. Jitter objects are tied as closely to native formats as possible in both the OpenGL and video domains, to allow the fastest possible processing. OpenGL stores colors of objects and vertices in RGBA format, and QuickTime stores its images in ARGB format. So the Jitter objects reflect this. If you want to combine OpenGL and video matrix processing in your patch, the pack, unpack, jit.pack and jit.unpack objects provide an easy way to convert between the two systems. You can also convert a matrix of char values from ARGB to RGBA by sending the matrix through a jit.matrix object with the planemap attribute set to 1 2 3 0 (effectively shifting all the planes by one). Tutorial 6 shows more examples of using the planemap attribute of the jit.matrix object. Erase Color and Trails Right now, each time the jit.gl.render object receives the erase message, the draw buffer is filled with the dark gray that is the default erase color. You can set a different erase color using the RGBA number box objects above the renderer object. Set the number box objects above the jit.gl.render object to the values 0, 0, 0.5 and 0.1. The background changes to a dark blue (Red = 0, Green = 0, Blue = 0.5). If the cylinder is spinning, you will also see trails in the image. This is because the background is being erased with an opacity of 0.1. When the dark blue pixels are drawn on top of the existing pixels in the draw buffer, they are overlaid such that the result is one-tenth dark blue and nine-tenths whatever color was at each pixel previously. As a result, previous frames linger for some time before being fully 275 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending erased. Note that while the blend_enable attribute must be set in order to see draw colors with partial opacity, it is not necessary for erasing with partial opacity. The spinning cylinder, leaving trails. Blend Modes When the blend_enable attribute of an object in the GL group is on, each pixel is applied to the draw buffer using a blend function. The blend function is the basic operation in image compositing. It controls the application of new pixels, the source, over existing pixels, the destination. The function has two parts: a source blending factor and a destination blending factor. The source blending factor specifies how the source's contribution to the finished image should be computed. The destination blending factor specifies the destination's contribution. Jitter recognizes eleven possible modes for blending factors. Some can be applied only to the source, some only to the destination, and some to both. Each mode specifies a different set of multiplier values for red, green, blue and alpha. The message blend_mode [src_factor] [dest_factor] allows you to specify both factors for any of the drawing objects in the GL group. 276 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending The Blend Modes: The source and destination blend factors are RGBA quadruplets which are multiplied componentwise by the RGBA values of the source and destination pixels, respectively. The corresponding components of the source and destination are added and then clamped to the range [0, 1] to produce the output pixel. This table shows how the blend factors are calculated. The "Mode" column lists the number passed in the Jitter message blend_mode [src_factor] [dest_factor]. The "OpenGL name" column lists the name of the mode. The "Relevant to" column lists whether the mode can apply to the source factor, the destination factor, or both. Finally, the "Blend Factor Equation" column specifies the actual formula that is used to calculate the pixel. The subscripts s and d refer to source and destination components, respectively. For example, Rs refers to the red component of the source pixel. Mode 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 OpenGL name GL_ZERO GL_ONE GL_DST_COLOR GL_SRC_COLOR GL_ONE_MINUS_DST_COLOR GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_COLOR GL_SRC_ALPHA GL_ONE_MINUS_ SRC_ALPHA GL_DST_ALPHA GL_ONE_MINUS_ DST_ALPHA GL_SRC_ALPHA_SATURATE Relevant to both both source destination source destination both both both both source Blend Factor Equation (0, 0, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1, 1) (Rd, Gd, Bd, Ad) (Rs, Gs, Bs, As) (1, 1, 1, 1)-(Rd, Gd, Bd, Ad) (1, 1, 1, 1)-(Rs, Gs, Bs, As) (As, As, As, As) (1, 1, 1, 1)- (As, As, As, As) (Ad, Ad, Ad, Ad) (1, 1, 1, 1)-(Ad, Ad, Ad, Ad) (f, f, f, 1); f = min(As, 1-Ad) The default source and destination blend modes for all objects in the GL group are 6 and 7, respectively. These correspond to the GL blend factors GL_SRC_ALPHA and GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA. This is a very commonly used blending operation, and you may never need another one. It allows you to crossfade intuitively between the source and destination by changing the source's alpha value. Other values are useful for simulating various real-world lighting situations, as well as special effects that have no physical counterpart. 277 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending Set the RGBA number box objects above the jit.gl.render object, which control the erase_color attribute, to the values 1.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0. This will set the background color to yellow and remove the trails, making the blend effect more visible. Set the left and right number box objects above the object pak blend_mode to 0 and 7, respectively. This specifies a source blend factor of GL_ZERO and a destination blend factor of GL_SRC_ALPHA. The cylinder with a setting of blend_mode 0 7. Let's examine how this blend _mode produces the image we see here. The source factor is GL_ZERO. This means that all the components of the source pixel are multiplied by zero--the source pixel has no effect. You can verify this by trying different RGB values for the cylinder. They all produce the same colors. The destination factor is GL_SRC_ALPHA. Looking in the table above, we can find the blend factor equation this corresponds to: (As, As, As, As). Each component of the destination pixel is multiplied by the source's alpha, in this case 0.5, before being added to the source pixel times the source factor, which in this case is 0. So, each time a pixel is drawn, it has its brightness reduced by one half. Antialiasing When OpenGL draws polygons and lines, it approximates their ideal geometric shapes by filling in pixels on a raster grid. This process is prone to difficulties that parallel those in reconstructing ideal waveforms with digital audio. Inevitably, aliasing, spatial frequencies that are not included in the ideal image, will be introduced once it is reconstructed from discrete pixels. This aliasing is visible as what are commonly known as "jaggies," especially in near-horizontal or near-vertical lines or edges. 278 Tutorial 33 Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending OpenGL has some antialiasing techniques for reducing the jaggies. We've made these available in Jitter through attributes of the GL group of objects. Using these attributes, you can specify whether any given object in the GL group will use antialiasing when it is drawn. Turn on the toggle box above the message box antialiasing $1 to send the message antialias 1 to the jit.gl.gridshape object. Antialiasing off Antialiasing on The antialiased lines have a smoother appearance, and also a fatter one. They may also draw more slowly, so if you're concerned about drawing speed, you have to decide whether the improved appearance is worth the extra time. The behavior of antialiasing in OpenGL is implementation-dependent. This means that makers of OpenGL hardware and drivers have some leeway in deciding what exactly happens when you request antialiasing. In the pictures above, for example, note that while the jaggies on the lines are reduced, the polygon edges in the lower left appear just the same. When you turn antialiasing on, Jitter requests that polygon edges be antialiased. But the particular OpenGL implementation that generated these pictures (an ATI Rage 128 accelerator with version 5.9.8 drivers) does not offer any help in this regard. Your implementation may differ. Summary We have defined front-facing and back-facing polygons, and seen how to draw them in both solid and wireframe modes (using the poly_mode and cull_face attributes). The renderer's erase_color attribute and its use to draw trails have been introduced. We defined in detail what happens when a source pixel is applied to a draw buffer destination, taking opacity and blend modes into account. And finally, the handy if somewhat unpredictable antialiasing feature of OpenGL was introduced. 279 Tutorial 34 Using Textures This tutorial shows you how to create and apply textures to 3D geometry data generated by the GL group. It will cover the creation of a named texture with jit.gl.render, assigning a named texture to a GL object, the use of colors in conjunction with textures, the conversion of image/video data to a texture, and various ways to wrap the geometry with a texture. Open the tutorial patch 34jUsingTextures.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder, and click on the toggle object labeled Start Rendering. You will see a white parallelogram, but it is actually a tetrahedron being drawn by the jit.gl.plato object. The jit.gl.plato object is capable of rendering several platonic solids including tetrahedrons, hexahedrons (also known as cubes), octahedrons, dodecahedrons, and icosahedrons. Since lighting is not turned on and there is no texture being applied to the tetrahedron, it is difficult to tell that it is actually a 3D shape. Use the mouse to rotate the tetrahedron with the jit.gl.handle object, as covered in Tutorial 32. This should illustrate that it is actually a 3D shape, but by applying a texture to the jit.gl.plato object, this will become even more apparent. Rotating the platonic solid 280 Tutorial 34 What is a Texture? Using Textures A texture is essentially an image that is overlaid upon geometry. Just like other images in Jitter, textures have an alpha, red, green, and blue component. In order to make use the alpha component, blending must be enabled. Blending is covered in detail in Tutorial 33. In Jitter, a texture has a name and belongs to the jit.gl.render object. Other objects that are attached to the drawing context associated with a given jit.gl.render object may make use of any of the named textures owned by that jit.gl.render object. For efficiency reasons, most OpenGL implementations require that the dimensions of texture data must be integer powers of two--16, 32, 64, and so on. While there are some implementations that permit arbitrarily sized textures, this is not supported in the current version of Jitter. There is a minimum size of 1 by 1 and a maximum size dependent upon the OpenGL implementation, usually 1024 by 1024. Creating a Texture Create a texture named grid by clicking the message box labeled texture grid 64 64 in the section of the patch labeled Textures. This message is being sent to the jit.gl.render object. The first argument to the texture message is the texture name, and the two following arguments specify the width and height of the texture. This creates a 64 by 64 texture named grid, and fills it with the default pattern (a white and grey checkerboard). You will not see any of the results yet, because the texture has not yet been applied to the geometry. Apply the texture to the tetrahedron by clicking on the message box labeled texture grid in the section of the patch labeled Platonic Solid. This sets the jit.gl.plato object's texture attribute, and when drawing, it will use the texture named grid. You should now see a checkered tetrahedron. Tetrahedron with a checkerboard texture applied to it. 281 Tutorial 34 Using Textures The jit.gl.plato object uses a "gift-wrapping" strategy to apply the texture to the tetrahedron. In the jit.gl.plato help file, the texture_maps subpatch illustrates exactly how the different platonic solids are wrapped. How texture maps are applied to different platonic solids. Important Note: You will notice that both the jit.gl.render and jit.gl.plato objects use the texture message in different ways. The jit.gl.render object uses this message to create a texture, while the jit.gl.plato and other GL group objects use this message to apply a texture. The jit.gl.render object also has a message to apply one of its named textures to raw geometry data passed as Jitter matrices. That message is usetexture. The jit.gl.render object's ability to render raw geometry data passed as Jitter matrices will be covered in Tutorial 37. Textures and Color When applying a texture to geometry, OpenGL also takes into account color and lighting information, so the current color and lighting values will be multiplied with the texture image when drawn. If the color is white and lighting is turned off, the texture colors will be unaltered. In the section of the patch labeled Platonic Solid, set the color of the tetrahedron to red by setting the number box labeled red to 1, the number box labeled green to 0, and the number box labeled blue to 0. Manipulating the color of the rendered object. 