TB_ch12 revised
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TB_ch12 revised

Course Number: MGT 3013, Fall 2010

College/University: The University of Oklahoma

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Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace Test Item Table by Major Question and Level of Learning Level of Learning Major Question Level 1: Knowledge (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) 6,7, 60 Level 2: Comprehension (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1,2,3,4,5, 62, 126 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 61 12.1 Whats the motivation for studying motivation? 12.2...

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12 Chapter Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace Test Item Table by Major Question and Level of Learning Level of Learning Major Question Level 1: Knowledge (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) 6,7, 60 Level 2: Comprehension (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1,2,3,4,5, 62, 126 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 61 12.1 Whats the motivation for studying motivation? 12.2 What kinds of needs motivate employees? 8,9,12,15,20,21,22,23, 24,25, 63,65,69,70,74,75,76,77, 78 10,11,14,16,17,18,19, 67,68,73,79,80, 127 13, 64,66,71,72, 128,129 12.3 Is a good reward good enough? How do other factors affect motivation? 26,27,28,29,30,33,34, 81,82,83,85,86,87,88 31,36,37,38, 84,90,91,93,94, 130 32,35, 89,92, 131 12.4 Whats the best way to design jobs adapt people to work or work to people? 39,40,42,46,47,48, 95,96,100,101,102,103, 104,107 41,43,44,45, 97,98,99,106, 133 105, 132 12.5 What are the types of incentives I might use to influence employee behavior? 49,50,51,52,53, 108,110,112,114,115 54, 117,118 109,111,113,116, 134 12.6 How can I use compensation and other rewards to motivate people? 55,56,57,58,59, 119 120,121,122,123,124,125 135 Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions; italicized numbers indicate T/F questions. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 101 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace True/False Questions 1. Managers need to think about employees as investors. Register to View AnswerPage: 369 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: In managing for motivation, managers need to be thinking about employees not as human capital or capital assets, but as people who are investors; they are investing their time, energy, and intelligence in your organization. 2. Motivation can be directly observed in another's behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 370 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Motivation is difficult to understand because you cant actually see it or know it in another person; it must be inferred from ones behavior. 3. People have certain needs that motivate them to perform specific behaviors for which they receive rewards that feed back and satisfy their original needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 370 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: This is the model of how motivation works. 4. Motivation must be goal directed and inferred from one's behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 370 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Motivation may be defined as the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. Motivation is difficult to understand because you cant actually see it or know it in another person; it must be inferred from ones behavior. 5. Extrinsic rewards include feelings of accomplishment that one gets from performing the task. Register to View AnswerPage: 371 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Extrinsic rewards are the payoffs, such as money, a person receives from others for performing a particular task. 6. Intrinsic rewards include the satisfaction in performing the task itself. Register to View AnswerPage: 371 LO: 1 Difficulty: Easy 7. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge The four perspectives on motivation are content, process, job design, and reinforcement. Register to View AnswerPage: 371 LO: 1 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 102 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 8. Herzberg's two-factor theory is a need-based perspective on motivation. Register to View AnswerPage: 372 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy 9. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Content perspectives are theories emphasizing the wants that motivate people. Register to View AnswerPage: 372 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 10. According to Maslow, a person who is deprived in both safety and esteem will satisfy her esteem needs first. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Once you have achieved security, you will then seek to fulfill the next basic need, belongingness or love, and then esteem. 11. According to Maslow's theory, recognition and reputation are esteem needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: After they meet their social needs, people focus on such matters as selfrespect, status, reputation, recognition, and self-confidence, all of which are esteem needs. 12. According to Maslows theory, safety needs are the first level in the hierarchy of needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 13. An organization can offer interaction with others, participation in workgroup, and good relationships with supervisors in order to satisfy an employees needs of belongingness. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: For managers, the importance of Maslows contribution is that he showed that workers have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck. To the extent the organization permits, managers should first try to meet employees level 1 and 2 needs, and then give employees a chance to fulfill their higher-level needs such as belongingness in ways that also advance the goals of the organization. 14. Research does not clearly support Maslow's theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Research does not clearly support Maslows theory, although it remains popular among managers. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 103 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 15. ERG Theory is a content perspective motivation theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 372 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy 16. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge The difference between ERG theory and Maslows theory is that ERG theory is concerned with wants and Maslows theory looks at needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Unlike Maslows theory, ERG theory suggests that behavior is motivated by three needs, not five, and that more than one need may be activated at a time rather than activated in a stair-step hierarchy. 17. Existence, relatedness and growth needs are part of Maslows theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: ERG (existence, relatedness, and growth) are part of a theory developed by Alderfer. 18. According to McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory, people are born with their needs for power, achievement, and affiliation. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: McClelland believes that we are not born with our needs; rather we learn them from the culturefrom our life experiences. 19. The desire to influence others' behavior is part of the need for power. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: The need for power is the desire to be responsible for other people, to influence their behavior or to control them. 20. The need for personal power is positive and involves manipulating people for one's own gratification. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 21. If you tend to seek social approval and satisfying personal relationships, you may have a need for affiliation. Register to View AnswerPage: 376 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 104 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 22. In Herzbergs theory, the hygiene factors are the lower-level needs, the motivating factors are the higher-level needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 377 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy 23. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, the physical working conditions under which an employee works does not act as a strong motivator. Register to View AnswerPage: 377 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 24. Hygiene factors are factors associated with job satisfaction. Register to View AnswerPage: 377-378 LO: 2 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 25. Motivating factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility. Register to View AnswerPage: 377 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 26. Equity theory is a content perspective on motivation. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 27. Process theories are concerned with the thought process by which people decide how to act. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 28. Equity Theory focuses on how fairly we think we are being treated compared to others. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 29. Inputs, outputs, and comparisons are the essential elements in expectancy theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 30. Employee perceptions matter most from an equity theory perspective. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 105 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 31. Employees who feel they are underrewarded will respond to the perceived inequity in one or more negative ways. Register to View AnswerPage: 380 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Employees who feel they are being underrewarded will respond to the perceived inequity in one or more negative ways, as by reducing their inputs, trying to change the outputs or rewards they receive, distorting the inequity, changing the object of comparison, or leaving the situation. 32. An employee who receives a raise will be more likely to support organizational change. Register to View AnswerPage: 380 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Employees who think they are treated fairly (such as by receiving a raise) are more likely to support organizational change. 33. Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it. Register to View AnswerPage: 381 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy 34. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge In Expectancy Theory, a person's instrumentality is their belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance. Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 35. Roberto has decided that upon graduation from college, he will accept the job offer that pays the most money. To Roberto, money has high expectancy. Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Instrumentality is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired. In Robertos case he expects that if he performs well he will get the most money at the job he accepts. 36. For a person's motivation to be high, the person must be high on all three elements instrumentality, expectancy, and valence. Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: If any element is low, you will not be motivated. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 106 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 37. To be most motivating, goals should be set to be specific and challenging, just out of the reach of workers, so that they have to stretch to reach them. Register to View AnswerPage: 384 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Goals should be challenging but achievable. 38. Target dates are not necessary when using goal-setting theory to motivate employees. Register to View AnswerPage: 384 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Goals should be SMARTSpecific, Measurable, Attainable, Resultsoriented, and have Target dates. 39. Job simplification increases the variety of tasks and motivation to perform them. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy 40. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Job design involves the division of an organizations work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 41. The traditional way to design jobs is to fit people to jobs; the modern way is to fit jobs to people. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: There are two different approaches to job design, one traditional, one modern that can be taken in deciding how to design jobs. The traditional way is fitting people to jobs; the modern way is fitting jobs to people. 42. Job enlargement consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 43. According to Job Characteristics Theory, workers will be more motivated and perform better when they experience their work as meaningful, feel responsible for results, and know how well they are doing. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 Figure 12.8 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: The job characteristics model suggests that three critical psychological states (meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work outcomes, knowledge of Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 107 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace actual results of the work) of an employee affect work outcomesthe employees motivation, performance, and satisfaction. 44. Skill variety, task identity, and task significance are examples of psychological states. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: The job characteristics model suggests that three critical psychological states (meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work outcomes, knowledge of actual results of the work) of an employee affect work outcomesthe employees motivation, performance, and satisfaction. 45. According to the Job Characteristics Model, job characteristics affect the psychological state of the employee, which then affects the work outcomes. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: The job characteristics model suggests job characteristics affect three critical psychological states (meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work outcomes, knowledge of actual results of the work) of an employee affect work outcomesthe employees motivation, performance, and satisfaction. 46. Task Identity (part of the job characteristics model) refers to the number of different skills a job requires. Register to View AnswerPage: 387 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy 47. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Task significance describes the extent to which a job affects the lives of other people, whether inside or outside the organization. Register to View AnswerPage: 387 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 48. As part of the job characteristics mode, contingency factors refer to the degree to which a person wants personal and psychological development. Register to View AnswerPage: 388 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 49. Reinforcement theory suggests behavior will be repeated if it has positive consequences and wont be if it has negative consequences. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 50. The use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior is called behavior modification. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 108 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 51. .Behavior modification is the application of reinforcement theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy 52. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Reinforcement is anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 53. Punishment is the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. Register to View AnswerPage: 390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 54. A manager should reward only desirable behavior, as soon as possible after it appears. Register to View AnswerPage: 391 LO: 5 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: You should give rewards to your employees only when they show desirable behavior. Thus, for example, you should give praise to employees not for showing up for work on time but for showing up early. 55. Employee engagement is a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organization, which influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort in his or her work. Register to View AnswerPage: 392 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 56. Pay for performance compensation plans base employee pay on the number of job-relevant skills or academic degrees they earn. Register to View AnswerPage: 393 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 57. Pay for knowledge ties employee pay to how long they have worked for the employer. Register to View AnswerPage: 394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 58. Gainsharing is the distribution to employees of a percentage of the companys profits. Register to View AnswerPage: 394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 59. Being nice is one way to motivate employees. Register to View AnswerPage: 396 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 109 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace Multiple Choice Questions 60. A simple model of motivation includes which of the following? A) unfulfilled need B) motivation C) behaviors D) rewards E) A simple model of motivation includes all of the above. Register to View Answer61. Page: 370 LO: 1 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Bethany is writing a paper for her management class. She already has a strong 'A' in the class, and only needs to get a C on the paper to keep her A. As she prepares the final version of the paper, she takes special care that the paper is well-written, insightful, and error-free, something that she can be proud of. Bethany is experiencing A) an intrinsic reward. B) high equity. C) a belongingness need. D) a hygiene factor. E) a high need for affiliation. Register to View AnswerPage: 371 LO: 1 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: An intrinsic reward is the satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment, a person received from performing the particular task itself (writing the paper). 62. Which of the following is a need-based perspective on motivation? A) Alderfers ERG theory B) Expectancy Theory C) Job Characteristics Model D) Goal-setting Theory E) Equity theory Register to View AnswerPage: 372 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: In addition to McGregors Theory X/TheoryY, content perspectives include four theories: Maslows hierarchy of needs, Alderfers ERG Theory, McClellands acquired needs theory, and Herzbergs two-factor theory. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 110 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 63. Maslow's levels of needs, in order from basic to highest level, are A) self-actualization, esteem, love, safety, and physiological. B) self-actualization, love, esteem, safety, and physiological. C) physiological, safety, esteem, love, and self-actualization. D) physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. E) safety, physiological, love, esteem, and self-actualization. Register to View Answer64. Page: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge The need that is met by providing autonomy and control to employees over how they do their jobs is A) self-actualization. B) esteem. C) love. D) safety. E) physiological. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: The highest level of need, self-actualization is self-fulfillmentthe need to develop ones fullest potential, to become the best one is capable of being. By providing autonomy and control to employees over how they do their jobs, they are provided a chance to experience self-actualization. 65. The need for status, reputation, and recognition are part of A) self-actualization. B) esteem. C) love. D) safety. E) physiological. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 111 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 66. A manager wants to improve how her employees' belongingness or love needs are met. To do so, she could A) give public recognition for good job performance. B) hire a guard for the parking lot. C) send employees to a training class. D) redesign individual jobs into teams. E) allow employees flextime. Register to View AnswerPage: 373 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Once basic needs and security are taken care of, people look for love, friendship, and affection. By redesigning individual jobs into teams the manager provides opportunities to develop the belongingness or love needs. 67. For managers, the importance of Maslows contribution is that he showed that workers A) are only interested in earning a paycheck. B) expect an employer to fulfill every level of their hierarchy of needs. C) have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck. D) are as complex as their organization. E) have needs that cannot be fulfilled by their employer. Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: For managers, the importance of Maslows contribution is that he showed that workers have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck. 68. __________ assumes that three basic needs influence behavior. A) Maslows theory B) Expectancy theory C) Alderfers ERG theory D) Hertzbergs theory E) Equity theory Register to View AnswerPage: 374 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: ERG theory assumes that three basic needs influence behaviorexistence, relatedness, and growth, represented by the letters E, R, and G. 69. According to McClelland's theory, a well-balanced person should have A) needs for achievement, power, and affiliation that are about the same. B) higher need for power than for achievement and affiliation. C) higher need for affiliation than for power and achievement. D) higher need for achievement than for power and affiliation. E) higher needs for achievement and power than for affiliation. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 112 Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 70. The desire to excel is part of the need for A) affiliation. B) power. C) achievement. D) self-actualization. E) belongingness. Register to View Answer71. Page: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Mark prefers working alone, is comfortable taking moderate risks, and feels good when excelling at his goals. Mark probably has a A) high need for achievement. B) high need for affiliation. C) high need for power. D) low need for achievement. E) high need for leadership. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: The desire to excel, to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, and to achieve excellence in challenging task refers to the need for achievement. 72. Janet prefers work that involves talking to many people and being very social. Janet probably has a A) low need for affiliation. B) low need for power. C) low need for achievement. D) high need for affiliation. E) high need for achievement. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: The need for affiliation refers to the desire for friendly and warm relations with other people. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 113 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 73. McClelland's need for achievement corresponds most closely to A) Herzberg's hygiene factors. B) Maslow's esteem needs. C) Maslow's self-actualization needs. D) extrinsic rewards. E) Alderfers relatedness needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 375 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: McClellands need for achievement refers to the desire to excel, to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, to achieve excellence in challenging tasks. Maslows self-actualization needs refer to the need for selffulfillmentthe need to develop ones fullest potential, to become the best one is capable of being. 74. According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a motivating factor? A) the work itself B) working conditions C) company policy D) supervisors E) security Register to View Answer75. Page: 377;Figure 12.4 AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor? A) the work itself B) supervisors C) recognition D) responsibility E) advancement and growth Register to View AnswerPage: 377;Figure 12.4 AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy 76. According to Herzberg, __________ make people _________, and _________ make people __________. A) motivators; satisfied; hygiene factors; dissatisfied B) hygiene factors; satisfied; motivators; dissatisfied C) hygiene factors; satisfied; motivators; satisfied D) motivators; dissatisfied; hygiene factors; dissatisfied E) Both motivators and hygiene factors may make people either satisfied or dissatisfied. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 114 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace Register to View Answer77. Page: 377 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Which theory has no classification for lower-level needs? A) McCellands Acquired Needs Theory B) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs C) Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory D) All of these theories have a classification for lower-level needs. Register to View AnswerPage: 378 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension 78. Which of the following is a higher-level need based on the four content theory perspectives? A) self-actualization B) physiological C) safety D) existence E) hygiene Register to View AnswerPage: 378 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension 79. Hygiene factors are connected with the job's ________, while motivating factors are connected to the job's _________. A) context; content B) context; supervision C) supervision; content D) working conditions; supervision E) content; context Register to View AnswerPage: 378 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Hygiene factors affect the job context in which people work while motivators affect the job content or the rewards of work performance. 80. According to Herzberg's theory, the first thing managers should do is to A) provide opportunities for achievement. B) publicly recognize good performance. C) make sure pay levels and company policies are reasonable. D) create opportunities for personal growth. E) increase employees' responsibility. Register to View AnswerPage: 378 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: First managers should eliminate dissatisfaction, making sure that working conditions, pay levels, and company policies are reasonable. Kinicki/Williams, Management: Practical A Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 115 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 81. Which of the following is a process perspective on motivation? A) Two-factor theory B) ERG theory C) Goal-setting theory D) Acquired needs theory E) Hierarchy of needs theory Register to View Answer82. Page: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act are called A) needs-based perspectives. B) reinforcement perspectives. C) process perspectives. D) job design perspectives. E) compensation perspectives. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 83. The theory that focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated by the organization is A) Expectancy theory. B) Equity theory. C) Reinforcement theory. D) Goal-setting theory. E) Acquired needs theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 84. In equity theory, employees are motivated to A) work harder all the time. B) resolve feelings of injustice. C) believe they arent working hard enough. D) quit their jobs when they miss a days work. E) work hard enough to get what they want. Register to View AnswerPage: 379 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Employees are motivated to resolve feelings of injustice. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 116 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 85. When workers perceive they are being treated fairly on the job, they are most likely to A) support organizational change. B) feel less committed to the organization. C) be absent more often. D) quit their jobs. E) steal supplies and equipment. Register to View Answer86. Page: 380 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Jerry, a worker, goes to Hilary, his boss, and complains that even though he's the best performer in the work unit, he is being paid the least. Hilary should A) tell Jerry That's just the way it is. B) suggest that Jerry quit. C) expect that Jerry's performance will decline. D) start documenting Jerry's complaints for future disciplinary action. E) expect that Jerrys performance will improve. Register to View AnswerPage: 381 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application 87. The theory that suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it is called A) goal-setting theory. B) expectancy theory. C) reinforcement theory. D) equity theory. E) two-factor theory. Register to View AnswerPage: 381 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 88. __________ is the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance. A) Expectancy B) Instrumentality C) Valence D) Reinforcement E) Self-esteem Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 117 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 89. Last year, Dianas boss promised her a big bonus if she met her goals. At the end of the year, after Diana had exceeded her goals, she found her bonus was very small. In the future, Dianas __________ will probably be __________. A) valence; low B) instrumentality; low C) expectancy; low D) expectancy; high E) instrumentality; high Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Instrumentality is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired. It is likely based on her recent experience that Diana will have a low level of instrumentality. 90. What outcome will I receive if I perform at this level? This question is asked for the ________ element of expectancy theory. A) valence B) expectancy C) instrumentality D) outcomes E) performance Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Instrumentality is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired. 91. How much do I want the outcome? This question is asked for the ________ element of the expectancy theory. A) valence B) expectancy C) instrumentality D) outcomes E) performance Register to View AnswerPage: 382 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Valence is value, the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 118 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 92. Which of the following is the best statement of a goal? A) Do your best. B) Increase sales by ten percent by the end of this month. C) Reduce customer response time. D) Be late to work less often. E) Complete some reports by 9/1. Register to View AnswerPage: 384 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Goals should be SMARTspecific, measurable, attainable, resultsoriented, and have target dates. Choice B is the only choice that has these characteristics. 