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Period Baroque (1600-1750) Listening Bridge Listen to the two excerpts below and compare what you hear. What is the performance medium of each piece? What is the language of the text in each piece? Which has a stronger pulse? What is the texture of each piece? Which piece has stronger cadences? In which piece are all voices equally important? Ein' Feste Burg ist unser Gott Canzonette d'Amore (A Mighty Fortress is Our God) Johann Sebastian Bach Claudio Monteverdi Born: 1567 Died: 1643 Period: Late Renaissance/Early Baroque Country: Italy Born: Eisenach, 21 March 1685 Died: Leipzig, 28 July 1750 Period: Late Baroque Country: Germany Ein' Feste Burg exemplifies many of the changes that occurred in music between 1600 and 1750the time period known in music as the Baroque. Listening Prelude As you listen to the music, consider the following questions. Which instruments perform this piece? What is the texture of the piece? Does the bass line play an important role? Are there decorations (trills and other ornaments) on the melody? Are the rhythm patterns simple or complex? Is the pulse consistent? Are there dynamic changes? Johann Sebastian Bach Air from Suite No. 3 in D major BWV 1068 Johann Sebastian Bach Born: Eisenach, 21 March 1685 Died: Leipzig, 28 July 1750 Period: Late Baroque Country: Germany Baroque Period (1600-1750) General Background The years between 1600 and 1750 were full of contradiction, change and conflict in Europe. The future would be shaped by the far-reaching consequences of war. These conflicts mainly pitted the northern countries (Belgium, Germany, England and Sweden) against the Catholic kingdoms of the south (France, Spain and Austria), and they served to further accentuate the pre-existing cultural differences between Northern and Southern Europe. However, tremendous scientific, philosophical and artistic accomplishments that constitute the practical foundation of modern civilization flourished side by side with continual warfare, political instability and a religious fervor that bordered on fanaticism. Some of the most significant events of this period include: The Scientific Revolution : The separation of science and philosophy f rom religious dogma led to the establishment of a scientific method of i nqui ry. Science and mathematics in fluenced nearly every aspect of l ife. The Catholic Counter-Reformation : In response to the Protestant Reformation, an outpouring of exuberant sculpture, architecture, painting, and music to promulgate and support the power and doctrine of the Papacy in Rome and the Catholic Church took place. The Jesuit order led the Counter-Reformation campaign. The Thi r ty Years' War (1618-1648) : The Holy Roman Empire, headed spiritually by the Pope (and temporarily by the Emperor), was d issolved, essentially establishing modern Europe as a community of sovereign states. Colonization : Large areas of the Americas and Africa were colonized by European powers. The English and the Dutch succeeded the Spanish and Portuguese as the main empire builders. Absolutism and Patronage: Absolutism in government and the patronage system created an environment that fostered enormous g rowth in the arts. The r ise of the bourgeoisie: The new merchant class became a supporter of the arts, creating the climate for the development of a baroque style in Northern Europe, particularly in Holland. The essential philosophical outlook of the period was characterized by: the emphasis on the individual, the personal character of religious experience, and the use of artistic expression to convey such experiences; the r ise of capitalism and mercantilism as tools of empire building and t he financial basis for the r ise of the bourgeois class; the creation of the baroque stylean art style full of emotion, f lamboyancy, symbolism, vigor and subtletylargely as a product of t he Catholic Church's patronage of the arts. The Scientific Revolution Newton's 6-inch telescope (1762) Aided by philosophy, mathematics, and newly developed instruments and experimental methods, Baroque astronomers, mathematicians, philosophers, and writers fueled the scientific revolution of the 17th century by proposing world views that challenged conventional assumptions and questioned established Church dogmas. The scientific advances of this period had a profound impact on all spheres of human activity including the arts and music. The scientific revolution is traditionally considered to have taken place between 1543the year of publication of On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)and 1687, the year Isaac Newton wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. At the dawn of the Baroque period, the Italian philosopher, priest and cosmologist Giordano Bruno (15481600) was tried, condemned, and publicly executed by the Catholic Inquisition for embracing the Copernican heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the universe and suggesting that the universe itself was infinite and without center. A little over fifty years later, the Italian Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), in his Dialogue on the Two Main World Systems (1632), and the German Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) corroborated that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe and also pioneered the use of experimentation to validate physical theoriesthe cornerstone of the scientific method. By the late 1600s, Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) had studied the work of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and many other giants of science and laid the groundwork for classical mechanicsthe laws of gravitation and motionin his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). Ren Descartes (1596-1650), Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), and Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) advocated the separation of philosophy and science from religious dogma; Francis Bacon (1561-1626), John Locke (1632-1704) and David Hume (1711-1776) established the foundation of the scientific system of observation, experimentation and testing of hypotheses. Montesquieu (1689-1755) proposed the theory of the separation of powers while Voltairepen name of Francoise-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) and a great admirer of Newtoncriticized Church dogma and championed civil liberties, including freedom of religion, through his satirical writings and plays. G alil eo G alil ei (15641642) All h u m a n r e a s o n i n g m u s t b e h ttp://im Sir I saac N ewto n (16431727) If I h a v e h/03_baroque/images/galilei.jpg s e e n f u r t h e r i t i s b y p l a c e d s e c o n d t o s t a n d i n g o n t h e s d i r e c t e x p e r i e h o u l d e r s o f g i a n n c e . I talia n physic ist, astron omer and p hilos opher, consid ered by many t he father of moder n astron omy, physic s and scienc e. t s . Englis h physici st, astrono mer and natural p hiloso pher, remem bered mostly for his T heory of U niver sal G ravit ation and the applica tion of calculu s to general physics . Gottf r ied L eibn iz (16461716) Musi c i s a Sir F ranci s B acon (15611626) Know l e d g e i h i d d e n a r i t h m e t i c s p o w e r . Englis h p hiloso pher w ho establi shed scientif ic empiric e x e r c i s e o f t h e s o u l , w h i c h d o ism w ith h is method of observ ation and experi