Servant Leadership Resource
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Servant Leadership Resource

Course: BUSINESS 301, Spring 2011

School: Grand Canyon

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Buchanan, L. (2007). In praise of selflessness. Why the best leaders are servants. Inc., 29(5), 3335. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb? did=1266808401&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=48377&RQT=309&VName=PQD 1) Sendjaya, S. & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership and Organizational...

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L. Buchanan, (2007). In praise of selflessness. Why the best leaders are servants. Inc., 29(5), 3335. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb? did=1266808401&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=48377&RQT=309&VName=PQD 1) Sendjaya, S. & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(2): 5764. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb? did=275645021&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=48377&RQT=309&VName=PQD 2) 3) Regent University. Servant leadership research roundtable proceedings. http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml 4) 5) Web Sites: a) Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership. http://www.greenleaf.org/ b) Ken Blanchard Companies. http://www.kenblanchard.com/ 6) 7) Introduction 8) There are many different models of leadership provide the foundation for todays contemporary leaders: Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, authentic leadership, emotional intelligence (EQ)/primal leadership model, self-leadership, ethical leadership, and servant leadership. There is a significant amount of research on all of these contemporary theories of leadership, but in the end, effective leadership is not only about selecting the right model(s) of leadershipit is about how leaders select, internalize, and apply various aspects of these models. Robert Greenleaf first introduced the concept of servant-leadership in 1970. Greenleaf and other leadership experts such as Ken Blanchard, Stephen Covey, Warren Bennis, and Margaret Wheatley have worked in the area of leadership for decades. Although they introduced new and exciting models of leadership, they continuously adapt them to the realities of the times. At the same time, new models continue to emerge, some of which will survive the strains of time. Each model is born out of a worldview of its creator. Often these models present new metaphors for leadership ServantLeadership Servant leadership is a model that has survived the test of time. In fact, is currently increasing in popularity. Research into this model of leadership continues to expand. The ability to create continuous improvement in results, adding significant value to key stakeholders, has been attributed to the use of servant leadership practices. Buchanan (2007) notes that: Ari Weinzweig and Paul Saginaw understand the challenges better than most. The co-founders of Zingerman's Community of Businesses built a $30 million food, restaurant, and training company on servant leadership principles. In the process, theyve wrestled with three paradoxes. First, the harder you must work for others. Second, although you hold formal authority over employees, you must treat them like customers and, when reasonable, do their bidding. When your desires and the needs of your organization conflict, your desires draw the low card. Its a big change from the way were socialized to think about success, says Weinzweig. When youve put so 1 much energy into getting to a leadership position, this is hard. (p. 33) The foundation for servant leadership has developed based on a worldview including religion, philosophy, and research. As a model, the focus is on leaders, their followers, and their stakeholders. This model is based on valuing all stakeholders, while acknowledging the characteristics of an effective servant leader. Philosophically, servant leadership has a strong foundation based on the concept of virtue. Virtue is a qualitative characteristic that is part of ones character, something within a person that is internal, almost spiritual (Whetstone, 2001); a characteristic that exemplifies human excellence (Yu, 1998) (Patterson, 2003, p. 2). According to Patterson, there has been a resurgence of the study of virtue and leadership with a focus on the rights of other people, or stakeholders, and the common good rather than just financial profits. Servant leadership includes seven dimensions related to virtue; these are (a) agapao love, (b) humility, (c) altruism, (d) vision, (e) trust, (f) empowerment, and (g) service. These constructs are virtues and become illuminated within a servant leadership context (Patterson, p. 2). From a religious perspective, servant leadership is associated with Christian teachings. Robert Greenleaf, while working as an executive at AT&T, created the concept of servant leadership as a leadership model and introduced it as a practice in organizations in 1977. Although he applied the principle of servant leadership to organizations, he created this theoretical model after reading a story by Herman Hesse about a spiritual pilgrimage (Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002). From a research perspective, although the theory has been known since 1977, it has gained momentum recently. This new momentum can be attributable in part to the challenges facing corporate leadership today and to the fact that this model has survived the test of time. Over time, various definitions of servant leadership have been created. A current definition proposed by the creator of this theory of leadership is: The servant leader is servant first. Becoming a servant-leader begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions. For such people, it will be a later choice to serveafter leadership is established. The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them are the shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature (Greenleaf, 2002, pp. 24-25) ServantLeadershipTraitsorCharacteristics Greenleaf (1977) identifies servant leaders as those who believe they must put other peoples needs and interests above their own desires and well-being. Therefore, the primary motive of a servant leader is to serve rather than lead. As a result, followers typically grow healthier, wiser, freer, autonomous, and prone to become servants (pp.13-14). Whereas, the leaders viewed themselves as stewards or trustees of an organizations resources and were willing to be responsible and accountable for the resources (Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002). Although Greenleaf (1977) developed the concept of servant leadership, followers such as Larry Spears (President and CEO, Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership) expanded the model by identifying the capacities, competencies, or characteristics of servant leaders that appeared 2 repeatedly (Dittmar, 2006). Characteristics identified by Dittmar were foresight, listening, and persuasion. Spears believed these dimensions were helpful in letting people identify their strengths and weaknesses from a servant leader perspective. Russell and Stone (2002) used servant-leadership capacities or characteristics to create various leadership models for serving people in the practice of leadership. The development of the servant leadership model and the dimensions behind it were in part a reflection of Greenleafs (1977) worldview which was influenced by many different factors, such as his reading of the Journey to the East (Hesse, 1956) and his personal experience as a Quaker. Philosophically, he believed in the Socratic Method as an approach to learning and teaching, the value of answering a question with a question, and an emphasis on listening and reflection as key components (Dittmar, 2006). Spears, when interviewed by Dittmar (2006), acknowledged that servant-leadership, as a practice, does not require any specific religious or philosophical views. Servant-leadership has been associated with Christian beliefs; however, servant-leaders can be atheists or hold a Christian/biblical set of beliefs. The servant-leadership model can be applied to any individual ideology that facilitates the creation of an individuals worldview. Based on his exploration of various worldviews, Wallace (2006) found that five of the worlds religions were compatible with and supported the servant-leadership model. Other researchers (Kriger & Seng, 2005) found that the worldviews of Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam support a contingency model in leadership such as servantleadership. Each of these religions provides a definition of effective leadership through the role models provided and the stories of leadership which convey the messages of leadership. Based on a broad exploration of the Judeo-Christian traditions, Wallace (2006) identified eight value-based components of a worldview: human dignity, personal responsibility, character, community, the use of power, compassion, stewardship, and justice. These components have been reduced to broad topics from an examination of the Old and New Testament teachings related to how individuals are to be treated and the essential values associated with what the Scriptures teach a healthy society should embody. (Wallace, 2006, p. 10) Wallace (2006) believes servant-leadership is about the worldview or personal orientation to the world and towards life that an individual holds. As a leadership model, servant-leadership is not merely a model to select or to discard. Rather, servant-leadership is more an archetype or ego ideal that governs daily interactions; it represents not leadership that merely serves, but servant-leadership. It has more to do with being, than merely doing. In my view, what servantleadership presents is being a servant (Wallace, 2006, p.16). TheNatureofCharacterinServantLeaders The examination of leadership models and worldviews leads to the identification of different value-based components, or virtues, which are consistent with various global religions as well as servant-leadership. These components are supported within various religious documents such as the Bible as well as writings on leadership, including servant- leadership. And according to Lanctot and Irving (2007), there is a relationship between servant-leadership and virtues. Various 3 philosophers from Buddha to Aristotle have defined sets of virtues. At this time, the definition of a virtue is still debated between the various experts. Lanctot and Irving (2007, p. 3) rely on a number of sources to come up with one definition of virtue: A set of related personal attributes or dispositions that (a) is universal and not contextual (Peterson & Seligman, 2004), (b) has moral implications that extend beyond the individual (Ciulla, 2001), (c) has recognition that possessing it without excess is considered good and lacking it is considered harmful (Koehn, 1998), and (d) can be attained through practice (Strang, 2005). Why is this focus on leadership and ethical behavior so important today? Perhaps one reason for the attention to moral and ethical considerations is that servant-leadership demands more in the way of virtuous behaviors than any other style of leadership. Under command-and-control styles of leadership, the minimal virtues required for success are Integrity and Discernment. By contrast, servant-leadership requires demonstration of all, or nearly all, virtues. (Lanctot & Irving, 2007, p. 13) Various servant-leadership theories have identified sets different of virtues that comprise ones character, including Lanctot & Irving, (2007), who based their study on the Old Testament and the New Testament. Lanctot and Irving (2007) report some dimensions such as trust, vision, and service appear in many of these models. These virtues and moral foundations may provide some of the solutions not only to improve leadership, but to improve