93. When using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should A) set stretch targets that are just out of employees' reach. B) help workers understand and accept the goals. C) set general goals that are visually attractive. D) hold employees responsible for getting their own feedback. E) set goals that are easily achievable. Register to View AnswerPage: 384 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: It is natural for people to set and strive for goals; however, the goal-setting process is useful only if people understand and accept the goals. 94. Which of the following is necessary in goal setting? A) allowing employees to set vague goals B) setting target dates for goals C) setting easily attainable goals D) setting stretch goals just outside of the employees reach E) random reinforcement Register to View AnswerPage: 384 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Goals should be SMARTspecific, measurable, attainable, resultsoriented, and have target dates. 95. Increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation is called A) job enlargement. B) job design. C) job simplification. D) job rotation. E) job enrichment. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 119 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 96. The process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs is called A) job enlargement. B) job design. C) job simplification. D) job rotation. E) job enrichment. Register to View Answer97. Page: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Simplified jobs lead to A) job dissatisfaction. B) better mental health. C) a sense of accomplishment. D) a sense of personal growth. E) decreased worker productivity. Register to View AnswerPage: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Research shows that simplified, repetitive jobs lead to job dissatisfaction, poor mental health, and a low sense of accomplishment and personal growth. 98. Job _________ is the opposite of job ___________. A) simplification; enrichment B) simplification; enlargement C) rotation; enrichment D) rotation; enlargement E) loading; enrichment Register to View AnswerPage: 385 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Job simplification is the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs, while job enlargement consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation. 99. Research suggests that job enlargement affects job performance in which way? A) Job enlargement has a strong positive effect on job performance B) Job enlargement has a strong negative effect on job performance C) Job enlargement has a weak positive effect on job performance D) Job enlargement has a weak negative effect on job performance E) Job enlargement does not have a significant, lasting effect on job performance Register to View AnswerPage: 385-386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Research suggests job enlargement by itself wont have a significant and lasting positive effect on job performance. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 120 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 100. The process of building into a job such motivating factors as recognition and achievement is called A) MBO. B) job design. C) job enrichment. D) job enlargement. E) horizontal loading. Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 101. Of the following which is a core job characteristic? A) skill specificity B) task identity C) task uniformity D) teamwork E) task variety Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 102. According to the job characteristics model, skill variety, task identity, and task significance combine to affect A) knowledge of results. B) meaningfulness of work. C) responsibility for results. D) autonomy. E) feedback. Register to View AnswerPage: 386;Figure 12.8 LO: 4 AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium 103. Which of the following is a contingency factor in the job characteristics model? A) desire for personal growth B) task identity C) experienced responsibility for work outcomes D) high work motivation E) feedback Register to View AnswerPage: 386 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 121 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 104. The extent to which a job requires the worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete a job from beginning to end is called A) horizontal loading. B) vertical loading. C) task identity. D) task significance. E) autonomy. Register to View AnswerPage: 387 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 105. Giorgio, a manager, redesigns the work of his subordinates, such that each person completes one part of the total work process, repeating this part throughout the day. Previously, each person completed several steps of the process. Giorgio has A) increased task identity. B) decreased task identity. C) increased task significance. D) decreased task significance. E) decreased autonomy. Register to View AnswerPage: 387 LO: 4 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Task identity describes the extent to which a job requires a worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete the job from beginning to end. 106. The motivating potential score is calculated as part of using ___________. A) reinforcement theory B) McClelland's acquired needs theory C) the job characteristics model D) goal-setting theory E) equity theory Register to View AnswerPage: 388 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: A diagnostic survey is used to indicate whether an individuals so-called motivating potential score (MPS)the amount of internal work motivation associated with a specific jobis high or low in the job characteristics model. 107. The amount of internal work motivation associated with a specific job is called A) verticality. B) Hobbs characteristic score. C) job enrichment. D) motivating potential score. E) job diagnostic score. Register to View AnswerPage: 388 LO: 4 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 122 Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 108. The theory that attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated while behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated, is called A) equity theory. B) expectancy theory. C) reinforcement theory. D) acquired needs theory. E) Maslow's hierarchy. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 109. As a result of a successful project you led, your manager offers you a promotion; she is using A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) valence. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Positive reinforcement is the use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior. 110. The use of desirable consequences to encourage desirable behavior is called A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) valence. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 111. When a manager stops nagging a subordinate, the manager is using A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) punishment. D) intrinsic motivation. E) extrinsic motivation. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Negative reinforcement is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 123 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 112. The removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior is called A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 389 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 113. When a manager says to a worker, I'm docking your pay, the manager is using A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Punishment is the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior. 114. The withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for a particular behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future, is called A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 115. The application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior is called A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 124 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 116. When a manager stops giving a worker a positive reward as she had previously been doing, the manager is engaged in A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. C) extinction. D) intrinsic motivation. E) punishment. Register to View AnswerPage: 390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Rationale: Extinction is the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. 117. In using reinforcement, a manager should A) avoid using punishment. B) reward both desired and undesired behavior. C) give all subordinates the same rewards to insure fairness. D) save rewards for weekly or monthly celebrations. E) clearly communicate the desired and undesired behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 391 LO: 5 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Whether using positive reinforcement or punishment a manager should be clear about what behavior is appropriate. 118. When using punishment, a manager should A) ignore undesirable behaviors. B) save reprimands until the end of the workday. C) combine punishment with negative reinforcement. D) make sure that other employees see you punishing the offender. E) clearly communicate the undesired behavior. Register to View AnswerPage: 391 LO: 5 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Whether using positive reinforcement or punishment a manager should be clear about what behavior is appropriate. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 125 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 119. __________ is the heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organization, which influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort in his or her work. A) Job enrichment B) Job equity C) Employee engagement D) Employee satisfaction E) Job satisfaction Register to View AnswerPage: 392 LO: 6 Difficulty: Easy AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge 120. A piece rate system is an example of a ________ compensation plan. A) pay for knowledge B) pay for performance C) profit sharing D) gainsharing E) Scanlon Register to View AnswerPage: 393 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Pay for performance bases pay on ones results. The piece rate is a method in which employees are paid according to how much output they produce. 121. A department store pays its salespeople a percentage of the earnings from the goods the salespeople sell. This is an example of a ___________ compensation plan. A) pay for performance B) pay for knowledge C) bonus D) profit sharing E) gainsharing Register to View AnswerPage: 393 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Bonuses are cash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 126 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 122. A Scanlon plan is a type of ________ compensation plan. A) pay for knowledge B) pay for performance C) profit sharing D) gainsharing E) benchmarking Register to View AnswerPage: 394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Gainsharing is the distribution of savings or gains to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity. A Scanlon plan is a type of gainsharing plan first used in the steel industry. 123. In Vernon's department at XYZ Company, employees get money based on how much the department has been able to save in costs. This is an example of a ____________ compensation plan. A) pay for performance B) pay for knowledge C) bonus D) profit sharing E) gainsharing Register to View AnswerPage: 394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Gainsharing is the distribution of savings or gains to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity. 124. By giving stock options to all employees who work 20 hours or more hours a week, Starbucks Corp., has been able to hold its annual turnover rate to ______ percentin an industry in which 300% is not unheard of. A) 40 B) 50 C) 60 D) 70 E) 80 Register to View AnswerPage: 394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Starbucks Corp. has been able to hold its annual turnover rate to 60%--in an industry (fast food and restaurants) in which 300% is not unheard of. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 127 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 125. Which of the following is a practice in creating a flexible workplace? A) job sharing B) telecommuting C) part-time work D) compressed workweeks E) All of the above can be used to create a flexible workplace. Register to View AnswerPage: 395 LO: 6 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Rationale: Alternative work schedules include: part-time work, flextime, compressed workweek, job sharing, and telecommuting. Essay Questions 126. What is motivation, and why is it important for managers to understand how motivation works? What do managers try to motivate people to do? Page: 370-371 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Answer: Motivation is the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. Managers can use this information to help them guide subordinates to accomplish the organization's objectives. Managers motivate people to join, stay at, show up for work at, perform better for, and do extra for the organization. 127. Explain what a need-based perspective on motivation is. Identify two of this type of theory. Page: 372 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Register to View Answerneed-based perspective on motivation is one that concentrates on the psychological or physiological deficiencies that arouse behavior. Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Alderfers ERG theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, and McClelland's acquired needs theory are needs-based perspectives on motivation. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 128 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 128. Explain the difference between motivating factors and hygiene factors in Herzberg's theory of motivation. Give examples of each, preferably from your own experience. How should a manager use this distinction in trying to motivate employees? Page: 377; Figure 12.4 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: Hygiene factors, when lacking, can cause dissatisfaction, while motivating factors, when present, cause satisfaction. Examples of hygiene factors are job context variables such as working conditions, supervision, and pay. Examples of motivational factors are job content variables such as the work itself, achievement, and responsibility. Managers should first act to eliminate dissatisfaction by making sure the hygiene factors are reasonable, and then attempt to spur motivation by attending to job content issues. The student should provide examples of each from his or her own experience. 129. Briefly explain McClelland's acquired needs theory. How should managers use this model to motivate employees? What do you think your levels are of the needs that McClelland identified, and why do you think that? Page: 375-376 LO: 2 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: McClelland focused on three needs: for power, affiliation, and achievement. Managers should attempt to create work environments for individual subordinates depending on the individual's own pattern of these needs. The student should explain his or her own levels of needs. 