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Course Number: BIO 3, Fall 2007

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Bio 3. Homework #6 1. Aristotle detracted, because he considered species as fixed and evolutionary theory emphasizes that species change via natural selection. The scientific revolution contributed because it challenged conventional thinking, and inspired people to question everything, including evolution. Lyell was a geologist who contributed to the formation of evolutionary theory because he proposed that...

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3. Bio Homework #6 1. Aristotle detracted, because he considered species as fixed and evolutionary theory emphasizes that species change via natural selection. The scientific revolution contributed because it challenged conventional thinking, and inspired people to question everything, including evolution. Lyell was a geologist who contributed to the formation of evolutionary theory because he proposed that gradual unseen processes change the world. Malthus also contributed because he proposed that resources can become limiting as populations increase, and this relates very closely to natural selection. Adam Smith coined the phrase "survival of the fittest", which ties in to the theory of evolution by way of natural selection. 2. Darwin/Wallace's theory of evolution states that new species arise form existing species via descent with modification. The mechanism of modification is natural selection. There are two components that form natural selection. The first is the struggle for existence, which states that populations have the ability of outgrow the resources necessary to sustain them, thus creating competition for those resources. The second piece is the survival of the fittest. This states that there is variation for traits within a population, meaning that some organisms will have a selective advantage over others. The advantaged organisms tend to leave more offspring in the next generation, and over time, this will change the character of the population. 3. There is much evidence of evolution that shows that species change through time. Many species have gone extinct, fossil records show transitional forms, vestigial traits exist, and populations can be observed to change over time. More evidence for evolution shows that species are related via common ancestry. This is supported by closely related species living in the same geographical area and by homologous traits that exist at multiple levels, for example, anatomical and embryological. 4. Stabilizing selection is when pressure is put on population that falls on the outer edges of a bell shaped curve composed of some genetic possibility. The more pressure, the harder it is to survive. An example of stabilizing selection is the birth weight of babies, there is an average weight and most babies fall into that Babies category. that are much lighter or much heavier have much smaller chances of surviving. The second type of selection is disruptive/diversifying selection. This is when the bell shaped curve is pushed down in the middle, causing two equal sized mounds to form on either side of where the middle used to be. The creatures that fall on the outer edges of this curve have the advantage. An example of this is beak shape. Certain birds have very thin, long beaks that allow them to grab insects and dig in trees to find food that birds with other beak sizes are incapable of reaching. Another example is birds with fat, strong beaks that can crush seeds easily. The third type is directional selection. This shape has a curve that is skewed to the right, and the animals on the left side are the most disadvantaged. An example of an animal that has been modified by directional selection is giraffes. Giraffes with longer necks can reach more food more easily, which makes them more likely to be healthy, breed, and pass their long necks on to their offspring. 5. A population is the smallest unit capable of evolution because the genetic change needs to go through enough members of a population for the trait to become dominant, therefore making the trait a permanent part of the animal species. 6. Both are tools for classification. A taxonomy is a classification scheme. A phylogeny is taxonomy that accurately reflects evolutionary relationships. 7. The 3-domain system is called the Super Kingdom. It consists of three parts: Eubacteria, Archea, and Eukarya. Eubacteria and Archae are both types of prokaryotes, and Eukarya evolved from Archae. Therefore, Archae and Eukarya are the most closely related domains. Animals, fungi, and plants are all Eukarya. The 5-kingdom system of classification consists of: moneta, which are bacteria; protista, which are single-celled eukaryotes; fungi, which are eukaryotes, decomposers, heterotrophs; plants, which are eukaryotes, autotrophs (photosynthesis), also nicked-named "roots and shoots"; and animalia, which are eukaryotes, heterotrophs and creatures that have digestive cavities. 8. Precambrian- origin of life, 1st photosynthetic cells Paleozoic- diversity of life exploded Mesozoic- Dinosaurs dominated the planet Cenozoic- Age of Mammals

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