282 Tutorial 34 Set the color of the tetrahedron back to white (1. 1. 1.) for our next section. Using Textures Converting an Image or Video to a Texture While illustrative, typically you will want to make use of textures other than the default grey and white checkerboard. This can be accomplished by loading an image or a movie into the jit.qt.movie or jit.matrix objects and sending the message texture [texture-name] jit_matrix [matrix-name] to the jit.gl.render object. If the texture specified by [texture-name] already exists, the incoming matrix will be resampled to the current dimensions of the texture. If no texture with that name exists, a new texture will be created. Its dimensions will be the nearest power of two greater than or equal to the dimensions of the Jitter matrix. Click the message box containing texture picture 128 128 in the section of the patch labeled Textures. This creates a 128 by 128 texture named picture, and like before, fills it with the default white and grey checkerboard pattern. Click the message box containing read colorbars.pict, bang to load the colorbars.pict image into the jit.qt.movie object, and send it on its way to the texture named picture. You still won't see any of the results yet, because the jit.gl.plato object is still using the texture named grid. Click the message box containing texture picture in the section of the patch labeled Platonic Solid. Now you should see the color bars image wrapped around the tetrahedron. Using an image as a texture In many instances you will only need to use still images as textures, but Jitter also supports the use of moving video as textures by repeatedly copying the output of the jit.qt.movie object into the named texture. Click the message box containing read dishes.mov to load dishes.mov into the jit.qt.movie object. 283 Tutorial 34 Using Textures Click on the toggle object connected to the metro object to start copying the video to the texture named picture. Texture-mapping using a movie Interpolation and Texture size By default, texture interpolation is turned on, so screen pixels which are between texture pixels will use an interpolated value of its neighbors within the texture image. This has the effect of blurring or smoothing out the texture. To apply textures without interpolation, the interpolation may be turned off using the jit.gl.render object's interp message. This message only affects the jit.gl.render object's current texture, so prior to sending the interp message, you can send the message usetexture [texture-name] to make the current texture the one specified by [texture-name] argument. Click the toggle object connected to the message box containing usetexture picture, interp $1 to have the jit.gl.render object use the texture named picture and then to turn interpolation on and off for the texture named picture. Once a texture has been created, the texture size can be changed, by sending the message texture [texture-name] [width] [height] where [width] and [height] specify the new dimensions. 284 Tutorial 34 Using Textures Set the number box labeled Resize texture to 16. This will send the jit.gl.render object the message texture picture 16 16, resizing the texture picture to be a 16 by 16 image. Using an uninterpolated texture Textures may be deleted in order to free up memory by sending jit.gl.render the message deletetexture [texture-name]. Mapping Modes So far we have only addressed the explicit texture mapping that the jit.gl.plato object provides. OpenGL also provides a few other implicit texture mappings for applying textures to geometry data. These are the object linear, eye linear, and sphere map mapping modes. The object linear mode applies the texture in a fixed manner relative to the object's coordinate system. As the object is rotated and positioned in the 3D scene, the texture mapping remains the same. In contrast, the eye linear mode applies the texture in a fixed manner relative to the eye's coordinate system. As the object is rotated and positioned in the 3D scene, the application of the texture to the object will change. Lastly, the sphere map mapping mode will produce the effect commonly called "environment mapping"; the object is rendered as though it is reflecting the surrounding environment, and assumes that the texture contains a sphere mapped image of the surrounding environment. As the object is rotated and positioned in the 3D scene, the application of the texture to the object will change. These implicit mapping modes may be used by setting the GL group tex_map attribute. A tex_map value of 0 is the default and will use the GL group object's explicit texture coordinates. A tex_map value of 1 will use OpenGL's object linear mode. A tex_map value of 2 will use OpenGL's sphere map mode. A tex_map value of 3 will use OpenGL's eye linear mode. 285 Tutorial 34 Using Textures Try changing the number box connected to the message box containing tex_map $1. Position and rotate the tetrahedron with your mouse, and see how the various modes affect the texture mapping. Using different implicit mapping modes: object linear (left), sphere map (middle), eye linear (right) OpenGL's object linear and eye linear mapping modes have additional parameters that affect the way in which they apply the texture. These are set with the GL group tex_plane_s and tex_plane_t attributes. These attributes are each vectors in 4 dimensional homogenous coordinates. The scalar product of tex_plane_s and a given point in 4 dimensional homogenous coordinates determines the horizontal position of the texture image to apply. The scalar product of tex_plane_t and a given point in 4 dimensional homogenous coordinates determines the vertical position of the texture image to apply. By default, tex_plane_s is equal to (1. 0. 0. 0.) and tex_plane_t is equal to (0. 1. 0. 0.). A more detailed description of how the tex_plane_s and tex_plane_t attributes affect the texture mapping are out of the scope of this tutorial, but that doesn't mean you can't play with it anyway to generate interesting effects. For the curious, please consult the OpenGL Red Book or Blue Book. Experiment with the number box objects under the texture plane s and texture plane t labels (tex_map should be set to 1 or 3 in order to have any effect). Experimenting with additional parameters 286 Tutorial 34 Summary Using Textures We described how to create textures and various ways to apply them to the geometry created by the GL group. The jit.gl.render object's texture message may be used to create, size, and copy image or video data to named textures. The GL group texture attribute specifies which named texture to use, and the GL group tex_map attribute selects either the explicit texture mapping mode or one of the three implicit OpenGL texture mapping modes: object linear, eye linear, or sphere map. 287 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Lighting--the illumination of objects in the real world--is a very complex subject. When we view objects, our eyes focus and detect photons throughout a range of energies that we call visible light. Between their origin in the Sun, lightning, fireflies or other light sources and our eyes, they can travel on a multitude of complex paths as they are reflected from or refracted through different materials, or scattered by the atmosphere. Our computers won't be dealing with this level of complexity anytime soon, so OpenGL simplifies it greatly. The OpenGL Lighting Model Lighting in OpenGL is based on a very rough model of what happens in the real world. Though very crude compared to the subtlety of nature, it is a good compromise, given today's technology, between the desire for realism and the cost of complexity. We have already seen how colors in OpenGL are described as RGB (red, green and blue) values. The lighting model in OpenGL extends this idea to allow the specification of light in terms of various independent components, each described as RGB triples. Each component describes how light that's been scattered in a certain way is colored. The continuum of possible real-world paths is simplified into four components, listed here from most directional to least directional. The specular light component is light that comes from a certain direction, and which also reflects off of surfaces primarily in a given direction. Shiny materials have a predominant specular component. A focused beam of light bouncing off of a mirror would be a situation where the specular component dominates. Diffuse light comes from one direction, but scatters equally in all directions as it bounces off of a surface. If the surface is facing directly at the light source, the light radiation it receives from the source will be the greatest, and so the diffuse component reflected from the surface will be brightest. If the surface is pointing in another direction, it will present a smaller cross-section towards the light source, and so the diffuse component will be smaller. Ambient light is direction-less. It is light that has been scattered so much that its source direction is indeterminate. So it appears equally bright from all directions. A room with white walls would be an environment with a high ambient lighting component, because so many photons bounce from wall to wall, scattering as they do so, before reaching your eye. 288 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Finally, emissive lighting is another component that doesn't really fall anywhere on the directionality scale. It is light that only reaches your eye if you're looking directly at the object. This is used for modeling objects that are light sources themselves. These components are used to describe materials and light sources. Materials made of specular, diffuse, ambient and emissive components are applied to polygons to determine how they will be colored. Polygons with materials applied are lit based on their positions and rotations relative to light sources and the camera, and the specular and diffuse properties of light sources, as well as the ambient light component of the scene. Getting Started Open the tutorial patch 35jLightingAndFog.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Click on the toggle (in the lower left, this time) labeled Start Rendering. Click the message box reading name lt, depthbuffer 1 above the jit.pwindow object. This creates a depth buffer so that hidden-surface removal can be done. You will see a flat gray torus and a small white circle in the jit.pwindow object. The jit.gl.gridshape object in the center of the tutorial patch draws the torus. The other jit.gl.gridshape object in the patch, towards the right, draws the white circle. The scene is all presented in flat shades because lighting is not yet enabled. Click the toggle box objects above the top three message box objects reading lighting_enable $1, smooth_shading $1, and auto_material $1 to set those attributes of the jit.gl.gridshape object drawing the torus to 1. Lighting is off by default for each object, so you must enable it. The same goes for smooth shading. When you set these two attributes, you will see the torus go through the now-familiar progression (assuming you've been doing these tutorials in order) from flat shaded to solid faceted to solid and smooth. When you set the auto_material attribute to 1, you won't see any change, because its default value is already 1. Click the toggle objects above the message box labeled auto_material $1 again, to set the auto_material attribute of the jit.gl.gridshape object to 0. 