130. Explain expectancy theory, and discuss how managers can use this model to help motivate subordinates. Page: 381-383 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Answer: Expectancy theory contains three elements: expectancy (belief in ability to perform at a certain level), instrumentality (expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome, and valence (value or importance attached to a possible outcome. Managers can use this to make sure that employees are high on all three of these elements, because a deficiency in any one of them results in low motivation to perform. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 129 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 131. Explain equity theory, and discuss how managers can use this model to help motivate workers. Give an example from your own experience of an inequitable situation, and use it to illustrate how people do equity comparisons. Page: 379-381 LO: 3 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: Equity theory suggests that people look at the ratio of their outcomes to inputs and compare it to the ratio between a comparable other's outcomes to inputs. They make a judgment about the fairness of the situation from this analysis. Managers should treat employees fairly as these employees are more likely to support organizational change, more apt to cooperate in group settings, and less apt to turn to arbitration and the courts to remedy real or imagined wrongs. The students should give examples from their own experiences. 132. Choose a job you have held. Analyze the job as to its characteristics, according to the job characteristics model. If you were a manager of subordinates with this job, what could you do to increase the job's motivational potential? Page: 386-388 LO: 4 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: The job should be analyzed as to its skill variety (how many different skills does your job require?), task identity (How many different tasks are required to complete the work?), task significance (How many other people are affected by your job?), autonomy (How much discretion does your job give you?), and feedback (How much do you find out how well youre doing?). To increase motivation these five core characteristics should be considered as they affect three critical psychological states: meaningfulness of work, responsibility for results, and knowledge of results. In turn, these positive psychological states fuel high motivation, high performance, high satisfaction, and low absenteeism and turnover. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 130 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 133. Draw and explain the job characteristics, psychological states, outcomes and contingency factors of the job characteristics model. Page: 386-388 LO: 4 Difficulty: Moderate AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Answer: The model has four parts: Job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Psychological states: meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work, knowledge of results. Meaningfulness results from skill variety, task identity, and task significance. Responsibility results from autonomy. Knowledge of results comes from feedback. Outcomes: high work motivation, high work performance, high work satisfaction, and low absenteeism and turnover result when all three psychological states are high. Contingency factors: the model will hold truer for some individuals than others, depending on their knowledge and skill, desire for growth, and context satisfactions. The student may want to draw figure 12.8 to illustrate how these parts interrelate. 134. Define and explain the four types of reinforcement, including their effect on behavior. Give examples of each from your own life. Page: 389-390 LO: 5 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: The four types are: Positive reinforcement use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior; increases the probability of future desired behavior. Negative reinforcement removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior; increases the probability of future desired behavior. Extinction withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior; decreases the probability of that behavior. Punishment application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior. The student should then give examples of each from his or her own life. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 131 Chapter 12 Motivating Employees: Achieving Superior Performance in the Workplace 135. Explain the 6 types of compensation plans, giving examples of each. Which type would you most like to work under? Why? Page: 393-394 LO: 6 Difficulty: Hard AACSB: 3 BT: Application Answer: The six types are: Pay for performance: pay is based on results. Bonuses: cash awards given for achieving specific performance objectives. Profit sharing: giving employees a percentage of the business's profits. Gainsharing: distribution of parts of savings or gains to groups of employees Stock options: giving employees the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price Pay for knowledge: ties employee pay to job-relevant skills or degrees. The student should then discuss which type of compensation plan he or she would most like to work under and why. Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction, 4e Copyright 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies 132

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Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010 Graded HW#08 Assignment HandoutSubmission Deadline: 5:00 p.m., Thursday, 3/4/10 Your answers to these multiple choice questions must be submitted online, using Blackboard! Please use the Graded HW#08 Submission Form, which yo
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #07Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 2/26/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
CH 310M/318M (53195/53355) MWF 9:0010:00 a.m.Dr. Brian M. Bocknack Spring 2010Midterm Exam #3 Information/Study ChecklistExam Day/Time: Exam Location: Thursday, 4/22/2010, 7:009:00 p.m. Room assignments are based on the first letter(s) of your last nam
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010 Graded HW#18 Assignment HandoutSubmission Deadline: 5:00 p.m., Tuesday, 4/20/10 Your answers to these multiple choice questions must be submitted online, using Blackboard! Please use the Graded HW#18 Submission Form, which yo
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #17Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 4/16/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010 Graded HW#16 Assignment HandoutSubmission Deadline: 5:00 p.m., Tuesday, 4/13/10 Your answers to these multiple choice questions must be submitted online, using Blackboard! Please use the Graded HW#16 Submission Form, which yo
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #15Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 4/9/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010 Graded HW#14 Assignment HandoutSubmission Deadline: 5:00 p.m., Tuesday, 4/6/10 Your answers to these multiple choice questions must be submitted online, using Blackboard! Please use the Graded HW#14 Submission Form, which you
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M/318M Spring 2010 Graded HW#14 AnswersPlease refer to the Graded HW#14 Assignment Handout to see the questions! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. C F C B C C B A G D (+1 for C or F)
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #13Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 4/2/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Graded Homework Assignment #13 Answer KeyDeadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 4/2/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This assignment is worth a total of 40 raw points. In Questions 1 and 2, draw a lineangle structure that corresponds to the name given.