mentat ion, laying t he founda tion for moder n scientif ic i nquiry . e s n o t k n o w t h a t i t i s c o u n t i n g . Germ an p hilos opher, mathe matici an and d iplo mat, L iebni z i nvent ed the b inary syste m the found ation of moder n compu ter a rchit ecture and accom plishe d major b reakt hroug hs in calcul us. Baroque Period (1600-1750) Main characteristics of Baroque Music Baroque music may be characterized as emotional, experimental and original. Compared to their Renaissance counterparts, Baroque composers put much greater emphasis on contrast through the use of different textures, pacings and volume levels. The following list includes brief descriptions of the characteristics of Baroque music. As you read through the list, compare each point with what you have learned about medieval and Renaissance music. The Harpsichord Known as clavicembaloor simply cembaloin Italian and German, and clavecin in French, the harpsichord is the quintessential Baroque instrument. You may hear the harpsichord featured in many of the music selections throughout this chapter. Unity of Mood Strongly influenced by the Doctrine of the Affections, Baroque composers attempted to embody and sustain a single affection, or mood, from the beginning to the end of a given piece. Even when a piece featured a change of affection, the music tended to stay in the new mood for an extended period of time. Certain rhythms and melodic patterns were linked to specific moods. J.S. Bach (1685-1750) Suite No. 3 in D major, BWV 1068: Air Form Homophonic music (melody with chordal accompaniment) succeeded polyphonic music as the dominant texture. Ritornello form, featuring a recurring passage or theme that returns throughout a composition (usually in the first or last movements of a concerto or aria) came into vogue. The ritornello was usually played by the tutti (whole ensemble) and returned in different keys throughout the movement, sometimes in incomplete fragments. J.S. Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048: Allegro Opening of the 3rd movement of J. S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major BWV 1048. Form: Ritornello Unity of Mood: Energetic and festive mood from beginning to end. Melody: Although difficult to sing or play, melodies have a clear and distinct thematic contour easily grasped by the ear. Rhythm: The pulse is strong, steady and continuous. Patterns and sequences repeat throughout the piece. Harmony: Rapid changes in harmony often make the music feel more rhythmic. Tonality: G major. Texture: Textural features include imitation between the voices and emphasis on contrasting textures. Melody Recitative, a way of singing text with speech rhythms, was introduced early in the century. Later in the period, there was a shift from recitative to highly elaborate arias and instrumental melodies. J.S. Bach Christmas Oratorio, BWV 248. Recitative: Evangelista Gradually, a difference between vocal- and instrumental-style melodies developed. There was an emphasis on beautiful vocal tone and technique over all other elements. Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) Con voce festiva Giovanni Pergolesi (1710-1736) O, Euridice, n'andro festoso For the most part, Baroque melodies were not easy to sing or play. Despite their complexity, themes were clear and distinct. Melismatic singing. Sometimes referred to as vocal runs, melismatic singingthe vocal technique by which one syllable of the text is sung using many pitches was a favorite device of Baroque composers, especially in liturgical vocal settings. The opposite of melismatic singing is syllabic singing, in which there is a one-to-one correspondence of syllables and notes. Listen to the melismas in the following example by Handel. While you are listening for melismas, can you determine which words are sung in syllabic fashion? G.F. Handel The Messiah: All We, Like Sheep Baroque Period (1600-1750) Main Characteristics of Baroque Music (cont'd) Rhythm Most Baroque music featured continuity of rhythm and an easily recognizable pulse that was strong and steady. Patterns of rhythmic sequences permeated much of Baroque music. Rapid changes in harmony often made the pieces feel more rhythmic. Dance rhythms were frequently used in multi-movement form pieces. Dotted rhythms were widely used. G. F. Handel Organ concerto No. 2 in B flat major Op, 4 No.2 - I: A tempo ordinario e staccato. Harmony Figured Bass, a system of numbers placed under the music, was developed to indicate clearly the harmonies that should be played with each note identified in the bass line. The figured bass was typically realizedperformedby the harpsichord. Basso continuo, a bass line running continuously throughout a piece, came into use. Also known as thoroughbass, the basso continuo was usually played by a bass string and/or low woodwind instrument along with the harpsichord and/or organ. Well-tempered tuning and the major-minor tonal system developed, along with an increased use of chromaticism. There was a distinct shift from the modal system of the Renaissance to the majorminor tonality. Composers organized compositions around a keynote or tonal center, also known as the tonic. These changes further developed notions of tonality. Heinrich Schtz (1585-1672) Psalmen Davids: Erhore Mich Texture Polyphonic texture evolved into homophonic texture in opera and solo arias, influencing both sacred and secular music. Many instrumental compositions were also homophonic. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) L'Orfeo Act II: Shepherd G. P. Telemann (1681-1767) Concerto No. 3 for two horns. I: Allegro The soprano and bass lines were usually more important than the inner voices. Imitation between the voices was common. Counterpointa very complex and rule-bound type of polyphony in which the resulting harmony provides the tonal organization for the musicwas used extensively. In the late Baroque, polyphony, as a result of counterpoint, was used in all sorts of compositions, especially the fugue. G.F. Handel Messiah: Part II: And with his stripes, HWV 56 There was an increased emphasis on contrasting textures. For example, large groups of instruments would play one section and a smaller group another; or groups of instruments would take turns playing the main theme(s). G.F. Handel Water Music: Suite No. 2 in D major, HWV 349 - II: Alla Hornpipe Timbre Most of the instruments commonly used today were in use during the Baroque era. The violin family was refined and perfected. Beginnings of musical phrases were usually highlighted by a change of timbre. There wasn't a standard orchestral group. Ensembles were usually composed of strings, a few woodwinds and percussion, with the harpsichord providing the basso continuo. The baroque pipe organ, with its soft, mellow tone, was used extensively. Use of brass instruments and percussion to denote pageantry, solemnity, ceremony and splendor was common. Claudio Monteverdi L'Orfeo: Sinfonia - Ecco pur ch'a voi Volume The use of terraced dynamics to hold interest and achieve variety between musical phrases became popular. Gradual volume changes, such as crescendo (getting louder) and diminuendo (getting softer), were not commonly used. Claudio Monteverdi L'Orfeo: Toccata The Baroque period was a time of great musical significance. It is not an exaggeration to state that much of the musical foundation for the next 300 years was laid during