289 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Now you should see a change in the lighting of the torus. Instead of the dull gray appearance it started with, you will see a shiny gray appearance like this: The lit torus with the auto_material attribute off. The auto_material attribute is provided in Jitter so that you don't always need to specify all the components of a material just to see an object lit. When the auto_material attribute of an object in the GL group is on and lighting is enabled for the object, the diffuse and ambient material components for the object will be set to the object's color, and the specular and emissive lighting components are disabled. This resulted in the flat gray torus we saw initially. In this tutorial, though, we want to see what happens when all the lighting components are specified explicitly, so we have turned the auto_material attribute off. The image that results appears shinier, because the material applied to the torus now has a specular component. Moving the Light The jit.gl.gridshape object drawing the white circle has a jit.gl.handle object attached to it. As we've seen before, this allows you to move the circle by clicking and dragging over it with the Command key on Macintosh or the Control key on Windows held down. By dragging with the Option key on Macintosh or the Alt key on Windows held down, you can move the circle towards and away from the camera in the scene. The x, y and z position values from the jit.gl.handle object are also routed to an unpack object, which sends them to number box objects for viewing. A pak object adds the symbol light_position to the beginning and another value to the end of the list. This message is sent to the jit.gl.render object to set the position of the light in the scene. Note that the light itself is not visible, except in its effect on other objects. The white circle is a marker we can use to see the light's position. 290 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Click and drag the white circle with the Command key on Macintosh or the Control key on Windows held down to move it to the lower left corner of the scene. Then drag with the Option key on Macintosh or the Alt key on Windows held down to move it away from the camera. The light source moves with the white circle. If you move it to the right place, you can create an image like this. The same scene with the light source moved. The diffuse and specular components of the light are combined with the diffuse and specular components of the material at each vertex, according to the position of the light and the angle at 291 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog which the light reflects toward the camera position. When you move the light, these relative positions change, so each vertex takes on a different color. Normals: For lighting to take place, each vertex of a model must have a normal associated with it. The normal is a vector that is defined to be perpendicular to the surface of the object at the vertex. This is the value used to determine the contribution of the specular and diffuse lighting components to the image. Creating reasonable normals for a complex object can be a timeconsuming process. Jitter attempts to prevent you from worrying about this as much as possible, in a couple of ways. First, most objects in the GL group have normals associated with them. These are calculated by the object that does the drawing. The jit.gl.gridshape object is one example. If its shape is set to a sphere, it generates a normal at each vertex pointing outwards from the center of the sphere. Each shape has a different method of calculating normals, so that the surfaces of the various shapes are smooth where curved, yet the edges of shapes like the cube remain distinct and unsmoothed. Secondly, if you send geometries directly to the jit.gl.render object in matrices, the jit.gl.render object will automatically create normals for you to the best of its ability. If you draw a connected grid geometry by sending a matrix followed by the tri_grid or quad_grid primitives, the generated normals will be smoothed across the surface of the grid. If you send a matrix using other primitives such as triangles, jit.gl.render will make no attempt to smooth the vertices, but will generate a normal for each distinct polygon in the geometry. If you want to make your own normals, you can turn automatic normal generation off with by setting the attribute auto_normals of the jit.gl.render object to 0. Tutorial37, "Geometry Under the Hood" describes how vertices, colors and normals can be passed in Jitter matrices to the jit.gl.render object. For more information on how to specify normals for geometry within a matrix, please refer to the Jitter OpenGL Appendix in this manual. Specular Lighting Let's change the specular components of the lighting to get a better feel for them. Locate the swatch object above the prepend mat_specular object. Move the circle in the swatch to the far left, centered vertically. This sends the mat_specular message to the jit.gl.gridshape object, followed by RGB color values that describe a pure red color. 292 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog The swatch object sends it output as a list of three integers from 0 to 255. The vexpr object divides each integer in the list by 255. to generate a floating-point value in the range 0. to 1., which is the range Jitter's GL group objects use to specify colors. Setting the specular material component to red. The resulting torus with red highlights. The highlights of the image now have a red color. The specular component of the light source, which is currently white, is multiplied by the specular material component to produce the color of the highlights. The red, green and blue values of the specular light source are multiplied by the red, green and blue values of the specular material component, respectively. So if the light source component and the material component are of different colors, it's possible that the result will be zero, and no highlights will be generated. This more or less models the real-world behavior of lights and materials: if you view a green object in a room with red light, the object will appear black. Try moving the circle in the swatch object above the prepend light_specular object to a green color. The highlights will disappear. Different colors with varying amounts of red will produce different brightnesses of red. When you are done, move the circle to the top of the swatch object so that the highlights are red again. 293 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog The shininess attribute of objects in the GL group is an important part of the material definition. It specifies to what extent light is diffused, or spread out, when it bounces off of the object. To model a mirror, you would use a very high shininess value. Values of approximately 2 to 50 are useful for making realistic objects. Set the number box above the prepend shininess object to 50. This makes the contribution of the specular lighting components much smaller in area. Accordingly, you can see the specular lighting in red quite distinctly from the diffuse lighting, which is still gray. A very shiny torus. Diffuse Lighting Let's manipulate the colors some more to see the effect of the diffuse component. 294 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Locate the swatch object above the prepend mat_diffuse object. Move the circle in the swatch approximately to the location in the illustration below, to produce a deep blue diffuse material component. Setting the diffuse material to blue. The diffuse reflections from the torus are now blue, and the highlights are magenta. This is because the color components of an object's material, after being multiplied with the lighting components depending on positions, are added together to produce the final color for the object at each vertex. Red highlights added to blue diffuse lighting. Ambient Lighting We have yet to change the ambient component of the object's material. Currently, this is set to its default of medium gray, which is multiplied by the dark gray of the global ambient component to produce the dark gray areas of the torus in the picture above. The global ambient component is multiplied by all ambient material components in a scene, and added to each vertex of each object. You can set this with the light_global_ambient attribute of the jit.gl.render object. 295 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog Set the circle in the swatch object above the prepend mat_ambient to a green color to produce a green ambient material component. Green ambient illumination. The ambient material component is multiplied by the global ambient illumination component to make the dark green areas that have replaced the gray ones. The moveable light in the scene has an ambient component associated with it, which is added to the global ambient component. To change this, you can move the circle in the swatch object above the prepend light_ambient object. If you change this to a bright color, the whole object takes on a washed out appearance as the intensity of the ambient component gets higher than that of the diffuse component. That's Ugly! A green torus with blue diffuse lighting and magenta highlights is probably not something you want to look at for very long. If you haven't already, now might be a good time to play with the color swatches and come up with a more harmonious combination. Note that control over saturation isn't provided in this patch for reasons of space. But it's certainly possible to specify less saturated colors for all the lighting and material components. Directional vs. Positional Lighting The moveable light in a scene can be either directional or positional. In the message light_position [x] [y] [z] [w] sent to jit.gl.render, the value [w] decides whether directional or positional lighting is used. If [w] is zero, the light is a directional one, which means that the values [x], [y] and [z] specify a 296 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog direction vector from which the light is defined to come. If [w] is nonzero, the light is a positional one--it illuminates objects based on its particular location in the scene. The position of the light is specified by the homogeneous coordinates [x]/ [w], [y] /[w] and [z]/ [w]. Positional lights are good for simulating artificial light sources within the scene. Directional lights typically stand in for the Sun, which is so far away that moving objects within the scene doesn't change the angle of the lighting perceptibly. Turn on the toggle above the p mover subpatch to start the torus moving towards and away from the camera. Notice how the lighting shifts across the surface of the torus as it moves, if the torus moves past the general vicinity of the light. You may have to move the light's position to see this clearly. To see the effects of directional lighting, change the last number box above the pak light_position 0. 0. 0. 1. object to 1, than back to 0. Now, notice that because directional lighting is on, the lighting no longer shifts when the object changes its position. Fog Like other aspects of lighting, the simulation of fog in OpenGL is primitive compared to the realworld phenomenon. Yet, it offers a convenient way to a richer character to an image. OpenGL fog simply blends the color of the fog with the color at each vertex after lighting calculations are complete, in an amount that increases with the object's distance from the camera. So faraway objects disappear into the fog. In Jitter, fog can be turned on or off for each object in the GL group by using the fog attribute. Some objects in a scene can have fog applied to them while others don't. Turn on the toggle above the fog $1 message box, which turns fog on for the jit.gl.gridshape object drawing the torus. Set the rightmost number box above the pak fog_params... object to the value of 10, which will send all the fog parameters listed in the same jit.gl.gridshape object. You should see the torus receding into the fog as it gets farther from the camera, assuming the p mover subpatch is still active. Set the red number box above the pak fog_params object to 1. This specifies a fog color of 1., 0.2, 0.2. Now, when the torus gets farther away, it doesn't disappear. Rather, it turns bright red. Fog makes faraway objects tend toward the fog color, which may or may not be equal to the background 297 Tutorial 35 Lighting and Fog color. Only if the fog color and the color of the background are nearly equal will realistic fog effects be achieved. Torus receding into the fog. If you like, try manipulating the other parameters of the fog with the number box objects above the fog_params message. Implementation Dependent: Like antialiasing, which was introduced in Tutorial 33, the effects of fog parameters may vary from system to system, depending on what OpenGL renderer is being used. The basic characteristics of fog discussed above should be basically the same, but details such as how the density parameter affects the fog may vary. Summary We have described OpenGL's lighting model and its implementation in Jitter in some detail. We discussed the specular, diffuse and ambient components of the GL lighting model, how they approximate different aspects of a real world scene, and how they combine to make an image. The distinction between positional and directional lighting was introduced. Finally, we saw how to add fog to a scene on an object-by-object basis. 