Written Assignment 5 - Misleading Statisitics
4 Pages

Written Assignment 5 - Misleading Statisitics

Course Number: HLS 355, Spring 2010

College/University: Thomas Edison State

Word Count: 1072

Rating:

Document Preview

Critical Thinking for Homeland Security 2010-04-HLS-355-OL009 Written Assignment 5 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College. H.G. Wells noted that statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write. Indeed, statistics offer information from a new perspective, and most people do not have sufficient statistical knowledge to analyze the information...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> New Jersey >> Thomas Edison State >> HLS 355

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Thinking Critical for Homeland Security 2010-04-HLS-355-OL009 Written Assignment 5 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College. H.G. Wells noted that statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write. Indeed, statistics offer information from a new perspective, and most people do not have sufficient statistical knowledge to analyze the information presented in the form of graphs, tables or pie charts. Another fact is that people place a lot more trust in numbers over words as they are more explicit. Based on these factors, statisticians became very talented in the art of manipulating the information by re-arranging their results in order to demonstrate and prove their arguments. In the following discussion, we will examine graphical statistics representing the number of non-natural deaths and their causes. We will determine whether or not the information is presented correctly and we will point out any statistical fallacies and misinterpretations if any. The material presented to us is a series of data, tables, and graphs supposedly related to one another and created by the US Department of State to demonstrate and quantify the number of non-natural deaths abroad and their causes. At first sight it is not quite evident that these numbers are, in fact, related to the number of American deaths abroad. Therefore, if the reader does not verify the sources of these data, it could be quite confusing and the analysis quite challenging. Looking at the first set of data provided, which states the period covered in the analysis, the total number of countries and foreign possessions, and the total number of non-natural deaths, it seems a bit odd that only two thousand three hundred and twelve non-natural deaths occurred within three years around the world. After further researching the topic, I realized that the author omitted to mention that the statistics does not include deaths of military personnel, which are reported to the Defense Department. This of course, is a major element of consideration in our reasoning and before drawing any conclusions. The first table introduced to us enumerates the different causes of death and their respective cumulative total and percent total. It seems to me life the fields are not properly titled. Indeed, they are rather vague and make the table difficult to read. It also pushes us somehow to deduce what kind of information we are looking at. For instance a possible interpretation, which I know is not correct, would be that between July 1 st 2004 and June 30th 2007, there were 54 natural disasters. However, the table is meant to read that 54 deaths were caused by natural disasters. Therefore, instead of reading Cumulative total and Percent Total, the table should have read Cumulative total number of deaths. Moreover, this table is only representative of 94.4% of deaths, which triggered my curiosity about the 5.6% deaths not mentioned and why were they omitted? It is a small percentage, I agree, but it makes the statistics a bit questionable as it not completely accurate and does not fully represent the population in question. The second table is even more interesting for several reasons. First all, of it itemizes the top six countries where the most US non-natural deaths occurred, therefore voluntarily omitting 52.5% or one thousand two hundred and forty-eight deaths. It seems as if the author is trying to influence the audience by isolating a few countries; Mexico in particular. However this table fails to include the cause of these deaths, apparently trying to deceive the audience and drive them to think that travelling to Mexico is quite unsafe. The histogram provided, accentuates this argument as it shows that 53% of non-natural deaths of Americans outside of the United States, occurred in the Americas, which could be translated by stating that one in two Americans travelling there will be killed. If I did not know any better, I would think that these statistics are meant to persuade the American people not to travel there. But, what these data do not show or should we say fail to remind its audience, is the fact that Mexico is one of the most popular destination for American travelers for the reason that it is nearby and that it does not cost as much to get there than to go to Asia or Africa. Another factor which must be taken into account and which should be differentiated from the rest, is the percentage of college students among these travelers which travel to the Americas with the intention to party and without any common sense which can lead to the increase of fatal accidents. The titles of the last two graphs presented are unbiased and do not have the intent to persuade their readers. At first, when looking at the top five causes of death over the last four reporting periods, it seems like there is a steady pattern and that the number of non-natural deaths does not seem to fluctuate over the years. However, and this is where I have an issue, when we observe the x-axis and pay particular attention to the reporting periods in question, we cannot help but noticing that they are intersect each other, and I believe that it does not offer a pertinent comparison. In this case, there should have been three distinct periods of fourteen months, since the entire period totals forty-two months. Besides the issue with the x-axis, the title should be a bit more precise and mention the top five causes of non-natural death instead. As far as the pie chart is concerned, it gives us a better perspective than the previous histogram and actually shows that the number of non-natural deaths has been decreasing over the years by nearly 10% which gives us a better outlook than the previous data. Put together, graphical statistics can make a powerful tool in presenting information. In the end, however, whether or not a graph is accurate depends on the maker, and whether he or she wishes the graph to be honest or misleading. That is why we must be true to the data when dealing with statistics, and always remember what makes the difference between an accurate graph and an inaccurate one. References Lectures Notes Module 5. (n.d.). Lies, Darned Lies & Statisitcs (Benjamin Disraeli) . Thomas Edison State College 2010-04-HLS-355-OL. M. Neil Browne and Stuart M. Keeley. (2007). Asking The Right Questions, A Guide To Critical Thinking. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