this period. Baroque Period (1600-1750) Instrumental and Vocal Music Charts Instrumental Music Baroque I nstrumental M usic Solo and Chamber (Solo Instruments/ Various Ensembles) Free, I mprovisationa F ugal l Orchestral M ul timovement Toccata Prelude Fantasi a Fugu e Suite Chambe r sonata Solo sonata T rio sonata Church sonata Chorale p relude Solo concerto Concerto g rosso Orchestra l suite French overture Vocal Music Baroque Vocal M usic Secular Religious Opera Secular cantata Choral Church cantata Oratorio Passion Baroque Period (1600-1750) Vocal Music There were three main vehicles for vocal music in the Baroque period: opera, secular cantata, and oratorio. In this section, we will examine the origins of opera. Origins of Opera: The Florentine Camerata Letter from Girolamo Mei to Vincenzo Galilei The Florentine Camerata gathered together the leading lights of late-Renaissance Florence under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi (1534-1612). Their far-ranging discussions would go on to shape trends in literature, science, and the arts. Musically speaking, the Camerata is most famous for giving rise to opera. Vincenzo Galilei (c.1520-1591), father of the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei, was an important member. Other illustrious members included de' Bardi himself; Girolamo Mei (1519-1594), whose research on ancient Greek drama and music and how they moved the affections was shared with Galilei through copious correspondence; Jacopo Corsi (c.1560-1604), composer, performer and the most prominent patron of the arts in Florence after the Medicis; Giulio Caccini (1551-1618), father of Francesca Caccini (1578-c.1640); Jacopo Peri; Emilio de' Cavalieri; and the poets Ottavio Rinuccini (1562-1621) and Torquato Tasso (1544-1595). In 1581, Vincenzo Galilei published A Dialogue about Ancient and Modern Music, dedicated to de' Bardi, in which he argued that polyphony was unable to express the dramatic needs of poetry. Galilei's work concluded that words in music could only be rendered clearly and expressively by one voicemonody, or what they called stile moderno (modern style)instead of by four or five voices singing at the same time and contradicting each otherpolyphony, or stile antico (old style). Galilei, Peri and Caccini became the central figures in the move towards monody, which, strictly speaking, is a homophonic style: a single melodic line over an instrumental accompaniment. Francesca Caccini Multifaceted musician, pupil of Madalena Casulana, and one of the highest paid employees of the Medici court. Her opera La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina (1625) was the first Italian opera performed outside Italy (Warsaw, 1628). Words, the Camerata further argued, should be sung with the same clarity and true representation of sentiment (affect) as if they were spoken. This gave rise to the stile rappresentativo, whose main vehicle was the recitative, a kind of melodic speech in which the music follows closely the free rhythms, pauses and irregular phrases of the spoken word. The structure of recitatives was determined solely by verbal considerations. In the recitativo seccodry recitativethe voice was accompanied only by a basso continuo, usually simple chords played by a lute or harpsichord. In the recitativo accompagnatoaccompanied recitativethe voice was accompanied by an ensemble of instruments, and it was, therefore, less improvisational and declamatory than the recitativo secco. Claudio Monteverdi Orfeo: Rosa del ciel (recitativo secco) Dramma Per Musica The Florentine Camerata productionscalled dramma per musicaused recitativo secco throughout. These recreations of Greek drama, at first reserved exclusively for the enjoyment of wealthy and aristocratic patrons, are generally considered to be the precursors of opera. L'Euridice Cover of the first edition Two works by Jacopo Peri, Dafne (1598)staged at Corsi's Palace with Corsi himself playing the harpsichord basso continuoand L'Euridice (1601)performed at the Medici Pitti Palace in Florence to celebrate the marriage of Henry IV, King of France, and Marie de' Mediciare the earliest surviving examples of early dramma per musica. Based on the Greek legend of Orpheus and Euridice, L'Euridice is almost entirely recitative. Peri wrote in the foreword that its style was intended to imitate speech in song. Jacopo Peri In costume for the performance of Dafne Soon enough, however, composers started using a lyrical type of singing that they called aria. This solo song was the most ornate form of monody found in baroque Italian opera. It was often highly ornamental, allowing the singer room to improvise and show off their capacity to express affection. One of the most famous early arias is Possente spirto from Monteverdi's L'Orfeo. Claudio Monteverdi L'Orfeo: Posente Spirto In the 1620s, opera productions moved to Rome and then Venice, where the first true popular opera was staged in the San Cassiano theater (Europe's first public opera house) in 1637. The San Cassiano opera productions were significant because it was the first time that the paying public had access to the type of extravagant stage productions previously reserved for the Roman and Florentine aristocracy. Soon, opera was big business in Venice. From 1637 to 1678, more than 150 operas were produced in nine different theaters. Fueled by an emphasis on lyrical, virtuoso aria singing and the novelty of the castrati who performed many of those arias, opera rapidly extended all over Europe. By the end of the 18th century, opera was particularly popular in London and Vienna. The Baroque public clearly loved opera. Opera was big business in Venice. From 1637 to 1678, more than 150 operas were produced in nine different theaters. The Baroque public clearly loved opera... Castrati Carlo Broschi Farinelli One fascinating aspect of Baroque opera culture was the training and popularity of the castrati, male performers who sang in the high soprano range. By all accounts, the castrati possessed extremely agile and beautiful voices. A castrato was a young man who was castrated just before their voice broke so that they could be trained to take on female roles. The practice was dropped in the late 18th century. Carlo Broschi (1705-1782), better known as Farinelli, was a true operatic superstar of the Baroque period. He was the most famous pupil of Nicola Porpora (1686-1768), who taught many other celebrated singers of the period including Gaetano Majorano (1710-1783). Majorano, known as Cafarelli, sang the leading female role in the premiere of Handel's opera Sersea role famous for the aria Ombra mai fu (Shade there never was). By all accounts, the castrati possessed extremely agile and beautiful voices... Baroque Period (1600-1750) Introduction to Church Music Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, music continued to play a very important religious role within communities. Music could move and involve a congregation, intensifying the spiritual experience. Although Protestants were skeptical of visual displays and the use of statues, paintings, and ornaments in church, they approved of the use of music during church services. In the seventeenth century, major Protestant congregations began forming orchestras and choirs, thus hiring organists, soloists, and music masters. As in previous periods, much of the music was produced for religious purposes. However, it