298 Tutorial 36 3D Models In this tutorial, we will show how to load 3D models using the jit.gl.model object and render them in Jitter with lighting, materials and texture mapping. Review and Setup Open the tutorial patch 36j3Dmodels.pat in the folder "Tutorial 36" in the Jitter Tutorial folder. Click on the toggle labeled "Start Rendering." You will see a brown background in the jit.pwindow object. The brown color comes from the erase_color attribute of the jit.gl.render object. Click on the message box name me, depth buffer 1 above the jit.pwindow object. The name attribute allows the jit.pwindow object to be used as a drawing destination, although this was already done and saved with the tutorial patch in this case. The message depth buffer 1 causes a depth buffer to be attached to the destination, so that automatic hidden-surface removal can be done. Click on the texture grid 64 64 message box above the jit.pwindow object. As we saw in the tutorial introducing textures, this message send to the jit.gl.render object causes it to build a texture 64 pixels in both width and height, filled in with a default checkerboard pattern. The texture can be used by any objects in the GL group which are drawing to its context. We are now ready to load some models and render them. Reading a Model File The jit.gl.model object reads descriptions of 3D objects as collections of polygons. These descriptions are stored in the .obj file format. The model files must have an .obj extension in order to load. This format is widely used, and has the advantage of being readable and modifiable in ordinary text editors. Click on the toggle above the verbose $1 message box in the upper left of the "Draw a Model" section of the patch. 299 Tutorial 36 3D Models This sends the message verbose 1 to the jit.gl.model object, enabling verbose mode. When this mode is on, you will see information about the model file you are loading printed in the Max window. It's not good to leave verbose mode on while you are rendering real-time graphics, but the messages can be very helpful while you are setting up and debugging a patch. Click on the read mushrooms.obj message box. This object can be found above the jit.gl.model object. The file mushrooms.obj should have been installed into Max's search path when Jitter was installed. If for some reason this file has been moved, you will see the message error: jit.gl.model: can't find mushrooms.obj in the Max window. If the file is found correctly, you will see the following in the Max window: reading mushrooms.obj . . . . . . . . done. jit.gl.model: rebuilding groups: 11 materials: 0 triangles: 10560 vertices: 6199 texture coords: 5589 normals: 6046 636408 bytes used When the file you specify after the read message is found and determined to be a valid model file, the message reading [file].obj is printed. Then the dots are printed out every so often while the file loads. Reading large models from text files can take quite a while, so it's nice to see the dots appearing in order to know that something hasn't gone wrong. When the model is done loading, jit.gl.model: rebuilding is printed. Some operations besides reading a new model cause the model's representation to be rebuilt internally--all of them print this message so you know what's going on. The groups: 11 message tells you that there are eleven polygon groups in the model. A model need not consist of one like an apple or mushroom, it can be a group of things or an entire scene. Assigning different objects in the model to different polygon groups allows them to be manipulated independently in your patch. The materials:0 message tells you how many material definitions there are in the model file. A material definition can specify the ambient, diffuse and specular components of an object's surface color, as we saw in Tutorial 35. A model file can have multiple material definitions which can be applied to one or more polygon groups in the model. This model, however, has none. We can also see that this model consists of 10,560 triangles joining 6,199 vertices, 5,589 texture coordinates and 6,046 normals. There are fewer texture coordinates and normals than vertices by a bit, because these numbers are referenced in a big index when the model is read, and can be reused when the triangles are constructed. 300 Tutorial 36 3D Models Finally, we see that approximately 636 kilobytes of memory have been used by Jitter to store the model internally. Though memory is getting more plentiful all the time, this amount is not insignificant. Memory usage is definitely something to keep an eye on when debugging larger patches. .obj Model File Compatibility: There are many extensions to the basic .obj file format in existence. Some of these are NURBS and parametric surfaces. Right now, only vertices, polygons, groups, materials and texture coordinates are supported. Model Attributes If you followed the directions, you've been reading all this dry text about messages in the Max window, while eleven mushrooms hover tantalizingly in the tutorial patch. Now let's examine the attributes which affect how the model is rendered. Lighting and Shading We see the mushrooms in space, but their outlines are simply filled in with the medium gray which is the default color for objects in the GL group. The flat-shaded mushrooms Click on the toggle above the lighting_enable $1 message box to send the message lighting_enable 1 to the jit.gl.model object. Now, the model has a more solid appearance because some polygonal areas are brighter and others darker. But each polygon has its own color uniformly over its entire area. The result is rather crude. 301 Tutorial 36 3D Models Click on the toggle object above the smooth_shading $1 message box to send the message smooth_shading 1 to the jit.gl.model object. With smooth shading on, the shade of each polygon in the model is blended from vertex to vertex. This hides the polygon edges and gives a smoother appearance--we are beginning to get somewhere, if realism is our goal. Mushrooms with lighting and smooth shading enabled Texture Mapping Like other objects in the GL group, you can set the texture applied to the entire model with the texture message. Click on the grid message box above the prepend texture object to send the message texture grid to the jit.gl.model object. This sets the texture of the model. Since there is a jit.gl.handle object connected to the jit.gl.model object in this patch, we can rotate and move the model as discussed in Tutorial 32, in order to get a better look at how the texture is applied. Notice the care with which the texture is wrapped around the mushrooms. The caps are covered radially, the stems cylindrically, and there are small variations in the look of each mushroom. 302 Tutorial 36 3D Models These texture coordinates were created in a 3D modeling program by the maker of the model. The coordinates specify what point on the 2D texture to use at each vertex. Mushrooms texture-mapped with care To see what the model looks like with automatically generated coordinates, you can use the tex_map message. As discussed in tutorial 34, tex_map modes of 1, 2 and 3 specify object linear, sphere map, and eye linear mappings respectively. tex_map 0 uses the coordinates specified in the model. Experiment with these modes if you like, by changing the number box above the tex_map $1 message box. When you are done, restore the model to its built-in texture coordinates by setting the number box to 0. In addition to the standard GL group facilities for applying textures, the jit.gl.model object can be used to apply a different texture to each polygon group in the model. Click on the 0 message box above the prepend texture object to turn off texturing for the model. Click on the texgroup 1 grid message box. The texgroup [group-number] [texture-name] message sets the texture of polygon group [groupnumber] in the model to the texture [texture-name]. As a result of the message just sent, polygon group 1 should be set to the grid texture, and thus one of the mushrooms is grid-covered while the other ones remain solid gray. This message could be used in conjunction with the methods for updating textures covered in Tutorial 34 to apply a different picture or movie to each polygon group in the model. 303 Tutorial 36 3D Models If a texgroup message is received for a given polygon group, that group uses the texture named in the message, instead of any texture which may have been sent to the whole model using the texture message. If a texgroup [group-number] 0 message is received, the named texture is no longer used for that group, and the group reverts to the model's overall texture. Click on the texgroup 1 0 message box to remove the grid texture from polygon group 1. Drawing Groups In addition to being texture differently, the polygon groups in a model can be drawn separately. You can control this drawing using the drawgroup message. Click on the button object above the counter object on the right-hand side of the tutorial patch. This increments the counter, which causes the message drawgroup 1 to be sent to the jit.gl.model object. The polygon groups are indexed starting at the number 1. When the jit.gl.model object receives the message drawgroup [n], it only draws polygon group n of the model until further notice. So now you should see a lone mushroom in the frame. By clicking the button object repeatedly, you can cycle through each mushroom in turn. You could use this technique to load a 3D animation, by storing one frame of the animated object in each polygon group of the model. When it receives the message drawgroup 0, the jit.gl.model object turns the drawing of all polygon groups back on. Click on the drawgroup 0 message box to turn all the polygon groups back on. Material Modes Models can contain material definitions, but this particular model doesn't have any. Let's load one that does. Click on the read apple.obj message box to load the apple model in the Jitter Tutorial folder. This model is less complicated than the previous one, so it will load much faster. By reading the output of the jit.gl.model object in the Max window, we can see that it has 4,452 triangles. We can also see in the Max window that it has 3 materials. In the rendered image of the model, we can see 304 Tutorial 36 3D Models the effects of these materials. Even though no textures have been applied, the apple is red with a brown stem. The apple model showing two materials The material_mode attribute of the jit.gl.model object determines to what extent the materials specified in the model file will be used to render the model. Right now the material mode is 1, the default. Set the number box above the message box reading "material_mode $1" to the value 2. You will notice that the skin of the apple takes on a shinier and slightly bluer appearance, while the stem remains the same flat brown. This is because the specular components of the materials are now being used in the rendering. When we first loaded the apple with the default setting for the 305 Tutorial 36 3D Models material_mode attribute of 1, only the diffuse components of the materials were being used in the rendering. The apple with specular material components enabled Set the same number box to the value 0. Now, none of the material properties of the model are being used in the rendering. Instead, the color attribute of the object is used to determine the object's diffuse color. So, the model appears in the default gray. Let's try one more setting to see how the various material modes can be useful. Click on the toggle object above the lighting_enable $1 message box off. Then, try all the different settings for the material_mode attribute. 