Introduction_to_Accounting
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Introduction_to_Accounting

Module Code: SUNDERLAND 103, Spring 2011

University or Institution: Uni. Sunderland

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Business Management Study Manuals Certificate in Business Management INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING The Association of Business Executives 5th Floor, CI Tower St Georges Square High Street New Malden Surrey KT3 4TE United Kingdom Tel: + 44(0)20 8329 2930 Fax: + 44(0)20 8329 2945 E-mail: info@abeuk.com www.abeuk.com Copyright, 2008 The Association of Business Executives (ABE) and RRC Business Training All...

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Management Study Business Manuals Certificate in Business Management INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING The Association of Business Executives 5th Floor, CI Tower St Georges Square High Street New Malden Surrey KT3 4TE United Kingdom Tel: + 44(0)20 8329 2930 Fax: + 44(0)20 8329 2945 E-mail: info@abeuk.com www.abeuk.com Copyright, 2008 The Association of Business Executives (ABE) and RRC Business Training All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, mechanical, photocopied or otherwise, without the express permission in writing from The Association of Business Executives. Certificate in Business Management INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING Contents Unit Title Page 1 Nature and Scope of Accounting Purpose of Accounting Rules of Accounting (Accounting Standards) Accounting Periods The Fundamental Concepts of Accountancy Case Study A: Global Holdings Ltd 1 2 7 12 12 15 2 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Principles of Double-Entry Book-Keeping Ledger Accounts The Accounting Equation Balancing Off Classification of Ledger Accounts 17 18 19 22 23 28 3 Cash and Bank Transactions Nature of the Cash Book Bank Reconciliation Statement Stale and Post-dated Cheques The Petty Cash Book 33 34 44 47 48 4 Recording Business Transactions The Journal Opening Statement of Assets and Liabilities Drawings The Purchases Book The Sales Book Returns and Allowances Books A Typical Transaction 61 62 63 66 68 72 73 77 5 The Trial Balance Introduction to the Trial Balance Errors in the Trial Balance Correction of Errors 89 90 96 104 6 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account Introduction to Final Accounts Trading Account Stock 117 118 118 119 Unit Title Page 7 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Nature of the Profit and Loss Account Bad Debts Discounts Depreciation Prepayments and Accruals Allocation or Appropriation of Net Profit 127 128 130 133 133 137 142 8 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet Essentials of a Balance Sheet Assets Liabilities Distinction Between Capital and Revenue Preparation of a Balance Sheet 151 152 154 157 159 162 9 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Preparation from Given Trial Balance Depreciation and Final Accounts Preparation from an Incorrect Trial Balance 169 170 178 181 10 Control Accounts Purpose of Control Accounts Debtors Control Account Creditors Control Account Sundry Journal Debits and Credits in both Debtors and Creditors Control Accounts 197 198 199 202 11 Partnerships Nature of Partnership Partnership Capital and Current Accounts Partnership Final Accounts 211 212 216 218 12 Limited Companies Nature of Limited Companies Capital of a Company Other Sources of Company Finance Company Profit and Loss Account Company Balance Sheet 231 232 234 238 239 244 13 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies The Law and Company Accounts The Balance Sheet The Profit and Loss Account Non-Statutory Information 257 258 261 269 275 14 Cash Flow Statements Introduction Contents of the Cash Flow Statement Example Use of Cash Flow Statements Case Study A Global Holdings Ltd (cont'd) 277 278 279 282 286 289 204 Unit Title Page 15 Budgets and Budgetary Control Overview of Budgets and Budgetary Control Budget Preparation Types of Budgets Budgetary Control Systems Case Study B: Crest Computers plc 301 302 304 308 309 313 16 Interpretation of Accounts Accounting Ratios Profitability Ratios Liquidity Ratios Capital Structure Investment Ratios Limitations of Historical Cost Reporting 317 318 320 322 326 327 329 17 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting The Nature of Management Accounting Elements of Cost The Costing Process Costing Principles and Techniques Cost Behaviour Patterns Case Study C: Reducing the Costs of High Street Banking 335 336 338 340 344 345 348 18 Overheads and Absorption Costing Overheads Cost Allocation and Apportionment Absorption Cost Accounting Treatment of Administration Overheads Treatment of Selling and Distribution Overheads Activity Based Costing (ABC) 351 352 353 358 362 362 363 19 Labour and Material Costing Stock Control Stock Valuation Methods Labour Costing and Remuneration 369 370 373 379 20 Methods of Costing Introduction Job Costing Batch Costing Process Costing 391 392 392 396 397 21 Marginal Costing The Principles of Marginal Cost Accounting Uses of Marginal Cost Accounting Contribution and the Key Factor Opportunity Cost Comparison of Marginal and Absorption Cost Accounting 403 404 406 410 413 413 Unit Title Page 22 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Break-Even Analysis Break- Even Chart Profit Volume Graph The Profit/Volume or Contribution/Sales Ratio Case Study D: Whizzo Ltd 415 416 419 422 423 428 23 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Standard Costing Variances from Standard Costs Summarising and Investigating Variances 435 436 440 443 24 Capital Investment Appraisal Capital Investment and Decision Making Payback Accounting Rate of Return Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) 449 450 451 454 455 1 Study Unit 1 Nature and Scope of Accounting Contents Page A. Purpose of Accounting Financial and Management Accounting The World of Accounting and Finance Business Functions Money as the Common Denominator The Concept of the Business Entity Users of Accounting Information B. Rules of Accounting (Accounting Standards) Development of Accounting Standards Current Standards Setting Structure Statements of Standard Accounting Practice Financial Reporting Standards 1-7 7 7 8 9 11 C. Accounting Periods 12 D. The Fundamental Concepts of Accountancy The Four Fundamental Concepts Other Concepts of Accountancy 12 13 13 Case Study A: Global Holdings Ltd Background Part 1 Energy Saving Products ABE and RRC 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 15 15 15 2 Nature and Scope of Accounting A. PURPOSE OF ACCOUNTING A business proprietor normally runs a business to make money. He or she needs information to know whether the business is doing well. The following questions might be asked by the owner of a business: How much profit or loss has the business made? How much money do I owe? Will I have sufficient funds to meet my commitments? The purpose of conventional business accounting is to provide the answers to such questions by presenting a summary of the transactions of the business in a standard form. Financial and Management Accounting Accounting may be split into financial accounting and management accounting. (a) Financial accounting Financial accounting comprises two stages: (b) book-keeping, which is the recording of day-to-day business transactions; and preparation of accounts, which is the preparation of statements from the bookkeeping records; these statements summarise the performance of the business usually over the period of one year. Management accounting Management accounting is defined by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants as: "The application of professional knowledge and skill in the preparation and presentation of accounting information in such a way as to assist management in the formulation of policies and in the planning and control of the operations of the undertaking". Management accounting, therefore, seeks to provide information which will be used for decision-making purposes (e.g. pricing, investment), for planning and control. The World of Accounting and Finance In everyday speech, the terms "data" and "information" are often used interchangeably. However, in the context of accounting systems, the terms have distinct meanings data is raw facts, such as a group of figures, a list of names and such like, whereas information is data which has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who receives it. The difference might be summarised as follows: Data + Meaning = Information For example, the string of numbers 060463-413283-110985 does not have any meaning to you as you read this sentence for the first time. It is data. This data can be given meaning if you are told that employee 413283 was born on 6th April 1963 and started work with the organisation on 11th September 1985. It has now become information. Similarly, the numbers 9180, 17689 and 9800 are, without further embellishment, data. If you are told that they are actually the list prices of the three company cars in your department, required by the Inland Revenue for tax purposes, they become information. Today, the vast majority of organisations operate computerised bookkeeping and accounting systems. These systems take data from the various activities of the business and turn that data into meaningful financial information. The basis on which this transformation from data ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 3 to information takes place are the rules, principles and practices of accounting which we shall examine in this course. You should note that, whilst most financial information is obtained from computerised systems, it is most important that these rules, principles and practices are fully understood so that you are able to acquire the right information and interpret it correctly. Indeed, there remain many managers and employees who face major problems in obtaining coherent and comprehensive information they need from these systems. Business Functions Having explained the purpose of accounting and the difference between "data" and "information", it is important to understand the nature of the different business functions in an organisation and the information they produce. Wages control and accounting A paramount feature of all business enterprises is the necessity to employ and remunerate a workforce. The workforce usually comprises people with a wide of skills manual, technical and managerial all of whom must be paid. It is necessary to maintain a record for each employee containing full and absolutely accurate details of pay items. This record must be kept up-to-date in terms of amendments as well as the updating of totals-to-date. Sales control and accounting Customer order control entails procedures for ensuring that orders from customers/clients are received, recorded and acknowledged in an efficient organised manner. At a later stage, order control is necessary to ensure that orders are actually fulfilled, i.e. customers receive the correct goods on time and at the right destination. The purpose of sales analysis is to forecast future sales demands and to plan marketing activities. Purchases control and accounting Purchasing involves the procedures for ensuring that all the materials, components, tools, equipment and other items needed by the company are made available at the right time, right place and right price. The precise nature of the purchasing function depends upon the type of items purchased. It is beneficial to analyse the company's purchases in various ways for example, in order to measure the effectiveness of suppliers, to ascertain the efficiency of the company in handling materials and reducing waste, etc. Stock control Stock control involves the maintenance of records relating to stock levels, issues, outstanding orders, reorder levels, and so on. From the accounting information viewpoint, an important requirement is stock valuation i.e. the book value of all stockin-hand at a certain time. These figures should be accurate, and allow for stock losses, deterioration and enhanced value since these contribute to the firm's balance sheet. Production control Production planning covers what to make and how many to make, whilst production control ensures that the plans are achieved. The information required for production control purposes includes material requirements for each time period, quantities of components and subassemblies to be made by each period, the amounts of equipment and machines, etc. needed for each stage, the amount of each labour category needed during each period, and the progress of each job and reasons for delays. ABE and RRC 4 Nature and Scope of Accounting Marketing function The marketing function is concerned with researching the business potential of the market and for developing the right products and services to satisfy the needs of customers. Accounting records are a vital source of information concerning customers they show buying patterns, types of products bought, etc. Customer services function Generating new customers is very important for any successful business. However, customer retention is also vital if a company is going to continue to grow and develop. Therefore, the customer services function is responsible for liasing the customer and providing added valued services, such as where a garage would provide a courtesy car, etc. Human resources function This function is responsible for satisfying the personnel needs of the organisation. This involves recruiting and training the right type of people. The HR function also deals with staff appraisal, disciplinary procedures, grievances and the legal aspects of employing staff. Information systems function In a large organisation the information technology and accounting functions must work in close harmony to produce systems capable of providing the financial information needed by the different business functions. The information required will not only vary between functions, it will also vary between different levels within an organisation. For example, what is perceived as information at the operational levels will invariably be viewed as raw data by middle and senior managers. The systems must, therefore, be capable of converting data into a variety of information forms in order to allow managers at different levels to make effective business decisions. Money as the Common Denominator Accounting is concerned only with information which can be given a monetary value. We put money values on items such as land, machinery and stock, and this is necessary for comparison purposes. For example, it is not very helpful to say: "Last year we had four machines and 60 items of stock, and this year we have five machines and 45 items of stock.". It is the money values which are useful to us. Whilst we are concerned with money, we should note that there are limitations to the use of money as the unit of measurement. (a) Human asset and social responsibility accounting We have seen that accounting includes financial accounting and management accounting. Both of these make use of money measurement. However, we may want further information about a business: Are industrial relations good or bad? Is staff morale high? Is the management team effective? What is the employment policy? Is there a responsible ecology policy? ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 5 These questions will not be answered by conventional business accounting in money terms but by "human asset accounting" and "social responsibility accounting". These subjects have not yet been fully developed and are outside the scope of your syllabus. (b) Devaluation The value of money does not remain constant, and there is normally some degree of inflation in the economy. We will look at the steps that have been taken to attempt to adjust accounting statements to the changing value of money later in the course. The Concept of the Business Entity The business as accounting entity refers to the separate identities of the business and its owners. (a) Sole trader There must always be a clear distinction between the owner of the business and the business itself. For example, if Mr X owns a biscuit factory, we are concerned with recording the transactions of the factory. We are not concerned with what Mr X spends on food and clothes. If Mrs Y, works at home, setting aside a room in her house, an apportionment may have to be made. (b) Partnership Similarly, the partners in a business must keep the transactions of the business separate from their own personal affairs. (c) Companies In law, a company has a distinct "legal personality". This means that a company may sue or be sued in its own right. The affairs of the shareholders must be distinguished from the business of the company. The proprietor of a limited company is therefore distinct from the company itself. Users of Accounting Information We need to prepare accounts in order to "provide a statement that will meet the needs of the user, subject to the requirements of statute and case law and the accounting bodies, and aided by the experience of the reception of past reports". So if we prepare accounts to meet the needs of the user, who is the user? The main users of financial accounts are: Equity investors (shareholders, proprietors, buyers) Loan creditors (banks and other lenders) Employees Analysts/advisers Business contacts (creditors and debtors, competitors) The government (The Inland Revenue) The public Management (board of directors) Users can learn a lot about the running of a company from the examination of its accounts, but each category of user will have its own special perspective. We need to look at some of these in more detail. ABE and RRC 6 Nature and Scope of Accounting Proprietor The perspective of the business proprietor is explained above (but see below for the interests of shareholders). Inland Revenue The Inland Revenue will use the accounts to determine the liability of the business for taxation. Banks and other lending institutes These require to know if the business is likely to be able to repay loans and to pay the interest charged. But often the final accounts of a business do not tell the lender what he or she wishes to know. They may be several months old and so not show the up-todate position. Under these circumstances, the lender will ask for cash flow forecasts to show what is likely to happen in the business. This illustrates why accounting techniques have to be flexible and adaptable to meet users' needs. Creditors and debtors These will often keep a close eye on the financial information provided by companies with which they have direct contact through buying and selling, to ensure that their own businesses will not be adversely affected by the financial failure of another. An indicator of trouble in this area is often information withheld at the proper time, though required by law. Usually, the longer the silence, the worse the problem becomes. Competitors Competitors will compare their own results with those of other companies. A company would not wish to disclose information which would be harmful to its own business: equally, it would not wish to hide anything which would put it above its competitors. Board of Directors The board of directors will want up-to-date, in-depth information so that it can draw up plans for the long term, the medium term and the short term, and compare results with its past decisions and forecasts. The board's information will be much more detailed than that which is published. Shareholders Shareholders have invested money in the company and as such are the owners of the business. Normally, the company will be run by a team of managers and the shareholders require the managers to account for their "stewardship" of the business, i.e. the use they have made of the shareholders' funds. Employees Employees of the company look for, among other things, security of employment. Prospective buyers A prospective buyer of a business will want to see such information as will satisfy him or her that the asking price is a good investment. The users of accounting information can also be viewed as stakeholders. This is because they all have a vested interest in how well the organisation performs. The board of directors' prime focus of attention must be on satisfying the requirements of the shareholders. However, when developing the company's long-term strategy, the interests of the other stakeholders must be taken into consideration for example, the board of directors must ensure that the company is run efficiently and effectively as possible as there may be a need to raise finance from outside parties (such as the bank, potential investors, etc). ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 7 B. RULES OF ACCOUNTING (ACCOUNTING STANDARDS) As different businesses use different methods of recording transactions, the result might be that financial accounts for different businesses would be very different in form and context. However, various standards for the preparation of accounts have been developed over the years. We shall be looking at the layout of financial accounts later on in the course. With regard to companies, various rules have been incorporated into legislation (Companies Acts). Companies whose shares are listed on the Stock Exchange are subject to Stock Exchange rules. There are also "Statements of Standard Accounting Practice" (SSAPs) and Financial Reporting Statements (FRSs) which are issued by the main professional accounting bodies through the Accounting Standards Board (ASB). Development of Accounting Standards In 1942, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales began to make recommendations about accounting practices, and over time issued a series of 29 Recommendations, in order to codify the best practice to be used in particular circumstances. Unfortunately, these recommendations did not reduce the diversity of accounting methods. (a) The Accounting Standards Committee In the late 1960s, there was a lot of public criticism of financial reporting methods and the accounting profession responded to the criticism by establishing the Accounting Standards Committee (ASC) in 1970. The ASC was set up with the object of developing definitive standards for financial reporting. A statement of intent produced in the 1970s identified the following objectives: To ensure disclosure of information on departures from definitive standards To provide a wide exposure for new accounting standards (b) To narrow the areas of difference in accounting practice To maintain a continuing programme for improving accounting standards. Statements of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP) The ASC comprised representatives of all the six major accounting bodies, i.e. the Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, of Scotland, and of Ireland, the Certified Accountants, the Cost and Management Accountants, and the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy. The procedure was for the Committee to produce an exposure draft on a specific topic, for comment by accountants and other users of accounting information. A formal statement was then drawn up, taking account of comments received, and issued as a Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP). Once a statement had been adopted by the accountancy profession, any material departures by a company from the standard practice had to be disclosed in notes to the Annual Financial Accounts. (c) The Dearing Report Although the ASC had much success during its period of operation and issued 25 SSAPs as well as a number of exposure drafts (EDs), Statements of Intent (SOI), and Statements of Recommended Practice (SORP), there were many serious criticism s of its work, leading to its eventual demise. In July 1987, the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB) set up a review of the standard-setting process under the chairmanship of Sir Ron Dearing. The Dearing Report subsequently made a number of very important recommendations. The government accepted all but one of them and in August 1990 a new standard setting structure was set up. ABE and RRC 8 Nature and Scope of Accounting Current Standards Setting Structure The system is centred around the Accounting Standards Board, and the structur e, as recommended by the Dearing Report, is shown in Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1: Standard Setting Structure The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) The Review Panel The Accounting Standards Board (ASB) The Urgent Issues Task Force (UITF) The FRC acts as a policy-making body for accounting standard-setting. (a) Financial Reporting Standards (FRS) The ASB is more independent than the ASC was and can issue standards known as Financial Reporting Standards (FRS). The ASB accepted the SSAPs then in force and these remain effective until replaced by an FRS. The ASB develops its own exposure drafts along similar lines to the ASC; these are known as FREDs (Financial Reporting Exposure Drafts). (b) Statements of Recommended Practice (SORP) Although the ASB believed that Statements of Recommended Practice (SORPS) had a role to play, it did not adopt the SORPS already issued. Not wishing to be diverted from its central task of developing accounting standards, the Board has left the development of SORPS to bodies recognised by the Board. The SORPS issued by the ASC from 1986 differed from SSAPs in that SSAPs had to be followed unless there were substantive reasons to prove otherwise, and noncompliance had to be clearly stated in the notes to the final accounts. A SORP simply sets out best practice on a particular topic for which a SSAP was not appropriate. However, the later SORPs are mandatory and cover a topic of limited application to a specific industry (e.g. local authorities, charities, housing associations). These SORPS do not deviate from the basic principles of the various SSAPs and FRSs currently in issue. (c) Urgent Issues Task Force (UITF) This is an offshoot of the ASB which tackles urgent matters not covered by existing standards or those which, if covered, were causing diversity of interpretation. In these circumstances, the UITF issues a "Consensus Pronouncement" in order to detect whether or not accounts give a true and fair view. (d) Financial Reporting Review Panel This examines contentious departures from accounting standards by large companies. The panel has the power to apply to the court for an order requiring a company's directors to revise their accounts. Apart from the UK Accounting Standards, there are also standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) which was established in 1973. ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 9 Representatives from the United Kingdom sit on this Committee with those of other countries. The need for the IASC arose because of international investment, the growth of multinational firms and the desire to have common standards worldwide. In the United Kingdom, our own standards take precedence over the IASC but most of the provisions of IASs are already contained in existing SSAPs or FRSs. Where there is non-compliance with an IAS, this is disclosed in the UK standard. Statements of Standard Accounting Practice A detailed knowledge of all the current SSAPs and FRSs is not required by your examiners, but you should be aware of what they cover. However, some of the more important standards are dealt with in the main body of this course material under their own topic headings. SSAP 1: Accounting for Associated Companies Where one company has invested in another company and can significantly influence the affairs of that company, then rather than simply show dividends received as a measure of income, the full share of the profits of that company should be shown in the investing company's accounts. SSAP 2: Disclosure of Accounting Practice This standard requires disclosure if the accounts are prepared on the basis of assumptions which differ materially from the generally accepted fundamental accounting concepts. The position must be disclosed as a note to the accounts. (Accounting concepts are more fully covered later on in this study unit.) SSAP 3: Earnings Per Share This SSAP defines how earnings per share is calculated and is covered in more detail later in the course. SSAP 4: Accounting for Government Grants Grants should be recognised in the profit and loss account so as to match the expenditure to which they relate. Capital grants relating to capital expenditure should be credited to revenue over the expected useful economic life of the asset. SSAP 5: Accounting for Value Added Tax This aims to achieve uniformity of accounting treatment of VAT in financial statements. SSAPS 6 and 7 These have been withdrawn. SSAP 8: Treatment of Tax Under the Imputation System in Accounts of Companies This establishes a standard treatment of taxation in company accounts with particular reference to advance and mainstream corporation tax. SSAP 9: Stocks and Long-term Contracts Stocks should be valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value. With long-term contracts the accounts should not recognise profit in advance but should account immediately for any anticipated losses (covered later in the course). SSAPs 10 and 11 SSAP 10 has been superseded by FRS 1 and SSAP 11 has been withdrawn. ABE and RRC 10 Nature and Scope of Accounting SSAP 12: Accounting for Depreciation This SSAP applies to all fixed assets except investment properties, goodwill, development costs and investments. All assets with a finite life should be depreciated by allocating cost less residual value to the revenue account, over their economic lives. The SSAP recognises several different methods but does not insist on which method should be used; the method applied, however, should be consistent. (Covered later in the course.) SSAP 13: Accounting for Research and Development Expenditure on pure (basic) or applied research can be regarded as ongoing to maintain a company's business. Expenditure on developing new and improved products is normally undertaken to secure future benefits, but should still also be written off in the year of expenditure unless it complies with stringent conditions, e.g. the project is commercially viable. SSAP 14 SSAP 14 has been superseded by FRS 2. SSAP 15: Accounting for Deferred Tax This covers the treatment of taxation attributable to timing differences between profits computed for tax purposes and profits as stated in financial statements. Timing differences originating in one period are likely to be reversed in a subsequent period. SSAP 16 SSAP 16 has been withdrawn. SSAP 17: Accounting for Post Balance Sheet Events Any event occurring up to balance sheet date will have affected the balance sheet, but normally it is impossible to alter the accounts after approval by the directors. However, between these two dates some types of events can be adjusted for, e.g. discovery of errors or frauds which show that the financial statements were incorrect. SSAP 18: Accounting for Contingencies A contingency is a situation that exists at the balance sheet date, the outcome of which is uncertain. Contingent losses must be taken into account and the contingent gains left out. Material contingent losses can be disclosed in the notes to the balance sheet. SSAP 19: Accounting for Investment Properties This standard requires investment properties to be included in the balance sheet at open market value. Where investment properties represent a substantial proportion of the total assets the valuation should be carried out by a recognised professional person, and by an external valuer at least every five years. SSAP 20: Foreign Currency Translation This deals with the translation of foreign currency transactions from overseas branches or subsidiaries into sterling. The method used should be disclosed as a note to t he final accounts. SSAP 21: Accounting for Leases and Hire Purchase Contracts This requires that a finance lease (where the lessee takes on the risks and rewards of ownership) should be accounted for by the lessee as if the asset had been purchased. In other words, substance over form. ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 11 SSAP 22: Accounting for Goodwill Goodwill purchased should reflect the difference between the price paid for a business and the fair value of the net assets acquired. Goodwill should not include any value for intangible items; these should be included under the heading of intangible assets in the balance sheet. Purchased goodwill should not remain as a permanent item in the balance sheet. It must either be written off immediately on acquisition against reserves, or amortised against profit and loss on ordinary activities over its useful economic life. (This is covered in more detail later in the course.) SSAP 23: Accounting for Acquisitions and Mergers This deals with the different accounting methods for acquisitions or mergers. (See also FRS 6 later in this Study Unit.) SSAP 24: Accounting for Pension Costs An employer should recognise the cost of providing pensions on an equitable basis in relation to the period over which he derives benefit from services rendered by employees. SSAP 25: Segmental Reporting Information in accounts should be broken down by class of business and geographically (covered later in the course). Financial Reporting Standards 1-7 FRS 1: Cash Flow Statements Cash flow statements replace the source and application of funds statement, so that the emphasis is now on what cash has flowed in or out of the business during the accounting period rather than on how the components of working capital have changed in the year. (See later in the course.) FRS 2: Accounting for Subsidiary Undertakings This deals with preparing accounts for parent and subsidiary companies. FRS 3: Reporting Financial Performance This covers the treatment of extraordinary and exceptional items in financial statements, and requires a statement of total recognised gains and losses to be prepared. (Covered later.) FRS 4: Accounting of Capital Instruments This standard supersedes the Urgent Issues Task Force's (UITF) Abstract 1 "Convertible Bonds" and Abstract 8 "Repurchase of own debt". The subject matter involved is to do with raising finance. FRS 5: Reporting the Substance of Transactions This standard, issued 14 April 1994, ensures that financial statements report the substance of transactions and not merely their legal form. (Covered later.) FRS 6: Accounting for Business Combinations (Acquisitions and Mergers) This standard limits the ability of a company to use merger accounting in accordance with SSAP 23 by setting out a number of conditions which must first be satisfied before merger accounting can be adopted. FRS 6 in conjunction with FRS 7 (see next paragraph) are mandatory for accounting periods commencing on or after 23 December 1994. ABE and RRC 12 Nature and Scope of Accounting FRS 7: Fair Values in Acquisition Accounting All business combinations that do not qualify as a merger in accordance with FRS 6 must therefore adopt acquisition accounting. This Standard ensures that all the assets and liabilities of the acquired company at the date of acquisition are recorded at "fair values" in the financial records of the acquiring company. C. ACCOUNTING PERIODS An owner of a business will require financial information at regular intervals. As we have noted, he or she will want to be able to check periodically how well or badly the business is doing. Financial accounts are normally prepared on an annual basis, e.g. twelve months to the 31 March. Preparing accounts on an annual basis facilitates comparisons between one year and previous years and assists forecasting the next year. For example, there may be seasonal factors affecting the business, which will even out over the year. An ice-cream vendor will expect to make more sales in the summer months than in the winter months. He would not be able to tell if business is improving by looking at accounts for six months ended 31 March 20XX and comparing them with accounts for the six months ended 30 September 20XX. True comparison of profit/loss can be gained only when he examines his accounts for the years (say) 31 March 20X1 and 31 March 20X2. Accounts normally have to be prepared annually for tax purposes as tax is assessed on profits of a 12-month accounting period. In the case of limited companies, accounts are prepared annually to the "accounting reference date". It is necessary to calculate annually the amount of profit available for distribution to shareholders by way of dividend. D. THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ACCOUNTANCY The purpose of SSAP 2: Disclosure of Accounting Policies is to ensure that the fundamental bases on which the accounts of a company are prepared are disclosed in notes to the published accounts, thus enabling any person to understand and interpret them in the light of the information disclosed. The statement distinguishes between fundamental accounting concepts, accounting bases and accounting policies. Accounting concepts These are defined as broad basic assumptions which underline the periodic financial accounts of business enterprises. Four are singled out for special mention (see below). The Companies Act 1985 refers to these four accounting concepts as "fundamental principles", gives them statutory force and takes into account two additional principles, i.e. non-aggregation (assets must be valued individually) and setoff (assets or income cannot be set off against liabilities of expenditure or vice-versa). Accounting bases These are different methods that have been developed for expressing or applying the fundamental accounting concepts, e.g. calculation of depreciation, valuation of stocks. Accounting policies These are the specific accounting bases judged by business enterprises to be the most appropriate to their circumstances and adopted by them for the purpose of preparing their financial accounts. ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 13 The Four Fundamental Concepts These are the fundamental principles referred to in SSAP2. "Going concern" concept The assumption is made that the business entity will continue in existence for the foreseeable future. This is an important concept, as the value placed on the assets of a continuing business is different from the value placed on the assets of a closing business. Stock is normally valued at cost price but if the business were about to cease trading, then the resale value of the stock would be more relevant, as the owner will try to sell off the remaining stock. One obvious problem with this concept is that we can never be entirely sure that the business will continue. The concept also applies to the significant curtailment of any part of the business operation. Consistency concept Once a business has decided which accounting methods it is going to apply and how it is going to interpret the various rules of accounting, it should be consistent in these matters from year to year. Consistency is necessary so that the results of the business, as shown by the accounts, may be compared from year to year. Changes should be adopted only if the old methods, for a good reason, can no longer apply. Concept of prudence The accountant should adopt procedures which do not overstate or anticipate profits and do not understate losses but which do provide for all potential losses. Profit should be included only when it is reasonably certain that cash will be received. Adopting the concept of prudence is a measure against drawing money from the business out of profits which may not materialise, or when a loss arises which had not been anticipated. Accruals concept Revenues and costs are recognised as they are earned or incurred, and not when the money is received or paid. For example, if in year 1 a trader has only paid three of four telephone bills, and in year 2 pays the outstanding bill in addition to the four bills received in year 2, then the outstanding bill should be adjusted for ("accrued") in the accounts of year 1, so that each year is charged with the appropriate telephone costs incurred, rather than with the amount actually paid. Other Concepts of Accountancy In addition to the four basic concepts of accounting, there exist various other conventions, which may be encountered in examinations. (You should note here that, sometimes, the terms accounting "rules", "concepts" and "conventions" are used interchangeably, so do be prepared for this.) Historical cost Accounting information is quantitative information, recorded in monetary value at "historical cost". This means that transitions are recorded at their original price, e.g. purchases of stock are recorded at cost price. Materiality If it would serve no useful purpose, i.e. it is not worthwhile to record an item in a particular way, or to show an item separately in the accounts, then it should not be done. If an item is "immaterial", it may be that the costs of recording it in a particular way outweigh any benefit of doing so. Each business must quantify "materiality" individually as, for example, an item costing 50 might be material to a business with a turnover of 1,000 and a profit of 100, but not to a business with a turnover of 5m ABE and RRC 14 Nature and Scope of Accounting and a profit of 350,000. Also, other conventions may be ignored if the cost of adopting them outweighs the benefit. Matching Income should be included in the accounts in the same accounting period as the expenses relating to that income. Realisation Transactions are recorded when the customer incurs liability for the goods or services (normally, liability is incurred when the goods or services are actually received). Any profit on the transaction is not realised until that time. This convention is in conflict with the economist's view that, if an asset has increased in value, that increase should be recognised. Dual aspect Every transaction involves an act of giving and an act of receiving. For example, if A buys a car from B for 2,500, then A receives a car and "gives" 2,500. It is from this aspect of transactions that the double-entry system of book-keeping developed. ABE and RRC Nature and Scope of Accounting 15 CASE STUDY A: GLOBAL HOLDINGS LTD Throughout the manual, we shall use a number of case studies of businesses to help illustrate the topics under consideration, particularly through relating Review Questions (see below) to the circumstances of the case study. The general background to the first such case study example is set out here. We shall build on this in future units. Background Global Holdings Ltd is a UK based company, created in 1995 by the current Managing Director, Jim Baxter. He served an apprenticeship as a heating engineer and worked for a number of large companies, but having been made redundant on two occasions, Jim decided to start his own business in 1995. He started as a sole trader and did work for a limited number of customers. However, as his reputation for excellent workmanship spread, the demand for his services rose dramatically. Jim joined forces with Tom Watkins, a former work colleague, to form a partnership in 1997. Jim and Tom complemented each other and were able to exchange ideas and launch an ambitious sales strategy which proved to be very successful. As the company's sales continued to rise, Jim and Tom were able to branch out into other activities for example, they opened a showroom and began selling fitted bathrooms and bedrooms. Eventually, the business was converted into a private limited company in 2000. Part 1 Energy Saving Products At this time, many of the company's customers were complaining about the cost of energy, and Jim and Tom spotted in a gap in the market for an energy saving device. In early 2001, they launched their prototype product the Zephron which proved to be very successful. Today, this product is available in three formats: the deluxe, the standard and the economy. These are bought by domestic and industrial customers and can be attached to any central heating system to save energy by identifying inefficiencies and reducing the amount of heating provided in rooms which have been vacated. They generate energy savings per year of between 3% and 12% depending upon the brand (and format) which has been bought. Global Holdings sell all three formats in roughly equal proportions. ABE and RRC 16 Nature and Scope of Accounting Review Questions At the end of each unit in this manual, the questions set out in this section will provide you with an opportunity to consolidate the knowledge and understanding you have gained from studying the unit. They will be a mixture of straightforward questions about key principles or elements of the topics under consideration, and other questions which challenge you t o think about the application or importance of these principles and elements (sometimes in relation to the case studies used in the manual). No answers are given, but you should satisfy yourself that you are able to answer them all adequately before moving on to the next unit. Section A 1. Explain the differences between financial and management accounting. 2. Explain why, as a business grows, its affairs become more complicated. 3. For a large company, such as Marks and Spencers, identify four types of stakeholder and explain how their various interests in the organisation may conflict with one another. Section B 1. Explain the main purpose of accounting standards. 2. Explain how FRS 6 and 7 might protect the interests of stakeholders when companies are involved in mergers and takeovers. Section C 1. Explain why a company interested in taking over a smaller rival would need to analyse its final accounts for the last three years. 2. How can seasonal influences distort a company's financial performance? Section D 1. What problems will a company interested in buying a smaller rival face when attempting to calculate its current value based upon historical cost data? 2. When investigating fraud in an organisation explain why the concept of materiality is important? Case Study A 1. At which point in its development does Global Holdings have a distinct "legal personality"? 2. Explain why, in the early stages of its development, Global Holdings may have struggled to borrow money from a bank and obtain credit from suppliers? 3. At which point in its development would Global Holdings have been most affected by the requirements of the accounting standards laid out in Section B? ABE and RRC 17 Study Unit 2 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Contents Page A. Principles of Double-Entry Book-Keeping 18 B. Ledger Accounts Recording Transactions in the Ledger Rules for Debits and Credits 19 19 21 C. The Accounting Equation 22 D. Balancing Off Why Do We "Balance Off" Ledger Accounts? Procedure for Balancing Off Balancing Off Month by Month 23 23 23 25 E. Classification of Ledger Accounts 28 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 31 18 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger A. PRINCIPLES OF DOUBLE-ENTRY BOOK-KEEPING At the outset here we need to clear about a number of terms and concepts upon which are built the system of double-entry book-keeping. Dual aspect You will recall from the last unit that the system of double-entry book-keeping is based on the dual aspect of transactions, i.e. for every transaction there is a receiving and a giving. For example, if I buy a book and pay cash, I receive a book and give cash. The ledger We record the receiving and giving aspects of business transactions in a book of accounts which we call "the ledger". An account is opened in the ledger for each receiving person or "thing" and for each giving person or "thing". For example, if I am in business and I buy a car, paying by cheque, I would open an account in my ledger for "motor vehicles" and one for "bank". If I then buy a fax machine and pay cash, I would open an account for "office equipment" and one for "cash". Debits and credits We record the receiving aspect of transactions by debiting the "receiving" account and crediting the "giving" account. If we look at the example in paragraph above, we can see which accounts to debit and which accounts to credit. When I buy a car, paying by cheque, I debit the account for motor vehicles as the receiving account, and credit the account for bank as the giving account. When I buy a fax for cash, I debit the account for office equipment as the receiving account, and credit the account for cash as the giving account. Stock It is worth mentioning at this stage that the account for stock is split into an account for "purchases of stock" and an account for "sales of stock". When we purchase goods for resale (i.e. purchase stock) for cash, we debit the account for purchases as the receiving account, and we credit the account for cash as the giving account. If we sell items of stock to Mr X on credit, we debit the account for Mr X as the receiving account and we credit the account for sales as the giving account. Capital The other account at which we should look at this stage, is the capital account. First, do remember that, in our ledger, we keep the accounts which reflect the transactions of a business. In the capital account we record the amount which the proprietor of the business personally pays into the business itself. For example, if Mrs Y starts a business by paying some of her own money into the business bank account, then we debit the bank account as the receiving account, and we credit the capital account as the giving account. If Mrs Y draws cash from the business for her own personal use, we open a drawings account, and we debit the drawings account as the receiving account, and credit the cash account as the giving account. ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger 19 B. LEDGER ACCOUNTS Recording Transactions in the Ledger Each account that we open in a ledger will be shown on a separate page. We shall show the debit entries on the left-hand side of the page and the credit entries on the right-hand side. For example, we represent the bank account in our ledger as follows: Dr Date Bank Details Amount Date Cr Details Amount Let us look at an example. Ms A starts in business on 1 January 20X0 by lodging 500 of her personal money into a business bank account. We would record the event in her books of account in the following way. Dr Bank 20X0 Jan. 1 Cr 20X0 500 Dr Capital 20X0 Jan. 1 Cr 20X0 500 When Ms A later looks at her ledger, she will see from the account for "Bank" that 500 has been lodged on 1 January. She will also want to know where the 500 came from (bearing in mind that she may be recording a large number of transactions and is unlikely to remember the details of each one). Similarly, when Ms A looks at her "Capital" account, she will want to know which account has "received" the 500 that she has paid into the business. Therefore, when we enter a transaction in the ledger accounts, we enter, in the "details" column, the name of account in which we are entering the opposite entry. In the example of Ms A, above, her two ledger accounts now appear as follows. Dr 20X0 Jan. 1 Bank Capital ABE and RRC 20X0 500 Dr 20X0 Jan. 1 Cr Capital Cr 20X0 500 Bank 20 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Ms A can now see from her "Bank" account that the 500 lodged has come from capital, and from her "Capital" account that the 500 paid into the business has been lodged in the bank. Worked example Read through the following example and try to work out what the entries in the ledger accounts will be, before looking at the solution. Mr Fisher started in business by lodging 10,000 of his own money into a business account on 1 March 20X1. On 3 March, he bought a van, paying 3,000 for it by cheque. On 8 March, he purchased goods for resale from Mr Hunter for 1,000 on credit. On 12 March he paid 500 to Mr Hunter by cheque. Let us decide which accounts to debit and which to credit. First, the bank account "receives" 10,000 which is "given" by Mr Fisher personally. So the entries in the ledger accounts will be: Debit: Bank account 10,000 Credit: Capital account 10,000 Secondly, the motor vehicles account "receives" 3,000 and the bank account "gives" 3,000. The entries will be: Debit: Motor vehicles account Credit: Bank account 3,000 3,000 Next, the purchases account "receives" 1,000 which is "given" by Mr Hunter. The entries will be: Debit: Purchases account Credit: Mr Hunter's account 1,000 1,000 Finally, Mr Hunter "receives" 500, "given" by the bank account. The entries will be: Debit: Mr Hunter's account Credit: Bank account 500 500 Mr Fisher's ledger accounts will appear as follows: Dr Capital 20X1 Dr 20X1 Mar 1 10,000 Bank Bank Capital Dr 20X1 Mar 3 20X1 Mar 1 Cr 10,000 Cr 20X1 Mar 3 Motor vehicles Mar 12 Mr Hunter 3,000 500 Motor vehicles Bank 3,000 Cr 20X1 ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Dr Purchases 20X1 Mar 8 Mr Hunter Dr 1,000 Cr 20X1 Mr Hunter 20X1 Mar 12 Bank 500 21 Cr 20X1 Mar 8 Purchases 1,000 Rules for Debits and Credits The types of account which we require in the ledger fall into five categories: Assets which are the resources possessed by the business: property; motor vehicles; bank balance; cash; debts owing to the business; etc. Liabilities which are moneys owing by the business for goods supplied, for expense items and for amounts borrowed. Capital which is the amount supplied by the proprietor to the business. Income which is the revenue of the business. It may be sales; work done; fees earned; rents receivable; commission; etc. Purchases and expenses which are items of expenditure "used up" by the business. Purchases are of goods for resale. Expense items may include, for example, wages, insurance, repairs, rent, etc. Transactions are recorded in the ledger by debiting one account and crediting another. The treatment of the debit and credit will depend on the type of account concerned in the transaction. Table 2.1 sets out the rules. Table 2.1: Rules for debits and credits for particular types of account Debit Credit Assets Increase Decrease Liabilities Decrease Increase Capital Decrease Increase Income Decrease Increase Purchases and expenses Increase Decrease Let's think about each of the entries in the table in turn. One example of a ledger account for an asset is the bank account. If the bank account "receives", then the bank balance has increased so we debit the bank account. If the bank account "gives", then the bank balance has decreased, so we credit the bank account. An example of a ledger account for a liability is the account for a creditor say, Mr X. If Mr X "gives", the liability to pay him increases so we credit his account. If Mr X "receives", the liability to pay him decreases, so we debit his account. Similarly, if the capital account "gives", the liability to pay the proprietor increases, so we credit the capital account. If the capital account "receives", then the liability to pay the proprietor decreases, so we debit the ABE and RRC 22 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger capital account. Let us use sales as our example of an income account. If sales "gives" (i.e. the business sells goods), sales have increased, so we credit the sales account. If sales "receives" (i.e. goods sold are returned), then sales have decreased, so we debit the sales account. Stationery is an example of an expense account. If stationery "receives", the stock of stationery has increased and we debit the stationery account. It stationery "gives" i.e. stationery is returned to the supplier the stock of stationery has decreased, and we credit the stationery account. Worked example Let us go back now to our earlier example of Mr Fisher, and look at his transactions in terms of "increasing" and "decreasing". First, Mr Fisher lodges 10,000 of his own money into the business bank account. The asset of bank has increased and the amount which the business owes to Mr Fisher personally has also increased so, we can see that the entries are: Debit: Bank account Credit: Capital account (increase in an asset) (increase in capital) Second, he buys a van (an asset) and pays by cheque from his bank account (an asset). So, we can agree the entries as: Debit: Motor vehicles account Credit: Bank account (increase in an asset) (decrease in an asset) Next, he purchases goods on credit from Mr Hunter, so the entries are: Debit: Purchases Credit: Mr Hunter (increase in purchases) (increase in a liability) Finally, he pays a cheque to Mr Hunter, so the entries are: Debit: Mr Hunter Credit: Bank (decrease in a liability) (decrease in an asset) C. THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION The accounting equation states that: Assets Liabilities Capital This means that what the business owns is equal to what it owes (to any creditors, other lenders and the proprietor). Let us look at a simple example. If I start in business by paying 500 of my own money into a business bank account, then I have an asset (bank) of 500 and capital of 500. Asset (500) Liabilities (nil) Capital (500) If I then buy a second-hand PC on credit for 150 from Mr W, then I have assets of 500 (bank) 150 (PC), I have a liability to pay Mr W 150, and I have capital of 500. Assets (650) Liabilities (150) Capital (500) We shall see the accounting equation in operation in the unit on balance sheets, later in the course. ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger 23 D. BALANCING OFF Why Do We "Balance Off" Ledger Accounts? We shall use an example to illustrate. Mrs P. Potter commenced in business on 1 January 20X1. The bank account in her ledger appears as follows for the month of January 20X1. Dr 20X1 Jan 1 Jan 9 Jan 17 Jan 23 Jan 31 Bank Capital Sales Sales Cash Sales 2,000 320 205 190 380 20X1 Jan 2 Jan 4 Jan 12 Jan 20 Jan 24 Cr Purchases Motor vehicle Insurance Purchases Motor expenses 400 1,200 110 270 90 We can tell from this account the amounts which P. Potter has lodged in the bank, and the amounts which she has drawn from the bank. We can tell from the narrative where each lodgement has come from (e.g. sales, cash) and where each amount drawn has gone to (e.g. purchases, insurance). What else do we want to know about the bank account? The bank balance. To find how much P. Potter has in the bank at 31 January, we simply add the amounts which she had lodged in the bank (2,000 320 205 190 380 3,095) and subtract the amounts which she had paid out of the bank account (400 1,200 110 270 90 2,070). Her bank balance at 31 January was, therefore, 3,095 2,070 1,025. In this case, P. Potter has a debit balance of 1,025, as the total of the amounts on the debit side of her bank account is greater that the total of the amounts on the credit side. Procedure for Balancing Off In the bank account of Mrs Potter's ledger we want to show that, at 31 January 20X1, the debit side was greater than the credit side by 1,025. We do this by entering the balancing figure on the credit side as follows, and totalling the two columns. Dr 20X1 Jan 1 Jan 9 Jan 17 Jan 23 Jan 31 Bank Capital Sales Sales Cash Sales 2,000 320 205 190 380 3,095 20X1 Jan 2 Jan 4 Jan 12 Jan 20 Jan 24 Jan 31 Cr Purchases Motor vehicle Insurance Purchases Motor expenses Balance c/d 400 1,200 110 270 90 1,025 3,095 "Balance c/d" means balance carried down to the next month. If P. Potter had 1,025 in the bank at the close of business on 31 January, then she also had 1,025 in the bank at the start of business on 1 February. We want to show in the ledger account for bank that P. Potter started off February with 1,025 in the bank. ABE and RRC 24 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger This is done as follows: Dr Bank 20X1 Jan 1 Jan 9 Jan 17 Jan 23 Jan 31 Capital Sales Sales Cash Sales 2,000 320 205 190 380 20X1 Jan 2 Jan 4 Jan 12 Jan 20 Jan 24 Jan 31 Cr 400 1,200 110 270 90 1,025 3,095 Purchases Motor vehicle Insurance Purchases Motor expenses Balance c/d 3,095 Feb 1 Balance b/d 1,025 "Balance b/d" means balance brought down from the previous month. Instead of saying that P. Potter started February with debits of 3,095 and credits of 2,070 in her bank account, we say that she had a debit balance of 1,025. The procedure for balancing off is as follows. (a) Total both sides of the ledger account. (b) Which side is "bigger"? Enter the balancing figure required on the "smaller" side. (c) The total of both sides should now agree. Enter the totals and "rule off" (i.e. underline). (d) Bring the balance down to the beginning of the following month. N.B. Balancing off is normally done every month, though it may be done more, or less frequently. One further point of procedure is worth mentioning. If there is only one entry in a particular ledger account for the month, it is unnecessary to enter the totals. For example, suppose that P. Potter had lodged 2,000 from capital into the bank account and had made no further transactions during the month. Her bank account would appear as follows. Dr 20X1 Jan 1 Bank Capital 2,000 Cr 20X1 If we followed stages (a) to (d) of our procedure list, the bank account would appear as follows. Dr Bank 20X1 Jan 1 Capital 2,000 2,000 Feb 1 Balance b/d Cr 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d 2,000 2,000 2,000 ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger 25 However, in this case we can omit stage (c) entering the totals. Instead we simply rule off, and the account will look as shown below. Dr Bank 20X1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Capital Balance b/d 2,000 2,000 Cr 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d 2,000 Balancing Off Month by Month Now let us suppose that, in our original example, P. Potter made the following transactions in February 20X1: Feb 6 Purchased goods for resale 400, paying by cheque. Feb 18 Sold goods for 140, the money being banked immediately. Feb 21 Paid 60 by cheque for stationery. Feb 27 Received a cheque for 200 from D. Smith, a debtor. Mrs Potter's bank account now appears as follows: Dr Bank 20X1 Jan 1 Jan 9 Jan 17 Jan 23 Jan 31 Capital Sales Sales Cash Sales 2,000 320 205 190 380 20X1 Jan 2 Jan 4 Jan 12 Jan 20 Jan 24 Jan 31 Cr Purchases Motor vehicle Insurance Purchases Motor expenses Balance c/d 3,095 Feb 1 Balance b/d Feb 18 Sales Feb 27 D. Smith Mar 1 Balance b/d 1,025 140 200 1,365 Feb 6 Purchases Feb 21 Stationery Feb 28 Balance c/d 400 1,200 110 270 90 1,025 3,095 400 60 905 1,365 905 Comprehensive example Jean started in business on 1st January 20X1, as a computer consultant. Her transactions for her first two months of trading are listed below. Jan 1 Transferred her car, value 8,400, to the business. Jan 9 Purchased headed notepaper, business cards, etc. to the value of 135, on credit from OK Paper Limited. Jan 10 Received a consultancy fee of 400 by cheque from a client. Jan 19 Paid motor expenses of 90 by cheque. Jan 20 Drew 50 from the bank for business use. ABE and RRC 26 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Feb 2 Invoiced W Watson 200 for work done. Feb 9 Paid OK Paper Limited 20 cash. Feb 22 Drew 40 from the bank for personal use. Her ledger accounts at 1 March 20X1 will appear as follows. Dr Motor Vehicle 20X1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Capital Balance b/d 8,400 8,400 Mar 1 Balance b/d Cr 8,400 Dr 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 28 Balance c/d 8,400 8,400 Capital 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 28 Balance c/d 20X1 Jan 1 Motor vehicle Feb 28 Balance b/d 8,400 8,400 Mar 1 Dr 8,400 8,400 Cr 8,400 Balance b/d Stationery 20X1 Jan 9 Feb 1 OK Paper Ltd Balance b/d 135 135 Mar 1 Balance b/d Cr 135 Dr 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 9 Cash Feb 28 Balance c/d 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 28 Balance c/d 135 135 OK Paper Limited 135 20 115 135 20X1 Jan 9 Feb 1 Cr 135 135 Stationery Balance b/d 135 Mar 1 Balance b/d 115 ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Dr Bank 20X1 Jan 10 Consultancy Fees 400 Cr 20X1 Jan 19 Motor expenses Jan 20 Cash Jan 31 Balance b/d Feb 22 Drawings Feb 28 Balance c/d 40 220 260 400 Feb 1 Balance b/d 260 260 Mar 1 Balance b/d Dr 27 90 50 260 400 220 Consultancy Fees 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d 400 Feb 28 Balance c/d 600 600 Cr 600 Balance b/d Motor Expenses 20X1 Jan 19 Bank Feb 1 Balance b/d Mar 1 400 400 200 600 Mar 1 Dr 20X1 Jan 10 Bank Feb 1 Balance b/d Feb 2 W. Watson 90 90 Balance b/d 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 28 Balance c/d 50 50 20X1 Jan 31 Balance c/d Feb 9 OK Paper Ltd Balance c/d 50 Balance b/d Dr 90 90 Cash 20X1 Jan 20 Bank Feb 1 Balance b/d 20X1 Feb 2 Mar 1 90 Dr Mar 1 Cr ABE and RRC 50 20 30 50 30 W Watson Consultancy Fees Balance b/d Cr 200 200 20X1 Feb 28 Balance c/d Cr 200 28 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Dr Drawings 20X1 Feb 22 Mar 1 Balance b/d 40 40 Cr 20X1 Feb 28 Balance c/d 40 E. CLASSIFICATION OF LEDGER ACCOUNTS The accounts which may appear in the ledger are commonly classified into the following groupings. (a) Personal accounts These are the accounts for each person to whom we sell on credit (i.e. our debtors) and from whom we purchase on credit (i.e. our creditors). The capital account is also a personal account. (b) Impersonal accounts These are all the accounts which are not personal accounts, and they may be subdivided into: real accounts these are our "property" accounts, for instance, vehicles, equipment and nominal accounts these are the accounts for income, purchases and expenses of the business. ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Questions for Practice 1. Mr Plum has been trading for many years. In April 20X2, he makes the following transactions: (a) He buys goods on credit from Miss Peach for 300. (b) He sells goods for cash 150. (c) He pays insurance of 40 by cheque. (d) He pays Miss Peach 150 by cheque. (e) He lodges 50 cash in the bank. Complete the following table with reference to the above transactions, by entering "debit" and "credit", as appropriate. (a) Miss Peach ______________ Purchases (b) ______________ Sales ______________ Cash (c) ______________ Insurance ______________ Bank (d) ______________ Miss Peach ______________ Bank (e) 2. ______________ ______________ Cash ______________ Bank Debbie starts in business on 1 January 20X0 as a mobile hairdresser. Draw up her ledger accounts and enter the following transactions. Jan 6: Debbie pays 1,000 of her own money into a business bank account. Jan 9: Debbie buys a small second-hand car for 600, paying by cheque. Jan 2: Debbie draws 100 cash from bank, for business use. Jan 13: Debbie buys hairdressing supplies for 60 cash. Jan 16: Debbie buys petrol for 10 cash and sets off for her hairdressing appointments. She takes in 60 cash from these appointments. Jan 17: More appointments 70 received in cheques, which Debbie banks immediately. Balance off all the accounts as at 31 January. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 29 30 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Review Questions Section A 1. Case Study A reveals how Jim started his business and was very successful in a very short space of time. Explain what might have happened had Jim taken too much cash out of his fledgling business in the form of drawings. 2. Explain how the double-entry bookkeeping helps to prevent fraudulent transactions. Section B 1. Referring to Case Study A: When Jim Baxter started the business, he admitted that he know literally nothing about bookkeeping. Explain how Jim would have been better equipped to manage his business on a daily basis if he had been more knowledgeable about ledger accounts. 2. Explain the benefits a business can gain by reducing its liabilities. Section C 1. Referring to Case Study A: When Jim Baxter started Global Holdings, he found it very difficult to borrow money from his local bank to finance his development plans. Jim commented, "The bank refused to lend me any money because I had too many liabilities". Explain the nature of any liabilities that could affect a person's ability to borrow money from a bank. Section E 1. Explain the difference between personal and real accounts. ABE and RRC Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger 31 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. credit, debit (b) credit, debit (c) debit, credit (d) debit, credit (e) 2. (a) credit, debit The accounts, balanced off at 31 January, are as follows. Dr Capital 20X0 Jan 31 Balance c/d Dr 1,000 20X0 Jan 6 Feb 1 Cr Bank Balance b/d Bank 20X0 Jan 6 Capital Jan 17 Work done 1,000 70 20X0 Jan 9 Motor vehicle Jan 12 Cash Jan 31 Balance c/d 1,070 Feb 1 Balance b/d Dr 20X0 Jan 9 Feb 1 Bank Balance b/d 600 100 370 1,070 370 600 600 20X0 Jan 31 Balance c/d Cr 600 Cash 20X0 Jan 12 Bank Jan 16 Work done 100 60 160 Cr Motor Vehicle Dr Feb 1 1,000 1,000 Balance b/d ABE and RRC 90 20X0 Jan 13 Hairdressing supplies Jan 16 Motor expenses Jan 31 Balance c/d Cr 60 10 90 160 32 Double-Entry Book-Keeping and the Ledger Dr 20X0 Jan 13 Cash Feb 1 Balance b/d Dr 20X0 Jan 13 Cash Feb 1 Balance b/d Dr 20X0 Jan 31 Balance c/d Hairdressing Supplies 60 60 Cr 20X0 Jan 31 Balance c/d 60 Motor Expenses 10 10 Cr 20X0 Jan 31 Balance c/d 10 Work Done 130 Cr 20X0 Jan 16 Cash Jan 17 Bank Feb 1 130 60 70 130 130 Balance b/d ABE and RRC 33 Study Unit 3 Cash and Bank Transactions Contents Page A. Nature of the Cash Book Twofold Aspect The Three-Column Cash Book How Cash and Bank Columns are Affected The Modern Cash Book 34 34 36 39 43 B. Bank Reconciliation Statement Steps in Reconciling the Two Balances Position when there is a Bank Overdraft 44 44 46 C. Stale and Post-dated Cheques Stale Cheques Post-dated Cheques 47 47 47 D. The Petty Cash Book Simple Form Columnar Form The Imprest System 48 48 50 52 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 55 34 Cash and Bank Transactions A. NATURE OF THE CASH BOOK In Study Unit 2, we said that all accounts are opened in the ledger. As cash and bank transactions are numerous, it is more convenient to remove these two accounts from the ledger and give them a book of account of their own. We call this book the "cash book". The procedure for entering all cash and bank transactions is as previously stated, except that the cash account and bank account are kept in the cash book instead of in the ledger. A specimen cash book is shown in Figure 3.1 and you should examine this carefully before continuing. Figure 3.1: Two column cash book Dr CASH BOOK 20.. Jan 1 3 8 15 20 31 Balance b/d S Jevons D Copperfield M Marks S Jones Sales Feb 1 Balance b/d Cr Cash Bank 20.. 500.00 4,500.00 Jan 3 J Smith 675.50 7 Purchases 895.20 12 S Weller 2,414.50 25 Sundry exp. 283.50 25 Stationery 1,000.00 25 Wages 31 Rent 31 Balance c/d 1,459.00 8,809.70 Cash Bank 1,500.00 2,509.00 825.00 15.00 25.00 150.00 100.00 1,169.00 3975.70 1,459.00 8,809.70 1,169.00 3,975.70 This example is a "two column" cash book as there is a column for cash and a column for bank on each side. Note that, if the cash book was part of the ledger, as in say a computerised ledger, then "cash in hand" and "cash at bank" would be split into two separate ledger accounts. Twofold Aspect We have already pointed out that every transaction involves a twofold aspect, i.e. receiving and giving a benefit. The rule here is for you to debit one account and pass a corresponding credit entry to another account, in order to balance the scale. If you refer to Figure 3.1, you will see that on the 3 January, 675.50 was received from S Jevons and, therefore, debited in the cash book but where is the corresponding credit entry for this transaction? It would be necessary to open up a personal account in the ledger, designated "S Jevons", and credit the amount of 675.50. This now completes the twofold aspect. Dr 20.. S Jevons 20.. Jan 3 Cr 675.50 Cash ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions 35 The same procedure is followed with all the other debit items, and the ledger would reveal the following position. Dr D Copperfield 20.. Dr 20.. Jan 8 Cr Bank 895.20 M Marks 20.. Dr 20.. Jan 20 Bank Cr 2,414.50 S Jones 20.. Dr 20.. Jan 20 Cash Cr 283.50 Sales Account 20.. 