Thomas Edison State - HLS - 355
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security 2010-04-HLS-355-OL009 Written Assignment 6 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1. This is an appeal to a lack of evidence. The author implies that the suburban housemust have something wrong just beca
Thomas Edison State - HLS - 355
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security 2010-04-HLS-355-OL009 Written Assignment 7: Analysis of the WMD report using the elements of thought. By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul propose the reader to util
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications CIS107 Discussion Forum 1 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Ethics and Issues 1-4. What should be done about Identity Theft? In 2007, more than 9 million Americans were victims of identity theft. Identity th
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Discussion Forum 2 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Ethics and Issues 4-4. (p. 214) Are notebooks computers too distracting in the classroom? Why? Should instructors, departments, or e
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Discussion Forum 3 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Ethics and Issues 7-4. (p. 378) Should the world become a cashless society? Why or why not? Would you be comfortable using a smart c
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Discussion Forum 4 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Ethics and Issues 10-3. (p. 525) Should a database of people paroled or released for crimes be made public? Why or why not? What abo
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Discussion Forum 5 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Ethics and Issues 13-3. (p. 695) Who should be responsible for mistakes in software? Why? If users provide incomplete or inaccurate
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications CIS107 Laboratory Assignment 1 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Lab 2: Internet Explorer 5. Double-click the Internet Explorer shortcut icon in the Contents pane to start the Internet Explorer application.
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
BLOOMING DEALSOur plants are growing and so are we. Visit our recently expanded greenhouses and grounds for the hardiest and most beautiful additions to your yard. Wide variety of perennial and annual flowers Trees, shrubs, and grasses Knowledgeable an
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Scissors Office SupplyConsumer SmallBusiness LargeBusiness Government Nonprofit Total100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Consumer Small Business Government Large Business NonprofitBoston$206,348.81 $113,861.40 235,573.28 98,342.16 237,317.55 2
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Scissors Office SupplyAnnual SalesBostonConsumer Small Business Large Business Government Nonprofit Total100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Consumer Small Business Government Large Business NonprofitMiami$113,861.40 133,511.24 234,036.08 14
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Click to edit Master, subtitle style Gabriel Godart Midwest StateBank LoanDepartment ManagerIS A HYBRID CAR RIGHT FOR YOU?5/10/11Are They a Good Value?Depends upon your driving habitsl l lGovernment offers tax credits Excellent resale value Effici
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
I L L GATESClick to edit Master subtitle style5/10/11H is Per sonal L ifeBorn on October 28th 1955o o o oMarried Melinda French, director of Microsoft Encarta, in 1994 Birth of his daughter Jennifer Katherine in 1996 Birth of his son Rory John in 19
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications CIS107 Written Assignment 1 Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1A. Describe the different types of computers. In each category, describe in detail a use for that type. There are seven different types of compu
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Written Assignment 2 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1B. Describe buses, cache, ports, and bays, citing a use of each. A bus is essentially a shared highway that connects different