306 Tutorial 36 3D Models You will see that with lighting disabled, only in material mode 1 do the object's materials have any effect. Since the diffuse component of the material is being used to determine the object's color, the flat-shaded drawing takes on a different color for each polygon group. The flat-shaded apple with a material mode of 1 Here's a quick recap of the settings of the material_mode attribute: material_mode 0: Don't use materials from model file. The object's color attribute determines the diffuse color, and the flat color if lighting is not enabled. Use diffuse material component from model file to determine the diffuse color or flat color of the rendered model. Use all material components from the model file. material_mode 1: material_mode 2: Summary We have seen how to load complex, multi-part 3D models from .obj format files on disk. The attributes of the jit.gl.model object can be used to affect the model's lighting and shading and to determine how its materials affect the rendering. The model file may contain different polygon groups which may be drawn and texture-mapped individually. Thanks to Oliver Ffrench (http://o.ffrench.free.fr/meshbank) for the use of these elegant freeware models. 307 Tutorial 37 Geometry Under the Hood This tutorial demonstrates the low-level support in Jitter to specify geometry data as matrices and render them with the jit.gl.render object. Since the data is contained in an ordinary Jitter matrix, this opens up a world of possibilities where arbitrary matrix operators may be used to generate and/or process the geometry matrices. The tutorial will cover the matrixoutput attribute of the GL group, the organization of data in geometry matrices, an example of how geometry matrices can be processed using matrix operators, and introduce various drawing primitives supported by the jit.gl.render object. Open the tutorial patch 37jGeometryUnderTheHood.pat in the Jitter Tutorial folder, and click on the toggle box labeled Start Rendering. Matrix Output Click on the toggle box labeled Turn matrixoutput on/off. Wait a minute--the sphere that was just there a moment ago has disappeared. What's going on? Some of the objects in the GL group support the matrixoutput attribute, and jit.gl.gridshape is one such object. This attribute determines whether or not the object's geometry is rendered directly in the object's associated drawing context or if the object sends a matrix containing geometry data out its left outlet. The geometry is not visible because it is being sent to a gate, which is closed. Select the menu item print from the ubumenu object labeled "Matrix Destination" In the max window you should see a series of messages like print: jit_matrix u26300000007 quad_grid. This is similar to what you've seen in previous tutorials as the output of objects, which pass matrix data, with the exception, that there is an extra element. Rather than sending the message jit_matrix [matrix-name], as you should be familiar with, the jit.gl.gridshape object sends the message jit_matrix 308 Tutorial 37 Geometry Under the Hood [matrix-name] [drawing-primitive]. In this case the drawing primitive is quad_grid, which means interpret the matrix as a grid of quadrilaterals. The output of the jit.gl.gridshape object in the Max window At the time this tutorial was written, the only objects that support the matrixoutput attribute are the jit.gl.gridshape, jit.gl.nurbs, and jit.gl.plato objects. However, by the time you read this, there may be other objects, which support this mode of operation. There is still no excitement in our window, but this is easily remedied. Select the menu item direct from the ubumenu object labeled Matrix Destination. The sphere is now visible again, because the message jit_matrix [matrix-name] [drawing-primitive] is being sent to the jit.gl.render object. In response to this message, the jit.gl.render object draws the supplied matrix using the specified drawing primitive. If no drawing primitive is specified, the jit.gl.render object's current drawing primitive will be used. Valid drawing primitives are: points, lines, line_strip, line_loop, triangles, tri_strip, tri_fan, quads, quad_strip, polygon, tri_grid, and quad_grid. The jit.gl.render object's current drawing primitive may be set by sending the message [drawingprimitive] where [drawing-primitive] is any one of the valid drawing primitives mentioned above. In the same fashion that you can change the dimensions of video data, you can change the dimensions of the matrix output by sending the jit.gl.gridshape object the dim message. By default the dimensions of the matrix output by the jit.gl.gridshape object are 20 by 20. Click on the toggle box labeled Wireframe. Change the number box labeled Matrix Dimensions. 309 Tutorial 37 Try rotating the wireframe sphere with the mouse Geometry Under the Hood "The Death Star plans are not in the main computer." You may have noticed that in this patch the jit.gl.handle object is communicating with the jit.gl.render object rather than the jit.gl.gridshape object. This has the effect of rotating and positioning the entire scene. The @inherit_transform 1 argument is necessary in order to do this correctly, otherwise the rotation would be composited again with the scene's rotation, causing major confusion. Geometry Matrix Details Video in Jitter is typically represented by 4-plane char data, but how is the geometry data being represented? Each vertex in the geometry is typically represented as float32 data with 3, 5, 8, 12, or 13 planes. Planes 0-2 specify the x, y and z position of the vertex. Planes 3 and 4 specify the texture coordinates s and t. Planes 5-7 specify the normal vector nx, ny and nz used to calculate the effects of lighting on the geometry. Planes 8-11 specify the red, green, blue, and alpha vertex color. Plane 12 specifies the edge flag e. The output matrix of the jit.gl.gridshape object has 12 planes, but since we are not applying a texture to the geometry, and lighting is not enabled, the texture coordinates and normal vectors are ignored. Processing the Geometry Matrix Instead of simply rendering the geometry unaltered, as you've done so far, it is possible to process this geometry with matrix operators. Select the menu item xfade from the ubumenu object labeled Matrix Destination. 310 Tutorial 37 Geometry Under the Hood Now the matrix is being sent through the jit.xfade object to cross fade the geometry matrix with a matrix of noise. Just as the jit.xfade object may be used to crossfade between video matrices, it may be used to crossfade between geometry matrices. Click on the button object labeled "Generate Noise" Gradually change the number box labeled "Crossfade Value" to 0.1. Turn wireframe rendering on and off by clicking the toggle box labeled Wireframe. Notice how the noise deforms both the geometry and the color of the shape. This will subtly deform the sphere with noise, as well as introduce random colors. The texture coordinates and normal vectors are also being affected, but this is not visible since there is no texture being applied, and lighting is not enabled. A slightly distorted sphere (wireframe and filled) Click on the button object labeled "Generate Noise" several more times, or turn on the toggle box labeled "Rapid Noise" to generate a new matrix of noise for each time the geometry is drawn Gradually change the number box labeled "Crossfade Value" to 1.0. Again, turn wireframe rendering on and off to see how the noise is visualized. 311 Tutorial 37 Now the geometry being drawn is pure noise. Geometry Under the Hood White noise expressed as a geometry (wireframe and filled) Set the number box labeled "Crossfade Value" back to 0. Drawing Primitives You will notice that despite the fact that jit.gl.gridshape is outputting the message jit_matrix [matrixname] quad_grid, we are appending the output of jit.xfade with quad_grid. This is because most matrix operators will ignore the drawing primitive argument and simply output the message jit_matrix [matrix-name]. Hence we need to append the name of the drawing primitive to the message. This provides a good opportunity to experiment with various drawing primitives. Try selecting the various menu items available in the ubumenu labeled Drawing Primitive. Using different drawing primitives: points (left), line_strip (center), and triangles (right) 312 Tutorial 37 Summary Geometry Under the Hood In addition to drawing directly to their associated drawing contexts, some objects in the GL group support the matrixoutput attribute. When enabled, the geometry matrix is sent out the object's left output with the message jit_matrix [matrix-name] [drawing-primitive]. Geometry matrices are typically float32 data with a plane count of 3, 5, 8, 12, or 13 planes, and may be processed using arbitrary matrix operators in a similar fashion to processing video matrices. The jit.gl.render object supports various drawing primitives to render these geometry matrices: points, lines, line_strip, line_loop, triangles, tri_strip, tri_fan, quads, quad_strip, polygon, tri_grid, and quad_grid. 313 Appendix A QuickTime Confidential The Structure of QuickTime Movies When you imagine a QuickTime movie, chances are good that you think of something similar to film: a single series of frames arranged linearly in time, with or without sound. In fact, the structure of QuickTime movies is far more similar to the model you may be familiar with from MIDI and audio sequencers. QuickTime movies are containers for tracks. Each track contains a particular type of media-- such as audio or video--and defines the spatial and/or temporal boundaries of that media. For instance, a QuickTime movie might be 320x240 in size, and 3 minutes in length, while one of its video tracks is 80x60 in size, and only 30 seconds long. QuickTime movies are never longer than the end of their longest track. Each track in a QuickTime movie might be of a different type--video, audio, sprites, MIDI (QuickTime calls these music tracks), and VR Panoramas are some of the available types--and might start at a different point within the movie. You can have several tracks of identical types in a single movie as well. Tracks are independent--they can be turned on and off individually, and they can all be of different lengths. The QuickTime music track is a container for a Standard MIDI File. Using the QuickTime Settings Control Panel, you can set the output for these tracks. By default, QuickTime uses the QuickTime Music Synthesizer, which is a General MIDI software synthesizer built into QuickTime. The visual priority of tracks is determined by the track's visibility layer. Track layers are numbered from 32768 to 32767. Tracks with low visibility layer values will be displayed in front of tracks with high visibility layer values. Audio tracks will automatically mix, regardless of their layer value. 