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
CH 310M/318M (53195/53355) MWF 9:0010:00 a.m.Dr. Brian M. Bocknack Spring 2010End of Semester InformationFinal Exam Day/Time: W ednesday, 5/12/2010, 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. Final Exam Location: Room assignments are based on the first letter(s) of your last
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M/318M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #21Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 5/7/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010 Graded HW#20 Assignment HandoutSubmission Deadline: 5:00 p.m., Tuesday, 5/4/10 Your answers to these multiple choice questions must be submitted online, using Blackboard! Please use the Graded HW#20 Submission Form, which you
University of Texas - CH - 310 M
Bocknack CH 310M Spring 2010Please submit to the correct slot in the collection box outside WEL 2.212! Last Name: First Name:UTEID:Score:Graded Homework Assignment #19Deadline: 9:00 a.m., Friday, 4/30/10 LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED OR GRADED!This
DeVry Chicago O'Hare - ACCT - 400
CHAPTER 1 THE EQUITY METHOD OF ACCOUNTING FOR INVESTMENTSChapter OutlineI. Three methods are principally used to account for an investment in equity securities. A. Fair-value method: applied by an investor when only a small percentage of a companys voti
San Diego State - PSY - 360
Psychology 360: Behavioral Neuroscience San Diego State University (Spring 2011) Room NH-100 Time: T 4:00-6:40 Instructor: Katherine Turner Office: LS-173 Email: katherine.turner@gmail.com Office Hours: Thursday (by appointment ) Psychology Department Pho
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Population Change and Economic Development in East Asia2/12/11 12:50 PMMason, Andrew. Population Change and Economic Development in East Asia. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Stanford University Press, 2001. p 231. http:/site.ebrary.com/lib/uscisd/Doc?id=10042867&p
NYU - E33 - 1051
Zhuo Hui Hu E33.1051.002: Food and Society Did the influx of immigrants into America influence American Food/Cuisine? American food has evolved over the course of the nations history. What it has become now is almost completely unrecognizable from what it
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The cat (Felis catus), also known as the domestic cat or housecat[5] to distinguish it from other felines and felids, is a small furry domesticated carnivorous mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and for its ability to hunt vermin and ho
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Exam #1 Chapter 1: The Nature of Stress According to the definitions of stress, identify the components of which stress is comprised. Describe the two types of stress and the two types of distress. Describe the Yerkes-Dodson Principle. Describe the types
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.1 KNOWN: Thermal conductivity, thickness and temperature difference across a sheet of rigid extruded insulation. FIND: (a) The heat flux through a 2 m 2 m sheet of the insulation, and (b) The heat rate through the sheet. SCHEMATIC:A = 4 m2k =
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.2KNOWN: Inner surface temperature and thermal conductivity of a concrete wall. FIND: Heat loss by conduction through the wall as a function of outer surface temperatures ranging from -15 to 38C. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional condu
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.3KNOWN: Dimensions, thermal conductivity and surface temperatures of a concrete slab. Efficiency of gas furnace and cost of natural gas. FIND: Daily cost of heat loss. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady state, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.4 KNOWN: Heat flux and surface temperatures associated with a wood slab of prescribed thickness. FIND: Thermal conductivity, k, of the wood. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state conditions,
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.5 KNOWN: Inner and outer surface temperatures of a glass window of prescribed dimensions. FIND: Heat loss through window. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant proper
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.6 KNOWN: Width, height, thickness and thermal conductivity of a single pane window and the air space of a double pane window. Representative winter surface temperatures of single pane and air space. FIND: Heat loss through single and double pane
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.7 KNOWN: Dimensions of freezer compartment. Inner and outer surface temperatures. FIND: Thickness of styrofoam insulation needed to maintain heat load below prescribed value. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Perfectly insulated bottom, (2) One-dimens
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.8 KNOWN: Dimensions and thermal conductivity of food/beverage container. Inner and outer surface temperatures. FIND: Heat flux through container wall and total heat load. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Negligible heat t
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.9 KNOWN: Masonry wall of known thermal conductivity has a heat rate which is 80% of that through a composite wall of prescribed thermal conductivity and thickness. FIND: Thickness of masonry wall. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Both walls subjected
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.10 KNOWN: Thickness, diameter and inner surface temperature of bottom of pan used to boil water. Rate of heat transfer to the pan. FIND: Outer surface temperature of pan for an aluminum and a copper bottom. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimens
Drexel - MEM - 345
PROBLEM 1.11 KNOWN: Dimensions and thermal conductivity of a chip. Power dissipated on one surface. FIND: Temperature drop across the chip. SCHEMATIC:ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) Uniform heat dissipation, (4) Neg