20.. Jan 31 Bank Cr 1,000.00 You will observe that all the items appearing on the debit side of the cash book, with the exception of the opening balances, are recorded on the credit side of the various accounts opened in the ledger. This procedure is referred to as "posting the cash book", i.e. you post the information to the ledger from the cash book in order to complete the twofold aspect. As yet, we have only concerned ourselves with the debit side of the cash book but what about the credit side? Here again, we must open up accounts in the ledger and post the amounts to the debit of such accounts thus completing the twofold aspect. When this is done, the ledger will reveal the following position. Dr 20.. Jan 3 J Smith Bank Dr 20.. Jan 7 1,500.00 20.. Cr Purchases Account Bank ABE and RRC 2,509.00 20.. Cr 36 Cash and Bank Transactions Dr S Weller 20.. Jan 12 Bank Dr 825.00 Cr 20.. Sundry Expenses Account 20.. Jan 25 Cash Dr 20.. Jan 25 Cash Dr 20.. Jan 25 Cash Dr 20.. Jan 31 Cash 15.00 Cr 20.. Stationery Account 25.00 Cr 20.. Wages Account 150.00 Cr 20.. Rent Account 100.00 Cr 20.. Rule for Posting Cash Book to Ledger The debit or receipts side of the cash book must be posted to the credit side of all relative ledger accounts. The only items on the debit side of the cash book that are not posted to the ledger are the opening balances already referred to earlier. The credit or payments side of the cash book must be posted to the debit side of all relative ledger accounts. The only items excluded are the closing balances. The Three-Column Cash Book It is quite a regular practice for businesses to offer their customers a certain inducement for the prompt settlement of their accounts. The inducement takes the form of a percentage deduction from their account, and it is termed a "cash discount". For instance, Brown owes a business 20 which is subject to a 5% discount if paid on or before (usually) the 7th of the month following. Now, if Brown pays on or before the stipulated day, he is entitled to a deduction of 1 (5% of 20). He therefore remits 19 in full settlement of the account of 20. In the same way as a business allows a cash discount to its debtors for the prompt settlement by them of their accounts, it is also possible for the business to receive such a concession from its own creditors. The former is known as "discounts allowed" and t he latter as "discounts received". As these discounts come into existence only at the time payment is received or made, it is convenient to record them in the cash book alongside the relative receipt or payment. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions 37 The following example clearly illustrates the working of the three-column cash book incorporating the "discount" columns. Example The following transactions take place during January 20.. : Jan 3 A Jones settled his account of 20 by paying 19 cash. 5 B Brown settled, by cheque, his account of 90, less 5% discount. 6 C Davis paid cash of 50 against his account. 6 Paid J Jasper 38 cash in full discharge of his account of 40. 7 Paid S Salvage his account of 50, less 5% discount. The payment was made by cheque. The three column cash book to record these transactions is as follows, and the ledger accounts are then set out below: Dr Cash Book Discount Cash 20.. Jan 3 A Jones Jan 5 B Brown Jan 6 C Davis 1.00 4.50 5.50 Jan. 8 Balance b/d Dr 20.. Jan 7 Bank Cash 50.00 69.00 20.. Jan 6 J Jasper 85.50 Jan 7 S Salvage Balance c/d 85.50 31.00 2.00 2.50 Bank 38.00 4.50 38.00 31.00 69.00 47.70 38.00 85.50 5.50 20.. Cr Discounts Received Account 20.. Dr 20.. Jan 7 Cash Cr 4.50 B Brown Balance b/d 90.00 90.00 Discount Cash Discounts Allowed Account Dr 20.. Jan 1 19.00 Cr ABE and RRC 20.. Jan 5 Cr Bank Discount allowed 85.50 4.50 90.00 38 Cash and Bank Transactions Dr 20.. Jan 1 A Jones Balance b/d 20.00 20.. Jan 3 Cr 19.00 1.00 20.00 Cash Discount allowed 20.00 Dr 20.. Jan 6 J Jasper Cash Discount received Dr 20.. Jan 7 38.00 2.00 40.00 20.. Jan 1 Cr 40.00 Balance b/d 40.00 S Salvage Bank Discount received 47.50 2.50 50.00 20.. Jan 1 Cr 50.00 Balance b/d 50.00 You will notice that the discount that appears on the debit side of the cash book appears on the debit side of the relative ledger account, and vice versa. Why should this be the case when all other debits are posted to the credit of the ledger, and vice versa? The explanation is simple. In the first place, you must remember that the discount is placed in the cash book alongside the relative receipt or payment for the sake of convenience. It is recorded there by way of memorandum. For instance, the 1.00 and 4.50 appearing on the debit side of the cash book do not represent the debits for those amounts. They assume financial significance only when posted to the debit side of the discounts allowed account in the ledger, and then only in collective form, i.e. the total, 5.50, instead of the cumbersome form of individual amounts. You can see from this that the double entry is accomplished by crediting 1.00 and 4.50 to Jones and Brown, respectively, and debiting the total of 5.50 to the discounts allowed account. The same remarks apply to discounts received, except that debits become credits, and vice versa. You will notice that the debit of 5.50 in the discounts allowed account is balanced by two credit entries 4.50 in the account of Brown, and 1.00 in the account of Jones. Similarly, the credit of 4.50 in the discounts received account is balanced by two debit entries 2.00 in the account of Jasper, and 2.50 in the account of Salvage. The reason why the total figure is transferred from the cash book to the discounts allowed account and discounts received account is merely for convenience. If there are many discount items during the course of a month, this method (i.e. the transfer of the total) saves employees having to list individual discounts in the discounts allowed and discounts received accounts, as these details are already noted in the cash book. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions 39 How Cash and Bank Columns are Affected The following tables set out the entries which appear in the cash and bank columns of a cash book, and the effect of transactions. Cash column Debits or receipts side Credit or payments side The opening balance of cash brought down from a previous period. There can never be an opening balance of cash on this side, as it is impossible to pay out more than you have in the office cash box. All cash received, unless paid into the bank immediately on receipt. All disbursements made other than by cheque. Receipts of cash from bank for office use. All transfers from cash to bank. These are classed as "contra entries" which cause a decrease in cash and an increase in bank funds. These are referred to as "contra entries", which have the effect of increasing cash and decreasing bank. Bank column Debits or receipts side Credit or payments side The opening balance in your favour at the bank. The opening balance in favour of the bank. This is termed an "overdraft", and it represents a loan made by the bank for which an interest charge is payable by the firm. All cash paid direct into the bank by the firm's debtors. All payments made by cheque only. All deposits effected ex-office cash. All withdrawals in favour of office cash. (For the corresponding credit, see point 3 on the credit side of the cash column given above. (For the corresponding debit, see point 3 on the debit side of the cash column given above.) ABE and RRC All bank charges i.e. interest on overdraft, ledger fees, collection charges etc. All cheques returned unpaid by the bank. 40 Cash and Bank Transactions Example The working of the cash and bank columns of the treble-cash book is clearly illustrated but, for the purpose of greater clarity, make a close study of the following worked exercise. 20.. Feb 1 Cash balance Bank balance 150.00 2,850.00 Feb 8 Cash sales to date 1,100.00 Feb 9 Received cheques from the under-mentioned: T Thomson Discount allowed B Baxter (on account) F Fernis Discount allowed Feb 10 Paid the under mentioned creditors by cheque: C Carter P Pickwick J Johnson Discount received Feb 12 Cash disbursements to date Sundry expenses Office stationery Wages Feb 14 Banked Cash sales to date Cash purchases to date Purchases paid for by cheque 475.00 25.00 800.00 950.00 50.00 1,000.00 500.00 475.00 25.00 50.00 25.00 60.00 3,325.00 1,000.00 100.00 1,800.00 Feb 18 Banked 900.00 Feb 25 Issued cheque for rent Withdrew for office use 150.00 250.00 Feb 28 Paid the following amounts from cash: Sundry expenses Office stationery Wages Purchases 40.00 10.00 120.00 50.00 Note: Although it is normal commercial practice to pay all cash receipts including cheques into the bank immediately, this has not been done in this example. Now work these figures through the following cash book and ledger accounts. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions Dr 41 CASH BOOK Cr Receipts Disc Payments Cash Bank Disc 20.. 20.. Feb 1 Balance b/d 150.00 2,850.00 Jan10 8 Sales 1,100.00 9 T Thomson 25.00 475.00 B Baxter 800.00 F Fernis 50.00 950.00 14 Transfer C 3,325.00 Sales 1,000.00 18 Transfer C 900.00 25 Transfer C 250.00 75.00 4,725.00 7,075.00 Mar 1 Balance b/d Cash Bank 1,000.00 500.00 475.00 C Carter P Pickwick J Johnson 25.00 Sundry exp. 50.00 Stationery 25.00 Wages 60.00 Transfer C 3,325.00 Purchases 100.00 Purchases 1,800.00 Transfer C 900.00 Rent 150.00 Transfer C 250.00 Sundry exp. 40.00 Stationery 10.00 Wages 120.00 Purchases 50.00 Balance c/d 45.00 2,900.00 25.00 4,725.00 7,075.00 45.00 2,900.00 You will observe that, when money is paid into or withdrawn from the bank, the expression "transfer" is used. Furthermore, the letter "C" is inserted in the folio column, to indicate that no posting to the ledger is necessary as both the debit and credit entries are in the cash and/or bank accounts. (Sometimes a "tick" is used instead). We shall return to the issue of transfers in more detail after setting out the ledger accounts. Dr 20.. Feb 14 Cash Feb 14 Cash Feb 28 Cash Dr 20.. ABE and RRC Purchases Account 100.00 1,800.00 50.00 20.. Cr Sales Account 20.. Feb 8 Cash Feb 14 Cash Cr 1,100.00 1,000.00 42 Cash and Bank Transactions Dr 20.. Feb 12 Cash Feb 28 Cash Dr 20.. Feb 12 Cash Feb 28 Cash Dr 20.. Feb 25 Cash Dr 20.. Feb 12 Cash Feb 28 Cash Dr 20.. Feb 28 Sundries Dr 20.. Wages Account 60.00 120.00 25.00 10.00 Cr 20.. Rent Account 150.00 Cr 20.. Sundry Expenses Account 50.00 40.00 Cr 20.. Discounts Allowed Account 75.00 Cr 20.. Discounts Received Account Cr 20.. Feb 28 Sundries 25.00 B Baxter Dr 20.. 20.. Office Stationery Account Dr 20.. Cr 20.. Feb 9 Cr 800.00 Cash F Fernis Cr 20.. Feb 28 Cash Discount allowed 950.00 50.00 ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions Dr 20.. Dr 20.. Feb 10 Cash Dr 20.. Feb 10 Cash Discount received Dr 20.. Feb 10 Cash T Thomson 20.. Feb 9 Cr Cash Discount allowed 475.00 25.00 C Carter 1,000.00 20.. Cr J Johnson 475.00 25.00 20.. Cr P Pickwick 500.00 20.. 43 Cr Before proceeding, let us deal with the issue of transfers mentioned above, as it is important that you have an unclouded idea of this phase of accounting. On the 14th, we took 3,325 from office cash, and lodged it in the bank. This decreases cash and increases the bank. As cash gives the benefit, we must credit cash, and as bank receives the benefit, we debit bank. Now, let us look at the cash book. On the debit side, we see "Transfer 3,325" in the bank column and "Transfer 3,325" in the cash column on the credit side. This completes the double entry, and it is, therefore, not necessary to post to the ledger. To indicate this, we place a "tick" or the letter "C" in the folio column. The same remarks apply to the transfer from cash to bank on the 18th. We now turn to the transfer effected on the 25th. Instead of putting money into the bank, we now withdraw money from the bank. This time, we see that cash is increased and bank decreased. We therefore debit cash, because it receives the benefit, and we credit bank, because it gives the benefit thus completing the double entry. As no further posting is necessary, we insert our "C" (or tick) in the folio column. The Modern Cash Book The cash book in general business use is the three column cash book, explained already, one column each being used for discounts, cash and bank on both sides. It is, however, an invariable practice of every soundly-run business to pay all cash receipts into the bank immediately, and to make no cash payments at all (except petty cash payments which are recorded in the petty cash book). Much unnecessary work can, therefore, be saved by eliminating the cash column on the credit side (or not using it at all) and by extending the total of cash receipts for each day into the bank column on the debit side. ABE and RRC 44 Cash and Bank Transactions The following illustration (Figure 3.2) shows how it is done. Work out for yourself the additional entries which would have to be made were "transfers" between cash and bank also shown. Figure 3.2: The modern cash book Dr CASH BOOK Disc 20.. Jan 1 Balance b/d A Abel B Bull C Cain Jan 3 D Dash E Edge F Fall G Gunn Details Cr 1.20 5.00 7.60 10.00 Bank 20.. 1,000.00 Jan 5 Petty cash 93.80 Z Zig 107.80 67.80 269.40 95.00 228.80 274.80 355.50 954.10 Disc Bank 100.00 13.80 B. BANK RECONCILIATION STATEMENT When amounts are paid into your bank account, you debit the bank column in your cash book and the bank credits your current account in its ledger. On the other hand, you credit the bank column in your cash book with all cheques as and when drawn by you, and the bank debits your current account with the amount of these cheques as soon as they are presented and honoured. From this, two points emerge. What appears in the bank column on the debit side of your cash book figures on the credit side of your current account in the bank's books, and vice versa. The balance as shown by your cash book and that reflected in the ledger of the bank do not necessarily agree. This is accounted for by the fact that cheques are debited only when presented. There is yet another reason why the two balances disagree in amount, and this is the omission from the cash book of all bank charges debited in the bank statement. These two balances are reconciled by means of a statement, called a "bank reconciliation statement". Steps in Reconciling the Two Balances (a) Before balancing the cash book, check the bank column with the bank statement. (b) Make a rough note of all amounts credited in your cash book and not entered in the payments column in the statement. (c) Make a further note of all amounts appearing on the debit side of cash book and not shown in the receipts column of the statement. This can arise when you make a deposit at the end of the month at a branch of a bank which does not hold your account, and it is not transferred to your own branch until the beginning of the following month. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions (d) Enter on the credit side of the cash book all items not previously entered, e.g. bank charges, and then balance the cash book. (e) 45 Draw up a reconciliation statement, starting with the balance given in the bank statement to which would be added: "Amounts paid in but not yet credited by the bank." (refer to (c) above) and from which would be subtracted: "Cheques drawn but not yet presented to the bank for payment." The resulting balance should then coincide with that shown in the cash book. Example In order to illustrate the procedure, we shall assume the information shown on the next few pages. Dr CASH BOOK Cr Bank 20.. Mar 1 Mar 5 Mar 12 Mar 31 Balance b/d Transfer Transfer Transfer C C C 1,500.00 600.00 400.00 1,000.00 Bank 20.. Mar 3 Mar 6 Mar 10 Mar 15 Mar 20 Mar 30 Mar 31 L Dark (862) B Light (863) S Grit (864) D Carburettor (865) M Monkhouse (866) Stationery (867) Rent (868) 400.00 600.00 300.00 250.00 150.00 50.00 100.00 Bank Statement Date 20.. Details 1 Mar 5 Mar B/fwd Sundry credits 862 864 Sundry credits 866 863 867 Commission 11 Mar 12 Mar 20 Mar 31 Mar Payments Receipts Balance 1,500.00 600.00 1,500.00 400.00 300.00 400.00 150.00 600.00 50.00 0.50 1,700.00 1,400.00 1,800.00 1,050.00 999.50 We are required to complete and rule off the cash book, and to append the necessary bank reconciliation statement. This is shown next. ABE and RRC 46 Cash and Bank Transactions Dr Cash Book Cr Bank 20.. Mar 1 Mar 5 Mar 12 Mar 31 Balance b/d Transfer Transfer Transfer C C C 1,500.00 600.00 400.00 1,000.00 Bank 20.. Mar 3 Mar 6 Mar 10 Mar 15 Mar 20 Mar 30 Mar 31 L Dark (862) B Light (863) S Grit (864) D Carburettor (865) M Monkhouse (866) Stationery (867) Rent (868) Bank charges Balance c/d 3,500.00 Apr 1 To Balance b/d 400.00 600.00 300.00 250.00 150.00 50.00 100.00 .50 1,649.50 3,500.00 1,649.50 Reconciliation Statement 31 March 20.. Balance as per bank statement add Amount paid in but not yet credited less Cheques drawn but not presented: no. 865 no. 868 Balance as per cash book 250.00 100.00 999.50 1,000.00 1,999.50 350.00 1,649.50 The practice is for credit to be passed by the bank immediately the deposit is received, irrespective of the soundness of the cheques included in the amount paid in. All banks, of course, reserve the right to refuse to pay against such deposits until the cheques have been cleared. This right is usually exercised only in cases of small, unsound accounts. If you are given an item of bank charges in the bank statement and this does not appear in the cash book, first adjust the cash book, before preparing the reconciliation statement. In other words, show the cash book itself with the bank charges entered and the adjusted balance carried down. Then reconcile the bank statement with the adjusted cash book balance. Position when there is a Bank Overdraft Instead of adding amounts paid in but not yet credited, you now deduct; and, instead of deducting cheques drawn but not yet presented, you now add such amounts. In other words, where you previously added you now deduct, and vice versa. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions 47 C. STALE AND POST-DATED CHEQUES Stale Cheques If a cheque is not presented by the holder within six months of the date written upon it, it becomes "stale" or outdated and the bank will refuse payment. Large companies frequently find that cheques issued by them are not presented for payment for some months after issue. That such cheques are outstanding is known on the preparation of the bank reconciliation statement which usually takes place monthly. When more than six months have elapsed from the date of issue, the procedure to be adopted is described below. Write to the bank, asking them to stop payment of the cheques in question. Debit the cash book (in the bank column) and credit the personal account of the person to whom the cheque was given, i.e. the ledger account which was originally debited. The latter is now shown as a creditor in the books or a reversed debit and the stale cheque will disappear from future bank reconciliation statements prepared. Write to the person concerned, enquiring the reason for non-presentation of the cheque. Obtain a satisfactory explanation (and, if possible, the uncashed cheque) before issuing a new cheque. In a modern business this step is usually omitted, leaving it up to the creditor to chase up non-payment. A frequent cause of cheques becoming stale is their being incorrectly dated, e.g. a cheque drawn early in January could, absentmindedly, be dated for the previous year. Post-dated Cheques A post-dated cheque is one which is so dated as to preclude presentation for payment until some time after the actual date of its receipt from the debtor. For example, on 30 September AB may wish to pay a debt of 50 to CD but may have insufficient money in his bank to meet payment of the cheque. He may hope to have sufficient money by 31 October, so he "postdates" his cheque by writing 31 October on the date space. He may now give the cheque to his creditor and be assured that it cannot be debited to his bank account until 31 October. From the creditor's point of view, even a post-dated cheque affords some actionable evidence of a debt but CD will not accept the cheque from AB unless he is certain that AB has justifiable grounds for post-dating it. Having accepted it, he will keep it in his cash-book until 31 October, and then pay it into his bank. Correspondingly, the cash book entries recording the receipt of the cheque and its banking may be made: on the due date (the difficulty about this being that the entry may be omitted unintentionally), or at once, i.e. debit cash, credit debtor; and debit bank, credit cash. If the second method is adopted, any bank reconciliation statement prepared before the due date of the cheque will show it as one of the causes of disagreement between the bank balance and the balance shown by the cash book. It must, however, be shown as "postdated cheque not yet due" and not as "amount paid in but not yet credited". ABE and RRC 48 Cash and Bank Transactions D. THE PETTY CASH BOOK It is very largely present-day practice for businesses to pay all cash received intact into the bank and to record in the cash book only payments made by cheque. There are, however, numerous small payments for which you would not dream of writing out cheques. A separate fund is created to provide for these petty disbursements so inseparably connected with every business. This fund is recorded in a petty cash book, together with all petty disbursements. This book, of original entry, which is really a subdivision of the cash book, is usually given to a junior member of the staff to keep. It will be his or her duty to debit this book with all cash received from the cashier or the accountant, and to credit it with all disbursements made, for which he or she will secure vouchers. The petty cash book is periodically (usually monthly) balanced and posted to the ledger. The folio of the petty cash book is shown in the ledger, and the ledger folio in the petty cash book. The petty cash book folio entered in the ledger is prefixed by the letters "PC". To save time in posting, it is usual to prepare a summary in the case of the simple form of petty cash book, by which is meant the grouping of all expenses of a like character. For instance, you collect and add items for stationery, rather than post individual amounts to the stationery account in the ledger. Another way of summarising all expenditure is to resort to the columnar form of petty cash book, which merely involves the introduction of a column for each class of expenditure of a frequently-recurring nature. The following examples clearly illustrate the two different forms in common use. Simple Form The transactions for a month are shown in the following extract from a typical simple form petty cash book. There will normally be a summary produced at the end of the month and this is shown after the cash book itself. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions Dr PC2 Petty Cash Book Receipts Date 20.. Jan 3 CB folio Amount Date 4 100.00 20.. Jan 4 Jan 6 Jan 8 Details Bus fares Stationery Bus fares Wages cleaner Sundry expenses Bus fares Wages cleaner Wages cleaner Stationery Wages cleaner Balance c/d 100.00 b/d Cr Payments Jan 10 Jan 12 Jan 14 Jan 21 Jan 22 Jan 28 Jan 31 Feb 1 49 Voucher no. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Amount 1.70 10.00 1.30 7.50 2.50 1.20 7.50 7.50 15.00 7.50 38.50 100.00 38.50 Summary 25.00 30.00 2.50 4.20 61.70 Stationery Wages cleaner Sundry expenses Bus fares (16) (24) (13) (10) (6) From the above summary, the various nominal accounts would be debited. Note how the ledger folio numbers are put in parentheses in this summary, giving a cross-reference from the petty cash book to the ledger. The stationery account is illustrated, and the other accounts are similar. Dr 16 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash Stationery Account PC2 25.00 20.. Cr A petty cash account is opened in the ledger, and debited from the cash book with all amounts advanced to the petty cashier for purposes of petty cash. It is credited with the total of the petty cash disbursements for the month. This account contains the true double entries of the accounting system, the petty cash book being merely a memorandum account for gathering together numerous items which are too trivial for individual double-entry postings. ABE and RRC 50 Cash and Bank Transactions Dr Petty Cash Account 20.. Jan. 3 Cash CB4 100.00 20.. Jan 31 Sundries Cr 61.70 PC2 Columnar Form A specimen of this form of petty cash book is shown as Figure 3.3. The nominal accounts affected are debited, the petty cash account credited as indicated above, and the ledger folios are inserted as shown in the example. The only column here which calls for clarification is the one designated "ledger". Where a particular class of transaction is not likely to occur more than once during the month, it is a waste to assign a column to that single item. All such amounts are accordingly extended to the "ledger" column and separately posted. For instance, you pay your electricity account only once a quarter and, therefore, you show it in the "ledger" column. Some firms, however, use the "ledger" column only for items of a purely personal nature, e.g. the payment of a small sum to a person, rather than passing them through the main cash book. There are two particular points you should note at this stage: how the folio numbers are inserted when the analysis columns are totalled; that the total of the analysis columns (postages, stationery, wages, etc.) must agree with the grand total in the "total" column always see that the cross addition of the analysis column agrees with the "total". ABE and RRC ABE and RRC b/d Feb 10 Balance 20.. Date Details 200.00q 389.00q 310 Balance 389.00o 200.00o 189.00o L6 c/ d 10.00o 2.50o 5.00o 20.00o 7.70o 1.50o 2.30o 20.00o 15.00o 5.00o 20.00o 20.00o 15.00o 1.50o 23.50o 20.00o Total 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Voucher PETTY CASH BOOK 200.00q Jan 30 Stamps 189.00q 50 Taxi fare 80 Stationery 90 Wages 110 Cable to Sydney Bus fares 140 Bus fares 170 Wages cleaner 200 Light bulbs 220 Cleaning materials 250 R Smith 270 Stamps 280 Repairs to blind 290 Stationery Notebooks 310 Wages cleaner Folio Amount b/d CB8 Details Jan 10 Balance 310 Cash 20.. Date Dr (40) 37.00iiii 20.00iiii 7.70iiii 10.00iiii 20.00 20.00 20.00 (46) (70) 30.0000 60.00 1.5000 23.5000 5.0000 (52) 41.30iii 15.00iii 15.00iii 5.00iii 1.50iii 2.30iii 2.50iii Postages Stationery Wages Sundry etc. exp. Figure 3.3: Columnar petty cash book PL16 Folio 20.00 20.00 Ledger Cri Cash and Bank Transactions 51 52 Cash and Bank Transactions The Imprest System The "imprest" system merely means that each month is to commence with the same amount as the month before, i.e. the opening monthly balance is to remain constant. If it were decided that 250 sufficiently caters for the monthly petty disbursements, you would commence the system with this amount. If, at the end of the first month, your disbursements amounted to 223.30, a cheque for this amount would be drawn in favour of the petty cashier, which, together with cash in hand of 26.70 would restore petty cash to 250. The petty cashier would then start the following month with the same amount as he or she started the inaugural month namely, 250 which is known as the "imprest amount". This system is very widely used, and it is clearly illustrated in the example of the columnar form of petty cash book. Questions for Practice 1. Under what circumstances would receipts of money be recorded direct in the bank column of the cash book? 2. What do you understand by "contra" entries in the cash book? 3. Prepare a columnar petty cash book from the following information; then post to the ledger. Jan 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 13 14 16 18 20 22 25 27 28 30 31 31 250.00 10.00 25.00 2.50 7.50 5.00 7.50 25.00 Balance brought forward from last month Paid for postage stamps Paid wages Paid sundry expenses Paid for package sent to New York Paid for postage stamps Stationery account paid Wages paid Paid railage on consignment to L Snow 6.20 (whose account must be debited with this charge) Paid for pencils 3.80 Paid cleaner for cleaning offices 7.50 Paid wages 25.00 Paid for stationery 12.80 Package to Canada 7.50 Wages paid 25.00 Stationery 12.50 Paid for sundry expenses 3.00 Bought and paid for notebooks 1.20 Paid for bus fares 1.00 Petty cash reimbursed by cheque from cashier in order to maintain system on imprest basis ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions 4. 53 On 31 October 20.. the cash book of J Lemon showed a balance at the bank of 570. An examination of his records located the following errors. (a) Lemon paid to G Good 175 by cheque on 15 October. This cheque was entered in the cash book as 195. (b) Bank charges not recorded in the cash book amount to 25. (c) A cheque dated 19 October, value 150, payable to T Walk, was not paid by the bank until 5 November. (d) Lemon, on 23 October, received a cheque from R Brown for 125. This cheque was dishonoured on 29 October. No entry for this was made in the cash book. (e) On 31 October a cheque for 200 received from F Light was banked; however, the bank statement was not credited until 1 November. You are required to: (i) (ii) 5. make the necessary entries in the cash book in order to show the revised balance at 31 October 20..; prepare a bank reconciliation as at 31 October 20... Prepare a columnar petty cash book from the following transactions. Mar 1 3 4 6 8 12 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 31 Balance brought down Paid the following: Postages Airmail despatches Stationery Repairs Paid for sundry expenses Wages paid Paid for stationery Paid for airmail despatch to Montreal Paid wages Paid for pens Postages paid for Paid wages Paid amount for M Drysdale which must be debited to his account Airmail despatches paid for Wages paid Paid for sundry expenses Paid railage on goods to customers 250.00 15.00 7.50 20.00 7.70 3.80 15.00 17.50 7.50 15.00 2.00 10.00 15.00 16.20 7.50 15.00 6.30 7.30 A cheque was drawn in favour of petty cash for the amount of its disbursements. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 54 Cash and Bank Transactions Review Questions Section A 1. Explain the difference between discount allowed and discount received and why they need to be recorded in the cash book. 2. Identify two reasons why a business would transfer money between its bank and cas h accounts on a regular basis. 3. Explain why a cash account can never have an opening credit balance. Section B 1. Identify and explain two reasons why the closing bank balance as per the cash bank will be different from the closing balance on the bank statement. 2. Identify an item which could be on the bank statement, but not recorded in the cash book. Section C 1. Explain the reason why a company may send a post-dated cheque to one of its suppliers. 2. Identify and explain two reasons why a cheque may go stale. Section D 1. Explain the reasons why a company would operate a petty cash book. 2. Explain the relationship between the relationship between the cash book and petty cash book. ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. Receipts of money would be recorded in the bank column when paid direct into the bank by the firm's debtors, or when all cash receipts are paid direct into the bank account. 2. All deposits from cash to bank, and all withdrawals from bank to cash, are known as contra entries. This is owing to the fact that both the debit entry and the credit entry appear in the cash book although they are in different columns. 3. The petty cash book is shown on the next page and this is followed by the relevant ledger accounts. ABE and RRC 55 Details Feb 10 Balance Jan 10 Balance 310 Cash 20.. Date Dr b/d b/d CB 20.. Date Details 250.00q 438.00q 310 Balance 10.00o 25.00o 2.50o 7.50o 5.00o 7.50o 25.00o 6.20o 3.80o 7.50o 25.00o 12.80o 7.50o 25.00o 12.50o 3.00o 1.20o 1.00o Total 250.00o 438.00o L9 c/ d 188.00o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Voucher PETTY CASH BOOK 250.00q Jan 30 Stamps 188.00q 40 Wages 60 Sundry expenses 70 Package by air 90 Stamps 100 Stationery 110 Wages 130 L Snow - railage 140 Pencils 160 Cleaner's wages 180 Wages 200 Stationery 220 Package by air 250 Wages 270 Stationery 280 Sundry expenses 300 Notebooks 310 Bus fares Folio Amount PC3 (21) 30.00iiii 7.50iiii 7.50iiii 5.00iiii 10.00iiii 25.00o 7.50o 25.00o 25.00o 25.00o (22) (23) 37.8000 107.50o 1.2000 12.5000 12.8000 3.8000 7.5000 (24) 6.50i 1.00i 3.00i 2.50i Postages Stationery Wages Sundry etc. exp. PC3 93 Folio 6.20 6.20 Ledger Cri 56 Cash and Bank Transactions ABE and RRC Cash and Bank Transactions Dr 9 20.. Jan. 1 Balance b/d Jan 31 Cash Feb 1 Dr 21 PC3 22 24 PC3 ABE and RRC 20.. 