314 Appendix A QuickTime Confidential The jit.qt.movie object offers a number of track-centered functions. A brief list of some useful messages follows: General Track Editing addtrack: create a new track deletetrack: delete a track gettrackinfo: displays several pieces of track information (index, name, type, enabled status, visibility layer) gettrackoffset: displays a track's temporal offset (set using the trackoffset message) gettrackduration: displays a track's duration (set using the trackduration message) gettrackdim: displays a track's spatial dimensions (set using the trackdim message). You can adjust a track's size further using the mxform message to generate a matrix transformation for a particular track. gettrackname: displays a track's name (set using the trackname message) gettracktype: displays a track's type (type cannot be set--use addtrack to create a new track) gettracklayer: display a track's visibility layer (set using the tracklayer message) gettrackcodec: display a track's codec (codec cannot be set) gettrackenabled: displays a track's enabled status (set using the trackenabled message) getgmode: displays a track's drawing mode--the manner in which it interacts with other tracks (set using the gmode message) Important: Track edits of any sort, including adding or deleting tracks, will not be automatically saved with a movie when it is closed. Use the savemovie, savemovieas or savemoviecopy messages to permanently save your changes, or set the jit.qt.movie object's autosave attribute to 1 (on). QuickTime VR vrpan: set the pan for a VR movie vrtilt: set the tilt for a VR movie vrfov: set the field of view for a VR movie vrnode: set the current node for a multi-node VR movie (use the getvrnodelist message to enumerate available nodes) QuickTime Effect (see Tutorial 24: QuickTime Effects for more information) addfxtrack: create a QuickTime Effects track set (1 to 3 actual tracks), by importing a .qfx file deletefxtrack: delete any and all QuickTime Effects tracks created by the addfxtrack message Background Color addbgtrack: create a background color track deletebgtrack: delete a background color track created by Jitter. Time in QuickTime Unlike most hardware-based media, QuickTime does not use a frame-based time system. Instead, QuickTime uses a system based on timescale and time values. Timescale is an integer value 315 Appendix A QuickTime Confidential that indicates how many time values make up one second of a movie. By default, a new QuickTime movie has a timescale of 600--meaning that there are 600 time values per second. Frame rate is determined by the concept of interesting time--times where the movie changes. If a movie changes every 40 time values, then it has an effective frame rate of 15 frames per second (since 600 divided by 40 equals 15). When Jitter determines how many frames are in a movie with the getframecount message, it scans the movie for interesting times, and reports their number. The frame and jump messages move the "play head" between different points of interesting time. For more information on the relationship between timescale and frame rate, refer to Tutorial 4: Controlling Movie Playback. In Jitter, recording operations permit you to specify a frame rate, and Jitter takes care of the calculations for you as it constructs a new movie. Editing operations, in contrast, use time values to determine their range of effect. Optimizing Movies for Playback in Jitter Although Jitter will gladly play any movie you throw at it, there are some guidelines you can follow to improve performance. Sadly, there is no precise recipe for perfection--performance in a realtime application such as Jitter is the result of the interaction between a movie's track codecs (which affect data bandwidth and processor load), movie dimensions, frame rate and, to some extent, the complexity of the media being processed. Codecs Visual media, in particular, contain large amounts of data that must be read from disk and processed by your computer before they can be displayed. Codecs, or compressor/ decompressors, are used to encode and decode data. When encoding, the goal is generally to thin out the data so that less information has to be read from disk when the movie plays back. Reading data from disk is a major source of overhead when playing movies. If you have enough RAM, you can use the loadram message to jit.qt.movie to copy a movie's (compressed) media to RAM. Since accessing RAM is significantly faster than accessing a hard disk, movie playback will generally improve, although the jit.qt.movie object still has to decompress each frame as the movie plays. To buffer decompressed matrix data to RAM, use the jit.matrixset object. When decoding, the goal is to return the data to its pre-encoded state as quickly as possible. Codecs, by and large, are lossy, which means that some data is lost in the process. As users, our goal is to figure out which codec offers the greatest quality at the greatest speed for our particular application. To determine a QuickTime movie's track codecs, use the gettrackcodec message to jit.qt.movie. 316 Appendix A Audio Codecs QuickTime Confidential Codecs are available for both video and audio tracks. For online distribution, you might want to use an MPEG 2 Level 3 (.mp3) or QDesign audio codec to create smaller files. In Jitter, however, if you are playing movies with video and audio tracks, you'll achieve the best results with uncompressed audio (PCM audio) simply because there will be no audio codec decompression overhead. Technical Note: .mp3 files can be read by jit.qt.movie as audio-only movies (they are compressed with the MPEG 2 Layer 3 codec). Although you can't process the audio data with any other Jitter objects besides the jit.qt.movie object, you can use the jit.qt.movie object's soc attribute to send the audio to MSP via the spigot~ object (see Tutorial 27: Using MSP Audio in a Jitter Matrix for more information). Video Codecs Video codecs may be handled in hardware--you may have a special video card that provides hardware compression and decompression of a particular codec, like MPEG or Motion-JPEG-- or more typically in software. In Jitter, hardware codec support is only relevant to Video Output Components. Technical Note: Video Output Components support is only available for the Macintosh at the present time. Movie playback will always use a software codec, with the important exception of the jit.qt.movie object's direct to Video Output Component feature (see Tutorial 22: Video Output Components and the Object Reference entry for the jit.qt.movie object for more information). Technical Note: Video cards that provide hardware support of codecs usually only support them for onscreen decompression of media. Since Jitter generally decompresses media into an offscreen buffer (with the exceptions noted above), software codecs are used. Video codecs generally use one or both of the following schemes: spatial and temporal compression. Spatial compression is probably familiar to you from the world of still images. JPEG, PNG and PICT files each use types of spatial compression. Spatial compression schemes search a single image frame for patterns and repetitions that can be described in a simpler fashion. Most also simplify images to ensure that they contain these patterns. Nevertheless, more complex images are harder to compress, and will generally result in larger files. Spatial compression does not take time into account--it simply compresses each frame according to its encoding algorithm. Temporal compression is unique to the world of moving images, since it operates by creating a description of change between consecutive frames. In general, temporal compression does not fully describe every frame. Instead, a temporally compressed movie contains two types of frames: keyframes, which are fully described frames (usually spatially compressed, as well), and regular frames, which are described by their change from the previous keyframe. 317 Appendix A QuickTime Confidential For applications where a movie will be played from start to finish, temporal compression is quite useful. Codecs like Sorenson use temporal compression to create extremely small files that are ideal for web playback. However, temporal compression is not a good choice if you need to play your movie backwards, since the order of the keyframes is vital to properly describing the sequence of images. If we play a temporally compressed movie backwards, the change descriptions will be processed before the keyframe that describes the initial state of the frame! Additionally, the Sorenson codec is quite processor-intensive to decompress. Playback of a Sorenson-compressed movie will be slower than playback of a movie compressed using a "lighter" method. For Jitter playback, we recommend using a video codec without temporal compression, such as Photo-JPEG or Motion-JPEG (Photo- and Motion-JPEG compression use the same compression method, but Motion-JPEG is optimized for special hardware support [see note above]). At high quality settings, JPEG compression offers a nice compromise between file size and image quality. It's also relatively simple to decode, so your processor can be put to better use than decompressing video. If image quality is of principle importance, the Animation codec looks better than Photo-JPEG, but creates much larger files. Different versions of QuickTime support different audio and video codecs. For instance, QuickTime 5 doesn't support the MPEG-4 codec, although QuickTime 6 does. You should experiment with different codec settings to find the best match for your particular use of Jitter. Discreet's Codec Central provides an excellent online educational resource about codecs. At the time of this writing, it is offline, but Discreet claims that the site will be up again soon, at http:// www.codeccentral.com/ Movie Dimensions and Frame Rate Compared to codec, movie dimensions and frame rate are more straightforward factors in Jitter performance. Simply put, a bigger image frame or a higher frame rate indicates that Jitter has more data to process each second. A 640x480 movie produces 1,228,800 individual values per frame for Jitter to process (640 times 480 times 4 (separate values for alpha, red, green and blue channels). A 320x240 movie produces a mere 307,200 individual values per frame, one quarter the size of the larger movie. Where possible, we recommend using smaller movies if you intend to use Jitter for processing. On most machines, 320x240 movies will give fine performance. If you are working with DV media, your movies are recorded at 29.97 frames per second (in NTSC) or 25 frames per second (in PAL). Even using a 320x240 movie, Jitter has to process 9,206,784 values per second in NTSC and 7,680,000 values per second in PAL. Thinning this data, by reducing the frame rate to 15 or 20 frames per second, will improve performance significantly if you are using Jitter for processing. On most machines, 15 fps is a good choice. 318 Appendix A Our Favorite Setting QuickTime Confidential We've found that, for most movies, the following parameters yield consistently good results: 320x240 frame size 15 frames per second Video tracks: Photo-JPEG codec, using a medium to high spatial quality setting Audio tracks: no compression Summary QuickTime movies can contain many tracks of different types--audio, video, QuickTime VR and text, to name a few. In Jitter, we can both get and set basic information about these tracks-- including their temporal offset, spatial dimensions, duration, visibility layer and graphic transfer mode--using the jit.qt.movie object's track messages. QuickTime's time model is somewhat different from the standard frame-based model, relying on a timescale value to determine the number of time values in a second of QuickTime media. The jit.qt.movie object allows for playback navigation using both frame and timescale models. All editing functions in the jit.qt.movie object use the timescale model to determine the extent of their effect. Determining the ideal settings for a movie used in Jitter is an inexact science. Actual performance depends on a number of factors, including codec, dimensions, frame rate and media complexity. For best results on current hardware, we recommend using 320x240, 15 fps, Photo-JPEG compressed movies. 319 Appendix B The OpenGL Matrix Format Matrices, Video and OpenGL OpenGL is a standard which specifies a virtual machine for turning lists of numbers into 2D images. The lists may contain the 3D locations of vertices to connect with lines or polygons. They can also contain other data such as coordinates for texture mapping, normals for lighting, colors and edge flags. Jitter treats video as a type of data which can be processed in its general matrix system. When manipulating video data in Jitter, each cell of a matrix represents one pixel. The four planes of the matrix store the A, R, G and B components of that pixel. This is Jitter's convention for storing video. Jitter also has a convention, used by all the objects in the GL group, for storing OpenGLcompatible image descriptions in a matrix. Like video data, these descriptions can be read, processed, and output by various objects. This document specifies Jitter's convention for storing OpenGL data in matrices and the syntax of messages to the jit.gl.render object containing these matrices. When You Need This Reference Objects in the GL group send out matrices in the format described here when they have their matrixoutput attributes set to 1. In order to process these geometries through your own patches, you will need to know this format. If you want to make geometries directly using the jit.op object and other matrix operators, you will also need to know the format. But if Jitter's GL group objects are flexible enough for your drawing needs, you can continue to let these objects draw "behind the scenes" without any knowledge of the OpenGL matrix format. GL Matrix Reference Message Format OpenGL data can be passed to the jit.gl.render object in Max messages of the forms jit.matrix [geometry matrix] jit.matrix [geometry matrix] [draw primitive] and jit.matrix [geometry matrix] [connections matrix] [draw primitive]. 