the success of the organizations being led. More leadership models are emerging with a foundation based on morals and virtues including the current model of authentic leadership (George, 2005). BoardMembersasTrusteesandServantLeaders The roles of Board of Directors or Trustees of the organization are under scrutiny today as some very well known companies fail. Two questions are being asked: What did the Board or Trustees not do that they should have done to ensure the success of the organization? What exactly is the primary role of the board members or trustees of the business? Carver (2007) proposes that the board is a servant-leader to the ownership. Ownership, depending upon the type of organization or business, might be shareholders, political constituencies, or the groups served by nonprofits. Greenleaf (in Trustees as Servant), saw boards and institutions as serving society and making a difference. The models proposed by Carver and Greenleaf are quite different. Serving society implies a much broader and much more altruistic model. Carvers (2007) model identified a board as serving only the shareholder or owner. Greenleafs model of serving society can be argued to be a much broader model. Society can be defined to include all of the stakeholders, including partners, owners, employees, customers/clients, their environment, communities, and even future generations. Greenleaf (1977) states the starting place for a board is with an unequivocal trustee obligation to deliver a new, more serving institution (p. 68). The desire to serve comes from their caring for the institution which means that they care for all the people the institution touches, and that they are 4 determined to make their caring count (Greenleaf, 1977, p. 68). All the people the institution touches are its stakeholders. In this role of trustee, Greenleaf (1977) defined very specific ways in which the board served: They provide an unbiased perspective on the organization and its leadership. They select the top leadership with the capability, integrity, and spirit required for their position. They help discriminate and reward good performance. They establish the structure for the top leadership. They establish trust. Defining the role of any board or group of trustees remains challenging. In addition to considering what their role should be from a leadership perspective, boards also need to consider federal guidelines such as those proposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. ServantLeadershipasaFoundationalGlobalModel Just as leadership models need to support the key roles of leadership such as change management, they also need to be applicable to cultures from around the world. Leaders operate in a global marketplace. Their leadership models need to be effective no matter where they are used. Servant-leadership is a model which has been applied and researched around the world. Ken Blanchard (2007), in his book Leading at a Higher Level, identifies the role models of servant-leadership that can be found in countries around the world. Recent examples of leaders who exemplify this philosophy are Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela. Joel Baldomir (2008) explored the application of servant-leadership as a model for use in first and second generation Chinese American churches in the United States. He found that both of these congregations have the need for a model of leadership based on servant-leadership; this model would meet the needs of both first and second generation congregations (Baldomir). He sees servant-leadership as a model which has the potential to help first generation Chinese better assimilate into the American culture, and to help both generations preserve their Chinese culture. The question as to whether first and second generation Chinese American churches can grow while still holding on to their cultural and generational identities, lies in the church leaders abilities to effectively exercise a unifying servant-leadership approach (Baldomir, p. 4). In another study on servant-leadership Koshal (2005) examined the servant-leadership construct in Kenya. They researched the practice of servant-leadership in leaders and managers across various organizations in Kenya. They found the model was used by leaders in Kenya. It emerged that (a) role modeling, (b) sacrificing for others, (c) meeting the needs of others (employees) and developing them, (d) service as a primary function of leadership, (e) recognizing and rewarding employees, (f) treating employees with respect (humility), and (g) involving others in decision making were prevalent themes reminiscent to Pattersons construct of service. These characteristics help leaders to serve their employees. Thus, for the most part, this study found that Pattersons construct of service has understandability and applicability among Kenyan leaders and managers of varied 5 organizational settings, namely government, business corporations, NGOs, and academic institutions (Koshal, 2005, p. 16). Although servant-leadership is a model which has been around for over 30 years, the research into its effectiveness as a global model has just begun in the past 5 years. A call for more research is needed focusing on this models application in different cultures and different countries. Servant-Leadership in organizations There are a number of very successful organizations today that follow a form of servantleadership (Anderson, 2008). These organizations include Hallmark Cards, Inc., Wegmans Grocery Stores, Rotary International, Chick-Fil-A, On-Target Supply and Logistics, and Southwest Airlines. John C. Bogel (2007), founder and previous CEO of the Vanguard Group, attributes the success of that organization to the principles of servant-leadership which he and the organization lived on a daily basis. Using the conventional measuring sticks, Vanguard, a firm that did not even exist 25 years ago, has emerging as the industry leader. We have by far the fastest growth rate of any major firm, and as a result have become one of the two largest fund organizations in the world (p. 169). Conclusion Servant leaders would need to do the right things for the right reasons. For some, this requires doing things that God would want (Anderson, 2008). Considering the different types of organizations such as business (Ruschman, 2007), military (Earnhardt, 2008), education (Drury, 2005), and churches (Baldomir, 2008), each has the ability to contribute to the common good in different ways. References Anderson, J. (2008). The writings of Robert K. Greenleaf: An interpretive analysis and the future of servant-leadership. Proceedings of the Servant-Leadership Research Roundtable. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml Baldomir, J. (2008). Servant leadership as a model for unifying first and second generation Chinese American churches. Paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, School of Leadership. http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml Blanchard, K. (2007). Leading at a higher level. Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall. Bogel, J. C., (2007). On the right side of leadership. In K. Blanchard (Ed.), Leading at a higher level (pp. 166-188). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Buchanan, L. (2007). In praise of selflessness: Why the best leaders are servants. Inc., 29(5), 33-35. 6 Carver, H. (2002). The unique double servant-leadership role of the board chair. In L. C. Spears & M. Lawrence (Eds.), Focus on leadership: Servant leadership for the 21st century (pp. 187-209). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dittmar, J. K. (2006, Fall). An interview with Larry Spears: President & CEO for the Greenleaf Center for Servant Leaders. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NXD/is_1_13/ai_n24993408 Drury, S. (2005). Teacher as servant leader: A faculty model for effectiveness with students. Proceedings of the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Retrieved August 19, 2008, from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml Earnhardt, M. P. (2008). Testing a servant leadership theory among United States military members. Proceedings of the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Retrieved August 19, 2008, from http:// www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml George, B. (2005). Authentic leaders. Leadership Excellence, 22(10), 3-4. Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership. New York: Paulist Press. Greenleaf, R. (1991). The servant as leader. Westfield, IN: The Robert K. Greenleaf Center. Greenleaf, R. K. (2002). Essentials of servant leadership. In L. C. Spears, M. Lawrence, & K. Blanchard (Eds.), Focus on leadership: Servant-leadership for the 21st century (pp. 19-26), New York: Wiley & Sons. Hesse, H. (1956). The journey to the east. New York: St. Martin Press. Koshal, J.O. (2005). Servant leadership theory: Application of the construct of service in the context of Kenyan leaders and managers. Paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, School of Leadership. http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml Kriger, M., & Seng, Y. (2005). Leadership with inner meaning: A contingency theory of leadership based on the worldview of five religions. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 771-806. Lanctot, J. D., & Irving, J. A. (2007). Character and leadership: Situating servant leadership in a proposed virtues framework. Paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, School of Leadership Studies. Patterson, K. (2003,August). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. Paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, School of Leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/home.shtml Ruschman, N. L. (2007). Servant-leadership and the best companies to work for in America. In K. Blanchard (Ed.), Leading at a higher level (pp 122-139). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Russell, R.F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. The Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157. 7 Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(2), 57-64. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Pub.L. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745 (2002). Wallace, J. R. (2006). Servant leadership: A worldview perspective. Paper presented at the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, School of Leadership Studies. Wheatley, M. M., & Kellner-Rogers, M. (1999). A simpler way. San-Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. 8

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Developmental Psychology - 07Sensations, Perception, & Perception-Action Development Sensations Smell Taste Sight Vision Touch Sensation versus Perception Gestalt Principles Forced Preferential Looking Method Fantz box Moderate Complexity Novelty prefere
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Developmental Psychology - 06Socio-Cultural Theories of Development Milestones? Lev Vygotsky Intersubjectivity Joint Attention Social Referencing Cultural Tools Scaffolding Scaffolding vs. Modeling Zone of Proximal Development Guided Participation / Inte
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Developmental Psychology - 05Information Processing Models of Development Metaphor for Development Robert Sieglers Personal Experience Mechanistic vs. Organismic Model Metaphor of Computer Experience and Mechanism Describing Development (Milestones) Univ
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Developmental Psychology - 04Piagets Stages of Development Sensorimotor Stage Scheme Sub-stages Preoperational Stage Symbolic Representation Magical Thinking / Animism Egocentrism Conversation Three Mountains Task Centration Class Inclusion Task Concrete
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Developmental Psychology - 03Piagets Theory of Childrens Development Influences on Piaget Biology and Psychology Influence Sparrow Simon & Binet Intelligence Testing Intelligence as biological concept Philosophy Immanuel Kant Genetic Epistemology Space,