37.80 20.. Cr Wages Account PC3 107.50 20.. Cr Sundry Expenses Account PC3 Dr 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash railage on consignment 30.00 Cr Stationery Account 23 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash PC3 188.00 250.00 438.00 Postages Account 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash Dr CB 20.. Jan 31 Sundries Balance c/d Cr 250.00 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash Dr 250.00 188.00 438.00 Balance b/d 20.. Jan. 31 Petty cash Dr Petty Cash Account 57 6.50 20.. Cr L Snow PC3 6.20 20.. Cr 58 Cash and Bank Transactions 4. (i) Revised Cash Book 20.. Oct 31 Oct 15 Balance b/d Adjustment on cheque, G Good 570 20 20.. Oct 31 Oct 29 Oct 31 Bank charges Dishonoured cheque R Brown Balance c/d 590 Oct 31 (ii) Balance b/d 25 125 440 590 440 Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31 October 20.. Balance as per bank statement add Amount paid in but not yet credited less Cheques drawn but not presented: 19 Oct. T. Walk Balance as per cash book 390 200 590 150 440 ABE and RRC ABE and RRC b/d CB b/d Apr 10 Balance 20.. Date Details 250.00q 438.80q Balance 250.00q Mar 30 Postage 188.80q Airmail despatches Stationery Repairs 40 Sundry expenses 60 Wages 80 Stationery 120 Airmail despatches 130 Wages 150 Pens 180 Postage 200 Wages 230 M Drysdale 250 Airmail despatches 270 Wages 310 Sundry expenses Railage outwards Folio Amount Mar 10 Balance 310 Cash 20.. Details c/ d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Voucher 250.00o 438.80o 188.80o 15.00o 7.50o 20.00o 7.70o 3.80o 15.00o 17.50o 7.50o 15.00o 2.00o 10.00o 15.00o 16.20o 7.50o 15.00o 6.30o 7.80o Total PETTY CASH BOOK Folio (1) 47.50iiii 7.50iiii 10.00iiii 7.50iiii 15.00iiii 7.50iiii 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 Folio (2) Folio (3) 39.5000 60.00 2.0000 17.5000 20.0000 Folio (4) 10.10iii 6.30 ii 3.80 ii Postages Stationery Wages Sundry etc. exp. 14 17 7 Folio 31.70io 7.80io 16.20oi 7.70oi Ledger Cri 5. Date Dr Cash and Bank Transactions 59 60 Cash and Bank Transactions ABE and RRC 61 Study Unit 4 Recording Business Transactions Contents Page A. The Journal Purpose Layout 62 62 62 B. Opening Statement of Assets and Liabilities 63 C. Drawings 66 D. The Purchases Book Posting Classification of Purchases Trade Discount 68 68 69 72 E. The Sales Book Cash Sales Credit Sales 72 72 72 F. Returns and Allowances Books Debit and Credit Notes Inward and Outward Aspects Carriage The Book-keeping Entries 73 73 73 74 74 G. A Typical Transaction 77 Answer to Question for Practice 83 ABE and RRC 62 Recording Business Transactions A. THE JOURNAL Purpose Nothing is recorded in the ledger until the transaction is first passed through a book of original entry, i.e. a subsidiary book. This is an important rule, which you must remember. In the early history of double-entry book-keeping, the journal was the only book of subsidiary entry which was kept. All transactions were recorded in the journal or "day book" as it was called. Gradually, however, as certain types of transaction became more numerous (such as sales and purchases), the journal was divided into sections, and then into separate books. Each section or book was devoted exclusively to recording one particular type of transa ction. Nowadays, the specialised subsidiary books are the cash book (petty cash book), purchases and sales books, and the purchases-returns and sales-returns books. All transactions that cannot be passed through one of these books are passed through the j ournal. The journal is, therefore, a day book for miscellaneous transactions. In addition, it serves another useful function: where a transaction arises from abnormal circumstances, or is exceptionally complicated, a full explanation can be written in the journal, so that the exact nature of the transaction can be seen if it is queried at a later date for instance, by the auditor. Furthermore, where one debit item corresponds to a number of small credit items, the journal shows that the credit items have been correctly entered in the ledger to complete the double entry. Layout The journal is drawn up with the first column for the date, a wider column for the narration, a folio column, and two columns for pounds and pence. The first of these money columns shows amounts to be posted to the debit side of the ledger, and the second money column shows amounts to be posted to the credit side of the ledger. Example On 12 March, a filing cabinet was purchased for 104.30 and a desk for 152.00, both on credit, from Office Services Ltd. On 15 March, a delivery van was sold on credit to P Q Garages Ltd, for 2,500. The journal entries are as follows. Journal 20.. Mar 12 Office equipment account Office furniture account Office Services Ltd Dr Dr Dr 6 7 12 Cr 104.30 152.00 256.30 Being a credit purchase of filing cabinet and office desk Mar 15 P Q Garages Ltd Motor vehicle account Dr 14 5 2,500.00 2,500.00 Being credit sale of delivery van Note the layout of the journal. The narration, i.e. explanation, is always given, and then the entry is ruled off. Amounts entered in the debit column must be equal to amounts entered in ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions 63 the credit column before each entry is ruled off but these columns are not totalled. The appropriate ledger folio is given, and the journal folio entered in the ledger is prefixed "J". B. OPENING STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES It often happens that you are required to work an exercise with a list of assets and liabilities. In practice, an opening statement is prepared only when a new business is formed or acquired, or some similar change takes place. In an examination, prepare such an opening statement only if it is quite clear that the question requires it. If you have to open a set of books, the best method is to open a statement in the journal under the heading "Opening Statement of Assets and Liabilities as at ..................... (date)". In this statement, all the assets and liabilities are systematically set out and then posted to the ledger, before current transactions are entered therein. Example The following worked example will prove helpful. Wilfred Chesterfield had the following assets and liabilities on 1 January. Cash in hand Cash in bank Debtors: T Brown S Syder M Miles Creditors: L Lloyd M Reenen J Timothy 150.00 2,950.00 860.00 240.00 725.00 460.00 150.00 600.00 He also had the following assets. Office furniture Stock 1,000.00 3,500.00 We are required to ascertain his capital, and then to open his books with the above items. Before starting on our opening statement, let us arrive at the proprietor's capital. If the proprietor were to realise all his assets at the figures quoted and discharge his liabilities, then any cash that remains represents his capital. From this, it is easy to understand that the proprietor's capital represents the excess of assets over liabilities. His assets come to 9,425.00 and his liabilities add up to 1,210.00 leaving an excess of 8,215, which represents capital. Examiners are very fond of omitting capital from this type of exercise but, as can be seen from the above, it is easily ascertainable. Having fixed his capital at 8,215.00, we make the opening statement in the form as set out on the following pages. ABE and RRC 64 Recording Business Transactions Journal Opening statement of assets and liabilities as at 1 January 20.. Cash in hand Cash in bank Office furniture Stock Sundry debtors: T Brown S Syder M Miles Sundry creditors: L Lloyd M Reenen J Timothy Capital account Dr Dr Dr Dr CB1 CB1 1 2 150 2,950 1,000 3,500.00 Dr Dr Dr 3 4 5 860.00 240.00 725.00 6 7 8 9 9,425.00 460.00 150.00 600.00 8,215.00 9,425.00 The next step is to post the first two items to the cash book and the rest to the ledger, as shown. 1 Cash Book Dr Receipts Payments Cash 20.. Jan 1 Balance Dr 20.. Jan 1 150.00 1 20.. Jan 1 Dr J1 Bank Cr Cash 20.. Bank 2,950.00 Office Furniture Account Petty cash J1 2 1,000.00 Cr 20.. Stock Account Balance J1 3,500.00 Cr 20.. ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions Dr 3 20.. Jan 1 Dr Balance Balance J1 240.00 6 Cr 20.. 7 8 20.. Jan 1 Cr Balance J1 20.. Jan 1 20.. Jan 1 Balance J1 20.. Jan 1 600.00 Cr Balance J1 Capital Account 460.00 Cr M Reenen 20.. 20.. J Timothy 9 Cr L Lloyd 20.. Dr 20.. S Syder 20.. Dr J1 725.00 5 20.. Dr Cr M Miles Balance 20.. Jan 1 Dr J1 860.00 4 20.. Jan 1 Dr T Brown 150.00 Cr Balance J1 8,215.00 Having completed this, our next step would be to record in the books the transactions that would ordinarily follow in the course of business. ABE and RRC 65 66 Recording Business Transactions C. DRAWINGS In order to meet his private needs, the proprietor periodically withdraws sums of money from the business usually, in anticipation of profits which he reasonably assumes will result. Drawings can also be in the form of goods but this will be explained in a later study unit. Where no profit is made, such withdrawals would reduce capital. No matter which it is, the method of accounting is the same. As these withdrawals do not constitute an expense connected with the running of the business, they are not debited to the business but to the recipient of the benefit, i.e. the proprietor. To accomplish this, a drawings account is opened in the ledger, to which all cash withdrawals are debited from the cash book. It is, therefore, easy to see, from time to time, the total of the proprietor's drawings. This account is in the nature of an intermediary account in which all individual drawings accumulate until the final accounts (dealt with in a later study unit) are prepared, when the total is transferred to the debit of the proprietor's capital account. This practice serves to relieve the capital account of all unnecessary detail. Example Tom Johns, the proprietor, withdrew for private purposes the following amounts on the dates indicated. Jan 12 From office cash 20.00 Feb 1 From bank 200.00 Mar 6 From cash 35.00 From bank 185.00 Apr 15 By cheque 250.00 These drawings would be shown in his books as follows. Firstly the cash book: 2 Dr Cash Book Receipts Payments Cash 20.. Bank Cr Cash 20.. Jan 12 Feb 1 Mar 6 Apr 15 Drawings Drawings Drawings Drawings 8 8 8 8 20.00 35.00 Bank 200.00 185.00 250.00 The ledger would be made up as follows: ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions Dr 8 20.. Jan 12 Feb 1 Mar 6 Apr 15 Drawings Account Cash Bank Cash & bank Bank CB2 CB2 CB2 CB2 20.00 200.00 220.00 250.00 67 Cr 20.. Let us assume that final accounts have been prepared for the half-year ended 30 June and the net profit amounts to 1,800. His capital at the beginning of the year was 8,000. His capital and drawings account would be as shown next. Dr 6 Capital Account 20.. Jun 30 Drawings Jun 30 Balance c/d J6 690.00 9,110.00 9,800.00 Cr 20.. Jan 1 Balance b/d Jun 30 Profit JS Balance b/d Dr 20.. Jan 12 Feb 1 Mar 6 Apr 15 8 Drawings Account Cash Bank Cash & bank Bank CB2 CB2 CB2 CB2 20.00 200.00 220.00 250.00 690.00 20.. Jun 30 Capital account J 8,000.00 1,800.00 9,800.00 9,110.00 Cr 690.00 690.00 Let us reason this out together. We are told that the proprietor had 8,000 to his credit at the beginning of the year. This was his investment in the business, and it was credited to his capital account. It remains intact until he wishes to increase or reduce his investment. The profit for the six months to 30 June amounts to 1,800, and this is credited to his capital account. His various drawings have been debited to the drawings account. The total is now transferred to the capital account. The proprietor, therefore, has two accounts. The capital account, showing his investment in the business. A drawings account, showing drawings as they take place. The drawings account is not written off to the capital account until the final accounts are prepared, and it is then transferred by means of a journal entry. ABE and RRC 68 Recording Business Transactions D. THE PURCHASES BOOK There are two methods of purchase open to a merchant when in the market for goods. He or she either pays cash or secures the goods on credit. Goods obtained by the first method are known as "cash purchases", and those acquired by the second method are "credit purchases". Cash Purchases Wherever goods are bought for cash, the entry is first recorded in the cash book on the credit side, and then posted to the debit of the purchases account in the ledger. The cash book is the book of original entry for all cash transactions. Credit Purchases A subsidiary book, or book of original entry, variously known as a "purchases book", "bought day book" and "invoice book", is brought into use for this class of transaction. This book assumes various forms but, for the present, we suggest that you concentrate on the form given here, rather than complicating the issue by a premature study of advanced form of ruling. All invoices received in respect of goods purchased are first of all checked and, if found to be in order, they are entered in the purchases book for posting to the ledger. They are then filed for future reference. The purchases book is ruled to give the information shown below. Purchases Book Invoice Date Folio Amount of Invoice Goods Value Amount of VAT No Name of Creditor In view of the fact that invoices are received from different commercial houses, they bear widely-varying numbers which are impossible to use for filing purposes. To overcome this, it is customary to use one's own numbers from 1 upwards, which could be placed on the invoice by a numbering machine or a distinctive coloured pencil. It is this number that is entered in the purchases book. It is usually sufficient just to quote the name of the creditor but, where identification is necessary, the address could be given. Details of each purchase are sometimes recorded in the purchases book but we do not consider this practice necessary, unless the prevailing system of accounting is such as to make this absolutely imperative. Whatever detailed information may, from time to time, be required can be obtained from the invoice itself, which is filed for this specific purpose. Posting All those names in the purchases book are creditors, because they yielded the benefit of the goods in question. It will therefore be necessary for us to credit the amounts given against their names to their personal accounts in the ledger. When this is accomplished, we must direct our attention to the other aspect of the transaction, i.e. the corresponding debit necessary to complete our double entry. Now, how is this effected? ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions 69 It is a general practice for the purchases book to be totalled periodically (usually monthly), and it is this total that is debited to the purchases account in the ledger. From this, you will see that the posting of the credits is effected individually, whereas the debit is posted in collective form. This sufficiently satisfies the requirements of double-entry accounting. Classification of Purchases In precisely the same way as we have two distinct methods of purchase, so we have two distinct forms of purchase. These are classified as "trade" purchases and "general" or "other" purchases. Trade purchases represent goods intended for resale at a profit, i.e. goods in which it is the firm's business to trade. For instance, the purchase of motor cars by a motor -car dealer is a trade purchase, because he professionally deals in motor cars. Compare this with the case of a butcher who buys a motor car for delivery purposes. It is not the profession of a butcher to deal in motor cars, as he is essentially a supplier of meat. So, in this case, such a purchase would be classified as "general" or "other". The important point to be borne in mind here is that all purchases on credit are to be entered in the purchases book, which is analysed like the petty cash book. All cash purchases are entered in the cash book. The following diagram (Figure 4.1) will assist you in understanding how purchases are dealt with. Figure 4.1: Classification of Purchases Purchases Trade General or "Other" Cash Cash Credit Cash Book Purchases Book Cash Book Purchases Book or Journal Cr Cash book (cash or bank) Cr. Personal accounts of creditors Cr. Cash book (cash or bank) Cr. Personal accounts of creditors Dr. Purchases account Credit Dr. Purchases account with the total shown in the purchases book Dr. Relative account Dr. Relative account ABE and RRC (if stationery is purchased, then the relative account would be the stationery account; if furniture then it would be the furniture account, and so on) 70 Recording Business Transactions Worked Example Credit purchases for the month of January are as shown. Jan 6 R Ramey & Co. Ltd 3,500.00 T Wilson Ltd M Morgan & Son 155.00 S Jasper & Co. 254.20 T Wilson Ltd 154.40 W Drysdale Jan 15 850.00 83.30 M Morgan & Son R Ramey & Co Ltd 250.00 J P Lee Jan 31 154.30 S Jasper & Co Jan 28 285.20 555.30 W Drysdale 54.30 We are required to enter these in the appropriate book of original entry and post to the ledger. This is done as shown below. 1 Purchases Book Invoice No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Dr Date 20.. Jan 6 Jan 15 Jan 28 Jan 31 Name of Creditor Folio R Ramey & Co Ltd T Wilson Ltd M Morgan & Son S Jasper & Co T Wilson Ltd W Drysdale M Morgan & Son R Ramey & Co Ltd S Jasper & Co J P Lee W Drysdale Purchases Account Dr 1 20.. Jan 31 Sundry creditors PB1 6 7 5 3 7 2 5 6 3 4 2 1 Amount of Invoice 3,500.00 850.00 155.00 254.20 154.40 83.30 285.20 154.30 250.00 555.30 54.30 6,296.00 Purchases Account 6,296.00 Cr 20.. ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions Dr 2 20.. W Drysdale Cr 3 20.. 20.. Jan 15 Purchases PB1 83.30 Jan 31 Purchases Dr 71 PB1 54.30 S Jasper & Co. 4 20.. Dr 20.. 20.. Jan 6 PB1 PB1 250.00 J P Lee 5 Purchases 254.20 Jan 28 Purchases Dr Cr Cr 20.. Jan 28 Purchases PB1 555.30 W Morgan & Son 6 20.. Purchases PB1 155.00 Jan 15 Purchases Dr 20.. Jan 6 Cr PB1 285.20 R Ramey & Co. Ltd 7 20.. Purchases PB1 3,500.00 Jan 28 Purchases Dr 20.. Jan 6 Cr PB1 154.30 T Wilson Ltd 20.. Jan 6 Cr Purchases PB1 850.00 Jan 15 Purchases PB1 154.40 The folio of the purchases book quoted in the ledger must be prefixed by the letters "PB". Never at any time must you ditto a folio number. Remember this, as it is most important. ABE and RRC 72 Recording Business Transactions Trade Discount This is an allowance which is made in the f orm of a percentage deduction from the list or catalogue price of the goods sold, in order that the goods may be re-sold at a profit. A firm may supply goods to retailers and also directly to the public. In such a case, the retailers will, usually, be allowed trade discount based upon the retail prices as shown in the price list of the wholesaler. For example, a shoe manufacturer may sell two types of shoe in his own shop at 37.50 and 25.00 per pair, respectively. If another retailer purchased the shoes from the manufacturer, he would expect to receive a trade discount of, say 20% in order to resell the shoes at the same price. This 20% would cover his wages, overheads and profit. The trade discount would amount to 7.50 and 5.00 per pair, respectively. In many industries, prices are subject to frequent and, often, sudden fluctuations, caused by a variety of factors. To avoid waste of time and money consequent upon a new issue of price lists or catalogues, the discount rate is adjusted to meet the requirements of the alteration. This reduces the actual prices charged to the correct selling prices. It is of the utmost importance for you to avoid confusing "trade" discount with "cash" discount, with which we dealt in an earlier study unit. Cash discount is earned for prompt payment. Trade discount does not appear in your books at all. When the invoice is received, it is the net, and not the gross, amount that is entered in your purchases book. In other words, the trade discount is first deducted from the list price shown on the invoice, and then the amount as reduced is entered in the purchases book. E. THE SALES BOOK Cash Sales In the same way as there are cash and credit purchases, there are cash and credit sales. To a fairly considerable extent, retail business is conducted on a cash basis but precisely the opposite is in vogue in connection with wholesale trade and manufacturing businesses. Wherever goods are sold for cash, the entry is dealt with through the cash book. Credit Sales Immediately trade goods are sold, an invoice is made out in duplicate. The original is sent to the customer and a copy is filed for purposes of reference. All these invoices are entered in a sales book, ruled in a manner identical to that of the purchases book. The only difference between the two is in the posting of the ledger. Instead of being creditors, the persons now named are debtors, and their ledger accounts are debited with the amounts given. Of course, the total now represents sales, not purchases. ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions F. 73 RETURNS AND ALLOWANCES BOOKS Every business that buys and sells goods, finds that there are occasional causes for complaint. For example, the goods may be damaged in transit, not of the quality ordered, or not of the correct type. The matter is adjusted between the two parties, either by a return of the goods or by an allowance being made in the price charged. We can define the differences between these as follows. Return of goods where the goods complained of are actually returned to the seller. An allowance where the goods complained of are retained but an adjustment in the price charged is made by the seller. The former involves a physical movement, which is not so in the case of the latter. Debit and Credit Notes From the point of view of book-keeping, returns and allowances are, generally, treated through the one account although, in practice, you might occasionally come across a returns account as well as a allowances account. The commercial procedure adopted in the event of a return of an allowance is quite easy to follow. The purchaser prepares what is known as a "debit note" (D/N), which corresponds very closely to an invoice, and which is forwarded to the seller who, if satisfied, accepts and gives a credit note (C/N) in exchange. In practice, debit notes are often not used, the purchaser writing a letter or telephoning if there is a complaint; but credit notes are always used, as the amount of an invoice has to be adjusted. However, where VAT is involved Customs and Excise requires all transactions to be supported by a prime document i.e. purchase invoice, sales invoice, debit note or credit note. There are many businesses which make additional charges on their invoices for packing cases, tins, barrels, drums, etc. These are classified as "returnables" only where it is the customary practice in that trade for these containers to be returned when empty. If this is the practice, then credit notes would be issued by the seller on receipt of the returnables. Inward and Outward Aspects Where book-keeping is concerned, there are two aspects to returns and allowances: from the point of view of the seller, and from that of the purchaser. Returns and allowances inwards If goods previously sold are returned to the seller, such a transaction is viewed as "inwards" by the seller. A moment's reflection will show you that the goods move inwards from the purchaser to the seller and, therefore, this entitles the former to receive credit for them. We cannot adopt precisely the same form of reasoning in the case of allowances, because there is no physical movement of goods. Here, we are guided solely by the movement of liability. When goods are sold and delivered in terms of the contract, the purchaser is liable, to the seller, for the contract price of the goods. From this, we see that the liability moves towards the purchaser. Now, if the purchaser applies for a justifiable reduction in price, there is a reverse movement of liability in respect of that portion of the contract price. In other words, the liability moves inwards towards the seller and, here again, this entitles the purchaser to a credit note in respect of the reduction. ABE and RRC 74 Recording Business Transactions Returns and allowances outwards Where goods previously purchased are returned by the purchaser, the transaction is regarded as "outwards" by the purchaser. Where the liability in respect of allowances moves from the purchaser to the seller, in respect of goods previously purchased, such movement is outwards. Carriage Again there are two aspects to this. Carriage inwards that relating to expenses incurred on purchases. Carriage outwards that relating to expenses incurred on sales. You must remember that, unlike the other inwards and outwards aspects, when carriage in and out appear in the books of a trader or company, they both represent an expense and they should, therefore, appear on the debit side of the trial balance. The Book-keeping Entries We now open two new subsidiary books, known as a "returns and allowances inwards book" and a "returns and allowances outwards book", which are identical in form and ruling to the purchases and sales book. Returns and allowances inwards book All returns and allowances inwards are entered in this book of original entry and posted to the ledger. All personal accounts in the ledger are credited with their individual amounts, and the total is debited to a returns and allowances inwards account in the ledger. The personal accounts mentioned here are those of your debtors. Returns and allowances outwards book All returns and allowances outwards are recorded in this subsidiary book and posted to the ledger. All personal accounts in the ledger are debited with their respective amounts, and the total is credited to a returns and allowances outwards account in the ledger. The personal accounts referred to here are those of your creditors. Returns, inwards and outwards, are also, respectively, known as "sales return" and "purchases return". Example Jan 3 Jan 6 Jan 8 Returned goods to Dandy Ltd as being inferior to those ordered and received their C/N for 185.30 Claimed and was allowed a reduction in price for faulty goods delivered by S Swinton & Son for which a C/N was received for 53.30 S Jenkinson returned damaged goods and claimed on us as per their D/N for 225.30 Jan 12 C/N passed in favour of J Robertson for empties returned Jan 18 Claimed on Dandy Ltd for empties returned and was allowed 54.20 100.00 Jan 25 S Boydell was dissatisfied with the price charged for the goods delivered and we accordingly passed C/N for 50.00 ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions 75 The entries in the books are as follows: Returns and Allowances Inwards Book Credit note No Name of Debtor Folio Amount Date 20.. 201 Jan 8 202 Jan 12 203 Jan 25 S Jenkinson J Robertson S Boydell Returns and allowances inwards account Dr 4 5 3 225.30 54.20 50.00 1 329.50 Returns and Allowances Outwards Book Debit note No Name of Creditor Folio Amount Date 20.. 681 Jan 3 682 Jan 6 683 Jan 18 Dandy Ltd S Swinton & Son Dandy Ltd Returns and allowances outwards account Cr 6 7 6 185.30 53.30 100.00 2 338.60 The ledger accounts are then made up as follows. Dr 1 Returns and Allowances Inwards Account 20.. Jan 31 Sundry debtors RB1 Dr 2 329.50 20.. Returns and Allowances Outwards Account 20.. Sundry debtors RB1 329.50 20.. Jan 31 Sundry creditors RB1 Cr Cr 338.60 If you have difficulty in deciding which return is a debit and which is a credit, remember that the entry must be on the side opposite to the original entry to which it relates as in the following example. ABE and RRC 76 Recording Business Transactions Purchases Account Original entry Purchases Returns or Returns Outwards Entry here Sales Original entry Sales Returns or Returns Inwards Entry here Dr 3 S Boydell 20.. Dr 4 5 20.. Jan 3 20.. Jan 8 6 Returns & allowances Jan 18 Returns & allowances RB1 50.00 Cr Returns & allowances RB1 225.30 J Robertson 20.. Dr 20.. Jan 25 Returns & allowances S Jenkinson 20.. Dr Cr 20.. Jan 12 Returns & allowances Cr RB1 54.20 Dandy Ltd RB1 185.30 RB1 Cr 20.. 100.00 ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions Dr 7 20.. Jan 6 Messrs S Swinton & Son Returns & allowances RB1 53.30 20.. 77 Cr "RB" quoted in the folio column in the ledger stands for "returns book", and it must prefix all folio numbers entered in the ledger from either the returns inwards or returns outwards book. It is obvious to which book the reference is. G. A TYPICAL TRANSACTION We shall now consider a typical transaction in which the seller is Alpha Wholesalers plc and the purchaser is the Premier Grocery Shop. The seller will first send a price list to the purchaser, who will make an order. The goods will be despatched with a delivery note, the latter being a carbon copy of the invoice, with the prices and money columns obliterated. The purchaser can check the goods against the delivery note on arrival. A second copy of the delivery note is signed by the purchaser and returned to the driver as proof of delivery. When goods are sent by a carrier, an advice note, similar to the delivery note, is sent by post, so that the purchaser knows the goods are on the way. A consignment note is used instead of a delivery note. This is an instruction to the carrier, and it is more detailed. When the goods are delivered, the carrier's delivery book is signed as proof of delivery. The invoice is sent by post to the purchaser separately from the goods. It is sometimes sent before despatch in place of the advice note. The invoice shows the liability of the parties and whether any cash discount is obtainable. A credit note is sent by the seller if the invoice overcharges or if it is agreed to reduce the price because of a complaint by the purchaser, or if chargeable containers are returned empty. The credit note is, usually, printed in red. If the invoice undercharges for the goods, a supplementary invoice will be sent by the seller. At the beginning of each month, the seller will send a statement of account to all debtors, showing their liability and requesting payment. It will start with the balance brought forward from the previous month, then list the invoices and credit notes issued during the month, and it ends with the total debt outstanding. The following figures illustrate all the various elements involved in the process of purchasing a few groceries from a wholesaler. ABE and RRC 78 Recording Business Transactions ALPHA WHOLESALERS PLC 50 Church Road Southampton PRICE LIST Jams and preserves Strawberry jam 450g jar 4.00 per doz. Raspberry jam 450g jar 3.50 per doz. Plum jam 450g jar 3.00 per doz. Tinned rhubarb 350g tin 3.00 per doz. Tinned pears 350g tin 3.50 per doz. Orders over 50 carriage paid 2% one month ORDER Order no. 345 PREMIER GROCERY SHOP 20 Winters Way Portsmouth 1 August 20.. To: Alpha Wholesalers Ltd 50 Church Road Southampton Please supply: 4 doz. jars strawberry jam @ 4.00 per doz. 2 doz. tins rhubarb @ 3.00 per doz. 2 doz. tins pears @ 3.50 per doz. pp Premier Grocery Shop ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions INVOICE Invoice no. 9876 8 August 20.. ALPHA WHOLESALERS PLC 50 Church Road Southampton To: Premier Grocery Shop 20 Winters Way Portsmouth Order No. 345 Terms: 2% one month Quantity Description 4 doz. 2 doz. 2 doz. Price per doz. Strawberry jam Tinned rhubarb Tinned pears 4.00 3.00 3.50 Carriage extra 16.00 6.00 7.00 29.00 2.50 31.50 Per own vehicle E. & O. E. Note: The abbreviation "E. & O. E." means "errors and omissions excepted" i.e. the supplier is not bound by the invoice if it is incorrect. CREDIT NOTE C/N no. 9876 12 August 20.. ALPHA WHOLESALERS PLC 50 Church Road Southampton To: Premier Grocery Shop 20 Winters Way Portsmouth Details Tins of rhubarb returned owing to damage, 10 August 20.. 2.25 (Invoice no. 9876) ABE and RRC 79 80 Recording Business Transactions These transactions will be entered into the books of the two businesses as follows. Books of Alpha Wholesalers plc 4 Sales Book Invoice No Date 20.. 9876 Aug 6 Name of Debtor Folio Amount of Invoice 28 Premier Grocery Shop 31.50 31.50 Sales account Cr 12 29.50 Carriage Outward Cr 14 2.50 Note: The carriage on this consignment should not be included in the sales. It is a credit to carriage outward account, which is a distribution expense. Returns and Allowances Inwards Book Credit note No Date Folio Amount Dr 20.. Aug 8 Premier Grocery Shop 28 2.25 Returns and allowances inwards account Cr 21 20.. Aug 12 Name of Debtor 14 2.25 28 Sales Premier Grocery Shop 31.50 SB4 Cr 20.. Aug 12 Returns & allowances Cash and discount RB1 2.25 CB1 29.25 31.50 31.50 Cash Book Dr Receipts Payments Disc Cash Bank 20.. Aug 24 Premier Grocery Shop 28 0.75 28.50 Cr Disc Cash Bank 20.. ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions 81 Books of Alpha Wholesalers plc The books of Premier Grocery Shop should show the same transactions as the above but debits become credits, and vice versa. Also, folio numbers will be different and the invoice and credit note will be given new numbers on receipt. Without looking back at the books of Alpha Wholesalers plc, write up the books of Premier Grocery Shop. Then compare your figures with the above. ABE and RRC 82 Recording Business Transactions Question for Practice The following balances were taken from the books of Jane Robinson on 1 January: Cash in hand, 650; Cash at bank, 3,285.20; Sundry debtors A Arcus, 253.40; S Bromwell, 825.00; T Sullivan, 950; Sundry creditors H High, 650; D Low, 1,000; Office furniture, 750; Stock, 2,000; Motor van, 1,800. You are required to ascertain Robinson's capital, and enter the foregoing balances in her cash book and ledger through the medium of the journal. After this, enter the following transactions in the cash book and post to the ledger. Jan. 3 Received cheque for 240 in full settlement, from A Arcus. 4 Cash sales amounted to 680. S Bromwell paid 400 on account by cheque. 7 Paid H High by cheque 620 in full settlement. Gave cheque for 500 part settlement of D Lowe's account. 8 Banked 1,320 Cash disbursements: sundry expenses postage wages stationery 25.00 12.50 50.00 25.00 9 S Bromwell's cheque returned by bank, marked "R/D". Withdrew 200 from bank for office use. 12 S Bromwell gave cash to redeem his dishonoured cheque. Cash sales to date 1,000. 14 Banked 1,400. 15 Withdrew from bank for self, 250. 17 Cash disbursements: sundry expenses petrol and oil wages stationery 20 Purchased goods at auction sale and paid by cheque 500. 22 Paid rent by cheque 250 Paid repairs 50 25 Withdrew from bank for office purposes 200. Cash sales to date 1,500. Cash purchases 100. 28 Banked 1,500. 31 Paid salaries by cheque 500. 15.00 30.00 75.00 10.00 Note: The term "cash and sales to date" means sales since the previous total. It does not include the previous total. Now check your answer with the one given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions 83 Review Questions Section A 1. Explain two uses of the journal within a bookkeeping system. 2. Referring to Case Study A Jim has noticed that a cash sale of 1,000 has not been entered into the accounting system. Explain to Jim how the journal will be used to enter the details of this transaction. Section B 1. When a manual accounting system is computerised, explain the reasons why it is necessary to prepare an opening statement of assets and liabilities. Section C 1. Is the following statement true or false "Drawings from a business can be treated as an expense and can be offset against tax"? 2. Is the following statement true or false "Drawings from a business can also be made in the form of goods"? Section D 1. What is the difference between a "trade" and "general" purchase? 2. Referring to Case Study A Explain to Jim the benefits that can be gained from maintaining an analysed purchases day book. Section E 1. Explain the difference between a debit and a credit note. 2. Referring to Case Study A Jim is concerned about the sharp rise in returns inwards that have incurred over the last two months. Identify and explain two reasons why this may have happened. ABE and RRC 84 Recording Business Transactions ANSWER TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE Journal Opening statement of assets and liabilities as at 1 January 20.. Dr Dr CB CB Dr Dr Dr Dr Dr Dr Cash in hand Cash in bank Sundry debtors: A Arcus S Bromwell T Sullivan Office furniture Stock Motor van Sundry creditors: H High D Low Capital account 650.00 3,285.20 1 2 3 6 7 8 253.40 825.00 950.00 750.00 2,000.00 1,800.00 4 5 9 10,513.60 650.00 1,000.00 8,863.60 10,513.60 The cash book is shown on the next page, and the ledger accounts are as follows. Dr 1 20.. Jan 1 Dr Balance 20.. Jan 1 J 2 20.. Jan 1 Jan 9 Dr A Arcus 253.40 20.. Jan 3 Cr Cash and discount CB 253.40 S Bromwell Balance Bank (returned cheque) J CB 3 825.00 400.00 20.. Jan 4 Bank Jan 12 Cash Cr CB CB 400.00 400.00 T Sullivan Balance J 950.00 Cr 20.. ABE and RRC ABE and RRC Feb 1 Balances Jan 1 Balance 3 A Arcus 4 Cash sales S Bromwell 8 Cash 9 Bank 12 S Bromwell Cash sales 14 Cash 25 Bank Cash sales 28 Cash Dr b/d 8,145.20 19 13.40 17.50 4,630.00 4,725.20 1,400.00 400.00 1,320.00 3,285.20 240.00 Bank 1,500.00 200.00 1,500.00 200.00 400.00 1,000.00 680.00 650.00 Cash J 1 13.40 10 2 C C 2 10 C C 10 C Disc Receipts, January 20.. Disc 20 30.00 Jan 7 H High 4 30.00 D Low 5 8 Bank C Sundry expenses 11 Postage 11 Wages 12 Stationery 13 9 S Bromwell cheque returned 2 Cash C 14 Bank C 15 Drawings 14 17 Sundry expenses 11 Petrol and oil 11 Wages 12 Stationery 13 20 Purchases 15 22 Rent 16 Licence 17 25 Cash C Cash purchases 15 28 Bank C 31 Salaries 18 31 Balances c/ d Payments, January 20.. 4,630.00 17.50 100.00 1,500.00 50.00 15.00 30.00 75.00 10.00 1,400.00 1,320.00 25.00 12.50 50.00 25.00 Cash 8,145.20 500.00 4,725.20 200.00 500.00 250.00 250.00 400.00 200.00 620.00 500.00 Bank Cr Recording Business Transactions 85 Cash Book 86 Recording Business Transactions Dr 4 20.. Jan 7 Dr Bank and discount Dr 20.. J 7 J 500.00 20.. Jan 1 Cr Balance 1,000.00 J 750.00 Cr 20.. Stock Account Balance J 8 2,000.00 Cr 20.. Motor Van Account Balance 9 20.. Dr Balance 650.00 Office Furniture Account Balance 20.. Jan 1 Dr CB 6 20.. Jan 1 20.. Jan 1 Cr D Low Bank 20.. Jan 1 Dr CB 650.00 5 20.. Jan 7 Dr H High J 1,800.00 20.. Capital Account 10 Cr 20.. Jan 1 Cr Balance 8,863.60 J Sales Account 20.. Jan 1 Cash Jan 12 Cash Jan 25 Cash Cr CB CB CB 680.00 1,000.00 1,500.00 ABE and RRC Recording Business Transactions Dr 20.. Jan 8 Jan 8 Jan 17 Jan 17 Dr 11 Cash Cash Cash Cash Dr Dr ABE and RRC 50.00 75.00 20.. Cr 25.00 10.00 20.. Cr Drawings Account CB 250.00 20.. Cr Purchases Account CB CB 500.00 100.00 20.. Cr Rent Account CB 17 20.. Jan 22 Cash CB CB 16 20.. Jan 22 Bank 20.. Stationery Account 15 20.. Jan 20 Bank Jan 25 Cash Dr CB CB 14 20.. Jan 15 Bank 25.00 12.50 15.00 30.00 Cr Wages Account 13 20.. Jan 8 Cash Jan 17 Cash Dr CB CB CB CB 12 20.. Jan 8 Cash Jan 17 Cash Dr Sundry Expenses Account 250.00 20.. Cr Repairs Account CB 50.00 20.. 