320 Appendix B Draw Primitive The OpenGL Matrix Format The draw primitive specifies how to draw the connections between vertices in the geometry matrix. When a draw primitive is not passed to the jit.gl.render object along with the geometry matrix, the current primitive of the jit.gl.render object is used. The current primitive can be changed by sending a message containing just the primitive. When a draw primitive accompanies the geometry matrix, it is used only to draw the given geometry and the current primitive is unchanged. The draw primitive can be one of the following symbols: points lines Draws each vertex as a single point. Connects every other pair of vertices with a line. Given a geometry matrix with vertices A, B, C and D, it draws line segments AB and CD. Connects each pair of vertices with a line. Given a geometry matrix with vertices A, B, C and D, it draws line segments AB, BC and CD. Like line_strip but a line segment is drawn connecting the last vertex in the matrix back to the first one. Draws unconnected triangles. Given vertices A B C D E F, draws triangles ABC and DEF. Draws a strip of connected triangles. Given vertices A B C D E F, draws triangles ABC, CBD, CDE and EDF. Note the order of the vertices, which is swapped so that all the triangles face the same way (see Tutorial 33: Polygon Modes, Colors and Blending). Draws a fan of triangles. Given vertices A B C D E F, draws triangles ABC, ACD, ADE and AEF. Draws unconnected quadrilaterals. Given vertices A B C D E F G H, draws quadrilaterals ABCD and EFGH. Draws connected quadrilaterals. Given vertices A B C D E F, draws quadrilateral ABCD and CDFE. Draws a single polygon using all the vertices in the matrix. If the polygon is not simple and convex, the results are undefined. If the geometry matrix has two dimensions, triangles are drawn which link each vertex to its neighbors in the matrix to form a surface. If the geometry matrix has two dimensions, quadrilaterals are drawn which link each vertex to its neighbors in the matrix to form a surface. line_strip line_loop triangles tri_strip tri_fan quads quad_strip polygon tri_grid quad_grid 321 Appendix B The Connections Matrix The OpenGL Matrix Format A connections matrix must be one-dimensional and contain either long or char data. If present, it specifies the order in which to connect the vertices in the geometry matrix. By leaving the geometry matrix constant and changing the connections matrix which indexes into it, a changing set of connections between the same vertices can be drawn. The Geometry Matrix Geometry matrices must contain data in long, float32, or float64 format, float32 being the most common choice. The float64 data type has more precision than is normally needed for rendering to the screen. The long data type restricts values to integers, which is generally not desired when specifying coordinates. Each cell of the matrix represents one vertex. The image is rendered by drawing connections between vertices, either along the rows or the columns of the matrix. A one cell wide matrix will be connected along columns (its only column). A one cell high matrix will be connected along rows. If the matrix is more than one cell in both width and height, the geom_rows attribute of the jit.gl.render object determines whether rows or columns will be followed. If the tri_grid or quad_grid primitives are specified, both the rows and the columns of the matrix are always connected. Matrices with anywhere from two to 13 planes can be used. Planes 13 and up are reserved for later use and will currently be ignored. Each plane represents a different value in one of five groups: vertices, texture coordinates, normals, vertex color and edges. If enough planes are present to specify a given group, that group is used in rendering the matrix. To be used, each group must be totally present, with the exception of vertices. If only x and y values for vertices are present, the z coordinate of all vertices is set to 0, and an 2D image on the xy plane results. plane 0: plane 1: plane 2: plane 3: plane 4: plane 5: plane 6: plane 7: plane 8: plane 9: plane 10: plane 11: plane 12: x coordinate of vertex y coordinate of vertex z coordinate of vertex s coordinate of texture at vertex, if textured t coordinate of texture at vertex, if textured x component of lighting normal at vertex y component of lighting normal at vertex z component of lighting normal at vertex red component of vertex color green component of vertex color blue component of vertex color alpha component of vertex color edge flag for connection to next vertex: if < 0, no line is drawn. 322 Appendix C A Jitter Bibliography For Your Further Reading Pleasure Jitter Reference List The following is a list of books, articles, and web sites you might find helpful for learning more about different Jitter-related topics. Video Jim Blinn, Jim Blinn's Corner: Dirty Pixels (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1998) An excellent introduction to a diverse array of topics including analog and digital video formats, aliasing, compositing, tensor arithmetic, and the world's largest Easter Egg. A. Bovik et al., Handbook of Image and Video Processing (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000) Richard Rickitt, Special Effects: The History and Technique (London: Virgin Books, 2000) A very readable introduction to the history and technology of special effects in film. Image Processing W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001) A. S. Glassner, Principles of Digital Image Synthesis (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1995) OpenGL and 3D Graphics E. Angel, OpenGL 1.2: A Primer (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 2001) David S. Ebert, F. Kenton Musgrave, Darwyn Peachey, Ken Perlin, Steven Worley, Texturing and Modeling: a Procedural Approach (AP Professional, July 1998) This book gives the reader a working knowledge of several procedural texturing, modeling, and animation techniques, including two-dimensional texturing, solid texturing, hypertextures, volume density functions, and fractal algorithms. Emphasis is placed on practical applications with many code examples. A. Watt, 3D Computer Graphics (Essex: Addison-Wesley, 2000) 323 Appendix C http://www.sgi.com/grafica/ 2D Graphics and Vector Animation Jitter Bibliography M. Woo et al., OpenGL Programming Guide (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1999) A. S. Glassner et al., Graphics Gems (San Diego: Academic Press, 1990) http://www.esil.univ-mrs.fr/~elingsys/cours/black-book/ http://www.faqs.org/faqs/graphics/ Video Art Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema (New York: Dutton, 1970) An overview of "synaesthetic cinema" techniques in film and video with an introduction by R. Buckminster Fuller. Covers the work of the Whitneys, Carolee Schneeman, Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Nam June Paik, Michael Snow and others. The first book on video and computer graphics as an art medium. An essential historical connection, unfortunately out of print. Generative Art http://www.red3d.com/cwr/ Linear Algebra and Mathematical Matrix Operations G. Stephenson, An Introduction to Matrices, Sets, and Groups forScience Students (Toronto: Dover, 1986) http://archives.math.utk.edu/topics/linearAlgebra.html http://www.math2.org/index.xml http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/matrix.html Miscellaneous Don Ritter, E's for Artists: a handbook for New Media Artists (forthcoming, publisher to be determined.) Randall Packer and Ken Jordan, eds., Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality (New York: Norton, 2001) 324 Appendix C Jitter Bibliography Stephen Wolfram, A New Kind of Science (Champaign: Wolfram Media, 2001) A wide-ranging exploration of the potential of cellular automata for solving problems in mathematics, biology, and theoretical physics. Most of the concepts and algorithms illustrated in this book could be realized using Jitter. 325 Index Symbols .jxf format 157 .obj files and 3D models 299 .obj model file compatibility 301 .qfx files 196 @ symbol and attributes 20 Numerics 2D matrices source and destination regions 119 3D drawing attributes 251 3D model loading 300 3D models drawing groups 304 lighting and shading 301 material modes 304 textures 302 3D transforms 255 A adapt mode 17 adaptation in matrices 44 alpha channel 15, 52 as opacity component 274 transparency or opacity 246 alpha channel compositing 241 Alt key (Windows) 269, 290 ambient light 288 ambient lighting 295 anchor point 123 animation without flicker 258 antialiasing 278 arguments 21, 28 dim 21 planecount 21 type 21 arguments and attributes 19 array 13 ASCII 163 aspect ratio 14 attribute/argument order 20, 21, 315 attributes 19 @ symbol 20 0/1 (toggle) 123 0b3d group 251 changing 20 326 default values 20 matrixoutput and rendering 309 movie header info 49 querying 22 setting 20, 22 audio as a control source 232 audio codecs 317 audio control event detection 235 setting amplitude ranges 234 tracking peak amplitude 233 Audio Devices properties (Windows) 91 Audio Video Control (AV/C) specification 181 B bang message 26 blend mode 277 blend modes 276 boundmode attribute 126 brightness 69 C camera position 265 camera view 263 cell indices 13, 115 changing attributes 20 char data and math operations 59 Chebyshev polynomials 104 chromakeying 82 clear (boundmode attribute) 126 clear message 136 clear message (jit.matrix) 36 clip (boundmode attribute) 126 clipping planes 268 codec 148 Jitter binary format 157 optimizing for playback 316 codec and hardware settings 171 codecs audio 317 spatial compression 317 temporal compression 317 video 317 Index color converting ARGB to RGBA 275 RGBA 274 texture 282 color data char, long, or float 53 color spaces RGB 15 color tracking 200 deriving velocity 208 problems and solutions 202 setting min and max values 204 color trails 275 column (in a matrix) 13 column major description 31 combining matrices 77 Command key (Macintosh) 269, 290 compositing alpha channel 241 blend modes 276 clear message 136 using jit.op 230 compression for codecs spatial 317 temporal 317 contrast 69 Control key (Windows) 269, 290 CoreMIDI 91 D data type as an attribute 21 destination rectangle 171 diffuse lighting 294 dim attribute 21 dimension (in a matrix) 13 dimension sizes 115 dimensions as an attribute 21 dimensions (of a movie) and frame rate 318 display fullscreen mode 258 downsampling 146 drawing context 249 drawing groups for models 304 drawing order and multiple renderers 261 327 drawing primitives 309 drawing without flicker 258 drawing/swapping buffers 257 DVD format aspect ratio 14 E emissive light 289 erase color 275 event scheduling jit.qball 137 qmetro object 251 exportimage message to jit.qt.movie 159 exporting QuickTime movies 155 single matrices 155 exportmovie arguments 156 exportmovie message 156 eye linear mapping 285 F face culling 272 feedback using named matrices 139 FireWire camera control 181 flicker-free animation/drawing 258 flipping an image 116 fog 297 fold (boundmode attribute) 126 frame rate and movie dimensions 318 frame rate and QuickTime 316 framedump message and non-realtime recording 152 full screen 121, 258 G geometry transforms 255 get message 22 getattribute message 23 getcell message (jit.matrix) 36 getstate message 23 grabbing video to disc 166 H hardware settings and video quality 171 hardware vs. software rendering 260 HDTV aspect ratio 14 header info for movies 49 Index hiding the Max menu bar 121 hue rotation 120 I image 70 image adjustment contrast 69 hue rotation 120 luminosity 70 rotation 123 saturation 70 zooming 123 image compositing