was a common practice during the Baroque period for composers to write secular music for all types of ceremonies, including marriages and other private occasions. Another important development during this period was that churches and orphanages started providing music education for talented young boys, and sometimes girls, who manifested the desire to become musicians. Most choral works of the time were sacred music. In the Catholic Church, Baroque composers were still required to conform to the stile antico of polyphonic writing la Palestrina, i.e., in the Palestrina style. Several composers, notably Antonio Lotti (c.1667-1740), created some magnificent music in this style. Lotti's sacred choral music used the older polyphonic form to express poignant, baroque emotions. In England, composers such as John Blow (1649-1708) and Henry Purcell (1659-1695) specialized in writing music for the Anglican Church. Purcell's I will sing unto the Lord is an excellent example of the English anthem in the Baroque period. Henry Purcell I will sing unto the Lord Thirty Years' War In Germany, the Thirty Years' War disrupted all aspects of German society, including the Church. The Lutheran church, under the tutelage of Heinrich Schtz (1585-1672)the greatest composer of the early Baroquewas one of the first segments of the society to rebound. Although Schtz usually set Latin texts to music in a contrapuntal fashion, the influence of Italian style can be heard in his larger worksfor instance, in the alternation of soloist and chorus in the opening chorus and recitative from Christmas Oratorio. His later works are the most important examples of Lutheran music prior to Bach. Heinrich Schtz Christmas Oratorio Baroque Period (1600-1750) Johann Sebastian Bach One of the most important composers in the history of music, and certainly the preeminent composer of the Baroque period, Johann Sebastian Bach produced what many regard as the finest pieces of music ever written. Although well-respected during his lifetime, Bach was generally considered more of a loyal and industrious church musician than a genius, a point of view that has since dramatically changed. His work was not revolutionary in itself; rather, he brought such an elevated level of mastery and sophistication to the prevailing musical trends of the time (use of counterpoint, harmonic organization, variation of rhythms, forms, and textures, etc.) that the entire period is said to have reached maturity with Bach. Bach descended from a long line of distinguished musicians, and he received his first musical training from members of his family. He learned a great deal by studying the scores of other composers, assimilating the best musical practices of Germany, Italy, Austria, and France. Early on, he exhibited the work ethic that made him an extremely prolific composer. One story illustrates the extent of his devotion to his craft: at the age of 20, he walked a distance of 200 miles to hear Dietrich Buxtehude, Northern Europe's most renowned organist at the time, play the organ at Lbeck. Johann Sebastian Bach as a young man Throughout his career, Bach relied on the established system of patronage for employment, holding posts as court organist to the Duke of Weimar, court composer to the Prince of Cthen (1717-1723), and cantor of St. Thomas's Church in Leipzig (1723-1750). The type of music that Bach wrote was mostly determined by the position he held. For instance, while at Cthen, he wrote a great deal of instrumental music, which was what the Prince wanted. It was there that he wrote his six Brandenburg Concertos and the suites for solo cello. At Leipzig, his duties required producing music for church services, and he wrote most of his over 200 cantatas during his tenure there. Bach's Musical Style Bach's musical style can be viewed either as centuries ahead of its time or as a relic of the polyphonic music of an earlier period. Polyphony permeates much of his work during an era when most other composers were moving toward a more homophonic style. Even his works that are not strictly polyphonic, like the famous Prelude in C major, have a thickness of texture not found in the music of most of his contemporaries. P relude in C major Bach's choral music is, arguably, the finest example of vocal polyphony in musical literature. He treats the voices of the chorus like instruments, emphasizing music over text. Though the emotional needs of the text are always considered, his choral works lack the theatrical vocals of opera or the madrigal. The word that perhaps best describes all of Bach's music is reverent. His profound sense of duty to his church and his God is apparent in his respectful approach to composition. Bach's Church Music Johann Sebastian Bach Most of Bach's choral compositions took the form of the Lutheran cantata, which appeared earlier in Italy but reached its full potential in Germany. The cantata was a relatively new form that combined biblical text and contemporary poetry. Composers set the text to the chorale melodies of early Lutheran tunes. The chorale melody might be sung by the soprano voice in a hymn-like section of the cantata, also called the chorale. In other movements, the chorale tune might appear as a sort of cantus firmus, a melodic fragment woven into the tapestry of multiple polyphonic lines. These movements would take the form of choral fugues, duets, or arias. Chorale Choral fugues Aria s The content of the Sunday Mass influenced the composition of the cantata, varying from single movement works, to pieces with multiple movements divided into choruses, instrumental passages, arias, and recitatives. Let's look at the Cantata No.80 Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott, for an example of such a multimovement work. This particular cantata has eight movements: Cantata No.80 M ovements 1. 2. Chorus ( Fugue) Aria 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Recitative Aria Chorus Recitative Duet Chorus (Chorale) Bach also perfected the Passion, a form new to Lutheran music. The Passions were large-scale works based on accounts of the life of Jesus found in the Bible in Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John. Bach's two passions are the St. John Passion, BWV 245 (1724) and the St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 (c.1729), which contains the moving aria for alto Erbarme dich. Erbarme dich Bach's seal used throughout his Leipzig years The last great choral work of Bach's life was the monumental Mass in B minor, BWV 232, a combination of separate mass sections that Bach had written at different periods of his life. A demanding work, it is rivaled only by Palestrina's Pope Marcellus Mass and Beethoven's Missa Solemnis as the most important setting of the Latin Mass text. Bach's ability to express the emotion of the text while simultaneously subjecting it to musical form is most clearly heard in the Crucifixus, the section of the mass dealing with the crucifixion of Jesus. When Bach died in 1750, some of his keyboard works survived, but much of his music, including the cantatas and the Passions, disappeared from public consciousness. It wasn't until well into the 19th century that his music began to emerge again, thanks largely to the romantic composer, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847), in who, 1829, conducted the first performance of the St. Matthew Passion since Bach's