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### THM 2112 - Lecture Week 13

Course: TOURISM & 2112, Spring 2011
School: Temple
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Word Count: 713

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2112 4/20/2011 THM Sophomore Research Seminar Chapter 6 Measurement of Variables Operational Definition Florian Zach, Ph.D. Assistant Professor How variables are measured Measurement: the assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics (or attributes) of objects according to a prespecified set of rules. 2 1 4/20/2011 Objects and their characteristics Objects include persons, sport teams,...

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2112 4/20/2011 THM Sophomore Research Seminar Chapter 6 Measurement of Variables Operational Definition Florian Zach, Ph.D. Assistant Professor How variables are measured Measurement: the assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics (or attributes) of objects according to a prespecified set of rules. 2 1 4/20/2011 Objects and their characteristics Objects include persons, sport teams, companies, countries, kitchen appliances, restaurants, instant noodles, yogurt and so on. Examples of characteristics of objects are arousal seeking tendency, achievement motivation, organizational effectiveness, shopping enjoyment, length, weight, ethnic diversity, service quality, conditioning effects, taste, etc. (Note: Many of them are abstract and subjective!) 3 Types of variables Two types of variables: One lends itself to objective and precise measurement (e.g., attendance). The other is more nebulous and does not lend itself to accurate measurement because of its abstract and subjective nature (e.g., a hardworking employee). 4 2 4/20/2011 Operationalization of variables Operationalizing concepts: reduction of abstract concepts to render them measurable in a tangible way (i.e., using observable behavior or characteristics). Operationalizing is done by looking at the behavioral dimensions, facets, or properties denoted by the concept. Global warming 5 Steps of operationalization 1. Define the concept/construct/variable that you want to measure. 2. Create the content of the measure (i.e., develop an instrument that has one or more items/questions, which actually measure the defined concept/construct/variable). 3. Create the response format (e.g., 5-point scale of agreement). 4. Check the validity and reliability of the measurement scale. 6 3 4/20/2011 Example of operationalization There are 5 dimensions that measure the concept/construct of service quality. 7 Example of operationalization 8 4 4/20/2011 Exercise: The measure of love Work on the measure of love with the person next to you and create 2 dimensions and 3 elements for each dimension. 9 What operationalization is NOT Be careful! Operationalization is NOT just about correlation. Things that are highly correlated do not necessarily end up with a causal relationship. [Validity question: Do you measure what is supposed to be measured?] THINK: motivation vs. performance. Operationalizing a concept DOES NOT necessarily consist of delineating the reasons, antecedents, consequences, or correlates of the concept! 10 5 4/20/2011 Review of operationalization Operationalizations are necessary to measure abstract concepts such as subjective feelings and attitudes. Operationalization is like to create right questions ask to how a concept can be correctly measured by its observable characteristics. 11 International dimensions of operationalization In cross-cultural studies, the researcher needs to be careful about interpreting certain concepts because they have different meanings and connotations in different cultures. 12 6 4/20/2011 A practical application WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE EXAMPLE 1 Willingness-to-Purchase Example Overview Relevancy for research 1. The big picture Following recent trends on sustainability it is important for providers of sport, recreation, tourism and hospitality services to offer environmentally friendly services. Problem statement 2 Relevancy for research 2. Specific issue for service providers While providing environmentally friendly services might be a good idea, service providers have to make money off them; i.e. they need to be able to sell them. 4 Final research interest 3 What drives consumers (their willingness) of sport/tourism services to purchase environmentally friendly services? Willingness to purchase environmentally friendly services 14 7 4/20/2011 Willingness-to-Purchase Example Full Theoretical Framework Willingness-to-Purchase Example Iendependent Identifying Variables Variable Dependent Variable 8 4/20/2011 Willingness-to-Purchase Example Moderator Effect IV IV IV DV IV Household Income Moderating Variable Willingness-to-Purchase Example Moderator Effect IV Importance of Certification Importance of Certification IV High Household Income Low Household Income Willingness to Pay DV Willingness to Pay DV 9 4/20/2011 Willingness-to-Purchase Example Mediator Effect IV