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Written Assignment 3 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1B. Describe sequential and random access, giving specific uses for each. Sequential access refers to reading or writing data c
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Written Assignment 4 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1A. Describe what an operating system is. What functions does it perform? What is GUI? An operating system is an overarching pr
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Written Assignment 5 By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.1A. Describe the phases of the system development life cycle. Use a specific example in your description. There are usually fiv
Thomas Edison State - CIS - 107
Computer concepts and applications 2010-04-CIS-107-OL009 Written assignment 6: Bill Gates By Gabriel A. Godart Thomas Edison State College.Member of an upper-class family from Seattle, WA, William Henry Gates the third, also known as Bill Gates, was born
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
M362KSample Test 1ADr. Gary BergAll problems are worth ten points. Do ten of the twelve problems. Show your work. 1) a) How many ways can ten workers be assigned to ten distinct jobs?b) How many ways can ten workers be assigned to six jobs, each requi
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
M362KSample Test 2ADr. Gary BergAll problems are worth ten points. Do ten of the twelve problems. Clearly mark the problems to be omitted. Show your work. 1) Two fair diced are rolled. Let X equal the product of 2 dice. Find P ( X = i) for i=1, 2, 3, .
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
M362KSample Test 3ADr. Gary BergAll problems are worth ten points. Do ten of the twelve problems. Clearly mark the problems to be omitted. Show your work. 1) The joint density function of X and Y is given by f ( x, y ) = 2e x e2 y for positive x and y
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
M362KSample Test 4ADr. Gary BergAll problems are worth eight points. Do sixteen of the eighteen problems. Clearly mark the problems to be omitted. Show your work. 1) How many different letter arrangements can be made from the letters a) propose; b) Mis
Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domintgo - MAT - FZ-1000
1Cap tulo 7La Funcin Exponencial y la Funcin o o Logar tmicaM.Sc. Alcides Astorga M., Lic. Julio Rodr guez S.Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica o Escuela de Matemtica aRevista digital Matemtica, educacin e internet (www.cidse.itcr.ac.cr) a o2Crdito
Manitoba - CIVIL ENGI - 2130
Bradford School of Business - FINANCE - 1066
Business EcoCours 1 : Pour viter la crise bancaire : rgulation prudentielle (sassurer que les banques ne prennent pas de risques excessifs et le droit de la concurrence pour amliorer le rapport qualit prix des services financiers et faciliter linnovation
University of Texas - MATH - 340L
Chapter 5Problems1. (a) c (1 x 2 )dx = 1 c = 3 / 41x 3 3 x3 2 (1 x 2 ) dx = x + , 1 < x < 1 (b) F(x) = 4 1 4 3 3 12. xex / 2dx = 2 xe x / 2 4e x / 2 . Hence,c xe x / 2 dx = 1 c = 1 / 40Pcfw_X > 5 =1 1 xe x / 2 dx = [10e 5 / 2 + 4e 5 / 2 ] 45
University of Texas - MATH - 340L
Chapter 6Problems2. (a) p(0, 0) =87 = 14/39, 13 12 85 = 10/39 p(0, 1) = p(1, 0) = 13 12 54 p(1, 1) = = 5/39 13 12876 = 28/143 13 12 11(b) p(0, 0, 0) =875 = 70/429 13 12 11 85 4 p(0, 1, 1) = p(1, 0, 1) = p(1, 1, 0) = = 40/429 13 12 11 543 p(1, 1, 1)
University of Texas - MATH - 340L
Chapter 7Problems1. Let X = 1 if the coin toss lands heads, and let it equal 0 otherwise. Also, let Y denote the value that shows up on the die. Then, with p(i, j) = Pcfw_X = i, Y = j E[return] =j =162 jp (1, j ) + 2 p(0, j )j =16j=2. (a) 6 6 9
University of Texas - MATH - 340L
Chapter 8Problems1. 2. Pcfw_0 X 40 = 1 Pcfw_X 20 > 20 1 20/400 = 19/20 (a) Pcfw_X 85 E[X]/85 = 15/17 (b) Pcfw_65 X 85) = 1 Pcfw_X 75 > 10 1 25/100 (c) P 3.Xi =1ni 25 so need n = 10 / n 75 > 5 25n Let Z be a standard normal random variable. Then,
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
Picking the Correct Distribution Binomial, Negative Binomial, Geometric, or Hypergeometric?Students often become confused when trying to decide whether a random variable in a word problem fits a binomial distribution, negative binomial, geometric or hype
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