death. Today, he is universally recognized as one of the greatest composers of all time. As we will see in his instrumental music, Bach was adept at imposing his own complex musical style on any form of composition. A man whose music is simultaneously beautiful and complex, Bach stands as one of the greatest minds and talents in the history of music. Baroque Period (1600-1750) Claudio Monteverdi Claudio Monteverdi Canzonette d'Amore Claudio Monteverdi Born: 1567 Died: 1643 Period: Baroque Country: Italy Monteverdi is the most important Italian composer of the early to middle Baroque period, and, indeed, one of the most influential figures in the history of music. His music represents the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque period. Born in Cremona in 1567, he served at the court of the Dukes of Mantua from the early 1590s until 1612, at which point he moved to Venice as maestro di cappella at the basilica of St. Mark. At the time it was one of the most coveted musical posts in Italy, and it was a position Monteverdi retained until his death in 1643. His importance as a proponent of the so-called Stile moderno (modern style) is unquestioned, as is his preeminence in the development of the new form of opera that sprang from the combination of music and speech: the Italian monody. Operas In 1607, Monteverdi established himself as a composer of major works with his opera L'Orfeo, which is considered to be the first great opera. L'Orfeo is based on the legend of Orpheus, the musician who sought to bring his beloved Eurydice back from the Underworld by the power of music. L'Orfeo synthesized several important operatic elements: Instrumental Overture, Aria, Recitative, Ensemble, and Chorus. After Orfeo, L'Arianna (Mantua, 1608) became one of the most influential operas in Europe. Wildly popular, the Lamento d'Arianna was admired and imitated by composers until the end of the century. Two major works represent the culmination of Monteverdi's operatic output: Il Ritorno d'Ulise in Patria (The Return of Ulysses) (Venice, 1640), based on the final portion of Homer's Greek epic The Odyssey, and L'incoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea)(Venice, 1642), set in imperial Rome in the time of Nero, whose love for the courtesan Poppea is the subject of the opera. L'Orfeo Front Cover of the 1609 Venice Edition Monteverdi's operas introduced elements that held tremendous public appeal, so much so that these elements would remain intact in Italian opera for almost 300 years with only minor modifications. These elements included: 1. Topics that were simultaneously classic and modern as the basis for entire productions, thus creating powerfully dramatic situations 2. Bel canto arioso for virtuoso singers with tuneful, rhythmic, easy-to-remember melodies with major and minor harmonies 3. Music that contained a combination of recitative and arioso passages 4. An orchestra that was not merely a background, but an active participant in the action, adding to the expressiveness of the music. L'Orfeo alone contained 14 independent orchestral pieces (symphonies). Monteverdi was one of the first composers to include indications for specific instruments in the orchestral parts. Claudio Monteverdi Lamento d'Arianna from L'Arianna In his own words... "Arianna affected people because she was a woman, and Orpheus because he was simply a man" Monteverdi (Letter of December 1616) Madrigals Monteverdi is also famous for the madrigals he published between 1587 and 1606. Until his 40th birthday, he mainly worked in this genre, composing a total of nine books. Monteverdi's madrigals were particularly important because they represented the transition between what he called prima praticaRenaissance polyphony based on equality of voicesand the seconda praticain which he used an increasing hierarchy of voices that emphasized the soprano and bass. Pieces like Canzonette d'Amore, although not as extreme in the use of chromaticism as those of Gesualdo, provide further evidence that madrigals featured the most daring music to be found in the early Baroque period. Monteverdi's style was based on the premise that the declamation of words and the mood of the verse must be carefully followed by the music. Claudio Monteverdi Canzonette d'Amore Church Music When Monteverdi arrived at St. Marks in 1612, opera had not yet been introduced in Venice. Earlier, in 1610, he had composed a setting of the service of Vespers for the Blessed Virgin Mary in the modern style, possibly to showcase his abilities to the officials of St. Mark's. In the tradition of the great Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1554-1612), his predecessor in the post, Vespers exploited the possibilities of the new style by taking advantage of the open spaces available to performers in the great basilica of St. Mark. Along the same lines, the piece also featured repetition and contrast, with many of the parts having a clear ritornello. The grand scale of the work foreshadowed such masterpieces of Baroque Church music as Handel's Messiah and J. S. Bach's St Matthew Passion. Claudio Monteverdi Vespers of the Blessed Virgin Jean-Baptiste Lully Jean-Baptiste Lully Bourre from Xerxes Jean-Baptiste Lully Born: 1632 Died: 1687 Period: Baroque Country: France France was the last European country to embrace opera during the 1670s under King Louis XIV with the help of Italian-born composer Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), who became one of the most powerful musical figures in the late 17th century in France. Lully succeeded in transforming the Italian opera into a distinctly French form called tragdie lyrique. Much to the French audience's delight, he added ballet to the opera and was also able to successfully adapt the recitative to the intricacies of the French language. Another key feature of Lullys opera was his addition of the French overture. This independent instrumental composition opened the opera, and was later also used as the first movement of instrumental compositions such as the sonata and concerto. Henry Purcell Henry Purcell I will sing unto the Lord Henry Purcell Born: 1659 Died: 1695 Period: Baroque Country: England Purcell represents the culmination of the English Baroque style. He was the last great English-born composer until Sir Edward Elgar in the late 19th century. English composers of the time ignored the styles of continental Europe in favor of an English national style. Purcell, however, strongly resisted this trend. Instead, he adopted Italian forms. In doing so, he established a foothold for opera in England, while simultaneously composing in all of the major genres. His operatic works include Dioclesian (1690), King Arthur (1691), The Fairy Queen (1692), and The Tempest (1695). His masterpiece Dido and Aeneas (1689), the story of a doomed love affair between Aeneas, the hero of Virgil's Aeneid, and Dido, the Queen of Carthage, was the first resounding public success in the history of English opera. Dido's arias Thy hand, Belinda, and When I am laid in Earth are two of the best-known moments in all of opera. Thy Hand Belinda is also a fine example of ground bass, a baroque technique whereby the composer repeats a melodic pattern in the bass continuously through the piece. Henry Purcell Thy Hand Belinda Henry Purcell When I'm laid on Earth Baroque Period (1600-1750) Secular Cantata The secular cantata was a