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Developmental Psychology - 02Ideas Behind a Science of Development Process of Science versus Process of Politics Epistemology Positivism / Modernism Reductionism vs. Holism Correspondence Model of Truth vs. Shared Meaning of Truth Falsifiability Confirma
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Developmental Psychology - 01Big Questions about Developmental Psychology What is development? (Theory) How to study development? (Method) What develops? (Milestones) How do we develop? (Mechanisms) Nature versus nurture? Individual Differences? Quantita
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J Youth Adolescence (2011) 40:463478 DOI 10.1007/s10964-010-9567-9EMPIRICAL RESEARCHA Longitudinal Examination of the Bidirectional Associations Among Perceived Parenting Behaviors, Adolescent Disclosure and Problem Behavior Across the High School Years
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What is Intelligence?Twenty-ve established researchers of intelligence published the following full-page d eclaration in the Wall Street Journal (Dec. 13, 1994):History of IntelligenceIntelligence rst measured by pressure-causing-pain device (Cattell,
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The First Developmental Model of Temperament
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Susan Harters (1999) Prototypical Self Descriptions Three- to Four-Year-Old (p. 37) Im three years old and I live in a big house with my mother and father and my brother Jason, and my sister, Lisa. I have blue eyes and a kitty that is orange and a televis
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Vignettes from the study of Moral DevelopmentPiaget (1932, p. 122) Moral Judgment of the Child A. There was a little boy who was called Julian. His father had gone out and Julian thought it would be fun to play with his fathers ink-pot. First he played w
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Page 1 of 7In a Different Voice (Excerpts from Intro, Ch 1, & Ch 2) Carol Gilligan (1982) Over the past ten years, I have been listening to people talking about morality and about themselves. Halfway through that time, I began to hear a distinction in th
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Diana Baumrinds (1966) Prototypical Descriptions of 3 Parenting Styles First Paper where prototypes are published: Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior, Child Development, 37(4), 887-907. Second Paper, and most
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Attachment TheoryBowlbys Attachment Theory described how children go from a physical form of attachment to an adult-like abstract kind of attachment. Preattachment (birth to 6 weeks): innate signals like crying are reassured Attachment-in-the-Making (6 w
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Causes of EmotionOne day Anne goes to the circus with her favorite baby doll. When Anne is talking to Bozo the clown, Bozo accidentally steps on the doll and breaks it. Anne feels sad. Well many days later Anne is at her friend, Jane's, birthday party. I
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Brain & Connectionist ModelsConnectionist Models
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Conflicting Examples of Nave Psychology in ClichOther terms like Folk Psychology, Folk Wisdom, or Theory of Mind might be u sed in stead of Nave Psy chology depend ing on the research area and the precise mean ing a research er would like to conv ey. Not
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Robert Sieglers Task Analysis of the Balance Beam Task
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Piagets Preoperational Stage of DevelopmentMagical Thinking - Intellectual Realism in Understanding Dreams Metr (5;9) Where does the dream come from? I think you sleep so well that you dream. What do we dream with? With nothing. When you are in bed and y
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Preparing for an Exam in a Class with Dr. Kevin Grobman College is about pushing yourself to learn as much as possible - thinking as deeply as you can and questioning everything. As college students, you are certainly capable of learning from books. To me
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PSYCHOLOGY 4031 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SYLLABUS Spring, 2011 Professor: Dr. Paula Geiselman Meeting Time/Place: 9:00-10:30 a.m. Tuesday & Thursday; 132 Prescott Hall Office Hours: BY APPOINTMENT on Thursdays, 10:30-11:30 a.m. Office hours can also be ar
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Psychology 4031 Sensation and Perception Dr. Paula J. Geiselman Spring, 2011 Readings for Test 1Chapter 1: Introduction, pp 1-14. Chapter 2: Research Methods, pp 15-42. Chapter 3: The Visual System, pp 43-81. Not responsible for Dark Adaptation Differenc
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PARTICIPANT (STUDENT) DOCUMENTATION IntroductionThe Experiment Management System provides an easy method for you to sign up for studies, and track your progress throughout the term. Everything is done through the softwares webbased interface, so you can
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PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENT PARTICIPATION To create a new account in the experiment system: You will need to set up in account in the experiment system if you already do not have an account from a previous semester. Go to http:/lsuhumanresearch.sona-systems.com
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PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENT PARTICIPATION To access your existing account in the experiment system: If you already have an account from a previous semester, you simply need to log in to the experiment system and select the course, or courses, you are taking for