Probability Cheat SheetDistributionsUnifrom Distributionnotation U [a, b] xa for x [a, b] cdf ba 1 pdf for x [a, b] ba 1 expectation (a + b) 2 1 variance (b a)2 12 tb eta e mgf t (b a) story: all intervals of the same length on the distributions suppor
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
Probability and StatisticsCheat SheetCopyright c Matthias Vallentin, 2011 vallentin@icir.org 6th March, 201112 Parametric Inference 12.1 Method of Moments . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Maximum Likelihood . . . . . . . . . . sity of California in Berkeley bu
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
Chapter 1 Combinatorial Analysis Permutations are arrangements of objects that are indistinguishable. The number of permutations of n objects is n!. n! The number of permutations of n objects take r at a time is n Pr = ( n r )! The number of permutations
University of Texas - MATH - 362K
M362K Probability Homework Solutions Homework 11: Due November 24 Chapter 7 theoretical exercises 50, 54 Chapter 8, problems 2, 3, 7, 11, 15, 16, theoretical exercise 9. Theoretical exercise 7.50 Since (t) = log(M (t), (t) = M (t)/M (t), and 2 (t) = M (t)
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
1.1SOLUTIONSNotes: The key exercises are 7 (or 11 or 12), 1922, and 25. For brevity, the symbols R1, R2,., stand for row 1 (or equation 1), row 2 (or equation 2), and so on. Additional notes are at the end of the section.1.x1 + 5 x2 = 7 -2 x1 - 7 x2 =
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
2.1SOLUTIONSNotes: The definition here of a matrix product AB gives the proper view of AB for nearly all matrix calculations. (The dual fact about the rows of A and the rows of AB is seldom needed, mainly because vectors here are usually written as colu
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
3.1SOLUTIONSNotes: Some exercises in this section provide practice in computing determinants, while others allow thestudent to discover the properties of determinants which will be studied in the next section. Determinants are developed through the cof
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
4.1SOLUTIONSNotes: This section is designed to avoid the standard exercises in which a student is asked to check ten axioms on an array of sets. Theorem 1 provides the main homework tool in this section for showing that a set is a subspace. Students sho
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
5.1SOLUTIONSNotes: Exercises 16 reinforce the definitions of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The subsection oneigenvectors and difference equations, along with Exercises 33 and 34, refers to the chapter introductory example and anticipates discussions of
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
6.1SOLUTIONSNotes: The first half of this section is computational and is easily learned. The second half concerns theconcepts of orthogonality and orthogonal complements, which are essential for later work. Theorem 3 is an important general fact, but
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
7.1SOLUTIONSNotes: Students can profit by reviewing Section 5.3 (focusing on the Diagonalization Theorem) beforeworking on this section. Theorems 1 and 2 and the calculations in Examples 2 and 3 are important for the sections that follow. Note that sym
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
M340L Matrices and Matrix CalculationsUnique #56200 Spring 2011 Class Time/Room: MWF 3-4 in CPE 2.214 Instructor:Elif Seckin Office: RLM 13.140 Office hours: MWTh 4:15-5:30 or by appointment E-mail: seckinel@math.utexas.eduTeaching Assistant:Jamie Poo
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
Chapter 1: Speaking MathematicallySection 1.16. a. s is negative b. negative; the cube root of s is negative (Or : c. is negative; 3 s is negative (Or : the cube root of s is negative) 3 s is negative)9. a. have at most two real solutions b. has at mos
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
Chapter 2: The Logic of Compound StatementsSection 2.19. (n k ) (n k ) 15. p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F q F F T T F F T T qr T F T T T F T T p ( q r) T F T T F F F FThe truth table shows that p (q r) and (p q ) (p r) always hav
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