popular form of musical entertainment in Baroque Italy. Prominent composers such as Luigi Rossi (1597-1653) and Giacomo Carissimi (c.1605-1674) wrote numerous cantatas for performance at social gatherings in the homes of wealthy aristocrats. The earliest secular cantatas were short and consisted of contrasting sections of recitatives and arias. Giacomo Ca rissimi L amento della Regina Maria Stuarda Giacomo Carissimi Born: 1605 Died: 1674 Period: Early Baroque Country: Italy One of the most prolific composers of secular cantatas was Barbara Strozzi (1619-c.1663). Between 1644 and 1663, Strozzi published eight volumes of vocal works containing about one hundred pieces, most of which were individual arias and secular cantatas for soprano and basso continuo. One of the most popular pieces was Le tre Grazie ad Venere (The Three Graces to Venus). The texts of many of her cantatas centered on love or unrequited love, favorite themes among 17th century composers. In all probability, Strozzi performed these pieces for a Venetian fellowship of poets, philosophers, and historians who met in her father's home. Barbara Strozzi Le tre grazie a Venere Barbara Strozzi Born: 1619 Died: 1677 Period: Baroque Country: Italy Le t re grazie a Venere Bella madre d'Amore anco non ti r imembra che nuda avesti di bellezze il grido in sul Trojano lido dal giudice pastore? Onde se nuda piadi insin agl' occhi de' bifolchi Idei, vanarella che sei, perche vuoi tu con tanti The Th ree Graces to Venus Fair Mother of Love do you not remember that naked you had the prize of beauty on the Trojan shore from the shepherd judge? Of naked you pleased the eyes of the people of Mount Ida, vain as you are, addobbi e tanti r icopri r ti agl'amanti O vesti le tue Grazie o getta ancor tu fuori manti, gli arnesi e veli: di quelle care membra nulla nulla si celi! Tu r idi e non r ispondi. Ah tu le copri si, tu le nascondi che sai ch'invoglia piu, che piu s'apprezza la negata bellezza! do you want with such garments to cover yourself before the eyes of your lovers? Oh clothe your Graces or cast aside mantles, your accruements and veils, let nothing be hidden of your dear body! You laugh and answer not! Ah you cover and conceal yourself, for you know that temptation g rows and beauty that denies itself is more precious! Baroque Period (1600-1750) Oratorio St. Philip Neri (1515-1595) Based on a religious theme or biblical text, the concept of oratorio had its early origins in the 1540s, with efforts by St. Philip Neri to educate and convert common people through spiritual exercises held in a prayer hall (Italian Oratory). These exercises, which at first were limited to sermons, prayer, hymn singing, and vernacular dramatizations and discussions of the Bible, soon grew into a community of secular priests called the Congregation of the Oratory, founded in Rome in 1575. From around 1600 onwards, music started permeating the oratorio with techniques such as the recitative and the aria with basso continuo. Eventually, these musical dramatizations (oratorios) evolved into something akin to opera without costumes or staged action. Because oratorios were the only musical event permitted during the Lent season, they soon became the musical outlet for the growing Baroque public enamored with opera. Early Baroque oratorio appeared in two forms: the Latin Oratorio and the Oratorio Volgare, which used Italian texts. The Latin Oratorio, which included the roles of narrator and chorus in addition to the central characters of the plot, reached its peak in the works of the Roman composer Giacomo Carissimi, who wrote and conducted oratorios at the Oratorio del Santissimo Crocifisso (Oratory of the Most Holy Crucifix) in Rome. His finest oratorio, Historia di Jephte (The Story of Jephthah), is based on the Old Testament story from the Book of Judges (Judges 11:28-38), and well examine this work in the following listening examples. As background to the story, the main characters are Jephthah, his daughter Filia, and Historicus, the narrator. Note that the part of Historicus is sung by a tenor, although at various points different soloists or a combination of voices sing the part. Note also the intervention of the chorus, which serves to amplify the drama. Giacomo Carissimi (1605-1674) Although none of his music was published during his lifetime, Carissimi's influence as composer and teacher was widespread in 17th-century Europe. From the age of 25 until his death 44 years later, he held the post of maestro di cappella at the Church of St. Apollinaire in the German College in Rome, a prestigious position that brought him recognition and wealth. Aside from being the first major composer of oratorios, Carissimi also wrote motets, cantatas, and masses. Historicus (Recitative: tenor) When the king of the children of Ammon made war against the children of Israel and disregarded Jephthah's message, the Spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah. Jephthah went on to the children of Ammon and made a vow to the Lord, saying: Jephtah (Recitative: solo tenor) If You will indeed give the sons of Ammon into my hand, then whoever comes first out of the doors of my house to meet me, I will offer him to the Lord as a complete sacrifice. Chorus (Six voices) So Jephthah crossed over to the sons of Ammon with the spirit, strength, and valor of the Lord to fight against them. Filia (Accompanied aria: solo soprano) Mourn, you hills! Grieve, you mountains, and howl in the affliction of my heart! Woe to me! I grieve amidst the rejoicing of the people, amidst the victory of Israel and the glory of my father, I, a childless virgin, I, an only daughter, must die and no longer live. Then tremble, you rocks! Be astounded, you hills, vales, and caves! Resonate with horrible sound! Carissimi's pupil Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) was one of the principal composers of the oratorio volgare. In the hands of Scarlatti, the oratorio became analogous to opera. While the themes remained religious, the texts were in Italian, the role of the narrator was eliminated, and the chorus was abandoned. In fact, the oratorio was little more than a substitution for opera, which was banned by the church during Lent. The oratorio spread from Italy to the other countries of Europe. Heinrich Schtz (1585-1672), who studied in Italy, introduced the oratorio to Germany. The influence of his teacher Monteverdi may be heard in Erhore mich, wenn ich rufe. Heinrich Schtz Erhore mich, wenn ich rufe Heinrich Schtz Born: 1585 Died: 1672 Period: Early Baroque Country: Italy George Frideric Handel In England, the oratorio rose to its height with the monumental works of George Frideric Handel (16851759). Handel was born in Halle, Germany to a prosperous family. His father was a barber-surgeon who did not want his son to be a musician (a common theme in music history). Eventually, his father relented, allowing Handel to study composition with Friedrich Zachow, a well-respected teacher and composer. After enrolling at the University of Halle, Handel determined that his destiny lay in opera. In 1706, he moved to Italy where he composed his first major works. A visit to London in 1710 left hiim enthralled, and he decided to settle there permanently. During his first decade in London, Handel established Italian opera through some of his operatic masterpieces, including Julius Caesar and Orlando. His benefactors generously