IV Mediating Variable DV IV IV Household Income MoV Items = Actual survey questions 1.1 Willingness-to-Purchase Example Variables and Questionnaire Items Constructs/Concept 1. Research interest Measured on 1-7 Likert scales with 1=Strongly Disagree and 7=Strongly Agree I believe that environmental information on services is important 1.2 I generally believe environmental information on services 1.3 I understand the concept of environmental certification 1.4 I understand the concept of environmental certification Environmental Consciousness 1.5 I believe there is much corporations can do to improve the environment I believe there is a need for environmental certification of 2.1 sport/tourism services I believe environmental certification can deliver more sustainable 2.2 services 2.3 I believe environmental certification can help sustain the health of US sport/tourism industry 2. Willingness to purchase environmentally friendly services Importance of Certification 20 Unfortunately, all of these (items, constructs, concepts, research interest are variables). 10
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Temple - TOURISM & - 2112
Temple UniversitySchool of Tourism and Hospitality Management THM 2112 Section 003 Sophomore Research SeminarSEMESTER MEETING TIME LOCATION INSTRUCTOR Spring 2011 Wednesday, 2.00PM 3:50PM 213 Speakman Hall Florian Zach 1810 North 13th Street, Suite 310
Temple - TOURISM & - 2112
THM2112 Sophomore Research Seminar Spring 2011 Florian Zach, PhDUnderstanding literature exercise Part 3 Methodology/Analysis/Results (INDIVIDUAL WORK). (20%). Use template from Blackboard. INSTRUCTIONSRead your article prior to class. Now as you have r
Temple - TOURISM & - 2112
THM2112 Sophomore Research Seminar Spring 2011 Florian Zach, PhDUnderstandingliteratureexercise Part3Methodology/Analysis/Results(INDIVIDUALWORK).(20%). RESPONSEDOCUMENTStudent name: Provide your name here; submit document via Blackboard. Paper title: M
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
Group1Group2Group3Group4Group5Berry,BriannaM Borden,AmyK Bradley,CourtneyM Dees,JeanM Dowdell,KathleenL Ferry,RobertL Craley,JuleneN Dean,MitchelA Im,AndrewY Malinowski,MaryKate Nguyen,thuyT Dixon,KrystinF Gill,LauraD Odeh,BahiahH Olmo,MonicaL Paley,
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 02Nature of ServicesTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+2Unique Characteristics of ServicesSimultaneity (Inseparability): Services are produced and consumed at the same time. Heterogeneity: Potential for high variability. A s
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 03History of TourismTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+2Tourism:Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow ObjectivesTo describe the history of travel from ancient times to the present. To identify the current importance of tourism an
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 03Defining TourismTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+2An Overview of Tourism System Objectives Todefine tourism and identify its components. To identify some important terminology. To explain the reasons for using a systems
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 04Understanding TravelersTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+2Why Do People Take Vacations? Objectives Understand why people travel. Understand the importance of motivation. Understand the hierarchical structure of peoples
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 05Traveler Market SegmentsTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+Purposes of Travel:The Characteristics of Traveler Segments ObjectivesUnderstand the major segments of the travel market based on travel purpose Discuss factors t
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 06Factors shaping TourismTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 10 Forces shaping Tourism ObjectivesTo explain the effects of cultural background, time, socioeconomic background, and personality on travel decisions2+T
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 07Geographic Dimensions of TravelTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 15The Geography of Travel: Characteristics of Travel Flows Objectives Explain2the impact of demand/origin and destination/resource factors on tra
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 09Modes of TravelTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 16 Modes of Travel ChapterObjectivesShow how a knowledge of the criteria people use to select their preferred modes of transportation can be used to influence that
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 10Perception and Image of DestinationsTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 12Understanding the Concept of Destination Image2Objectives Explain the importance of perception on travel decision. Understand the process
