PSY 230 Appendix B
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PSY 230 Appendix B

Course Number: PSY 230, Spring 2011

College/University: University of Phoenix

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Axia College Material Appendix B History Matrix Directions: Using the matrix, list at least five events or major concepts from each of the three periods in the history of modern personality psychology. 1930 - 1950 1. Personality psychology was in fact born within psychology departments in American universities in the 1930s. 2. First was Gordon Allports (1937) psychology of the individual, in which he wrote a text...

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College Axia Material Appendix B History Matrix Directions: Using the matrix, list at least five events or major concepts from each of the three periods in the history of modern personality psychology. 1930 - 1950 1. Personality psychology was in fact born within psychology departments in American universities in the 1930s. 2. First was Gordon Allports (1937) psychology of the individual, in which he wrote a text on the subject. 3. Then there was Murrays (1938) personological system. 4. In addition there was the trait theories, which offered by Cattell (1947) and Eysenck (1952). 5. Then there were Rogerss (1942) humanistic theory. 6. Thus, Kellys (1955) cognitive theory of personal constructs. 7. Finally yet importantly were Eriksons (1950) psychosocial theory of personality development, and various derivatives of American behaviorism and social learning theory. 8. Furthermore, in the 1930s, American psychology obsessed over the vicissitudes of animal learning, focusing on the relation between external stimuli and publicly observed responses in rats and pigeons, which is a little wellknown fact. 9. What's more, by the 1930s, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler had all developed comprehensive theories of personality derived from clinical observations and rooted in the European psychoanalytic tradition. 1950 - 1970 1. The period from 1950 to 1970 marked a second historical phase. 2. After World War II, psychology departments grew, became more specialized, thus, spawning professional specializations in such personality-related areas as clinical, counseling, and industrial/ organizational psychology. 3. Extraversion by Eysenck (1952) 4. Anxiety by Taylor (1953) 5. The need for achievement by McClelland (1961) 6. Thus, personality psychology away turned from the grand theories of the 1930s and 1940s and came to focus instead on problems and controversies concerning personality measurement. 1970- Present 1. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychologists delivered a series of devastating critiques of personality psychology that threw the field into a crisis. 2. Carlson (1971) chastised personality psychologists for ignoring the grand theories of the early years and straying away from their implicit mandate to study real lives and whole persons in depth. 3. Fiske (1974) wondered whether perhaps personality psychology had gone about as far as it could go, limited as it is by its reliance on imprecise verbal reports from people. 4. Shweder (1975) questioned the need for any form of psychology based on individual differences. 5. Most influential, however, was Mischels (1968, 1973) critique, in which he argued against explanations of human behavior based on internal personality traits and in favor of explanations that focused on the situational and cognitive/social-learning determinants of behavior. 6. The trait versus situation debate preoccupied the field of personality psychology through the 1970s and into the early 1980s. As the trait versus situation, controversy has died down. 7. Trait models for personality have regained their status and influence in psychology as a whole, especially with the emergence of the Big Five factor model for personality traits (McCrae & Costa, 1990; Wiggins, 1996). 8. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in integrative personality theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995; Tomkins, 1987; Westen, 1995) 9. A third phase in the brief history of modern personality psychology, therefore, began around 1970 and continues in the present day.

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