blend modes 276 image quality and sequence grabbing 169 Image Sequence 159 image sequence export from jit.qt.movie 159 images as texture 283 importing QuickTime movies 155 single matrices 155 importmovie message 157 interpolation 113 and texture size 284 iterative processes 141 J jit.alphablend 246 jit.avc 181 time-lapse recording 186 jit.brcosa 68 jit.charmap 100 jit.chromakey 82 jit.conway 139 jit.fill 88 2D matrices 93 multiple-plane matrices 91 jit.fill and the multiSlider object 89 jit.findbounds 200 jit.gl.handle 263 manipulating object position 269 jit.gl.model 250, 299 jit.gl.plato 250, 280 jit.gl.render 249 drawing context 249 hardware rendering 260 328 rendering destinations 258 software rendering 260 texture 281 texture message 282 jit.gl.text3d 249 jit.glue 109 jit.gradient 102 jit.hatch 152 jit.hue 71 jit.iter 95 jit.lcd 241 jit.matrix 30 adapt attribute 44 clear message 36, 117 dim attribute 113 downsampling 146 getcell message 36 name attribute 131 planemap attribute 64 rendering requirements 259 setall message 36 thru attribute 152 upsampling 146 jit.matrixset write and read messages 158 jit.noise 138 jit.op 38 compositing two matrices 230 matrix combination 77 mixing 76 scalar values 39 jit.pack 54 jit.poke~ 223 jit.print 31 jit.pwindow 34 size message 43 jit.qball 136 jit.qt.effect 187 tweening 195 jit.qt.grab 166 VDIG components for Windows 166 jit.qt.movie 29 autodetecting frame rates 151 exportimage message 159 exporting multiple images 160 Index header information 49 image export methods 159 non-realtime playback 152 QT effect track names 199 QT effect tracks 197 setting independent frame rates for recording 152 Sound Output Component 224 sound output using spigot~ 223 jit.qt.record 148 input movie frame rate 150 non-realtime recording 152 record enable 150 jit.qt.videoout 176 codec selection 178 video output component list 178 jit.rgb2luma 242 jit.rota 123 anchor point 126 boundmode 126 offset 126 theta attribute 123 theta calculation 129 trigonometry and rotation 124 zoom attributes 125 jit.scalebias 59 mixing 76 jit.scissors 107 outlets determined at creation 107 output matrix dimensions 107 jit.spill 94 jit.str.fromsymbol 164 jit.str.tosymbol 165 jit.streak 146 jit.textfile 162 jit.unpack 54 jit.window 29, 111 floating attribute 111 jit.xfade 73 jit_matrix message 26 Jitter arguments before attributes 20, 21, 315 Jitter binary format 157 Jitter object arguments 21 dim 21 planecount 21 type 21 329 Jitter object attributes 19 Jitter objects arguments 28 jit.matrix clear message 36 getcell message 36 setall message 36 jit.op 38 jit.poke~ 223 jit.window 111 qmetro 251 router 108 spigot~ 223 suckah 83 Jitter reference 12 Jitter reference launcher 12 L lighting ambient 288, 295 components 288 diffuse 294 directional vs. positional 296 emissive 289 fog 297 modes 288 moving the light source 290 normals 292 smooth shading 289 specular 288, 292 lighting and shading attributes for models 301 lists and matrices 88 live recording to disc 166 live video/audio input 166 loading models 300 lookup tables 99 luminosity 70 jit.lcd 242 M Macintosh Command key 269, 290 help file location 12 MIDI setup 91 Option key 269, 290 manipulating OpenGL object position 269 Index material modes for models 304 math operations on a matrix 38 math with char data 61 mathematical scalars and data types 43 Matrices filling a matrix algorithmically 35 setting values 32 matrices adapt mode 17 and geometry data 308 changing, resizing, and moving source image 119 column major, row major 31 combining 77 compositing using jit.op 230 converting symbol to/from string matrices 165 cutting up/pasting together 107 downsampling 146 feedback 139 flipping an image with indices 116 geometry and rendering 310 grabbing live video 166 iterative processes 141 named 133 names 87 processing geometry matrices 310 resampling 141 resizing an output matrix 116 sending and receiving 131 single matrix import/exporting 155 string matrix 164 text and matrices 162 upsampling 146 matrices and lists 88 matrices converting to/from symbols 165 matrix 13 array 13 cell 13 column 13 dimension 13 isolating a portion 114 plane 16 plane numbering 16 row 13 video frame 15 330 matrix adaptation 44 matrix dimensions 31 matrix names 26 matrix source and destination messages 114 matrixctrl and signal routing 216 message box using semicolons 213 message order 134 determining 134 send and receive 132 message queueing and jit.qball 136 messages bang 26 get 22 getattributes 23 getstate 23 jit_matrix 26 outputmatrix 26 MIDI data and video control 211 mixing video 73 models attributes 301 drawing groups 304 lighting and shading 301 material mode 304 texture attributes 302 movie structure of QuickTime movie 314 movie tracks 314 moving a light source 290 multiple renders and drawing order 261 multiSlider 89 music tracks (QuickTime) 314 N named matrices 133 named matrices and feedback 139 naming matrices 87 noise and matrices 138 non-realtime playback and recording 152 normals 292 O ob3d group 251 object linear mapping 285 objects and textures 281 Index opacity 274 opacity and the alpha channel 246 OpenGL 249 blend mode 277 camera view 263 destination 249 drawing context 249 lighting modes 288 loading .obj models 300 manipulating object position 269 normals 292 RGBA color 274 texture 280 parameters 281 optimizing QT audio for playback 317 optimizing QT video for playback 317 Option key (Macintosh) 269, 290 orthographic projection 267 outputmatrix message 26 P patchers and Jitter display 34 plane 16 plane (in a matrix) 16 plane numbering 16 planecount attribute 21 planes and rendering 310 Platonic solids jit.gl.plato 280 PLAY group (VTR mode) 183 playback optimizing for it 316 polygon mode 271 polygons back-facing 272 face culling 272 front-facing 272 Q qmetro 251 querying objects 22 QuickDraw jit.lcd 242 QuickTime alpha channel and opacity 246 audio codecs 317 331 effects parameter files 196 event-driven models 148 frame rate 316 image compression 148 importing and exporting movies 155 input movie frames rates and recording 150 live recording 166 movie dimensions and frame rate 318 movie structure 314 movie tracks 314 music track 314 non-realtime playback and recording 152 optimizing for playback 316 QT Effect track names 199 QT effect tracks and jit.qt.movie 197 QT Effects architecture 187 QT effects argument data types 192 QT effects dialog box 187 recording movies 148 the Jitter QT Effects patch 190 timescale 315 track editing functions 315 tweenable effects parameters 195 video codecs 317 QuickTime component getting device names 167 QuickTime components 166 switching between inputs 168 QuickTime effects listing 315 QuickTime VR functions 315 R RECORD group (VTR mode) 185 recording QuickTime movies 148 Index rendering ambient light 288 ambient lighting 295 antialiasing 278 blend modes 276 diffuse lighting 294 directional vs. positional lighting 296 drawing order with multiple destinations 261 drawing primitives 309 emissive light 289 erase color and trails 275 eye linear 285 fog and lighting 297 front or back-facing polygons 272 geometry matrix 310 hardware vs. software 260 interpolation and texture 284 lighting components 288 lighting modes 288 matrices to geometry 308 matrixoutput attribute 309 model attributes 301 moving a light source 290 normals 292 object linear 285 opacity component 274 polygon mode 271 processing geometry matrices 310 smooth shading 289 specular light 288 specular lighting 292 sphere mapping 285 texture and color 282 texture mapping modes 285 texture planes 286 video/images as texture 283 wireframe mode 272 rendering destination jit.matrix 259 rendering destinations 258 rendering Platonic solids 280 resampling matrices 141 RGB 15 RGB color 52 RGB values and suckah 83 332 rotation, image 123 router 108 router and signal routing 216 routing inputs to outputs 108 row (in a matrix) 13 S saturation 70 scalar values and matrix operations 39 screen coordinates 115 semicolons in a message box 213 send and receive message order 132 setall message (jit.matrix) 36 setting attributes 20 setting attributes with arguments 22 setting values in a matrix 32 shading attributes for models 301 size message 43 software vs. hardware rendering 260 Sound Output Component 224 sound outputs from movies 223 source rectangle 171 spatial compression 317 specifying MIDI devices 91 specular light 288 specular lighting 292 sphere mapping 285 spigot~ 223 srcdimend attribute 114 srcdimstart attribute 114 string matrix 164 string matrix to symbol conversion 165 structure of QuickTime movies 314 suckah 83 swapping/drawing buffers 257 switching between video inputs 168 symbol to string matrix conversion 165 T television monitor aspect ratio 14 temporal compression 317 Index texture 281 attributes for models 302 color 282 jit.gl.render 282 mapping modes 285 planes 286 size and interpolation 284 using video or images 283 wrapping 282 texture and rendering 280 texture parameters 281 theta attribute 123 time scales in QuickTime 315 time-lapse recording 186 toggle attributes 123 Trace 134 track editing functions (QuickTime) 315 tracking using the location of an object 204 tracking color deriving velocity 208 tracking colors 200 setting min and max values 204 tracks in a QuickTime movie 314 transforms and order of operations 255 transparency and the alpha channel 246 transport control time message 184 transport controls 181 trigonometry and rotation 124 tweening 195 type attribute 21 U up vector 266 upsampling 146 usedstdim attribute 116 usesrcdim attribute 114 V VDIG components for Windows 166 video codecs 317 video control using audio 232 video control using MIDI 211 video frame 15 333 video mixing 73 video noise 138 video output component list 178 Video Output Components support 10, 176, 178 video to disc 166 video/images as textures 283 voc 178 VR track functions (QuickTime) 315 VTR mode PLAY group 183 RECORD group 185 WIND group 183 W WIND group (VTR mode) 183 Windows Alt key 269, 290 Control key 269, 290 help file location 12 MIDI setup 91 QuickTime VDIG 166 Video Output Components support 10, 176, 178 wireframe model 272 wrap (boundmode attribute) 126 wrapping textures 282 Z zooming, image 123

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Introduction to Economic AnalysisLuke GeldermansNYU, Fall 2010Problem set 1Selected definitions from maths review The cartesian product, written X Y , of two sets X and Y is the set of all ordered pairs where the first element is taken from X and the
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Intro to economic analysis Fall 2010 Study guide for the midterm Chapter 2 on rational choice: Need to be able to check properties (i.e., completeness) and transitivity of an ordering expressed in words (e.g., &quot;at least at tall as&quot;). Particularly useful
NYU - MATH - 301
ABSTRACT ALGEBRA: A STUDY GUIDE FOR BEGINNERSJohn A. Beachy Northern Illinois University 20062 This is a supplement toAbstract Algebra, Third Edition by John A. Beachy and William D. Blair ISBN 1577664344, Copyright 2005 Waveland Press, Inc. 4180 IL Ro
NYU - MATH - 301
V63.0343 Algebra 1, Fall 2010 Final Exam: Takehome PortionYour Name N-NumberRavi Kundalia N16343237This exam will be due at the time of the final exam, which will be held Tuesday, December 21 , Room 312 Warren Weaver (tentative location) The final exam
NYU - MATH - 301
Notes: F.P. Greenleaf, c 2000-2010v43-f10groups.tex, version 10/18/10Algebra I: Chapter 3. Group Theory 3.1 Groups.A group is a set G equipped with a binary operation mapping G G G. Such a &quot;product operation&quot; carries each ordered pair (x, y) in the Car
NYU - MATH - 301
Notes: c F.P. Greenleaf, 2000-2010v43-f10integers.tex (version 9/29/10)Algebra I Section 2: The System of Integers 2.1 Axiomatic definition of Integers.The first algebraic system we encounter is the integers. In this note we list the axioms that determ
NYU - MATH - 301
Notes: c F.P. Greenleaf 2003 - 2010v43-f10products.tex, version 12/1/10Algebra I: Chapter 6. The structure of groups. 6.1 Direct products of groups.We begin with a basic product construction. 6.1.1 Definition (External Direct Product). Given groups A1
NYU - MATH - 301
Notes: c F.P. Greenleaf, 2000-2010v43-f10sets.tex (version 9/01/10)Algebra I Chapter 1. Basic Facts from Set Theory 1.1 Glossary of abbreviations.Below we list some standard math symbols that will be used as shorthand abbreviations throughout this cour