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1Lecture 11-12Travel Information Search and Destination ChoiceTHM1311 I ntroduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 12&amp; 13Travel Information Search &amp; Destination Choice2Objectives The nature of travel information search Destination choice T
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 13Economic Impacts of TourismTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 2 Tourism Impacts on the EconomyChapter Objectives1.To understand the concept of economic impact on destination areas and how impacts are measured1.To
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 14-15Socio-cultural &amp; Environmental Impacts of Tourism Sustainable TourismTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 2Tourism Impacts on Society, Culture, and EnvironmentChapter Objectives To understand social and cultural imp
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 16-17Tourism Destination: Main components &amp; Competitive DestinationTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality+ Chapter 1 The Destination MixChapter Objectivess2Explain the interdependencies among the five destination mix elements. Id
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 18Government Tourism Policies and RegulationsTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+Chapters 3 &amp; 4Tourism Policy, Legislation &amp; Regulation Objectives21. To identify the reasons for government involvement and roles of g
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 19Tourism PlanningTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+ Chapter 5Tourism Planning Objectives21. To explain the reasons for tourism planning. 2. To identify the barriers to tourism planning. 3. To describe the tourism
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 20Tourism DevelopmentTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+ Chapter 6Tourism Development Objectives2 The concept and principles of sustainable tourism development. The main forms of tourism development. Government and
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 21-22Tourism MarketingTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+ Chapter 7 Tourism Marketing Objectives 1. Describe differences between the tourism services marketing and traditional product marketing. 2. Explain the concept
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 23Tourism Promotion THM1311Click to edit Master subtitle styleIntroduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+ Tourism PromotionChapter Objectives221. 2.The concept of promotion Promotional methods which are most effective during the
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+1L ectur e 23Over view of t he H ot el and Rest aur ant I ndust r iesTH M 1311 I nt r oduct ion t o Tour ism and H ospit alit y+H ot el I ndust r yH ot el Development and Owner ship Classificat ion2+3H ot el Development and Owner ship F r anc
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 24The Distribution SystemTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management+ Chapter 9. Distribution Mix in Tourism Chapter2Objectives1. Understand the concept of distribution 2. Describe the tourism distribution system 3. Identif
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
+Lecture 26Role of Destination Marketing OrganizationsTHM1311 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management2Role of Destination Marketing Organizations LectureObjectives1. Understand the concept of DMOs 2. Describe the five key functions of D
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311IntroductiontoTourismandHospitalityManagementPRESENTATIONEVALUATIONFORMYour Group Number: _Please put the evaluation ranging from 1 (need more work) to 5 (excellent, interesting, reasonable, etc).1st Presenters Name: Main reason Budgeting One-d
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITYMANAGEMENT GROUPPRESENTATION1 INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEETravel blogs: The characteristics of modern travelersForthispresentationandindividualassignment,youarerequiredtoreadtravelstories postedbyrealtravelersontheblog(
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITYGROUPPRESENTATION2 INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEETrip Planning: Information sources used by travelersImagineyourfamilyisplanningtotakeavacationduringathanksgivingbreak andyourparents areaskingyouforyouropinionregardingwhe
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTROTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITY INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEE GROUPPRESENTATION3Sustainable TourismWewilldiscusstheeconomic,sociocultural,andenvironmentalimpactsoftourismonhost societiesintheclassandtheycanbebothpositiveandnegative.Fromthemanagement perspect
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTROTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITY INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEE GROUPDISCUSSION4SWOT analysis: Key steps in the tourism planning processTourismplanningandtourismdevelopmentcomehandinhand.Planningestablishesthegoals, objectives,andguidelinesaswellasidentifiesth