Chapter 3: The Logic of Quantied StatementsSection 3.16. a. When m = 25 and n = 10,the statement m is a factor of n2 is true because n2 = 100 and 100 = 4 25. But the statement m is a factor of n is false because 10 is not a product of 25 times any integ
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
16Solutions for Exercises: Elementary Number Theory and Methods of ProofChapter 4: Elementary Number Theory and Methods of ProofSection 4.13. a. Yes, because 4rs = 2 (2rs) and 2rs is an integer since r and s are integers and products of integers are i
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
Chapter 5: Sequences and Mathematical InductionSection 5.16. f1 = f4 = 9. h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h10 h11 h12 h13 h14 h15 1 4 4 = 0 4 = 0, f2 = 2 4 4 = 0 4 = 0, f3 = 3 4 4 = 0 4 = 4,4 4=14=4 4 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1 log2 1 2 log2 2 3 log2 3
University of Texas - MATH - 325K
Section 6.171Chapter 6: Set TheoryThe rst section of this chapter introduces additional terminology for sets and the concept of an element argument to prove that one set is a subset of another. The aim of this section is to provide a experience with a
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-1CHAPTER 9PHASE DIAGRAMSPROBLEM SOLUTIONSSolubility Limit9.1 (a) We are asked to determine how much sugar will dissolve in 1000 g of water at 80C. From the solubility limit curve in Figure 9.1, at 80C the maximum concentration of sugar in the syrup
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-29.2 (a) From Figure 9.8, the maximum solubility of Pb in Sn at 100C corresponds to the position of the ( + ) phase boundary at this temperature, or to about 2 wt% Pb. (b) From this same figure, the maximum solubility of Sn in Pb corresponds to the pos
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-3Microstructure9.3 Three variables that determine the microstructure of an alloy are (1) the alloying elements present, (2) the concentrations of these alloying elements, and (3) the heat treatment of the alloy.Excerpts from this work may be reproduc
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-5One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams9.5 This problem asks us to consider a specimen of ice that is at 15C and 10 atm pressure. (a) Melting occurs, (by changing pressure) as, moving vertically (upward) at this temperature, we cross the Ice-Liquid p
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-69.6 The melting and boiling temperatures for ice at a pressure of 0.1 atm may be determined by moving horizontally across the pressure-temperature diagram of Figure 9.2 at this pressure. The temperature corresponding to the intersection of the Ice-Liq
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-7Binary Isomorphous Systems9.7 The copper-gold phase diagram is constructed below.Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in c
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-8Interpretation of Phase Diagrams9.8 This problem asks that we cite the phase or phases present for several alloys at specified temperatures. (a) For an alloy composed of 15 wt% Sn-85 wt% Pb and at 100C, from Figure 9.8, and phases are present, and C
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-9CCu =7.6 lb m 100 = 5.0 wt% 7.6 lb m + 144.4 lb m 144.4 lb m 100 = 95.0 wt% 7.6 lb m + 144.4 lb mC Zn =From Figure 9.19, only the L phase is present; its composition is 95.0 wt% Zn-5.0 wt% Cu(g) For an alloy composed of 21.7 mol Mg and 35.4 mol Pb
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-10' mCu = nm ACu = (4.2 mol)(63.55 g/mol) = 266.9 g Cu' mAg = nm AAg = (1.1 mol)(107.87 g/mol) = 118.7 g AgNow, using Equation 4.3, concentrations of Cu and Ag are determined as follows:CCu =266.9 g 100 = 69.2 wt% 266.9 g + 118.7 g 118.7 g 100 = 30
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-119.9 It is possible to have a Cu-Ag alloy, which at equilibrium consists of a phase of composition 92 wt% Ag-8 wt% Cu and a liquid phase of composition 77 wt% Ag-23 wt% Cu. From Figure 9.7 a horizontal tie line can be constructed across the + L phase
UC Irvine - ECON - 101
9-139.11 Upon heating a lead-tin alloy of composition 30 wt% Sn-70 wt% Pb from 150C and utilizing Figure 9.8: (a) The first liquid forms at the temperature at which a vertical line at this composition intersects the eutectic isotherm-i.e., at 183C. (b) T