funded his work, permitting him to live an extravagant lifestyle. In the 1730s, however, after the premiere of Blow's The Beggar's Opera, English audiences became fascinated with the ballad opera, a distinctly English form that dispensed with the opulence of Italian opera. Realizing that tastes had changed, Handel turned his attention to the oratorio. The English public approved, enabling him to present masterful works to great acclaim for the remainder of his life. Handel's Oratorios and Choral Music When English audiences became enamored of ballad opera, Handel realized the Italian operas that made him famous would not continue to support him financially. By changing his focus to oratorio, he was able to develop the strong English choral tradition while writing a form of music similar to the Italian opera he loved. English audiences and royalty, moved by the religious settings of his oratorios, continued to support his work. During the last decades of his life, Handel produced dozens of masterful oratorios, including Israel in Egypt (1739), Messiah (1742), Judas Maccabaeus (1747), and Jeptha (1752). George Frideric Handel House in Halle where Handel was born Handel's Musical Style One outstanding feature of Handel's work was his ability to synthesize the best features of all European Baroque music. His cosmopolitan style, which combined Italian musical forms with the grandeur of French music and the seriousness of German music, was targeted to the English concert public who demonstrated a sophisticated appreciation for choral music. If Bach's music can be described as mainly polyphonic with homophonic passages, then Handel's can be said to be the opposite. This is not to say that Handel was not adept at polyphony. On the contrary, polyphonic passages like the chorus And with his stripes from Messiah are as rich and complex as any written by Bach. Handel, however, simply chose not to apply that texture very often. Messiah: And with his stripes More typical of Handel's style is the chorus All we like sheep, also from Messiah. Handel does not rely on a single texture here to carry the entire movement. Instead, he alternates between homophonic passages, polyphonic passages, and passages in which one vocal part is featured in monodic style. Messiah: All we like sheep 1. Homophonic passage 2. Polyphonic passage 3. Monodic style Also evident in this movement is Handel's inventive use of word-painting, exemplified in the vocal parts moving away from each other at Have gone astray, the twisting vocal lines at We have turned, the insistence at the words Every one to his own way, and the dramatic minor-key ending at And the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us alll. 1. Have gone astray 2. We have turned 3. Every one to his own way 4. And the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all When Handel died in England in 1759, he was given a state funeral and buried in Westminster Abbey. It would be almost 150 years before another composer of prominence appeared in England. Handel's legacy could be felt for a long time after this death. The homophonic texture of his choruses, the stately character of his instrumental works, and the cosmopolitan quality of all of his music formed a blueprint that was followed by the next generation of composers, including Bach's sons. Baroque Period (1600-1750) The Baroque Concerto Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) A romanticized portrait His instrumentsof which roughly 540 violins, 12 violas, and 50 cellos are knownare considered the standard of perfection by which all other string instruments are measured. One of the most important musical forms to emerge during the Baroque period was the multi-movement concerto, a form in which oneor less commonly, two or threeinstruments are pitted against an orchestra. The concerto was a lengthier, more complex composition than the sonata, and it was usually played in larger halls. Two main types of concerti were the solo concerto for solo instrument and orchestra, and the concerto grosso, played by a small orchestra. Alessandro Marcello Solo concerto Oboe Concerto in D minor Arcangelo Corelli Concerto Grosso in G minor Op. 6 No. 8 Solo concertos were usually virtuoso showpieces in which soloists were required to perform technically demanding parts. As well, the solo instrument had to be of sufficient expressiveness and power to hold its end of the conversation with the orchestra. These desired characteristics were made possible by the work of premier luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari and Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu (1698-1744), who developed the artistry and technology to produce world-class instruments. Giuseppe Torelli's (1658-1709) Trumpet Concerto provides a good example of the form's technical demands on the soloist. In this piece, the two main sections of the concerto may be heard clearly. The portion of the concerto in which a large group is playing is called the ritornello section. The portion where the soloist takes over is called the solo section. Each movement of the concerto may contain three or four alternating ritornelli and solo sections, with each section in a different key, before the closing ritornello ends in the original key. Giuseppe Torelli Trumpet Concerto 1. Ritornello 2. Soloist takes over In most cases, the large group of the instrumental concerto was a string orchestra comprising violins, violas, cellos, and continuo. In the concerto grosso, the concerto part was often played by a solo violin or by a small group of violins. During the late Baroque period, strings were commonly substituted for wind and brass instruments. G.F. Handel Concerto Grosso in C major Allegro Composers continued producing concerti grossi and solo concertos well into the 18th century. These compositions featured popular wind instruments such as the oboe in the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra in D minor by Alessandro Marcello, the recorder in the Recorder Suite in A minor by Telemann, and the keyboard in the Keyboard Concerto No. 5 in F minor by J. S. Bach. Alessandro Marcello (1684-1750) Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra in D minor G.P. Telemann (1681-1767) Recorder Suite in A minor J.S. Bach Keyboard Concerto No. 5 in F minor Arcangelo Corelli Arcangelo Corelli Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 6 No. 8 'Christmas Concerto' Arcangelo Corelli Born: 1653 Died: 1713 Period: Baroque Country: Italy As the eighteenth century drew near, audiences in Italy began to hear a new form of orchestral music in their churches, theaters, and salons: the concerto grosso. This was a short work in three or four movements that contrasted a small group of instruments (soloists) against the main body of players (full orchestra). The leading composer of this new genre was Arcangelo Corelli. Corelli, the most famous violinist-composer of the Baroque period, trained in Bologna and moved to Rome around 1675, where he enjoyed the successive patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden, Cardinal Pamphili, and Cardinal Ottoboni. He composed only instrumental music, and his six published collections of sonatas and concertos quickly became models for future generations of composers thoughout Europe, including J.S. Bach and G. F. Handel. Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi The Four Seasons Violin Concerto in E major La Primavera (Spring) Antonio Vivaldi Born: 1678 Died: 1741 Period: Baroque Country: Italy Antonio Vivaldi is undoubtedly one of the most significant Baroque instrumental composers; certainly he was the most prolific of the 18th century in Italy. Sometimes called the red priest because of the color of his hair and his ordination, he spent most of his career as a music teacher and composer at the Pio Ospedale della Piet, a school for orphaned, abandoned, or illegitimate girls in Venice. Vivaldi wrote more than 500 concertosincluding 39 for bassoon, 30 for flute, and several for oboeand no less than 39 operas, in addition to numerous choral works, cantatas, and chamber works. In many of these works, he experimented with different sound combinations between the ensemble and the soloist, establishing a trend for many generations of composers after him. His masterpiece Le Quattro Stagioni (The Four Seasons) remains his most imaginative and colorful work. In these concertos, Vivaldi tried to capture the unique essence of the seasons. The first movement, Spring, includes musical passages designed to imitate chirping birds, flowing streams, thunder, and lightning. In Winter, Vivaldi depicts a cold, bitter landscape in passages that suggest the chattering of teeth, the crunch of snow underfoot, and the gentle drift of snowflakes. Spring Winter The compositional approach in which a composer tells a story, paints a picture, or sets a mood through music is called program music. The opposite approach is usually referred to as absolute music. After falling out of favor during the Classical era, program music gained popularity once again in the Romantic period. Baroque Period (1600-1750) Ensemble Music During the Baroque period, instrumental music was written for every conceivable size of ensemble. On the smaller side, the Baroque sonata offered one of the finest examples of chamber music. Two types of sonata were written during this period: the sonata da chiesa (church sonata), and the sonata da camera (chamber sonata). The sonata da chiesa was more somber, while the sonata da camera, much like the suite, usually comprised dance forms. The gigue from Corelli's Sonata for 2 violins and lute is a fine example of the sonata da camera. Arcangelo Corelli Sonata for 2 violins and lute The term sonata was used during the early Baroque to denote musical works to be played instead of sung. Sonatas were usually played by a small number of instruments, anywhere from three to a small group of maybe six or eight. These groups were called chamber groups because they usually performed in small spaces, typically rooms in aristocratic homes or palaces. This example illustrates a chamber group playing Bach's Air on the G String from the Suite No. 3 in D. J.S. Bach Suite No. 3 in D, BWV 1068: Air on the G String Suite A popular form among composers was the suite, a series of movements based upon the rhythm and style of a particular dance. The suite could be written for a solo instrument such as the harpsichord or violoncello or for a small instrumental ensemble. Dances included the German Allemande, the French Courante, the Sarabande (originally from Spain), and the English or Irish Gigue (Jig). Many suites also included the Gavotte: a French folk dance characterized by the raising rather than the sliding of the feet. At times, nondance movements such as the Prelude were also employed. This series of movements was designed to offer interesting contrasts in meter, tempo, and texture. J.S. Bach Sarabande: Cello Suite Often written for a large orchestra, the dance suite became more popular in the late Baroque. Examples include Handel's two most popular orchestral suites: Fireworks Music and Water Music. The Fireworks Music suite was, appropriately, first performed at a large fireworks display, while the Water Music was written for a party held on the Thames River. Legend has it that the partygoers rode on one barge floating down the Thames, while Handel and the musicians played on another barge immediately following. The most famous movement from these suites is entitled Alla Hornpipe from the Water Music suite. G.F. Handel Water Music: Alla Hornpipe Music for Keyboard The Clavichord The Harpsichord Baroque keyboard music falls into two categories: free forms that rely on harmony and improvisation (prelude, toccata, fantasia) more structured forms that use counterpoint or imitation (ricercar, fugue) The three primary keyboard instruments used during the Baroque period were the organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. The term clavier was often used as an umbrella term for both the harpsichord and clavichord. Girolamo Frescobaldi Fuga in G minor Franois Couperin Franois Couperin Concerts Royaux: Premier Concert: Allemande Franois Couperin Born: 1668 Died: 1733 Period: Baroque Country: France Couperin was the master of French Baroque keyboard music. His highly ornamental style may be found in his ordres, groups of dances comparable to the Baroque suites. The aristocratic quality, concise musical language, and light emotional quality of pieces such as this Allemande helped usher in the French rococo period. Jean-Philippe Rameau Jean-Philippe Rameau Pieces De Clavecin, Suite In A minor-major: I. Prelude Jean-Philippe Rameau Born: 1683 Died: 1764 Period: Baroque Country: France After the death of Couperin in 1733, Rameau became the leading French composer. The tradition of French harpsichord music is exemplified by Minuet from Suite in A minor-major. He made a significant and lasting contribution to musical theory with the publication of his Treatise on Harmony (1722). Pieces De Clavecin, Suite In A minor-major: IX. Minuet Baroque Period (1600-1750) Baroque Period: Keyboard Music Girolamo Frescobaldi Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi Fuga in G minor Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi Born: 1583 Died: 1643 Period: Baroque Country: Italy Frescobaldi is arguably one of the most important keyboard composers of the first half of the 17th century. He was born in Ferrara, where the musical tastes of the ruling duke, Alfonso II d'Este, attracted musicians of great distinction. As an important composer for the organ and other keyboard instruments, Frescobaldi published a number of collections of keyboard pieces as well as compositions for varied groups of instruments. The keyboard works include toccatas, such as the Toccata nona, caprices, ricercari, and dance movements; and fugues, such as the Fugue in G minor that the 20th-century composer Bla Bartk transcribed for the piano. The Organ Fugue in G minor (trans. Bla Bartk) In 1608, Frescobaldi became the organist at St. Peter's in Rome, a prestigious position he held until his death in 1643. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier To demonstrate the feasibility of equal-tempered tuning, Bach wrote a monumental set of preludes and fugues. Commonly known as The 48, they consist of two series, or Books, each with 24 preludes and fugues, which explore the twelve major and minor keys. The Well-Tempered Clavier is one of the most important keyboard works of the late Baroque period and of all keyboard literature. In the following example, the Prelude and Fugue in C minor from Book I is performed on a modern piano. WTC I: Prelude and Fugue in C minor ... View Full Document

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