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITYMANAGEMENT INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEEPRESENTATION5Destination marketing: Key factors of marketing a tourist destinationChooseaparticulardestinationmarketingorganizationintheU.S(e.g.,PhiladelphiaConvention &amp;VisitorsBu
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTROTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITY INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEEStudent name: Assignment title: Your work starts here, delete this sentence and also dont highlight your text.1
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311SECTION1INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITY INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEETELLMEABOUTYOURSELF1. Name:_ 2. PhoneNo.(_)_WorkNo.(_)_ 3. HomeTown:_ 4. PresentStandings:_Freshman_Sophomore_Junior_Senior 5. Whatisyourmajor?6. Whydidyouchoosethiscourse?7. Whata
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITYMANAGEMENT INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEETERMPAPERGUIDELINESTermPaperGuidelines TermPaperDue: December3 Theobjective: tointroduceyoutotheresearchliteratureofthetravel,tourism,andhospitalityindustries tounderstandtheimpo
Temple - TOURISM & - 1311
THM1311INTRODUCTIONTOTOURISMANDHOSPITALITYMANAGEMENT INTRUCTOR:GEUNHEELEETERMPAPERTOPIC1. Name:_2. Title:_3.Introduction Backgroundinformationandexpectedimplications e.g.,Whyisthistopicimportant?Whatarethepurposesand/orobjectivesofyourstudy? Howunders
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
Remember: single-spaced for these. Writers Name: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Reviewers Name:Is there a salutation? Does the letter have an opening, body, and close? Is the direct approach used? How is the tone of the letter? Is there any place where the t
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
Cover Letter Opening - Clearly states reason for writing - Gives recipient reason to keep reading Middle - Strongest selling points - Backs these up with evidence - Doesnt repeat the resume - Demonstrates personal characteristics - Refers reader to resume
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
Week 9 Mon. Oct. 25th Chapter 10 Wed. Oct. 27th Chapter 10 contd Fri. Oct. 29th Bring draft of Assignment #4 Week 10 Mon. Nov. 1st Assignment #4 Due (Persuasive Letter); Chapter 15 Wed. Nov. 3rd Chapter 15 contd Fri. Nov. 5th Chapter 16 Week 11 Mon. Nov.
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
1) What is the main idea of the project?2) Does the introduction: a. Get the audiences attention? How? Does it use one of the following? i. Unite the audience around a common goal. ii. Tell an intriguing story that illustrates an important and relevant p
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
The Importance of Tone In Business WritingWhat Is Tone?&quot;Tone in writing refers to the writers attitude toward the reader and the subject of the message. The overall tone of a written message affects the reader just as ones tone of voice affects the list
Temple - ENGLISH - 2596
Writing for Business and Industry SyllabusEnglish 2596 Sec. 001 Writing for Business and Industry, Fall 10 MWF: 9:00-9:50, Tuttleman Learning Center (TL) 407 Instructor: Michelle Martin Email: mi.martin@temple.edu Office: Anderson 1137 (11th floor, turn
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Brief Overview of the History of Leisure in Western Civilization Part II Brief History of Leisure in America I. Five Major Forces Which Influenced Leisure in America A. Religious Efforts to Control Leisure B. Social Class Distinctions Expressed in Leisure
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Leisure and the Life SpanI. Life Span Approaches A. Core Plus Balance 1. There is a persistent core and a balancing variety in our pastimes across the life span. 2. The persistent core of leisure interests represents continuity in leisure. (ex. watching
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
L eisureandReligion ExcerptsfromLeisureinYourLifebyGeoffreyGodbey
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Personal Participation in Leisure (Godbey, Geoffrey. Leisure in Your Life Chapter 4: Getting Involved from Killing Time to Central Life Purpose) I. Constraints to Leisure A. Structural Constraints situational barriers, the circumstances in which one finds
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Additional Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Leisure I. Aging Population II. Immigrants A. Types of Minorities 1. Autonomous 2. Involuntary 3. Voluntary B. Stages of Culture Shock for Immigrants III. Gay/Lesbian Population IV. At-Risk-Youth V. Socio-Economic C
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Advertising and Leisure I. Introduction A. Average number of advertisements seen per day 3000 B. Approximately \$620 billion spent on all advertising and marketing in the U.S. per year II. Examples of Advertising in Leisure III. Selected Travel Slogans A.
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Basic Concepts of Play, Recreation, Sport, Athletics Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure1. Definitions of Play a. b. Plaga (Latin) Blow, Stroke, or Thrust Plega (Ango-Saxon) Game, Sport, Skirmish, Fight or Battle c. Kraus Definition of Play 2. Definitions
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Brief Overview of the History of Leisure in Western CivilizationI. Ancient Egypt (5,000 BC to 700BC) A. Leisure for Religious Celebrations 1. Sacred Music flute, oboe, harp, drums 2. Sacred Drama religious rituals, puppet plays 3. Sacred Dance religious
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Comparison of Sports and AthleticsSports Play/Work Playful Pleasure Freedom Amateur Model Athlete is primary Passive/sympathetic Cooperative Subjective Victory Facilitators Symbols of what someone achievesAthletics Work-like Prize Restrictions Professio
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Contrasting Beliefs, Values, and Practices* Other Cultures around the World Fate Tradition Human Interaction dominates Hierarchy/rank/status Group welfare Birthright inheritance Cooperation Past orientation Being orientation Formality Indirectness/ritual/
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
21st Century Leisure: Current Issues Second EditionValeria J. Freysinger Miami University of Ohio John R. Kelly University of IllinoisVenture Publishing, Inc. State College, PennsylvaniaChapter 1: 21st Century Leisure 11Debate: Leisure in the 21st cen
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Economic Impact of LeisureI. Selected Economic Impact Statements II. Leisure Spending III. How does leisure help the economy? A. Expenditures and Investments B. Employment C. Taxes D. Property Values IV. How does leisure harm the economy? A. Accidents B.
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Temple University THM 1113 (Section 001) Fall Semester, 2010 Foundation of Leisure 8:00A.M. to 8:50A.M. MWF Alter Hall A031 General Information Instructor: Dr. Ira G. Shapiro Office: 361 Speakman Hall Phone: 215-204-6295 Teaching Assistant: Ms. Lacey Hage
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Leisure and Government Functions of Federal and State Government in Leisure 1. Direct Management of Outdoor Recreation Resources ex. National Parks and and state parks 2. Conservation and Resource Reclamation Department of Interior at the federal level an
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Gambling I. Introduction and History A. Ancient Egyptians B. Native Americans C. Colonial America D. 1931 - Legalized Gambling in Nevada E. 1961 - Wire Act F. 1964 First State Lottery in New Hampshire G. 1970 Illegal Gambling Business Act H. 1971 Legalize
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Having Fun in Leisure Qualities Associated with Leisure1. Freedom a. Positive Freedom Freedom to b. Negative Freedom Freedom from 2. Intrinsic Reward 3. Happiness 4. Pleasure a. cynicism b. skepticism c. stoicism d. epicureanism e. hedonism 5. Play 6. Ga
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Immigrants and Minorities I.A.Types of Minorities Autonomous Minorities small group who differ from the dominant group on the basis of ethnicity, religion, language (typically not immigrants) (ex. Amish, Jews, Mormons) (may suffer some discrimination) I
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Leisure and the Environment EnvironmentFoundations of LeisureThe Geography of Leisure TheOverview The Geographical Significance of Leisure Leisure as Space Leisure as Place Environmental Impact on leisure Types of ParksThe Geography of Leisure TheB
Temple - TOURISM & - 1113
Leisure and EquityI. Types of Constraints to Leisure A. Structural B. Intrapersonal C. Interpersonal II. Key Concepts A. Inclusion the involvement and full acceptance of persons with special needs into a wide range of community settings B. Diversity reco