87 Cr 88 Recording Business Transactions Dr 18 20.. Jan 31 Bank Dr 20.. CB 20 20.. Jan 31 Sundries Dr Salaries Account 20 500.00 Cr 20.. Discounts Allowed Account CB 13.40 Cr 20.. Discounts Received Account 20.. Jan 31 Sundries Cr CB 30.00 ABE and RRC 89 Study Unit 5 The Trial Balance Contents Page A. Introduction to the Trial Balance Need for a Trial Balance Preparing the Trial Balance B. Errors in the Trial Balance Types of Error Revealed Locating Errors Errors Not Revealed 96 96 100 101 C. Correction of Errors Using the Journal Suspense Accounts 104 104 105 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 90 90 91 111 90 The Trial Balance A. INTRODUCTION TO THE TRIAL BALANCE The trial balance is an extensive check which serves two purposes: To check the numerical accuracy of the double-entry system; As a precursor to preparing the periodic reports of the profit and loss account and balance sheet. Earlier, we considered how to balance a ledger account. If we extracted all of the debit and credit balances from a set of accounts, we might find something like the following: J. Barker Statement of Balances in Books at 31 March Account Capital Cash Sales Van Purchases Rent Tufnell Supplies creditor Wages Purchase returns Discounts received B. Binks debtor Sales returns Bad debts Debit Credit 10,000 750 3,350 4,500 7,900 350 3,000 460 200 190 700 80 2,000 16,740 16,740 The statement of balances extracted should balance, because every time an entry was made in the ledger accounts, a debit and a credit should have been entered. The statement of balances in the books is therefore another name for the trial balance. Notice that debit items include expenses and assets, whereas credit items include income and liabilities. Need for a Trial Balance The basic rule of double entry book-keeping is that for every debit entry there must be a credit entry. So, if you have followed this rule, the total debit entries made in your accounts should equal the total credit entries made. To check the accuracy of the entries, you could go through every entry at the end of the month or financial period, to ensure that all postings have been made correctly, but this would take a long time as there would be hundreds or thousands of them. It would be like doing the whole month's or year's book-keeping work all over again. So, instead of doing this, we just take the balances on all the accounts and prepare what we call a trial balance. ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 91 We have seen that the balance on an account is a summary of the overall position on that account i.e. whether more value has been given or received. If the debit side (value received) is heavier than the credit side (value given) then you bring down the balance on the debit side and we call it a debit balance. If the credit side is heavier, you bring down the balance on the credit side and we call it a credit balance. As the total debits and credits in the accounts should be equal, we can also say that: the total of debit balances must equal the total of credit balances This is the basis of preparing a trial balance. Preparing the Trial Balance The process of preparing a trial balance comprises three steps: Balance all the accounts in the books. List all the debit balances and add them up. List all the credit balances and add them up. If the book-keeping is correct, the two totals should be the same i.e. the trial balance should balance. Example Let's suppose the following five accounts are the only accounts in the books. Dr Jones Sales Sales Sales 60 70 80 210 Balance b/d 120 Dr Returns Cash Balance c/d 40 50 120 210 Brown Returns Cash Balance c/d 30 30 40 100 ABE and RRC Cr Purchases Purchases 60 40 100 Balance b/d Cr 40 92 The Trial Balance Dr Sales Cr Jones Balance c/d 40 170 Jones Jones Jones 60 70 80 210 Balance b/d 170 210 Dr Purchases Cr Brown Brown 60 40 100 Balance b/d Dr Brown Balance c/d 30 70 100 70 Cash/Bank Cr Jones 50 Brown Balance c/d 30 20 50 50 Balance b/d 20 We can now prepare a trial balance by listing and totalling the balances: Trial Balance Debit balances Jones Purchases Cash/Bank Credit balances 120 70 20 210 Brown Sales 40 170 210 This balances because, for each transaction, there are two opposite entries in the accounts. If you had missed one then the trial balance would not agree. We could have written the trial balance in a slightly different way: ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 93 Trial balance as at . . . . Dr 120 Jones Brown Sales Purchases Cash/Bank Cr 40 170 70 20 210 210 Question for Practice 1 Now try drawing up a trial balance yourself from the following accounts as at 29 Febr uary. Cash book Dr Cash Book Cr Disc. Cash Bank Feb 1 Feb 3 Balance b/d Eagle Owl Feb 15 Sales Feb 29 Balance c/d Disc. Cash Bank 2,191 96 200 1,643 507 4,637 Feb 8 Sparrow Lark 137 Feb 14 Wages Feb 23 Drawings Feb 29 Shop expenses 137 Mar 1 1,559 1,233 1,125 500 220 4,637 Balance b/d 507 General ledger accounts Dr Capital Account Cr Feb 1 Dr Feb 23 Bank ABE and RRC Balance b/d 7,320 Drawings Account 500 Cr 94 The Trial Balance Dr Feb 1 Feb 2 Mar 1 Fixtures And Fittings (At Cost) Account 5,000 540 5,540 Vulture Balance b/d Dr Cr 5,540 Feb 28 Balance c/d 5,540 5,540 Provision For Depreciation Account Cr Feb 1 Dr Feb 1 1,200 Balance b/d Stock Account Balance b/d Dr Cr 2,726 Purchases Account Cr Feb 28 Sundry creditors accounts Dr Feb 28 Balance c/d 1,037 Sales Account 5,078 Cr 1,643 Feb 15 Bank Feb 28 Sundry creditors accounts 3,435 5,078 5,078 Mar 1 Dr Feb 14 Bank Dr Feb 29 Bank Balance b/d 5,078 Wages Account Cr 1,125 Shop Expenses Account Cr 220 ABE and RRC The Trial Balance Dr Discount Received Account Feb 28 Bank Dr Cr 137 Bad Debts Account Feb 29 Owl 95 Cr 437 Creditors Ledger Dr Wren Cr Feb 1 Dr Feb 8 Sparrow Bank 1,559 Dr Feb 8 Feb 8 Balance b/d Feb 1 Cr Balance b/d Lark Bank Discount received Balance c/d 1,233 137 475 1,845 Feb 1 Feb 6 Cr Balance b/d Purchases Balance b/d Vulture Feb 2 Fixtures & fittings Robin Feb 6 ABE and RRC 475 540 Cr 1,370 475 Cr Dr 1,559 1,845 Mar 1 Dr 825 Purchases 562 96 The Trial Balance Debtors Ledger Dr Eagle Cr Feb 1 Balance b/d Feb 21 Sales 96 1,200 1,296 Mar 1 1,200 Balance b/d Dr Feb 3 Bank Feb 28 Balance c/d 96 1,200 1,296 Hawk Feb 1 Balance b/d Feb 28 Sales Mar 1 Balance b/d Dr 1,624 2,235 3,859 Cr 3,859 Feb 28 Balance c/d 3,859 3,859 Owl Feb 1 Balance b/d 637 Cr 200 437 637 Feb 3 Bank Feb 29 Bad debts 637 Mar 1 Balance b/d 637 Now check your answer with the one given at the end of the unit. B. ERRORS IN THE TRIAL BALANCE The trial balance reveals some errors but not others it is not an infallible check on the accuracy of the book-keeping. Types of Error Revealed The trial balance will show up these types of error: The entering of debits on the credit side and vice versa The omission of balances Incorrect amounts entered Errors in addition, including errors in balancing Failure to complete the double entry; a debit entered but not the corresponding credit, or a credit entered without the debit. ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 97 Example Study this example carefully. It contains several errors and with the errors undetected and uncorrected shows how it is impossible to balance the trial balance. The transactions to be entered in the accounts are: May 1 Sales to Jones 600 3 Sales to Thomas 300 5 Sales to Jones 600 6 Jones returned goods 100 7 Purchases from Brown 500 8 Purchases from Taylor 200 The books of original entry have been completed as follows: Sales Day Book May 1 3 5 31 Jones Thomas Jones Sales 600 300 600 1,500 Sales Returns Book May 5 31 Jones Sales 100 100 Purchases Day Book May 7 8 31 Brown Taylor Purchases The ledger accounts have been completed as follows: ABE and RRC 500 200 600 98 The Trial Balance Dr Sales May 31 Sundries May 31 Balance c/d 100 1,400 1,500 1,500 Balance b/d Dr May 1 May 5 May 6 Jun 1 Balance b/d 1,400 Purchases May 31 Sundries Jun 1 1,500 May 31 Sundries Jun 1 Dr Cr 600 600 Cr 600 600 May 31 Balance c/d 600 Jones Sales Sales Sales Balance b/d Dr 600 600 100 1,300 Cr 1,300 May 31 Balance c/d 1,300 1,300 Thomas May 3 Sales Jun 1 Balance b/d Dr May 31 Balance c/d 300 300 Cr 300 300 May 31 Balance c/d 300 Brown 500 500 Cr May 7 Purchases 500 500 Jun 1 Balance b/d 500 ABE and RRC The Trial Balance Dr Taylor Cr May 8 Purchases 200 200 Jun 1 May 31 Balance c/d 200 200 99 Balance b/d 200 Developing the trial balance from these accounts gives the following: Trial balance as at 31 May Dr 600 Purchases Sales Jones Brown Thomas Taylor Cr 1,400 1,300 500 300 2,200 200 2,100 Can you identify the problems which give rise to the fact that the trial balance will not balance? Think about this before continuing. They are: Error in addition in Purchases Day Book, resulting in incorrect entry into Purchases Account. Error in entering credit as a debit in Jones Account, in respect of return of goods. These two accounts would need to be corrected as follows: Dr Purchases May 31 Sundries Jun 1 Balance b/d Dr 700 700 Jones Sales Sales 600 600 1,200 Jun 1 Balance b/d 1,100 ABE and RRC 700 700 700 May 1 May 5 May 31 Balance c/d Cr May 6 Sales May 31 Balance c/d Cr 100 1,100 1,200 100 The Trial Balance The revised trial balance now balances as follows: Trial balance as at 31 May Purchases Sales Jones Brown Thomas Taylor Dr 700 Cr 1,400 1,100 500 300 2,100 200 2,100 Locating Errors When the trial balance fails to balance, it is important to have a system of checking to help locate the error(s). This might involve a series of simple checks: Check day book totals. Check addition of ledger accounts and make sure each balance is correct. Check that all the balances have been recorded in the trial balance. Check that the balances have been entered in the trial balance on the correct side. If these checks fail you will then have to return to the individual transactions for the period and check that the double entry is correct, i.e. that for every debit there is a credit and vice versa. It is also good practice to have entered the folio (or reference) numbers of the various accounts in the trial balance in case you wish to refer to any of these accounts in a hurry or to check on a missing ledger account. Questions for Practice 2 Consider the following errors, causing a failure to balance a trial balance, and link each with the result of the errors by using the numbered results below (for example, error A may link with result 3). Errors A Debit balance on John's account entered as credit balance in the trial balance B Sale on credit posted to sales account as a credit but not recorded as a debit in the relevant personal account C Purchases day book totalled at 3,600 instead of 2,900 D Credit balance of 600 omitted from trial balance E Jones' account contained debits of 2,000 and credits of 3,200. The balance carried down to the credit side was 2,200 instead of 1,200. ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 101 Results 1 Credit side of trial balance too large 2 Debit side of trial balance too small 3 Debit side of trial balance too large 4 Credit side of trial balance too small You may use numbers 1 4 more than once, and offer two of numbers 1 4 as a result of one of the errors A E. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. Errors Not Revealed The trial balance may balance, yet some book-keeping errors may still remain undetected. These types of error are classified as follows. (a) Errors of omission If both the debit and the credit entries for a transaction have been omitted, the trial balance will not be affected and will not therefore reveal the error. The transaction will simply not exist as far as the books of the business are concerned. (b) Compensating errors These occur where two or more errors, by chance, cancel each other out. For example, if one account is over-debited by 20 and another account is over-credited with 20 or two accounts are over-credited with 10 each. (c) Errors of commission These are clerical errors, and may be of two types: Mistake in the books of original entry If the original entry in the day book is made wrongly, the entire record for that transaction will be wrong. Misposting of accounts These occur where the amount has been entered in the books in the right type of account, but not in the correct individual account. For example, A Jones, a customer, sends 65 to settle his account. This is correctly debited in the cash book, but the credit entry is made in the account of A R Jones, also a debtor of the business. The trial balance will agree because a debit and credit entry have been made. Overall, the debtor's figure will be correct, but when this is broken down, A Jones' and A R Jones' accounts will both be incorrect. (d) Errors of principle These are errors involving posting an entry to the wrong type or class of account for example, debiting the purchase of a fixed asset to the purchases account instead of the asset account. ABE and RRC 102 The Trial Balance Example Study this example carefully. It contains several errors which are not revealed by the trial balance which, as a result, still balances. The following transactions are to be posted to the day book and ledger accounts: Jan 1 Sales to Jones 680 5 Sales to Thomas 240 8 Purchases from Nelson 300 12 Jones returned goods 60 14 Sales to Taylor 500 They are entered as follows: Sales Day Book Jan 1 5 12 31 680 240 60 980 Jones Thomas Jones Sales Purchases Day Book Jan 5 31 Dr Jan 31 Balance c/d 300 300 Nelson Purchases Sales 980 980 Jan 31 Balance c/d 980 980 Jan 31 Sundries Feb 1 Dr Cr Balance b/d 980 Purchases 300 300 Cr 300 300 Jan 31 Sundries Feb 1 Balance b/d 300 ABE and RRC The Trial Balance Dr Jones 680 60 740 Jan 1 Sales Jan 12 Sales Feb 1 Balance b/d Cr Jan 31 Balance c/d 740 Thomas 240 240 Sales Feb 1 740 740 Dr Jan 5 103 Balance b/d Cr Jan 31 Balance c/d 240 240 240 Dr Nelson Jan 8 Purchases 300 300 Feb 1 Balance b/d Cr 300 Jan 31 Balance c/d 300 300 Trial balance as at 31 January Dr Purchases Sales Jones Thomas Nelson 740 240 300 1,280 Cr 300 980 1,280 Again, can you spot the errors hidden in the entries? They are: An error of omission where the sales to Taylor has been missed from the Sales Day Book An error of commission a mistake in a book of original entry where the return of goods has been incorrectly posted to the Sales Day Book (and then debited to Jones account) A compensating error where the purchases by nelson has been debited to Nelson's account and credited to Purchases account (instead of vice versa). ABE and RRC 104 The Trial Balance Questions for Practice 3 Which of the following errors would be revealed in the trial balance? (a) Day book added to 3,600 instead of 3,800 (b) Purchase posted to credit of Jones' account instead of Johnstone (c) Sale posted to credit of Thomas instead of Thompson (d) Balance of customer's account wrongly calculated (e) Sale for 200 written in day book as 220 (f) Purchase posted from day book to personal account at 70 instead of 77 (g) Cash discount transferred from cash book at 16 instead of 18. Both discount account and personal account were wrong. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. C. CORRECTION OF ERRORS Using the Journal When you discover an error, it must be put right. The adjustment to be made will, of course, depend on the type of error involved. When the error involves a misposting, you make the correction by using a debit and credit entry, effected through the journal. You must not correct the books by altering or scratching out the entries already made. Example Jan 1: A sale was made to J Simon, but the 400 was debited in error to T Smithson. Dr J Simon Cr Dr Jan 1 T Smithson Sales Cr 400 The debit has to be moved from Smithson's account and debited to Simon. The journal e ntry will be: ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 105 Journal Jan 1 J Simon Dr T Smithson Being an adjustment of amount debited in error 400 400 If you find the trial balance fails to balance because of the insertion of a balance on the wrong side, then you can easily put this right redrafting the trial balance. If the day books are wrongly added, then you insert the correct total and debit or credit a further amount to the sales or purchases account. Suspense Accounts A suspense account is an account to which you put that aspect of a transaction with which, through lack of information, experience or guidance, you feel unable to deal satisfactorily. For example, you might credit to a suspense account the double entry for a postal order or cash received (the cash book would be debited), if the name of the sender were not known. When this information became known, you would use the journal to transfer the item out of the suspense account and into the account of the customer who had sent it. Similarly, if a firm has a substantial bill for repairs and improvements, the double entry (corresponding to the payment in the cash book) might be made in a suspense account until the correct proportion of revenue and capital expenditure had been agreed, when transfers would be made from the suspense account to the repairs account and the appropriate asset accounts. A further use of a suspense account is that of the temporary location for a trial balance difference. In order that one can prepare a set of final accounts from an unbalanced trial balance, the trial balance is made to agree artificially by putting into the suspense account sufficient debit or credit to make the trial balance totals agree. When the errors have been found, then the necessary transfers will be made from the suspense account to the accounts in which the error had been made. Note the following features of suspense accounts: they are temporary; they are a substitute for the missing balance or balances in the trial balance; they are closed as soon as the problem has been resolved through correct identification of the location of the transaction or the location of the error in the trial balance; they fulfil the basic rules of double entry. Consider the following trial balance: ABE and RRC 106 The Trial Balance Trial balance as at . . . . Dr 400 Purchases Sales Jones Smith Nelson Cash Capital Cr 600 500 300 200 200 1,100 200 1,300 You can think immediately of two possible reasons for the failure of the trial balance to balance. Either the debit side is underweighted, i.e. missing debits of 200, or the credit side is overweighted, i.e. it includes credits of 200 which should not be there. But the error could also be explained in different ways, for example: A posting of 100 to the credit side which should be a debit (correcting that would make the credit side total 1,200 and the debit total 1,200). A missing debit of 350 and a missing credit of 150. (Correcting that would make the debit side 1,450 and the credit side 1,450). A suspense account can be used to resolve the problem on a temporary basis, allowing the trial balance to balance and the preparation of the final accounts to go ahead before the actual errors in the books have been found. The following suspense account would be opened in the ledger: Dr Suspense Account Cr 200 Balance The trial balance will now balance as follows: Trial balance as at . . . . Purchases Sales Jones Smith Nelson Cash Capital Suspense Account Dr 400 Cr 600 500 300 200 200 200 200 1,300 1,300 ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 107 Now suppose that, after some checking, you find that the error is that a sale made to Nelson for 200 was not recorded in his account even though it had been recorded in the sales account. Using the journal first, you put this right by means of the double entry which effectively closes the suspense account: Journal Nelson Suspense account Being error in the posting of sales Dr 200 200 The ledger accounts will then appear as follows: Dr Balance Dr Sales Suspense (sales) Suspense Account 200 Nelson Cr 200 Nelson 200 200 Cr 400 will then appear against Nelson's name in the trial balance thus causing it to balance. There may be several errors, and you can correct each in the same way as above, using the journal and a suspense account. ABE and RRC 108 The Trial Balance Questions for Practice 4 1. The following book-keeping errors occurred during a particular month: (a) Purchases were correctly entered in the nominal account but one transaction of 500 was omitted from the supplier's account, and another one for 350 was entered in the supplier's account as 530. (b) A sales return was debited to the customer's account instead of credited. It was for 80. (c) A sale of 720 was debited to Smith's account as 620 in error, although it was correct in the sales account. Explain what effect, in total and individually, these errors would have on the trial balance, i.e. by how much one side would be greater than the other. 2. A trial balance fails to balance and a suspense account with a credit balance is opened for 330. Later, the following errors are revealed: (a) A sale was debited to Smith instead of Simon. It was for 220. (b) A sale for 420 was correctly entered in the sales account but was not debited to Jones' personal account. (c) A purchase for 750 was correctly entered in the nominal account but was omitted from the personal account. Prepare journal entries to show the necessary corrections for all these items, and show the entries in the suspense account in the ledger. 3. A trial balance fails to balance and a suspense account was opened with a debit balance of 200. Investigation revealed the following errors: (a) A purchase of goods for resale of 100 was credited to the account of G Lewis in error. It should have been credited to G Laws. (b) A purchase for 300 was correctly entered in the purchases account but was not credited to King Ltd's personal account. (c) Sales for 500 were correctly entered in the sales account but was omitted from L Patel. Prepare journal entries to show the necessary corrections for all these items, and show the entries in the suspense account in the ledger. ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 4. Prepare a trial balance from the following balances extracted from the books of James Green on 31 December. (Think about whether each item would be a debit or a credit balance.) James Green Cash in hand Bank Capital Drawings Office furniture Delivery van Stock Purchases Sales Purchases returns Sales returns Discounts allowed Discounts received Salaries and wages Rent Office expenses Lighting Stationery and printing Debtors: S Martin J Jasper R Redmond Creditors: E Gray D Griffin T Neal 109 ABE and RRC 685.10 2,459.30 13,090.50 1,104.30 1,000.00 850.00 9,000.00 7,505.30 12,901.30 405.20 709.30 154.20 125.00 1,000.00 500.00 285.40 114.10 155.00 495.60 4,762.40 2,742.00 1,899.00 3,260.50 1,840.50 110 The Trial Balance 5. Correct the following trial balance: Trial Balance Dr Cash in hand Bank overdraft Capital account Drawings Land and buildings Office furniture Bank loan Stock Purchases Sales Returns inwards Returns outwards Wages Salaries Rents received Discounts allowed Discounts received Sundry expenses Rates, taxes and insurance Licence Stationery Electricity Telephone Postage Sundry debtors Sundry creditors Cr 200 2,000 ? 500 20,000 750 1,500 5,000 3,500 4,800 650 700 200 700 500 250 100 150 380 250 150 50 40 30 8,000 3,000 20,800 32,600 Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 111 Review Questions Section A 1. Referring to Case Study A Jim is uncertain why it is necessary to prepare a trial balance at the end of each month. Identify and explain two reasons why this procedure is carried out. 2. Describe the steps involved in preparing a trial balance. Section B 1. Identify and explain two bookkeeping errors which are not revealed when the debits and credits for a trial balance equal each other. 2. What are the likely consequences for a business if it fails to identify and correct errors in its bookkeeping system? Section C 1. Explain the purpose of the suspense account within the context of the trial balance. ABE and RRC 112 The Trial Balance ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE Practice Question 1 Trial balance as at 29 February Dr Bank Capital Drawings Fixtures and fittings (at cost) Provision for depreciation Stock Purchases Sales Wages Shop expenses Discount received Bad debts Creditors: Wren Lark Vulture Robin Debtors: Eagle Hawk Cr 507 7,320 500 5,540 1,200 2,726 1,037 5,078 1,125 220 137 437 825 475 540 562 1,200 3,859 16,644 16,644 Practice Questions 2 A 1, 2 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 1 Practice Questions 3 The following errors will be revealed: (a), (d) and (f). ABE and RRC The Trial Balance Practice Questions 4 1. The debit side will be 380 greater than the credit side. This can be explained as follows: (a) Credit entry lacking Credit entry too much Net shortage on credit side 500 180 (i.e. 530 350) 320 (b) 80 needs deducting from debit side and adding to credit side. (c) The debit side will be short by 100. Summary Shortage on credit side 320 80 400 (a) (b) Shortage on debit side less Overvalued by Net shortage on debit side 100 80 20 (c) (b) Net difference 380 (400 20) 2. The journal entries are as follows: Journal (a) (b) (c) Simon Dr Smith Being an adjustment of misposting to Smith instead of Simon ABE and RRC 220 Jones Dr Suspense account Being debit to personal account omitted from the books 420 Suspense account Dr Personal account Being purchase missed from personal account 750 Note: Error (i) did not involve the suspense account. 220 420 750 113 114 The Trial Balance The suspense account will be completed as follows: Dr Suspense Account Personal Account 750 J Cr Balance Jones 330 420 750 J 750 3. The journal entries are as follows: Journal (a) (b) (c) G Lewis G Laws Being adjustment of misposting to G Laws instead of G Lewis 100 100 Suspense King Ltd Being credit to the personal account of King Ltd, omitted from books 300 L Patel Suspense Being sales omitted from the personal account of L Patel 500 300 500 The suspense account will be completed as follows: Dr Balance King Ltd Suspense Account 200 300 500 Cr 500 L Patel 500 ABE and RRC The Trial Balance 4. J Green Trial Balance as at 31 December Cash in hand Bank Capital Drawings Office furniture Delivery van Stock Purchases Sales Purchases returns Sales returns Discounts allowed Discounts received Sales and wages Rent Office expenses Lighting Stationery and printing Debtors: S Martin J Jasper R Redmond Creditors: E Gray D Griffin T Neal Dr 685.10 2,459.30 13,090.50 1,104.30 1,000.00 850.00 9,000.00 7,505.30 12,901.30 405.20 709.30 154.20 125.00 1,000.00 500.00 285.40 114.10 155.00 495.60 4,762.40 2,742.00 33,522.00 ABE and RRC Cr 1,899.00 3,260.50 1,840.50 33,522.00 115 116 The Trial Balance 5. Trial Balance Cash in hand Bank overdraft Capital account Drawings Land and buildings Office furniture Bank loan Stock Purchases Sales Returns inwards Returns outwards Wages Salaries Rents received Discounts allowed Discounts received Sundry expenses Rates, taxes and insurance Licence Stationery Electricity Telephone Postage Sundry debtors Sundry creditors Dr 200 Cr 2,000 28,200 500 20,000 750 1,500 5,000 3,500 4,800 650 700 200 700 500 250 100 150 380 250 150 50 40 30 8,000 40,800 3,000 40,800 You can see that many of the balances were on the wrong side of the trial balance. The figure for capital is the balancing figure once all the other balances have been listed correctly. This comes from the accounting equation: Capital Liabilities Assets Therefore: Capital Assets Liabilities ABE and RRC 117 Study Unit 6 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account Contents Page A. Introduction to Final Accounts 118 B. Trading Account 118 C. Stock Stock Account Private Drawings of Stock Treatment of Final Stock in the Trading Account Closing Journal Entries 119 119 121 122 123 Answers to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 126 118 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account A. INTRODUCTION TO FINAL ACCOUNTS Every business, sooner or later, wants to know the result of its trading, i.e. whether a profit has been made or a loss has been sustained, and whether it is still financially solvent. For this reason, the following accounts must be prepared at the end of the year (or at intervals during the year if the business so chooses). Trading Account The purpose of this account is to ascertain the gross profit of a trading business, and this is done by showing the revenue from the sale of goods, and the cost of acquiring those goods. Profit and Loss Account A business has many expenses not directly related to its manufacturing processes or its trading activities, and these are shown in the profit and loss account. By subtracting them from gross profit, a figure for net profit (or loss) is found. (A business which provides a service rather than buying and selling goods prepares a profit and loss account, but not a trading account.) A business also has to decide what to do with its net profit. The manner in which this profit is distributed (or "appropriated") is shown in the appropriation account, which is effectively an annex to the profit and loss account. This account is not used in the case of a sole trader, the net profit being transferred to the proprietor's capital account. Balance Sheet This is a statement of the assets owned by the business, and the liabilities outstanding. Strictly speaking, it is not an account but it is included in the term "final accounts". From these accounts you will see that we arrive at the results of a firm's trading in two stages. First, from the trading account we ascertain gross profit. Secondly, from t he profit and loss account we determine net profit. In this short unit, we shall examine the first of these accounts. B. TRADING ACCOUNT For the sake of simplicity, we will assume that the business purchases ready-made goods, and re-sells them at a profit. What is gross profit? Once you grasp the significance of this term, the function of the trading account is abundantly clear. If I purchase a quantity of seeds for 10 and sell them for 15, I have made a gross profit of 5. Thus, in the trading account we have to collect all those accounts which directly concern themselves with the cost or selling price of the goods in which we trade. The main items in the trading account are shown in the model layout on the next page (Figure 6.1). You should note that trade discounts (if any) must be deducted from purchases and sales before they are entered in the books. Carriage inwards, i.e. on purchases, and customs duties on purchases, etc. are expenses incidental to the acquisition by the business of the goods which are intended for re-sale, and are therefore debited to the trading account. Note that these accounts are opened in the ledger and posted, as all other accounts. When presented separately for information they are often shown in a vertical format, as illustrated. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account 119 Figure 6.1: Specimen trading account Trading Account for the Period . . . . Sales less Sales returns (Returns inwards) Turnover Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns (returns outwards) add Carriage inwards less Closing stock Gross Profit/(Loss) XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX Note how sales returns are deducted from sales and purchase returns ar e deducted from purchases. Gross profit may be defined as "the excess of the selling price of goods over their costs price, due allowance being made for opening and closing stocks, and for the costs incidental in getting the goods into their present condition and location". C. STOCK Stock Account When a business commences, a value for opening stock is debited to the stock account from the journal. No further entry is made in the stock account until the trading account is prepared, and then the figure in the stock account is transferred to the trading account as opening stock. Stock at the end of the year is valued and this credit value is entered in the trading account, and the double entry is completed by debiting the stock account. In other words, the st ock account shows only the opening and closing balances of stock, and is not concerned at all with the amount of stock held at any time in the course of a year. Example A retailer commences business on 1 January with a stock worth 10,000. On 14 March she purchases goods worth 20,000, and on 15 September further goods worth 15,000. On 31 December she estimates that her shop contains 12,000 worth of stock. Sales for the year amounted to 40,000. Her accounts will be as follows: ABE and RRC 120 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account Dr Purchases Account Year 1 Mar 14 Sundry creditors Sept 15 Sundry creditors 20,000 15,000 35,000 Dr Year 1 Jan 1 Year 1 Dec 31 Trading account 35,000 35,000 Stock Account Opening balance Dec 31 Trading account Dr Cr 10,000 Year 1 Jan 1 Cr 10,000 Trading account 12,000 Trading Account for year ending 31 December Stock at 1 January Purchases Gross Profit 10,000 35,000 7,000 52,000 Cr 40,000 12,000 Sales Stock at 31 December 52,000 Note the double entries carefully. At the beginning of the year the balance on the stock account is 10,000. This is transferred to the trading account by crediting stock account and debiting trading account. The stock at the end of the year is valued at 12,000, so debit stock account and credit trading account. You should deduct the figure of closing stock from the total of opening stock plus purchases. The validity of the double entry is not affected, but it makes the trading account clearer, giving a figure for cost of goods sold, as shown below: Trading Account for the year ending . . . . Sales Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Closing stock Gross Profit/(Loss) 10,000 35,000 45,000 12,000 40,000 33,000 7,000 It should now be clear to you that purchases account shows the amount of goods purchased during the year, and does not show whether these were all sold or not. Stock account shows the stock at the beginning of the year, and gives no indication of the value of stock in between. Some businesses keep a record of their stocks, but this record is held by the storeman or cost office and is not a part of the financial books. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account 121 To help you understand the stock account, let us assume that the retailer in the above example values her stock at 16,000 at the end of the second year, and 19,000 at the end of the third year. The stock account will be as follows: Dr Stock Account Year 1 Jan 1 Cr Opening balance Year 1 10,000 Jan 1 Trading account 10,000 12,000 Year 2 Jan 1 Trading account 12,000 Year 3 Jan 1 Trading account 16,000 Dec 31 Trading account Year 2 Dec 31 Trading account Year 3 Dec 31 Trading account 16,000 19,000 At the end of each year, when the trading account is prepared, two entries are made in the stock account, but one is dated 1 January and the other 31 December, the first and last dates in the period covered by the trading account. The stock account, therefore, always shows a debit balance outstanding, being the closing balance of the previous year. Private Drawings of Stock When goods are withdrawn from stock by the proprietor for his or her own consumption, always credit sales account at selling price, not stock account. This is because consumption of goods increases the amount sold on behalf of the business. Any value of closing stock you are given takes account of the fact that goods withdrawn are no longer in stock. Example A trader purchased 10,000 worth of toys for resale. Stock at the beginning of the year was 2,000 and at the end of the year 1,500. The trader withdrew 200 worth of toys for personal presents to her family; her sales were 15,000. The situation may be illustrated in the following manner: Trading Account for the year ending . . . . Sales Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Closing stock Gross Profit/(Loss) 2,000 10,000 12,000 1,500 15,200 10,500 4,700 The double entry for the 200 will be debited to the proprietor's drawings account. ABE and RRC 122 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account Treatment of Final Stock in the Trading Account Always show closing stock as a deduction on the debit side of the trading account, after opening stock and purchases have been totalled. Do the same for closing stocks of raw materials and work in progress in the manufacturing account. When a trial balance is drawn up, the balance on the stock account will normally show the opening stock for the period (or, more correctly, the closing stock of the previous period however, these are identical). The trial balance will not normally include a figure for closing stock; this must be valued, and is, therefore, not a balance that can be extracted from the books. When closing stock appears in a trial balance, you will find either that: The trading and profit and loss accounts have already been made out; or There appears also an item "Cost of Goods Sold" which has been arrived at by deducting closing stock from the total of opening stock and purchases. In either of these cases, all you will need to do is to insert the figure of closing stock on the balance sheet. It will not be needed in the revenue account. Example From the following balances extracted from the books of the AB Co. Ltd, prepare a trading account for the year ended 31 December. (Note that these are not all the balances in the books of the company only those necessary for compiling the trading account.) Balances as at 31 December Year 1 Purchases Sales Purchases returns Sales returns Stock as at 1 January Customs and landing charges (re Purchases) Carriage inwards Dr 140,251 Cr 242,761 4,361 9,471 54,319 2,471 4,391 Stock in hand at 31 December was valued at 64,971. As you know that all these items are trading account items, this makes the exercise easy, but you must remember that in the larger examples which you will get later, it will be for you to select out of the various items in the trial balance those particular ones which are trading account items; therefore, memorise now the items which go into a trading account. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account 123 AB Co Ltd Trading Account for the year ended 31 December . . . Sales less Returns Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns 242,761 9,471 233,290 54,319 Customs and landing charges Carriage inwards 140,251 4,361 135,890 2,471 4,391 less Closing stock Gross Profit/(Loss) 142,752 197,071 64,971 132,100 101,190 Closing Journal Entries As explained earlier in this course, nothing should be entered in the ledger until the entry is first passed through the appropriate book of original entry. It is, therefore, strictly correct to say that the balances on stock account, purchases account, etc. should be journalised before they are posted to the manufacturing, trading and profit and loss accounts. However, it is now general practice to omit these journal entries, and you need not make them unless specifically required. If it is the custom of a business to make these journal entries in accordance wit h strict bookkeeping theory, they would read as follows for the AB Co. Ltd, whose trading account was prepared above. Journal 20.. Dec 31 Trading Account Stock Account Purchases Returns inwards Customs and landing charges Carriage inwards Profit and loss account Dec 31 Sales Returns outwards Stock Trading account 312,093 242,761 4,361 64,971 ABE and RRC 54,319 140,251 9,471 2,471 4,391 101,190 312,093 124 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account The entries are then posted to the ledger in the usual way, with the result that the various accounts are closed and the balances transferred to the trading account. The purchases account and sales account, for example, would be closed as follows: Dr Purchases Account 20.. Dec 31 Balance b/d 140,251 Dr 20.. Dec 31 Trading a/c Cr 140,251 J Sales Account 20.. Dec 31 Trading a/c J 242,761 Cr 20.. Dec 31 Balance b/d 242,761 If the closing balances are journalised as above, the journal folio must be entered in all ledger accounts, and the ledger folios must be entered in the journal. Where trading and profit and loss accounts are prepared without the use of the journal, ledger account folios must be entered in all accounts for cross-referencing. Question for Practice From the following balances, extracted from the ledger of H Smith & Co. on 31 October, prepare the trading account of the business for the year ended 31 October: Purchases, 24,720; Sales, 40,830; Purchases returns, 1,230; Sales returns, 1,460; Carriage inwards, 2,480; Stock as at 1 November, i.e. beginning of year, 6,720; Stock at end of year, 7,630. In what way would the trading account of H Smith & Co. be different if the proprietor, Mr Smith, had withdrawn goods for his own use valued at 500 selling price? Now check your answer with the ones given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account 125 Review Questions Section A 1. What is the difference between gross profit and net profit? 2. Identify and explain three reasons why a company's stakeholders would want to analyse a company's final accounts. Section B 1. Explain the difference between sales and turnover. 2. Does closing stock reduce or increase the cost of goods sold? Section C 1. If the owner of a business withdraws goods from stock for his own personal use, what is the double entry procedure for dealing with the transaction? 2. When a company holds stock, it incurs costs. What do you think these costs are? ABE and RRC 126 Final Accounts 1: The Trading Account ANSWERS TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE H. Smith & Co. Trading Account for the Year Ended 31 October Sales less Returns Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns Carriage inwards less Closing stock Gross Profit/(Loss) 40,830 1,460 39,370 6,720 24,720 1,230 23,490 2,480 32,690 7,630 25,060 14,310 If the proprietor had withdrawn goods for his own use valued at 500 selling price, the profit would be increased by 500 to 14,810 because the sales would be increased to 39,870 and the drawings account of Mr Smith would be debited by a similar amount, i.e. 500. ABE and RRC 127 Study Unit 7 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Contents Page A. Nature of the Profit and Loss Account Purpose of the Profit and Loss Account Preparing the Account 128 128 128 B. Bad Debts Writing Off Bad Debts Provision for Bad Debts 130 130 131 C. Discounts Discounts Received and Discounts Allowable Provision for Discounts Allowable 133 133 133 D. Depreciation Calculation of Depreciation Fixed Instalment or Straight-Line Method Fixed Percentage or Reducing Balance Method 133 134 134 135 E. Prepayments and Accruals Need for Adjustments Forms of Adjustment Making the Adjustments 137 137 138 140 F. Allocation or Appropriation of Net Profit Sole Trader Partnership Limited Company 142 142 143 144 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 148 128 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account A. NATURE OF THE PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT Note that some of the points covered in this study unit concern partnerships and limited companies, with which you may not be familiar. These topics will be covered in more detail in later study units. Although our prime interest in this study unit is the Profit and Loss Account we shall inevitably make reference to the Balance Sheet as well. Purpose of the Profit and Loss Account No business can function without incurring what are known as "overhead" expenses. For example, there are salaries, rent, stationery and other incidentals which must be met out of the gross profit made. In addition, a business may earn a small income quite apart from the gross profit, e.g. dividends and interest on investments. The purpose of the profit and loss account is to gather together all the revenue credits and debits of the business (other than those dealt with in the manufacturing and/or trading account) so that it can be seen whether a net profit has been earned or a net loss incurred for the period covered by the account. Preparing the Account The profit and loss account is a ledger account, and forms part of the double-entry process. The ledger account balances for all accounts that are used in calculating the profit are transferred to the profit and loss account. Examples of the accounts transferred are: rent, rates, wages, bank charges. We find net profit as follows: Net profit Gross profit (from trading account) plus Any revenue income other than from sales less Expenses Remember we are calculating the net profit for a period of time (e.g. a year) and hence the gross profit, revenue income other than from sales, and expenses should be related to this period of time. A gross loss is incurred when the expenses are greater than the gross profit plus other revenue income in the period. (a) Credits The items credited to the profit and loss account include the gross profit on trading and other regular forms of income. These include: Discounts received. Rents received in respect of property let. If rents are received from the subletting of part of the factory premises, the rent of which is debited to the manufacturing account, then these should be credited to manufacturing account. In effect, this reduces the rent debit to that applicable to the portion of the factory premises actually occupied by the business. Interest and dividends received in respect of investments owned by the business. Bad debts recovered. (b) Gross profit on trading brought from the trading account. Other items of profit or gain, other than of a capital nature, including profits on the sale of assets. Debits Debited to the profit and loss account are all the revenue expenses of the business which have not already been dealt with in the trading and manufacturing accounts. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 129 These charges are often described as overhead expenses and may be grouped as follows: Administration expenses These cover rent, rates, lighting, heating and repairs, etc. of office buildings, directors' remuneration and fees, salaries of managers and clerks, office expenses of various types. In general, all the expenses incurred in the control of the business and the direction and formulation of its policy. Sales expenses Included in these are commission and salaries paid to sales staff, warehouse rent, rates and expenses in respect of the warehouse, advertising, and any expenses connected with the selling of the goods dealt in. Distribution expenses Here we have cost of carriage outwards. (You will remember that carriage inwards, i.e. on purchases, is debited to the trading account; it is not really an overhead charge as it increases the cost of the purchase.) Under this heading, we also have such items as freight (where goods are sold to customers abroad), expenses of motor vans and wages of the drivers, wages of packers and any other expenses incurred by the distribution or delivery of the goods dealt in. Financial expenses These include interest on loans, hire purchase agreements, debentures, mortgages, bank overdrafts, etc. and discounting charges on bills of exchange. No capital items, e.g. the purchase of plant and machinery, must be debited to the profit and loss account. Sales and purchases of capital items are shown in the balance sheet as additions to, or reductions from, the fixed asset balance concerned. (c) Special Items There are several items which do not occur in the normal course of business, but which must be carefully considered at the end of each trading period. These are listed here and examined fully in the following sections. Discount received (i.e. a reduction in actual price paid to suppliers for prompt payment) and discount allowed to customers for prompt payment. Discount received is effectively income; discount allowed is an expense. Depreciation of assets such as office furniture and equipment will be debited to profit and loss account. We will look at depreciation later. Bad debts which are known at the end of the period and are written off in the profit and loss account. Expenses paid in advance (prepayments) or in arrears (accruals). ABE and RRC 130 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Example Charles Baxter Profit and Loss Account for Year Ended 31 December Gross profit Interest on deposit at bank Discounts received less: General expenses Depreciation on furniture Provision for bad debts increase Discounts allowed Net profit 4,027 328 100 115 25,000 250 320 25,570 4,570 21,000 B. BAD DEBTS Writing Off Bad Debts If all the debtors of a firm paid their accounts, no mention of this item would be made. Unfortunately, however, they do not, and many firms incur what are known as bad debts. For instance, where a debtor is declared a bankrupt, the whole of his debt will not be settled. Only a part of it is paid, but as far as the law is concerned, the debt is wiped out. Consequently, the unsettled portion of the debt is of no value, and it must be written off as a loss. Similarly, if debtors disappear, or if their debts are not worth the trouble of court action, the debts must be written off. The debtor's account is credited with the amount of bad debt, thus closing the account. To complete the double entry, the bad debts account is debited. Thus, all bad debts incurred during the trading period are debited to the bad debts account. At the end of the trading period, the bad debts account is credited with the total bad debts to close the account. Here again, the double entry is preserved by debiting profit and loss account with the same amount. It would be improper to show worthless debts as assets of the firm and this is the manner in which they are dealt with. Example On 1 January W White owes 50 and B Black 60. B Black leaves his place of business and cannot be traced at all. W White is declared bankrupt and 15 is received from her estate on 10 August towards settlement of the debt. At the end of the year these debts are written off as being bad debts. Dr Jan 1 1 Balance b/d W White 50.00 Aug 10 Cash Bad debts a/c Cr CB 3 15.00 35.00 50.00 ABE and RRC 50.00 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Dr Jan 1 Dr 2 B Black 60.00 60.00 Balance b/d 3 Dec 31 Bad debts a/c Cr 3 60.00 60.00 Bad Debts Account Dec 31 W. White B. Black 1 2 35.00 60.00 95.00 Dec 31 Profit & loss a/c 131 Cr 4 95.00 95.00 Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December Dr 4 Bad debts account Cr 3 95.00 Bad debts are sometimes considered to be a financial expense, for they arise from the financial policy of selling goods on credit, rather than for cash. However, they are more appropriately classified as a sales expense, as they result directly from sales. Provision for Bad Debts In addition to writing off bad debts as they occur or when they are known to be bad, a business should also provide for any losses it may incur in the future if its present debtors are unable to meet their obligations. If a business has book debts totalling 100,000, it is not very likely that all those debtors will pay their accounts in full. Some of the debts may prove to be bad, but this may not be known for some considerable time. The amount of the provision should be determined by a careful examination of the list of debtors at the balance sheet date. If any of these debts are bad, they should be written off at once. If any debts are "doubtful", it should be estimated how much the debtor is likely to pay. The balance of the debt is potentially bad, and the provision should be the total of such potentially bad amounts. The debtor's account will not, however, be written off until it is definitely known that it is bad. The provision is formed for the purpose of reducing the value of sundry debtors on the balance sheet to an amount which it is expected will be received from them. It is not an estimate of the bad debts which will arise in the succeeding period. A moment's reflection will show that the bad debts arising in the next period will result from credit sales made within that period as well as from debts outstanding at the beginning of the period. It is, therefore, quite incorrect to debit bad debts against the "Provision for Bad Debts". Once the latter account has been instituted, the only alteration in it is that required to increase or decrease its balance by debit or credit to profit and loss account. This alteration is included as a financial expense when a debit. Never show "Provision for Bad Debts" with the liabilities of the balance sheet it is always deducted from the amount of debtors under the assets of the balance sheet. ABE and RRC 132 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Example At 1 January the provision for bad debts stands as at 4,000. During the year, bad debts are incurred to the extent of 3,670, of which 1,470 is owed by J Day and 2,200 is owed by E Cox. On 31 December, it is decided to write off the bad debts and to increase the provision to be 5 per cent of the sundry debtors. The balance of sundry debtors stands at 100,000 after writing off the bad debts. Dr 1 Provision For Bad Debts Year 1 Dec 31 Balance c/d 5,000 Year 1 Jan 1 Cr 4,000 1,000 Balance b/d Profit & loss a/c 5 (increase in provision) 5,000 5,000 Year 2 Jan 1 Balance b/d 5,000 Important: where there is a balance in the provision, you adjust this figure to the amount demanded by the question. Dr 2 Year 1 Dec 31 J Day E Cox Dr Bad Debts Account 1,470 2,200 3,670 3 4 3 3,670 5 3,670 J Day Year 1 Dec 31 Balance b/d Dr Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and loss a/c Cr 1,470 4 Year 1 Dec 31 Bad debts a/c Cr 1,470 2 E Cox Year 1 Dec 31 Balance b/d 2,200 Year 1 Dec 31 Bad debts a/c Cr 2,200 2 Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December, Year 1 Dr 5 Cr To: Bad debts written off To: Provision for bad debts New provision less Old provision 2 1 5,000 4,000 3,670 1,000 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 133 Balance Sheet as at 31 December, Year 1 Sundry Debtors less 5% provision for bad debts 100,000 5,000 95,000 C. DISCOUNTS Discounts Received and Discounts Allowable You will remember from your previous knowledge of discount that there are two distinct accounts discounted received and discounts allowed. The former is a credit balance and the latter is a debit balance. At the end of the trading period, the following adjustments are carried out: discounts received account is debited and profit and loss account credited, as items under this heading are benefits received by the firm; discounts allowed account is credited and profit and loss account is debited, as these items are expenses of the firm. Provision for Discounts Allowable If a business allows discounts to its customers for prompt payment, it is likely that some of the debtors at the balance sheet date will actually pay less than the full amount of their debts. To include "Sundry Debtors" at the face value of such debts, without providing for discounts which may be claimed, is to overstate the financial position of the business. Accordingly, a "Provision for Discounts Allowable" should be made by debit to profit and loss account. If made on a percentage basis, it should be reckoned by relation to potentially good debts, i.e. sundry debtors less provision for bad debts, for if it is thought that a debt is sufficiently doubtful for a provision to be raised against it, it is hardly likely that the debtor will pay his account promptly and claim discount! The provision appears as a deduction in the balance sheet, from sundry debtors (after the provision for bad debts has been deducted). It is a financial expense. Conversely, it is not correct to have a "Provision for Discounts Receivable". Such a provision would be based on sundry creditors and would represent the amount of discount which the business could expect to earn by paying creditors promptly. This provision should not be made as it would anticipate "profits" that might not actually arise. D. DEPRECIATION Another item which must be taken into account is depreciation of such assets as plant and machinery, warehouse or factory buildings, patents used in the manufacturing processes, etc. All these assets are used directly in the manufacture of goods or in trading, and, as a result of this, their value must decrease owing to wear and tear, etc. This decrease in value is caused by the manufacture or trading, and must be allowed for when overhead charges are being debited to the profit and loss account. Depreciation is defined as the measure of the wearing out, consumption, or other loss of value of a fixed asset whether arising from use, passage of time, or obsolescence through technology and market changes. It should be allocated to accounting periods so as to charge a fair proportion to each accounting period during the expected useful life of the asset. ABE and RRC 134 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Calculation of Depreciation Strictly speaking, the total amount which should be provided as depreciation over the life of the asset is: original cost (this may include such expenses as legal charges on the acquisition of a property, or carriage inwards and installation expenses for machinery, etc.), less scrap or residual value (this is the "break-up" value of the asset at the end of its life). However, this calculation is only used for the straight-line method (see below). By "life" of the asset we mean the useful working life. This may be measured in years, months, etc. The problem here is that the scrap or residual value and the actual working life are not accurately known when the fixed asset is sold. When the asset is used for several accounting periods, we need to make a charge against profits in each period for the depreciation during that period. However, we do not know accurately the value of depreciation until the asset is sold. We therefore need to make an estimate for each period, and this is known as the provision for depreciation. A separate provision for depreciation is made for each class of fixed asset, e.g. provision for depreciation on motor vehicles, provision for depreciation on fixtures and fittings. No method of calculating the provision for depreciation can be 100% accurate. All that we can aim for is to allocate the estimated depreciation as fairly as possible over the periods in which the fixed asset is used. There are numerous methods of calculating depreciation, the main ones being: Fixed instalment or straight-line method Fixed percentage or reducing balance method Revaluation method We will only be looking at the first two items here and considering the book keeping entries necessary. Fixed Instalment or Straight-Line Method The cost of the asset, less the estimated break-up value, is divided by the number of years the asset is expected to be used in the business. The figure thus obtained is debited to the profit and loss account each year and the provision for depreciation account is credited. This is one of the most popular methods of calculating the provision for depreciation. The chief objection to this method is that, while the depreciation figure debited to the profit and loss account each year is constant, the amount incurred for repairs will increase as the end of the life of the asset approaches. Therefore the profit and loss account bears a heavier charge in the later years of the asset's life. However, this is really as it should be, for as a general rule, a new asset is more advantageous to a business than an old one. Example Cost of plant and machinery, 10,500. Estimated break -up value, 500. Life expected, 10 years. Annual depreciation charge 10,500 500 10 1,000 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 135 The double-entry book-keeping is as follows (note that the provision for depreciation is made at the period end when the final accounts are being drawn up): Dr Plant and Machinery Account Year 1 Jan 1 Dr 10,500 Cash Cr Year 1 Provision for Depreciation on Plant and Machinery Account Year 1 Dec 31 Balance c/d Year 2 Dec 31 Balance c/d 1,000 1,000 2,000 Cr Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and loss account 1,000 1,000 Year 2 Jan 1 Balance b/d Dec 31 Profit and loss account 1,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 Year 3 Year 3 Jan 1 Balance b/d 2,000 Profit and Loss Account for year ended 31 December Year 2 (Extract) Gross profit less Expenses: Provision for depreciation on plant and machinery X 1,000 Balance Sheet as at 31 December Year 2 (Extract) Fixed Assets Plant and machinery Cost 10,500 Depreciation 2,000 Net 8,500 We will look further at balance sheets in the next study unit and the above is shown for completeness. However, note that, for balance sheet purposes, the asset account and relevant depreciation are shown together so that the net value reflects the fact t hat the asset is reducing in value and that its market value is less than that of a new asset. Fixed Percentage or Reducing Balance Method Here, the provision for depreciation is calculated each year by a fixed percentage on the diminishing balance. The percentage decided upon will depend on the type of asset. For example, assets having long lives, e.g. buildings, will have a small percentage, say 2%, but assets which quickly depreciate, e.g. lorries, will bear a large percentag e (say 15%). With this method the profit and loss account is debited with a smaller amount year by year. ABE and RRC 136 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Example Cost of plant and machinery 10,500; depreciation at 12% per annum. We calculate the provision for depreciation on plant and machinery as follows: Year 1 Jan 1 Cost Dec 31 less Provision for depreciation (at 12%) Balance 10,500 1,260 9,240 Year 2 Jan 1 Balance Dec 31 less Provision for depreciation (at 12% of balance) Balance etc. 9,240 1,109 8,131 The double-entry book-keeping for this would be as follows: Dr Year 1 Jan 1 Dr Plant and Machinery Account Cash 10,500 Cr Year 1 Provision for Depreciation on Plant and Machinery Account Year 1 Dec 31 Balance c/d Year 2 Dec 31 Balance c/d 1,260 1,260 2,369 Cr Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and loss a/c 1,260 1,260 Year 2 Jan 1 Balance b/d Dec 31 Profit and loss a/c 1,260 1,109 2,369 2,269 Year 3 Year 3 Jan 1 Balance b/d 2,369 This method is appropriate where an asset is likely to lose value quickly in its early years, e.g. a motor car, or where the asset is likely to become quickly outdated because of technological improvement, e.g. a computer. The chief disadvantages are that the asset is never completely written off, and where a very short life is normal for an asset, the percentage required to write it off is very high. Whatever method is used the depreciation account will increase in value, each year, until such time as the balance on the account equals the cost price shown in the asset account. At this point, no further depreciation should be charged to the profit and loss account. Normally, the depreciation provision is the last charge to be shown in both the manufacturing account and the profit and loss account. Where there is a profit or loss on the disposal of a fixed asset, this is shown in the profit and loss account immediately after the expense of depreciation. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 137 E. PREPAYMENTS AND ACCRUALS The main aim of book-keeping is to provide a 'true and fair view' of the profitability and current state of the business. The profitability is dealt within the trading and profit and loss accounts and the current state of the business is dealt with in the balance sheet. In order to provide a 'true and fair view' we need to make certain adjustments, otherwise we would not be complying with the accruals or matching concept. Need for Adjustments When we prepare a set of final accounts for the financial year, we must include all the expenditure and costs relevant to the period covered by the accounts, but no more, and all the sales and revenue for the period. If we just take out the balances on all the ledger accounts, this requirement will probably not be fulfilled. This is because, for instance, certain invoices may have been received, posted to the ledger and paid, but the charge contained in them actually covers a period of perhaps six months or a year. Unless the accounting period we are working on ends at exactly the same time as the charge on that invoice, we would be including in the accounts expenditure which does not relate to the period in question. Suppose final accounts are being prepared for the year ended 31 December Year 1. The rates bill covers the year from 1 April Year 1 until 31 March Year 2. If the accounts are closed without any adjustment being made, the rates account will include rates covering the period 1 January Year 2 to 31 March Year 2, which is clearly not correct. The converse situation may also arise for example if workers' wages for the last week in December are not paid until the first week in January. If these wages were posted to the ledger in January then part of the cost of Year 1's wages would be shown in Year 2's accounts. You can see here the essential difference between the cash book and the trading and profit and loss accounts. The cash book contains receipts and payments which, although actually received or paid, do not refer to the accounting period in which they have been settled. On the other hand, the trading and profit and loss accounts seek to collect all amounts that refer to the accounting period, whether actually paid or received or not. For any accounting period, therefore, there is the cash position and the profit position. Example Consider the following statement of receipts and payments for October. Receipts October Cash sales A Smith (in respect of September account) 3,000 700 3,700 Payments October Materials Wages (100 in respect of September) Insurance Rates 1,200 500 400 300 2,400 In addition to these figures, you are told that there are unpaid bills for October wages 120, materials 400. You are also informed that the 400 paid for insurance includes 170 for November and the rates cover October to March. ABE and RRC 138 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account The cash position is easily obtained by calculating the difference between amounts received and paid, i.e. 3,700 less 2,400 = 1,300. Does this figure reflect the profit position for October also? It does not, because certain items paid are for September or November, whilst other items for October have not been paid. The profit position is therefore as follows: Income October 3,000 Sales Expenditure October Wages paid less September add October not yet paid Materials paid add Due but not paid 500 (100) 400 120 1,200 400 Insurance paid less November 300 (250) 520 1,600 400 (170) Rates paid less November to March 230 50 2,400 From these figures you can see that the true profit for October is 600, not the 1,300 indicated in the cash book. We can see that the true position is given as follows: Income Receipts Amounts due but not received Amounts received but not due Receipts Accruals Prepayments Expenditure Payments Amounts due but unpaid Amounts paid but not due Payments Accruals Prepayments Forms of Adjustment The two forms of adjustment that we will be considering in principle here are accrued and prepaid expenditure. However, note that the principles hold good for accrued and prepaid income. (a) Accrued expenditure Consider the position shown in Figure 7.1. The accounting period is 1 January to 31 December, but rent has only been paid for the period January to November. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 139 Figure 7.1: Accrued expenditure 1 Jan 30 Nov 31 Dec Rent Paid (3,300) 1 Jan to 30 Nov (300) Accounting Period 1 Jan 31 Dec In order to complete the accounting period, it is vital that the rent due in respect of December is added to the rent paid in respect of the months of January to November inclusive. (b) Prepaid expenditure Now consider the position shown in Figure 7.2. Here, where the accounting period is the same, insurance has been prepaid to cover the period 1 July to 30 June in the following year. Figure 7.2: Prepaid expenditure 1 Jan 31 Dec Accounting Period 1 30 Jun 30 Jun of Accounting Period 2 Insurance paid (500) In this instance the shaded section (insurance prepaid), relating to January to June of Year 2, must be deducted because it refers to a later accounting period. From Figures 7.1 and 7.2, you can appreciate that the final accounts for the year ended 31 December concern themselves with expenditure that exclusively relates to that period, and to no other. We could say that you have to develop 'tunnel vision' in respect of the accounting period under review. There can be a further form of accrual. If, for instance, goods have been despatched to a customer at the end of December but invoicing of that customer has not taken place until January, we must accrue for those sales. After all, our stock has been reduced physically as a result of the goods being despatched. If no accrual is made, we would understate our profit by the value of the goods despatched. To correct the situation we: Credit Sales account Debit Goods in Transit with the amount accrued, and then bring down the accrued amount as a debit balance at the start of the next financial period. The double entry is thus carried out within the relevant income or expense account, rather than having a separate accruals account (as used to be the practice). ABE and RRC 140 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Taking the above example a stage further, a customer may complain in Year 2 that goods he purchased in Year 1 were faulty and he may claim a credit. Provided this happens before the final accounts are completed, we should take the credit note into Year 1's accounts, despite the fact that it was raised in Year 2. This is because we should not, according to the prudence concept, take a profit until it is realised. When the goods were sold in Year 1, profit was realised. We now find, because of the return of the goods in Year 2, this profit is incorrect. To correct the situation we: Debit Sales returns account Credit Goods in Transit and when the credit note is posted in Year 2 we: Debit Sales (with the accrual) Credit Customer's account The sales entries would be balances carried down and brought down. Making the Adjustments In this type of transaction we have to deal with two aspects: The profit and loss account must be charged only with such amounts as relate to the period not a penny more, not a penny less. Amounts which do not refer to the current accounting period must be carried forward in order that they can be charged in the correct accounting period. The items carried forward are shown in the balance sheet, as it represents the current state of the business. (a) Prepayments Where a proportion of, for example, rent has been paid in advance, this must be allowed for when the profit and loss account is drawn up. For instance, if the firm paid 10,000 rent for six months from 1 November, and the profit and loss account is made out for the year ended 31 December, it would obviously be wrong to debit the profit and loss account with the full amount of 10,000. Only two month's rent should be debited, i.e. 3,333.30 and the other four months' rent, i.e. 6,666.70, should be carried forward and shown in the balance sheet as an asset, "Rent paid in advance". These remarks apply equally to any other sum paid in advance, e.g. rates, insurance premiums. Example In illustration of this point, we have set out the rent account and profit and loss account as they would appear for the above case. The balance of 6,666.70 being a debit balance, is naturally shown with the assets of the balance sheet. Then, in the following trading period, it will be included in the amount which will be debited to profit and loss account as rent. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Dr 141 Rent Account Year 1 Nov 1 Cr Cash (six months' rent) Year 2 Jan 1 Balance b/d (four months' rent) Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and loss a/c 10,000.00 3,333.30 (two months' rent) Balance c/d (rent paid in advance) 6,666.70 10,000.00 10,000.00 6,666.70 Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December, Year 1 Dr Cr 3,333.30 Rent Where rents are received, the above process is reversed, of course. (b) Accruals The converse situation is where, at the end of the trading period, there are incurred expenses which have not yet been paid. For instance, where rent is not payable in advance, a proportion of the rent for the period may be owing when the profit and loss account is drawn up. How is this to be accounted for? Obviously, the profit and loss account will be debited with rent already paid, and it must also be debited with that proportion of the rent which is due but unpaid. Having debited profit and loss account with this latter proportion, we must credit the rent account with it. The rent account will then show a credit balance and, as such, must appear as a liability on the balance sheet it is a debt owed by the business. Then, when this proportion of rent owing is paid, cash will be credited and rent account debited, thus offsetting the credit balance already shown in the latter account. Example Rent of premises, 24,000 per year. Rent paid up to 31 October, 20,000. The profit and loss account is made out for the year ended 31 December. The entries in the ledger would appear as follows: Dr Year 1 Oct 31 Rent Account Cash Balance c/d (two months' rent due but unpaid) Year 1 20,000 Dec 31 Profit and loss a/c 24,000 4,000 24,000 24,000 Year 2 Jan 1 ABE and RRC Cr Balance b/d 4,000 142 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December, Year 1 Dr Cr 24,000 Rent F. ALLOCATION OR APPROPRIATION OF NET PROFIT The net profit of a business for any period is the excess of its income (gains and profits) over its expenses and losses. It is quite easily ascertained by deducting the total of the debit items in the profit and loss account from the total of the credit items. To make the two sides of the profit and loss account agree, the amount of the net profit is then entered on the debit side. The converse is true for a net loss. The excess of expenses and losses over income is entered on the credit side of the profit and loss account. The question now arises in what way is the debit to the profit and loss account for net profit (or credit for net loss) to be represented by double entry in the books of the business? The way in which the net profit is dealt with naturally differs according to the type of ownership of the business concerned. The three main types of ownership are sole trader, partnership and limited company, and we shall consider the question of net profit in relation to each in turn. Sole Trader This is the simplest case of all because the net profit, which is debited to profit and loss account, is credited to the capital account of the sole trader. The trader will, perhaps, have withdrawn certain amounts during the trading period. To do this, cash will have been credited. The total of the drawings account will then be debited to capital account at the end of the trading period. Example A sole trader withdraws 1,000 from his business at the ends of February, April and June . His accounts are made up for the half-year to 30 June, showing a net profit of 5,000. Dr 1 Year 1 Feb 28 Cash Apr 30 Cash Jun 30 Cash Drawings Account CB CB CB 1,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 Cr Year 1 Jun 30 Capital account 2 3,000 3,000 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Dr 2 Year 1 Jun 30 Drawings a/c Balance c/d Capital Account Cr Year 1 Jan 1 Cash Jun 30 Profit & loss a/c 10,000 5,000 15,000 Jul 1 1 3,000 12,000 15,000 143 12,000 Balance b/d Profit and Loss Account for the half-year ended 31 June, Year 1 Dr Net profit transferred to current account Cr 2 5,000 Net profit 5,000 Partnership The allocation of net profit (or loss) in the case of a partnership is not quite as simple as in the case of a sole trader. The various rights of the partners are involved, and for this reason, their capital accounts should be kept intact. When the partnership commences, a document is usually drawn up setting forth the rights and duties of all the partners, the amounts of capital to be contributed by each, the manner in which the net profit or loss is to be shared among them, the provision for interest on capital if any, and the rights of partners upon a dissolution of the partnership. Such a document is known as the partnership agreement. Where no partnership agreement is in existence, the provisions of Section 24 of the Partnership Act 1890 apply. This will be dealt with in greater detail in a later study unit. Now, in the case of a partnership, the profit and loss account is really in two sections. The first section is drawn up in the manner already indicated in this study unit and is debited with the net profit made (or credited with the net loss). To complete the double entry, the amount of net profit is then carried down as an ordinary balance and credited to the second section of the profit and loss account. (A net loss would be carried down to the debit side of this section.) It is the second section which shows how the net profit is allocated to the various partners, and it is referred to as a profit and loss appropriation account. In a partnership, the partners each have two accounts: the capital account (which is kept intact), and the current account. A partner's current account is debited with his or her drawings, and with a proportion of any loss which the business might sustain. The current account is also credited with the partner's share of the net profit, and with interest on his capital if this is provided for in the partnership agreement. Where a partner lends money to the business, over and above the capital provided, he or she will also have a loan account which will be credited with the amount of the loan. Any interest allowed on this loan will be debited to the first section of the profit and loss account and credited to the partner's current account. (Some authorities prefer to debit interest on loans to the second section ins tead of the first). Thus, the capital account and loan account (if any) of a partner will remain constant, but his or her current account will fluctuate year by year. (The loan account will, of course, alter with any repayments or additional amounts advanced by way of loan.) The second part of the profit and loss account, in the case of a partnership, is credited with the net profit of the trading period, as stated above. To this second part is debited interest on the partners' capitals where this is provided for in the partnership agreement. Where the agreement provides for one or more of the partners to have a salary, this, too, must be ABE and RRC 144 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account debited to the second part of the profit and loss account, not the first part. Such salary will, of course, be credited to the current account of the partner concerned, unless it has already been withdrawn in cash and appears as a separate Dr balance in the trial balance. Then, when these items have been debited and only then can the remaining profit be divided. It must be divided exactly as the partnership agreement provides. The second part of the profit and loss account will be debited with the shares of the remaining profit which are due to the partners. This will close the profit and loss account and, to complete the double entry, the current account of each partner must be credited with his share of the profit. Where a loss has been sustained, the reverse is the case. Example Smith, Brown and Robinson are partners who share profits in the proportion of their capitals. Their capitals are 50,000, 20,000 and 10,000 respectively. The net profit for the year before providing for this, or for the following items, is 71,000. Interest on capital is to be allowed at 5% per annum, and Robinson is to have a partnership salary of 3,000 per annum. Show how the profit of 71,000 is allocated. Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December, Year 1 (2nd Part Appropriation) Dr Cr Robinson salary Interest on capital at 5%: Smith 2,500 Brown 1,000 Robinson 500 Share of profit: Smith 40,000 Brown 16,000 Robinson 8,000 3,000 71,000 Net profit b/d 4,000 64,000 71,000 71,000 Thus: Smith's current account will be credited with (2,500 40,000) Brown's current account will be credited with (1,000 16,000) Robinson's current account will be credited with (3,000 500 8,000) Net profit shown in the first part of the profit and loss account 42,500 17,000 11,500 71,000 Limited Company With a limited company, the net profit shown in the profit and loss account is carried down to the credit side of the second half of the profit and loss account, as in the case of a partnership. This second half of the profit and loss account is known as the profit and loss appropriation account, or simply appropriation account. In this account, as with a partnership, the net profit of the business is allocated. Sometimes the appropriation account is drawn up as a separate account. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 145 A limited company distributes its profits by means of dividends on the shares of its capital held by the shareholders. Thus, where a company declares a dividend of 10 per cent on its ordinary share capital of 10,000 (dividend in 1 shares), the holder of each 1 share will receive 10p, i.e. 10 per cent of 1. Such a dividend would be debited to the appropriation account, together with all dividends paid on the other classes of shares. Corporation tax on profits is also debited to the appropriation account, this being the share of the company's profit which is claimed by the Inland Revenue. Directors' fees should be debited to the profit and loss account proper. Where, however, these fees vary according to the amount of net profit paid and have to be passed by the company in general meeting, they should be kept in suspense until such meeting has taken place. Then, of course, they should be debited to the appropriation account, because they are a proportion of the profits due to the directors. When these various items have been debited to the appropriation account, the whole of the profit may not have been used. The balance remaining is carried forward to the appropriation account of the next trading period, when it will appear on the credit side under the amount of the net profit brought down from the profit and loss account. When a company makes a very large profit, the directors will often deem it prudent to place a proportion of such profit on one side, instead of distributing it among the shareholders. An account is opened to which such sums will be credited, the appropriation account being debited. This account is known as a reserve account. The reserve account, therefore, contains appropriation from net profits, accumulating year by year. The Articles usually give the directors power to make such reserves as they choose, before recommending dividends. ABE and RRC 146 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Questions for Practice 1. From the following balances appearing in the ledger of the New Manufacturing Co. on 31 December, draw up the profit and loss account for the year ended 31 December. Discounts allowed Discounts received Gross profit (brought down from trading account) Salaries Bank charges Sundry office expenses Rent and rates Bad debts written off Carriage outwards Plant and machinery 32 267 83,497 44,261 193 1,361 19,421 937 5,971 50,000 Notes: (a) (b) Rent owing on 31 December amounted to 2,000. (c) 2. Write off 10 per cent depreciation on plant and machinery. An insurance premium amounting to 500 was paid on 1 July in the current year for the year to 30 June of the following year. The 500 is included in sundry office expenses. A, B and C are in partnership, their respective capitals being 20,000, 15,000 and 10,000 and they share profits in the proportions of half, quarter and quarter. The net profit shown in the profit and loss account, before providing for the following particulars, is 48,000 for the half-year ended 30 June. B is entitled to a salary of 3,200 per annum and the capital accounts bear interest at the rate of 4 per cent per annum. Show how the net profit of 48,000 is distributed among the partners. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account 147 Review Questions Section A 1. Briefly explain the purpose of the nature and purpose of the profit and loss account. 2. What is the difference between credit and debit entries in the profit and loss account? Section B 1. Referring to Case Study A Jim is concerned about Global's rising bad debts. Explain to Jim how bad debts can arise and outline some practical measures which will reduce the impact of this problem in the future. 2. Explain the purpose of setting up a provision for bad debts. Section C 1. Discount allowed is an expense to a business. If so, what benefits are gained by offering these discounts to customers buying goods on credit? 2. When a company is short of cash, does it make sense to take advantage of discount settlements being offered by suppliers? Section D 1. What is the difference between the straight-line and reducing balance methods of depreciation? 2. Do you think that using the reducing balance of depreciation at a rate of 10% is realistic for a computer system? Explain the reasons for your answer to this question. Section E 1. Why do prepayments and accruals distort a company's financial performance? 2. A company's financial year runs from January to December. On 1 September it pays 1,200 for motor vehicle insurance. How much of this payment will relate to the current financial year? 3. Explain the advantages that can be gained by paying energy bills (e.g. heat and light, etc.) by budgeted monthly instalments instead of quarterly in arrears. Section F 1. Referring to Case Study A As Global Holdings grew and developed, its organisational structure changed accordingly i.e. from sole trader to partnership and then to private limited company. Explain why the appropriation of net profit becomes more complicated as a business goes through these changes in organisational and legal structure. 2. Explain one major advantage of being a private limited company as opposed to a sole trader or partnership? ABE and RRC 148 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. New Manufacturing Company Profit and Loss Account for year ended 31 December Gross profit Discounts received Expenses: Rent and rates Salaries Sundries Discounts allowed Bad debts Carriage outwards Bank charges Depreciation on plant and machinery: 10% of 50,000 Net profit 83,497 267 83,764 21,421 44,261 1,111 32 937 5,971 193 5,000 78,926 162,690 Notes (a) (b) 2. Rent and rates have been increased by 2,000, this being the amount owing at the year end. Sundry office expenses have been reduced by 250, this being the prepayment of the insurance premium; or it can be considered as the unexpired portion of the premium. The trading period of the partnership is only six months interest on capital, and B's salary, are therefore calculated for six months only. (You should be on the look-out for "traps" of this type.) The appropriation account is set out on the next page. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account Profit and Loss Appropriation Net profit b/d B salary Interest on capitals: A B C Profit: A () B () C () ABE and RRC 48,000 1,600 400 300 200 900 22,750 11,375 11,375 45,500 48,000 149 150 Final Accounts 2: The Profit and Loss Account ABE and RRC 151 Study Unit 8 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet Contents Page A. Essentials of a Balance Sheet Functions of the Balance Sheet 152 152 B. Assets Fixed and Current Assets Valuation of Assets Tangible and Intangible Assets Order of Assets in the Balance Sheet 154 154 155 156 156 C. Liabilities Liabilities to Proprietors External Liabilities Order of Liabilities 157 157 157 159 D. Distinction Between Capital and Revenue Definitions Capital Expenditure Revenue Expenditure Capital and Revenue Receipts Capital and Revenue Reserves 159 160 160 161 161 161 E. Preparation of a Balance Sheet Sole Trader Partnership 162 162 166 ABE and RRC 152 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet A. ESSENTIALS OF A BALANCE SHEET At the end of the trading period it is customary to extract a trial balance. From the trial balance are compiled the trading account, profit and loss account and the appropriation account (if any). In preparing these (usually known as the "final accounts"), many accounts in the ledger are closed for example, sales account is closed by being transferred to the credit side of the trading account. When the final accounts have been prepared, there will still be a number of ledger accounts which remain open. These "open" account balances are "extracted" as a kind of final trial balance, set out in full detail, and this final trial balance is known as the balance sheet. Let us now consider what details should appear in a balance sheet. A balance sheet is a statement showing the assets owned and the liabilities owed by the business on a certain date. It can be ruled in account form, but it is not an account. For that reason, you must not head it "Dr" and "Cr". However, the expression "final accounts" includes the balance sheet even though it is not an account at all. Because it is a statement as at a particular date, it is headed: Name of Firm Balance Sheet as at (or as on, or at) date and never "for the year (or other period) ended ......". Remember that this latter type of heading is used for trading and profit and loss accounts which cover a period of time. The balance sheet may be presented with the assets on the left-hand side and the liabilities on the right-hand side similar to a normal account and this therefore means that debit balances are on the left and credit balances on the right. Remember, though, that a balance sheet does not have a debit side and a credit side. An alternative presentation is to s how the assets (net) first, with a total, and then the capital of the business, with its own total, in a vertical format. In this course we shall show balance sheets of sole traders and partnerships in the horizontal format, and of limited companies in the vertical format, so that you become familiar with both ways of presenting a balance sheet. Note the following differences between the balance sheet and the trial balance and ledger accounts: A trial balance is a list of all the ledger balances, not only assets and liabilities, but also gains and losses. A balance sheet is a list of a part only of the ledger balances, i.e. those remaining after the profit and loss items have been dealt with, the assets and liabilities. A trial balance is prepared before the revenue accounts are compiled. A balance sheet is prepared after the revenue accounts have been dealt with. In the profit and loss account you will remember that you actually transfer the gains and losses appearing in accounts in the books, by means of journal entries. Because the balance sheet is a statement and not an account, the accounts for assets and liabilities in the books are not affected when you draw up the balance sheet. You do not "transfer" them to the balance sheet. Functions of the Balance Sheet We can identify a number of purposes served by the balance sheet. (a) Financial position of business It is very useful, now and then, to reckon up what we possess in the form of furniture, books, cash and amounts owing to us by other people, and to contrast this total with ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 153 what we owe. If, as should be the case, we possess more than we owe, then we are solvent, and the difference between the two totals represents our worth or capital. If we have spent more than our income we are then insolvent, the difference this time being a deficit. The same principle is applied to business. The balance sheet is drawn up in order to give a picture of the financial position of the business. It reveals whether the business is solvent or insolvent. It shows how much is invested in different forms of property, and it provides an incentive to the proprietor to ensure that the assets shown by the books are actually in the firm's possession. (b) Arithmetical accuracy of account The agreement of the balance sheet also provides a check on the accuracy of the revenue accounts in much the same way as the agreement of a trial balance provides prima facie evidence of the arithmetical accuracy of the books. (c) Bridge between financial years The balance sheet is also a "bridge" between one financial year and the next. All accounts which remain open after the manufacturing, trading and profit and loss accounts have been prepared, are summarised in the balance sheet. For example, suppose that an office is rented from 1 March, and six months' rent of 6,000 is paid in advance. The rent account would appear as follows at the end of the year: Dr Year 1 Mar 1 Sept 1 Rent Account Cash Cash 6,000 6,000 Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and Loss a/c (10 months' rent) Cr 10,000 The balancing figure of 2,000 must be added to the credit side to close the account, and the same figure is "carried down" to the opposite side of the account to re-open the account for the following year. This balancing figure is included in the balance sheet, so, in effect, the balance sheet is equivalent to a statement of the opening balances for the following year. No account can be carried down from one year to the next without being included in the balance sheet. The rent account will appear as follows. Note that no mention of the balance sheet is made, and no journal entry is necessary. Dr Rent Account Year 1 Mar 1 Sept 1 Year 2 Jan 1 (d) Cash Cash Balance b/d 6,000 6,000 12,000 Year 1 Dec 31 Profit and Loss a/c Balance c/d Cr 10,000 2,000 12,000 2,000 Summarised statements If we listed each asset, each piece of machinery, each book debt, etc. separately, the balance sheet would be extremely long and almost unintelligible. Assets, and liabilities also, are summarised or grouped, therefore, into their main classes, and only the total ABE and RRC 154 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet of each type is shown on the balance sheet. Thus, if our debtors are Jones, who owes us 10, and Smith, who owes us 15, we show under current assets: Sundry debtors 25 Summarisation entails giving as much information in as little space as possible. Style and layout are most important. As an example of what is intended, assume that office furniture was worth 2,000 at the beginning of the year and has since depreciated by 100. The balance sheet will show: Balance Sheet as at 31 December Year 1 Office furniture Balance 1 January less Depreciation for year at 5% pa 2,000 100 1,900 B. ASSETS Assets are debit balances, and may be divided into fixed and current assets. Fixed and Current Assets We should start by defining these: Fixed assets These are assets which are retained in a business, more or less permanently, for the purpose of earning revenue only and not at all for the purposes of sale. Examples are: plant, machinery, land, buildings, etc. Some fixed assets are consumed by the passing of time, e.g. leases, mines, etc. Current Assets Cash and those other assets which have been made or purchased merely to be sold and converted into cash are known as current assets. It is from the turnover of current assets that a business makes its trading profit. Examples are: stock in trade, sundry debtors, cash, temporary investments. All such assets are held for a short period only, e.g. stock when sold creates debtors, these debtors pay their debts in cash, by means of which more stock can be acquired. So the circle moves round and current assets are kept constantly moving. Now that you know the meaning of the various terms by which assets are described, we can discuss the distinction between them. First of all, it is most important that you should know that the determination of whether an asset is "fixed" or "current" depends entirely upon the kind of business which holds the asset. What is a fixed asset in one firm may be a current asset in another. For example, machinery is a fixed asset when held by a firm which manufactures cigarettes, but, in the hands of a firm which sells machinery, it will be a current asset. A motor van will be a fixed asset for a tradesman who uses it for delivery, but, to a manufacturer of such vans, it will be a current asset, i.e. stock. The rule to be applied is this: is the asset concerned held merely until a purchaser can be found, or is it held permanently for use in the business? If the former case obtains, the asset is a current asset; but, if the latter case obtains then the asset is a fixed one. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 155 However, you must remember that even if an asset is not easily realisable, it may still be a current asset, e.g. a debt due from a foreign importer may be hard to realise, owing to exchange restrictions, but it still remains a current asset. Note that the word "fixed" in this connection means something quite different from its dictionary definition. A fixed asset is not necessarily immovable. Valuation of Assets The distinction between fixed and current assets is of the utmost importance, for a variety of reasons. First of all, the basis of valuation (for balance sheet purposes) in the case of fixed assets is entirely different from that of current assets. (a) Fixed assets Generally speaking, fixed assets represent money which has been spent in the past on items, e.g. buildings, plant, machinery, which were intended to be used to earn revenue for the firm. In many cases, these fixed assets depreciate over a period of years and may finally have to be "scrapped". Therefore, the money spent originally on a fixed asset should be spread over the number of years of the estimated "life" of the asset. An item representing depreciation will be debited to the profit and loss account annually, and the provision account will be credited. Because we deduct the depreciation from the cost of the asset, the fixed asset is shown as a diminishing figure in the balance sheet each year unless, of course, there have been additions to the asset during the year. The decrease in the value (to the business) of the fixed asset is also thus shown as an expense in the annual profit and loss account. An illustration will help us to explain the principle. Assume that a company makes a net profit every year of 6,000, and that at the end of every year it has 7,000 cash in the bank! Suppose that one year it buys some machinery for 4,000. This expenditure does not appear in the profit and loss account, so the net profit remains 6,000 per year. In the balance sheet the machinery will be shown at a cost of 4,000, and there will now be only 3,000 of cash in the bank, but total assets will remain unchanged. So far so good, but if nothing is done about depreciation we will find that after, say, five years, the machinery will be worthless but it will still be valued in the balance sheet at 4,000. To avoid this state of affairs, 800 is transferred from the profit and loss account each year to a provision for depreciation account, and it is deducted from the cost price of the asset. So in the balance sheet, the value of the asset is reduced by 800 each year until nothing is left, and at the same time the net profit for the five years is 800 less. In other words, the expenditure of 4,000 is being spread over a period of five years, which is clearly just, since the machinery is earning profit during these five years. You must remember that not all fixed assets are consumed by the passing of time. Some, in fact, may "appreciate", e.g. freehold land and buildings. With the rising value of such assets, it is now considered quite correct to revalue them. Thus, the balance sheet would show the correct market value. If an increased valuation is to be made, then great care must be taken to ensure that the asset is not overvalued, and so expert advice should be sought. (b) Current assets Now that we have considered the valuation of fixed assets, we turn to the valuation (again for balance sheet purposes) of current assets. As we have already pointed out, current assets are normally held for a relatively short period, i.e. until they can be realised. For this reason, current assets cannot be valued on the same basis as fixed assets. As fixed assets are held for the purpose of profit-earning, the best method of valuation is cost, less an appropriate provision for depreciation. Current assets, however, should generally be valued at cost or market price, whichever is the lower. ABE and RRC 156 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet This course is necessary to ensure that no account is tak en of profit in the valuation until the current assets have been realised. We have already discussed the reasons for this in an earlier study unit. Tangible and Intangible Assets Assets which can be possessed in a physical sense, e.g. plant, machinery, land and buildings, etc. are tangible assets. Also included in the category of tangible assets are legal rights against third parties. On the other hand, assets which cannot be possessed in a physical sense, and which are not legal rights against external persons, are intangible. Goodwill is perhaps the best example of an intangible asset. It complies with the definition, and is often a very valuable asset in the case of an old-established business. The distinction between tangible and intangible assets is not of as much importance as the distinction between fixed and current assets. In fact, the distinction is really of little practical use. Indeed, you should beware of using the terms when writing of the assets of a concern, as they are often misleading. For instance, when you examine the definitions which we have given at the beginning of the study unit, you will notice that book debts, i.e. sundry debtors, being legal rights against third parties, must be classed as "tangible" assets. You will know from experience, however, that some of these debtors may be worthless, and it appears to be misleading to describe such debts as "tangible". On the other hand, goodwill is an intangible asset, although such an asset is often sold for a very large sum. For these reasons, be very guarded in your use of these two terms. Order of Assets in the Balance Sheet The assets in the balance sheet must be arranged in a clear and logical order. The order usually adopted is: Fixed assets Current assets. In each "group" assets are arranged in an order "from most fixed to most fluid", thus: Fixed Assets Current Assets Goodwill Stock in trade Patents, trade marks, etc. Work in progress Freehold land and buildings Sundry debtors Leasehold land and buildings Bills receivable Plant and machinery Payments in advance Loose tools Temporary investments Motor and other vehicles Bank deposit account Furniture and fittings Cash at bank Permanent investments Cash in hand A sub-total for each group is extended into the end column of the balance sheet. The examples which follow later make this clear. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 157 C. LIABILITIES Liabilities to Proprietors First of all you need to know what is meant by the liability of a firm or company to the proprietors. This, in the case of a sole trader, is the capital account, i.e. the amount by which the business is indebted to the owner. With the case of a partnership, the liabilities to the proprietors are to be found in the capital accounts and current accounts of the various partners. (The current accounts are only liabilities when they are credit balances. When they are debit balances, they appear in the asset section of the balance sheet, since debit balances represent debts due from partners.) The balances of these accounts represent the indebtedness of the business to the various partners. With a limited company, this indebtedness is the amount of the share capital paid up. There are often two or more classes of shares in a company, each possessing different rights, as we shall see in a later study unit. In each of the three cases mentioned, the indebtedness of the business to the proprietors, i.e. the sole trader, the partners or the shareholders, as the case may be, cannot, strictly speaking, be classed as a liability. The proprietors of a firm can withdraw their capital in bulk only when the firm is wound up, and even then they must wait until the outside creditors have been satisfied. When the outside creditors have been paid out of the proceeds of the sale of the assets, it may be that there is very little left for the proprietors to take. In some cases, in fact, the proceeds of sale of the assets are insufficient to pay off the external creditors. The proprietors must then furnish more funds until the creditors are satisfied, as follows: A sole trader must contribute funds to pay off remaining outside creditors, even if this takes the whole of his private property and investments. In a partnership, the partners, too, must make good a deficiency on winding up. They, too, must contribute their private means until all the external creditors are paid, even if this takes the whole of their private means. With a limited liability company, the case is different from either a sole trader or a partnership, since the liability of each proprietor, i.e. shareholder, is restricted to the amount he or she originally agreed to contribute. For example, a shareholder has 100 shares of 1 each in a company, and has paid 75p on each share. The shareholder can be called upon to pay only a further sum of 25p per share (total 25), if the assets of the company do not realise sufficient to satisfy the external creditors. In most companies all the shares are fully paid, so the shareholders are not liable for anything further. The main point to remember in each of these three cases, is that external creditors always take preference over proprietors. If you study the above three cases carefully you will realise that the indebtedness of a business to the proprietors can hardly be described as a real liability. However, this term must be used for want of a better one, but you must always remember the special circumstances. In some limited companies we find two classes of shares preference and ordinary shares. These terms do not mean that preference shareholders come before external creditors: it merely means that they have certain rights over the ordinary shareholders. External Liabilities Now that you know what is meant by "liabilities to proprietors", we can pass on to external liabilities. The external liabilities of any firm are those liabilities which cannot be described as indebtedness to proprietors in the way of capital accounts, current accounts (sole trader and ABE and RRC 158 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet partnership), or paid-up (limited company). It is possible, however, for a person to be an external creditor and, at the same time, a proprietor. This occurs when a shareholder of a company becomes an ordinary trade creditor of the company in the normal course of business. It is essential that you should be able to distinguish between proprietors of a business and external creditors. We can classify external liabilities in various ways: (a) Long-term or current liabilities Long-term liabilities Long-term liabilities are those which would not normally be repaid within 12 months. Current liabilities (short-term liabilities) Current liabilities consist of current trading debts due for payment in the near future. It is essential that long-term and current liabilities should be stated separately in the balance sheet, so that it is possible for shareholders and third parties to judge whether the current assets are sufficient to meet the current liabilities and also provide sufficient working capital. Current liabilities also include accrued expenses. (b) Secured and unsecured liabilities Secured liabilities Liabilities for which a charge has been given over certain or all of the assets of the firm are said to be "secured". In such cases, the creditor, in default of payment, can exercise rights against the assets charged, to obtain a remedy. (An asset is "charged" when the creditor gives a loan on condition that he or she acquires the ownership of the asset if the loan is not repaid by the agreed date. The asset is security for the loan.) This is similar to a mortgage on a private house. The charge may be either "fixed" or "floating". A fixed charge is one which relates only to one particular asset, such as a building. On the other hand, a floating charge can be exercised over the whole of the class of assets mentioned in the charge, present or future. Debentures are often secured by a floating charge on the whole of the assets of the company which issued the debentures. The floating charge does not "crystallise" until the charge is enforced, i.e. the creditor goes to court to obtain payment of his debt. When this occurs, the firm which granted the charge may not deal in any way with any of the assets included in the charge. A floating charge is convenient to both borrower and lender. The borrower is allowed to deal as he chooses, in the ordinary course of business, with the assets covered by the charge, without having to obtain the permission of the lender. Also the lender is satisfied because he knows that his loan is well secured. With a fixed charge, however, the borrower could not sell the asset charged without the permission of the lender. Unsecured liabilities As the name implies, such liabilities are not secured in any way by a charge over any of the assets of a firm. In the event of the winding-up of a concern, the secured creditors are satisfied out of the proceeds of the asset or assets over which they have a charge. Any surplus, together with the proceeds of uncharged assets, are reserved to satisfy, first the preferential liabilities (described below) and then the unsecured liabilities. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 159 When all these liabilities have been met, the final surplus, if any, is shared by the proprietors in the manner provided in the Articles of Association (in a limited company), or in the partnership agreement (in the case of a partnership). (c) Preferential Liabilities On the bankruptcy of a sole trader or partnership, or on the winding -up of a company, certain liabilities enjoy preference over other liabilities. These debts are known as preferential liabilities. Examples are unpaid wages and taxation. Preferential liabilities do not concern us in the preparation of a balance sheet of a continuing business. (d) Contingent liabilities Liabilities which might arise in the future, but which are not represented in the books of the firm concerned, at the date of drawing up the balance sheet are said to be "contingent". Obviously, such a liability cannot be shown in the balance sheet proper as it is not represented by a credit balance in the ledger of the firm. As it is necessary to disclose contingent liabilities to the proprietors of the firm, a note should be made at the foot of the balance sheet, giving particulars of these transactions. An example of a contingent liability is where the firm concerned is involved in a law action at the date of the balance sheet. If there is a possibility that damages and/or costs will be awarded against the firm, a note to this effect should be added as a footnote to the balance sheet. Order of Liabilities The order of the liabilities is less important than that of the assets. However, we strongly recommend the following order for a sole trader or partnership: Capital account(s) liabilities to proprietors Current account(s) Long-term liabilities: (i) Secured (ii) Unsecured Current liabilities. The balance sheet of a limited company is set out in considerable detail, and the matters that must be shown are laid down by law. We are not concerned here with limited companies, as they will be dealt within a later study unit. D. DISTINCTION BETWEEN CAPITAL AND REVENUE One of the fundamental principles of correct accounting is the proper distinction between capital and revenue, both for expenditure and income. The importance lies in the fact that revenue expenditure constitutes a charge against profits and must be debited to profit and loss account; whereas capital expenditure comprises all expenditure incurred in the purchase of fixed assets for the purpose of earning income and is shown in the balance sheet. Failure to observe the distinction inevitably falsifies the results of the book-keeping. For example, if a motor car were purchased and the cost charged to profit and loss account as motor car expenses, or if a building were sold and the proceeds ABE and RRC 160 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet credited to profit and loss account as a gain, then both the profit and loss account and the balance sheet would be incorrect. Every time that you go through the trial balance in order to decide which items go in the profit and loss account and which go in the balance sheet, you are distinguishing between capital and revenue. Definitions We need to be absolutely clear about these at the outset. Capital Expenditure Where expenditure is incurred in acquiring, or increasing the value of, a permanent asset which is frequently or continuously used to earn revenue, it is capital expenditure. Revenue Expenditure This represents all other expenditure incurred in running a business, including the expenditure necessary for the maintenance of the earning capacity of the business and for the upkeep of fixed assets in a fully efficient state. It is, though, extremely difficult to lay down a hard and fast rule as to the dividing line which separates capital expenditure and revenue expenditure, as every case must be treated on its own merits. For example, if a general dealer bought a motor car, the cost would be debited to capital, whereas if a motor dealer bought the car, the cost would be debited to revenue. Capital Expenditure In most businesses, capital expenditure can be divided into the following groups: Land and buildings This group includes all lands, roads, fences, railway tracks, mines and quarries, and buildings. Legal expenses in acquiring or selling land and buildings, and survey expenses in connection with the acquisition of land, are also counted as capital expenditure. The initial outlay and the costs of developing property to an incomeearning stage are treated as capital in the case of mines and quarries. Service plant This includes all plant for the provision of fuel and power, heating and cooling, and ventilation. Manufacturing plant and machinery This includes all plant and machinery other than the above. These are the fixed assets which produce the goods. Fixtures and fittings These include desks, chairs, benches, machine-guards, racks, shelves, cabinets and partitioning. Transport This includes lorries, vans, trucks, cranes, hoists, staking machines and trolleys, provided that they are purchased for use in the business. Intangible assets These include expenditure on the purchase of patent rights and goodwill. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 161 Revenue Expenditure Revenue expenditure is normally written-off to profit and loss account in the period in which it is incurred. Examples of revenue expenditure are wages, salaries, rent, selling expenses, repairs to buildings, repairs to plant and machinery, renewal f ees on patents, the purchase of goods for resale, the purchase of raw materials, and overhead expenses in administering the business. There are some types of expenditure which, although incurred during one accounting period, will nevertheless enable the concern to reap benefits in future years. Such expenditure is known as deferred revenue expenditure, and can be treated quite legitimately as an asset until it is completely written off. An example of deferred revenue expenditure occurs in the case of a com pany which spends a large sum of money advertising a new brand of product. After the brand has become popularised, the advertising can be reduced considerably, but the sales will still go on. It is not strictly correct to write off the whole of this initial advertising expenditure in the year in which it is incurred, as the benefit from the advertising is not confined to the first year but is felt for several years afterwards. This expenditure is therefore written off over a number of years, and the balance remaining at the end of each year is included in the balance sheet as a current asset. Deferred revenue expenditure should not be confused with payments in advance, e.g. when rent or advertising is paid for before the period to which it really relates. These payments in advance are carried forward to the following period, and must, therefore, be included in the balance sheet as a current asset, but there is no question whatever of writing them off over a number of years as is the case with deferred revenue expenditure. Capital and Revenue Receipts The division of receipts into capital and revenue items is not nearly as difficult, as the sources of receipts are generally far less in number than the types of expenditure. Capital receipts These normally consist of additional payments of capital into the business, and the proceeds from the sale of fixed assets. Revenue receipts These comprise all other forms of income, including income from the sale of goods in the ordinary course of trading, interest on investments, rents, commission and discounts. Capital and Revenue Reserves A reserve fund arises where an amount is transferred from the profit and loss appropriation account, by reducing the amount of profit available for dividend distribution (i.e. by debiting the account) and transferring it to a named reserve fund (i.e. by crediting the account). Reserve funds are created for different purposes. Some reserves are not legally allowed to be used for the distribution of a dividend, but others could be used in future years to provide a dividend if required. A company needs to retain funds within the business to provide for working capital and to ensure future expansion if possible. It is not usual, therefore, for all profit made in any one year to be distributed to shareholders by way of dividends. After the profit has been appropriated by contributions to reserve funds and payment of dividends to shareholders, there could still be a credit balance left to be carried forward to the next year. This could arise either because: it is inconvenient to pay dividends in fractions of percentages, or a sum of money has been deliberately held back on prudent grounds. ABE and RRC 162 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet As such this balance would be treated or construed as a general reserve. Capital reserve funds A capital reserve is usually used for financing the purchase of capital expenditure and is not generally available for making contributions to the profit and loss appropriation account to increase a dividend payout to shareholders. Revenue reserve funds A revenue reserve is where an amount has been transferred from the profit and loss appropriation account by debiting it, and crediting a named reserve account. The reserve may be for some particular purpose, such as the repair and maintenance of assets, e.g. planned maintenance on buildings, or it could be a general reserve. The named reserve fund can only be used for the purpose for which it is intended, whereas the general reserve fund can be used for any purpose, e.g. to provide additional capital for the business, pay of dividends to share holders, finance an advertising campaign etc. E. PREPARATION OF A BALANCE SHEET Let's now see how balance sheets are prepared for businesses owned by sole traders. We will consider partnership and company balance sheets later. Sole Trader A typical balance sheet of A Brown at 31 December is shown to illustrate the way a balance sheet is laid out: ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 163 A Brown Balance Sheet as at 31 December Fixed Assets Freehold premises Delivery vans Office furniture Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision for bad debts Cash at bank Cash in hand Prepayments less Current Liabilities Creditors Accruals Working capital Cost 25,000 12,500 4,800 42,300 Depreciation 2,000 800 2,800 Net 25,000 10,500 4,000 39,500 39,500 23,900 2,000 24,900 1,100 21,900 16,500 700 200 78,800 26,000 52,800 92,300 Long-Term Liabilities Bank loan (repayable over 10 years) Financed by: Opening capital add Net profit less Drawings 10,000 82,300 80,000 13,300 93,300 11,000 82,300 Note the following points in respect of this layout: (a) Remember we are preparing a statement of all the balances left open on ledger accounts at a particular point in time in this case at 31 December. (b) Fixed assets must be shown as separate categories, e.g. premises, office furniture. They are shown at cost less the accumulated depreciation since they were purchased. The "Net" column reflects this value. Note that only the total of the net column is added into the balance sheet. The other columns are totalled and ruled off. (c) It is usual to list the current assets in the order shown, starting with the least liquid assets and moving down to the more liquid assets. Try to follow this order in your own presentation. ABE and RRC 164 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet (d) One section of the balance sheet shows: Fixed assets Current assets Current liabilities Long-term liabilities The other section of the balance sheet shows the owner's capital. This is shown here as "Financed by", but you will also see it identified as "Capital Account". (e) It is normal practice to show in the balance sheet how the closing capital balance has been calculated, by adding the net profit to the opening capital and then deducting the drawings during the period. This practice has been adopted to give more information to users of balance sheets. (f) Both sections of the balance sheet should have the same total. This is referred to as "balancing the balance sheet". The use of the double-entry book-keeping system gives this result. (g) The above vertical layout is commonly used nowadays rather than the horizontal form we used earlier when looking at the accounting equation. To complete this section, we show on the next page the above balance sheet in horizontal form so that you are aware of the differences between the two layouts. In some ways, this form of layout shows the assets and liabilities more clearly, as well as the balance between the two. ABE and RRC ABE and RRC Cash in hand Insurance prepaid Cash at bank less Provision for bad debts Sundry Debtors 2,000 23,900 700 200 16,500 21,900 39,500 2,800 2,800 78,800 118,300 4,000 39,500 10,500 less Drawings add Net profit for the year Salaries accrued Wages accrued Bills payable Sundry creditors 4,800 42,300 Office furniture 2,000 Balance brought forward Capital Account Stock 12,500 Delivery vans 25,000 Net Current Liabilities 25,000 Freehold warehouse Dep'n Current Assets Cost Fixed Assets A Brown Balance Sheet as at 31 December 400 700 11,800 23,100 118,300 36,000 82,300 11,000 93,300 13,300 80,000 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 165 166 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet Partnership The main point of difference between the balance sheet of a sole trader and of a partnership lies in the capital and current accounts. While the sole trader may merge profits and losses, drawings, etc. into the capital account, this would be most inadvisable in the case of a partnership. In fact, most partnership agreements stipulate that capitals shall be fixed at certain amounts. Current accounts are, then, obviously necessary to record shares of profits and losses, interest on capitals, salaries, drawings, etc. and the final balances only need to be shown in the balance sheet. The details are, of course, contained in the ledger accounts. The order of assets and liabilities is generally as shown in the balance sheet above for the sole trader. Current accounts always appear below capital accounts. Here is a summarised version of the proprietor's interest section of the balance sheet of a partnership: Robinson, Jones and Brown Balance Sheet as at 31 October... Robinson Brown Total Proprietor's interest Capital accounts Current accounts Jones 7,500 2,475 9,975 5,500 1,965 7,465 2,500 1,180 3,680 15,500 5,620 21,120 (Partnership accounts will be dealt with in detail in a later study unit.) Note that there are no practice questions for this unit. You will, however, get plenty of practice in preparing balance sheets in the next unit! ABE and RRC Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet 167 Review Questions Section A 1. How can a balance sheet be used to assess the current financial position of a business? 2. Why is it necessary to summarise assets and liabilities into their main classes on a balance sheet? Section B 1. What is the difference between a fixed and current asset? 2. Why does expenditure on fixed assets not appear in the profit and loss account? 3. Why are intangible fixed assets very important to a business? Section C 1. What are the differences between liabilities to proprietors and external liabilities? 2. How could current liabilities force a company out of business? Section D 1. A company decides to undertake a major upgrade of its accounting system. Is this an example of capital or revenue expenditure? 2. Each month the production department spends 1,000 on training its staff. Does this represent capital or revenue expenditure? Section E 1. Identify and explain two differences between the balance sheet of a sole trader and that of a private limited company. ABE and RRC 168 Final Accounts 3: The Balance Sheet ABE and RRC 169 Study Unit 9 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Contents Page A. Preparation from Given Trial Balance Example 1: Sole Trader Example 2: Partnership 170 170 174 B. Depreciation and Final Accounts 178 C. Preparation from an Incorrect Trial Balance 181 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 190 170 Final Accounts 4: Preparation A. PREPARATION FROM GIVEN TRIAL BALANCE To date, we have studied the theory and practice of double entry book-keeping, including all records up to the extraction of a trial balance. In addition, we have looked at the preparation of trading and profit and loss accounts, together with the balance sheet. Now we shall get more practical by looking at how the final accounts are prepared from a given trial balance, taking into consideration accruals, prepayments, etc. The examples set out will concern sole traders and partnerships (in simple form). The final accounts of limited companies are drawn up on exactly the same principle, but in view of the fact that certain information must be included (by virtue of the Companies Acts), we shall not give you any practical examples of such accounts until later in the course. Study the following examples carefully, paying particular attention to the explanatory notes. Example 1: Sole Trader The following trial balance has been extracted from the books of John Bell, a sole trader, as on 31 December. From this, you are required to draw up the trading and profit and loss accounts for the year ended 31 December, together with a balance sheet as on that date. Capital 1 January Drawings Sales and returns Purchases and returns Wages Salaries Bad debts Provision for bad debts 1 January Sundry debtors Sundry creditors Discounts Bills payable Freehold warehouse Delivery vans Carriage inwards Carriage outwards Stock 1 January Office furniture General office expenses Rates and insurance Cash in hand Cash at bank 11,000 2,400 84,600 29,600 14,300 2,900 80,000 158,500 1,100 1,500 23,900 2,200 23,100 1,400 11,800 25,000 12,500 3,100 4,600 31,000 4,800 3,900 4,400 700 16,500 277,400 277,400 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 171 In drawing up these accounts and the balance sheet, allowance must be made for the following items: (a) Stock at 31 December is valued at 39,500. (b) Allow for depreciation as follows: delivery vans, 2,000; office furniture, 800. (c) Increase the provision for bad debts to 2,000. (d) Expenditure accrued but not paid at 31 December: wages, 700; salaries, 400. (e) Expenditure prepaid at 31 December: insurance, 200. Explanatory Note In preparing your final accounts, remember that each item in the trial balance will appear once only, i.e. in the trading account, or in the profit and loss account, or in the balance sheet. In addition, it must also be borne in mind that each of the "adjustments" (a) to (e) must appear twice in the final accounts, e.g. stock at 31 December appears in the trading account and also in the balance sheet. In order that nothing shall be overlooked, out first step is to mark (with, say, a cross) each item in the trial balance which is affected by an adjustment. These are as follows: delivery vans, office furniture, provision for bad debts, wages, salaries, rates and insurance. In drawing up the final accounts, as each item is entered it should be "ticked" on the trial balance, and similarly with the adjustments. The balance sheet will therefore not be ready for balancing unless and until every item in the trial balance is ticked once and every footnote ticked twice. It is often good practice particularly where you are working under a time pressure to insert gross and net profits in pencil only and not to rule off the final accounts until the balance sheet agrees. When it does agree, ink in your profit figures and erase your pencil marks. Taking the trading account first, certain items are a "must", e.g. sales, purchases, stock etc. Having inserted these, go through your trial balance again, with care, and select all other items for the trading account before proceeding to the profit and loss account. In preparing the profit and loss account, remember that the first entry is gross profit (or loss) transferred from the trading account. Also, be prepared to go through your trial balance at least twice before passing from the profit and loss account to the balance sheet. One very important item must not be omitted from the balance sheet and that is the net profit (or loss) as disclosed by the profit and loss account. If you ignore this, your balance sheet will differ. Having given you all this advice, we can now proceed to draw up the final accounts. Try preparing them yourself first, if you feel confident, and then compare your own attempt with the following solution: ABE and RRC 172 Final Accounts 4: Preparation John Bell Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the Year Ended 31 December ... Sales less Returns Cost of goods sold: Stock 1 January Purchases less Returns Carriage inwards 156,100 31,000 84,600 1,100 less Closing stock, 31 December Gross profit Discounts received Expenses Wages Rates and insurance Salaries General office expenses Bad debts Bad debt provision Discounts allowed Carriage outwards Depreciation: Delivery vans Office furniture Net profit 158,500 2,400 83,500 3,100 117,600 39,500 78,100 78,000 1,400 79,400 30,300 4,200 14,700 3,900 2,900 500 2,200 4,600 2,000 800 2,800 66,100 13,300 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation John Bell Balance Sheet as at 31 December Fixed Assets Freehold premises Delivery vans Office furniture Current Assets Stock Sundry debtors less Provision for bad debts Insurance prepaid Cash at bank Cash in hand less Current Liabilities Sundry creditors Bills payable Wages accrued Salaries accrued Cost 25,000 12,500 4,800 42,300 Depreciation 2,000 800 2,800 Net 25,000 10,500 4,000 39,500 39,500 23,900 2,000 23,100 11,800 700 400 21,900 200 16,500 700 78,800 36,000 42,800 82,300 Financed by: Balance b/f add Net profit for year 80,000 13,300 93,300 11,000 82,300 less Drawings We can show (some of) the adjustments in the form of "T accounts" truncated forms of ledger accounts solely for the purpose of making such adjustments: Bad Debt Provision Rates and Insurance ABE and RRC 2,000 2,000 B/d 2,000 B/d C/d 1,500 B/d 500 P & L 2,000 B/d 4,400 4,400 200 4,200 P & L 200 C/d 4,400 173 174 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Wages B/d C/d 29,600 700 30,300 30,300 P & L 30,300 700 B/d Example 2: Partnership Messrs Black and White are partners, who share profits and losses in the proportion of three fifths and two-fifths respectively. The following trial balance was extracted from their books as at 30 September. From this, together with the notes given at the end of the trial balance, you are required to prepare the final accounts for the partnership. (If you are asked for "final accounts", this means that you must draw up the trading account, profit and loss account, and a balance sheet.) Provision for bad debts Stock 1 October (beginning of year) Drawings: Black White Sales and returns Purchases and returns Debtors and creditors Salaries Wages Freehold property Furniture and fittings Cash at bank Cash in hand Capital: Black White Current a/cs 1 October (beginning of year): Black White Motor vans Discounts allowed Discounts received Rates and insurance Carriage outwards Sundry expenses Bills receivable Partnership salary: White 62,000 25,000 19,000 3,000 152,700 51,200 22,100 31,500 100,000 5,600 6,700 1,700 3,300 280,000 2,400 46,300 100,000 80,000 5,500 3,900 12,000 3,200 1,600 4,100 6,400 5,800 6,000 5,000 523,000 523,000 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 175 Notes: (a) Stock 30 September, 68,200. (b) The partnership agreement provides for White to have a salary of 8,000 pa. Of this he has drawn only 5,000 as shown in the trial balance. (c) Allow for interest on capital at the rate of 5 per cent per annum. (d) Wages accrued, 1,400. (e) Rates prepaid, 600. (f) Reduce the provision for bad debts to 2,500. (g) Allow for 3,000 depreciation on motor vans and 1,400 on furniture and fittings. Explanatory Note In this example, the trading account is drawn up in the usual way, but we must remember that the profit and loss account is in two sections. The first section of the profit and loss account is prepared on normal lines, but it must not include any items which concern the partners. All items concerning partners appear in the second half of the profit and loss account, "Appropriation", and here we must not forget that drawings are not debited to the profit and loss account. The final item in the second half is the "split" of the divisible profit in the agreed proportions. Turning to the balance sheet, remember it is always better to use separate current accou nts and to take the final balances to the balance sheet. By so doing, you get a much neater presentation. One point which might cause you trouble is the partnership salary. White has drawn 5,000 out of 8,000 due. In the profit and loss account (second half), therefore, partnership salary must appear as 8,000 the 3,000 due but withdrawn, being shown as an addition to White's current account in the balance sheet. Now attempt this example yourself before looking at the following solution. ABE and RRC 176 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Black and White Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 30 September Sales less Returns Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns 280,000 3,000 277,000 62,000 152,700 2,400 less Closing stock Gross profit 150,300 212,300 68,200 Reduction in bad debt provision Discounts received Expenses Wages Salaries Sundries Carriage outwards Discounts allowed Rates and insurance Depreciation: Motor vans Furniture and fittings Net profit 144,100 132,900 800 1,600 135,300 32,900 22,100 5,800 6,400 3,200 3,500 3,000 1,400 4,400 78,300 57,000 Appropriation Partnership salary Interest on capital @ 5% Black White Share of profits Black 3/5ths White 2/5ths 5,000 4,000 24,000 16,000 8,000 9,000 40,000 57,000 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 177 Current Accounts Dr Cr Drawings Salary drawn Balances c/d Black 25,000 9,500 34,500 White 19,000 5,000 7,900 Balances b/d Interest on capital Salary Profit 31,900 Balances b/d Black 5,500 5,000 24,000 34,500 White 3,900 4,000 8,000 16,000 31,900 9,500 7,900 Black and White Balance Sheet as at 30 September Fixed Assets Freehold premises Motor vans Furniture and fittings Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision for bad debts Bills receivable Rates prepaid Cash at bank Cash in hand less Current Liabilities Creditors Wages accrued Capital Accounts Black White Current Accounts Black White ABE and RRC Cost 100,000 12,000 5,600 117,600 Depreciation 3,000 1,400 4,400 Net 100,000 9,000 4,200 113,200 68,200 51,200 2,500 46,300 1,400 48,700 6,000 600 6,700 1,700 131,900 47,700 100,000 80,000 9,500 7,900 84,200 197,400 180,000 17,400 197,400 178 Final Accounts 4: Preparation B. DEPRECIATION AND FINAL ACCOUNTS Now, to continue the development of final accounts preparation, we shall examine in detail how the depreciation method affects the final accounts. Consider the following example. Warmington started in business in December Year 1 with a capital of 600,000. Since 1 January Year 2 it has traded in a single product which is both purchased and sold for cash (i.e. there are no debtors or creditors). The business purchased motor vehicles, fork-lift trucks and other equipment at a total cost of 400,000 in December Year 1. These fixed assets were expected to last nine years and have a combined residual value of 40,000. No dividends were paid out in Years 2-4. The following information is provided in respect of years 2, 3 and 4: Year 2 13,000 10,000 Year 3 14,000 12,000 Year 4 14,000 14,000 (a) Number of items bought Number of items sold (b) Average purchase price per item Average sale price per item 90 130 100 140 110 150 (c) Expenditure on administration, finance, selling and distribution (other than depreciation) 305,000 346,000 402,000 Bank balance (overdraft) at 31 December (41,000) 117,000 (d) 25,000 Required: 1. Summary trading and profit and loss accounts of Warmington for each of the three years 2 4 together with the balance sheets at 31 December in each year. (i) Depreciating fixed assets on the straight-line (equal instalment) basis. (ii) Depreciating fixed assets on the reducing-balance basis using a rate of 22.5%. Calculations to nearest 000. 2. A discussion of the results disclosed by (i) and (ii) above. Have a go at preparing the final accounts yourself before looking at the answer which follows. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation Workings for depreciation (i) Straight-line Annual charge 400,000 40,000 9 40,000 (ii) Reducing-balance Year 2: 400,000 22.5% 90,000 Year 3: 400,000 90,000 310,000 22.5% 70,000 (to nearest 000) Year 4: 310,000 70,000 240,000 22.5% 54,000 Workings for stock Year 2: Purchases Sales Stock left 13,000 10,000 3,000 @ 90 270,000 Year 3 Purchases Stock b/f 14,000 3,000 Sales Stock left 17,000 12,000 5,000 @ 100 500,000 Year 4 Purchases Stock b/f Sales Stock left 1. (i) 14,000 5,000 19,000 14,000 5,000 @ 110 550,000 Straight-line depreciation Warmington Trading and Profit and Loss Accounts, 000 Sales Purchases Opening stock Closing stock Gross profit Depreciation Administration Net profit ABE and RRC Year 2 1,300 1,170 (270) 900 400 40 305 345 55 Year 3 1,680 1,400 270 (500) 1,170 510 40 346 386 124 Year 4 2,100 1,540 500 (550) 1,490 610 40 402 442 168 179 180 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Balance Sheets, 000 Fixed assets at book value Stock Cash at bank and in hand Opening capital Net profit Closing capital 1. (ii) Year 2 360 270 25 655 Year 3 320 500 (41) 779 600 55 655 Year 4 280 550 117 947 655 124 779 779 168 947 Reducing-balance depreciation Warmington Trading and Profit and Loss Accounts, 000 Year 2 Gross profit (as before) Depreciation Administration Net profit Year 3 400 90 305 395 5 Year 4 510 70 346 610 54 402 416 94 456 154 Warmington Balance Sheets, 000 Fixed assets at book value Stock Cash at bank and in hand Opening capital Net profit Closing capital 2. Year 2 310 270 25 605 600 5 605 Year 3 240 500 (41) 699 605 94 699 Year 4 186 550 117 853 699 154 853 The reasons for the differences between (i) and (ii) are that the reducing-balance basis of depreciation produces larger charges, relative to the straight-line basis, in early years, compensated for by lower charges later on. Where plant is more efficient in its earlier years this better reflects the true effect on the profitability of the business of the decreasing efficiency of plant. (Note also how calculating the value of stock by a different method would affect reported profit.) ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 181 C. PREPARATION FROM AN INCORRECT TRIAL BALANCE This final example of the preparation of final accounts provides a comprehensive revision of all your studies to date. Given below is the trial balance drawn up by M Possible for his business at 30 April Year 6: Premises Bank overdraft Sales Carriage outwards Wages and salaries Provision for doubtful debts 01/05/Yr 5 Insurance Motor vehicles (at cost) Purchases Purchases returns Discount received Rates Debtors Creditors Drawings Capital General expenses Provision for depreciation on motor vehicles 01/05/Yr 5 Stock 30/04/Yr 6 Dr 52,000 650 Cr 110,145 1,225 17,010 500 940 12,700 62,480 870 785 1,620 19,260 15,960 4,260 40,000 2,725 4,330 175,000 2,540 175,000 Despite the fact that he had obtained a balancing trial balance, M Possible, who has little knowledge of accounting, suspects that he has made mistakes, and subsequently discovers the following errors: (i) Several items have inadvertently been placed in the wrong columns. (ii) A payment of 2,720 from a debtor has been correctly entered in the bank account, but the double entry has been omitted. (iii) A payment of 760 for an insurance premium has been dealt with correctly in the bank account, but entered as 670 in the insurance account. (iv) A credit note for 300 from A Packer has been entered in the account of A Parker. (v) A rates refund of 70 has been debited in the rates account. (vi) A purchase of a used delivery van for 7,500 has been entered in the purchases account. M Possible had no stock on 1 May Year 5. ABE and RRC 182 Final Accounts 4: Preparation In addition the following information is available: (a) Depreciation on the motor vehicles is to be provided for at 10% on cost per annum. (b) Wages accrued at 30 April Year 6 amounted to 580. (c) Insurance was prepaid by 50 at 30 April Year 6. (d) 800 of debts were considered to be bad at 30 April Year 6 but these have not yet been written off. (e) A provision for doubtful debts amounting to 5% of debtors outstanding at the year end is to be made. You are required to: 1. Prepare journal entries to correct items (iv), (v) and (vi) above. 2. Prepare a corrected trial balance at 30 April Year 6 after the above journal entries have been prepared. 3. Prepare a trading and profit and loss account for the year ended 30 April Year 6 and a balance sheet at that date. Answer 1. Journal Item Date (iv) May Yr 6 Debit A Packer A Parker Being the correction of a credit note entered in the wrong account (error of commission) (v) May Yr 6 May Yr 6 Delivery van Purchases Correction of error purchase of van entered in error in purchases account (error of principle) 300 300 Rates Correction of error rates refund 70 debited in rates account instead of credited (vi) Credit 140 7,500 7,500 This indicates how earlier books of original entry and your double entry skills are important, even when preparing final accounts. Please revise if you find any difficulty with this. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 2. 183 Note that there were errors from items being put in the wrong debit/credit columns in the original trial balance as well as the errors (i) (vi) detected. You will remember that you studied this earlier. Remember that the debit column includes expenses and assets and the credit column includes income and liabilities. Corrected Trial Balance as at 30 April Yr 6 Premises Bank overdraft Sales Carriage outwards Wages and salaries Provision for doubtful debts Insurance (940 + 90) Motor vehicles (12,700 + 7,500) Purchases (62,480 7,500) Purchases returns Discount received Rates (1,620 140) Debtors (19,260 2,720) Creditors Drawings Capital General expenses Provision for depreciation on motor vehicles Dr 52,000 Cr 650 110,145 1,225 17,010 500 1,030 20,200 54,980 870 785 1,480 16,540 15,960 4,260 40,000 2,725 171,450 2,540 171,450 Note Remember that stock at the close of the financial year should not be included in the trial balance. ABE and RRC 184 Final Accounts 4: Preparation 3. Workings: (i) Provision for depreciation: Provision for year ended 30. 4. Yr 6: 20,200 10% 2,020 (ii) Provision for doubtful debts: Remember here to deduct any bad debts which have not previously been written off before calculating the required provision for doubtful debts. Closing debtors balance at 30. 4. Yr 6 16,540 800 (bad debts) 15,740 Provision for doubtful debts should be: 15,740 5% 787 Increase in provision required: 787 500 287 You will remember that bad debts and the provision for doubtful debts is an application of the prudence concept. Can you recall what this is? Revise if you experience any difficulty. M Possible Trading and Profit and Loss Account for year ended 30 April Year 6 Sales less Cost of Goods Sold Opening stock Purchases less Returns Net purchases less Closing stock Cost of goods sold 110,145 54,980 870 54,110 4,330 49,780 Gross profit Discount received less Expenses Carriage outwards Wages and salaries (580 + 17,010) Increase in provision for doubtful debts Insurance (1,030 50) Rates Bad debts General expenses Provision for depreciation motor vehicles Net profit 60,365 785 61,150 1,225 17,590 287 980 1,480 800 2,725 2,020 27,107 34,043 Note how the provisions, accruals and prepayments also appear in the balance sheet. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation M Possible Balance Sheet as at 30 April Year 6 Fixed Assets Premises Motor vehicles Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision for doubtful debts Prepayments less Current Liabilities Creditors Bank overdraft Accruals Working capital Financed by: Opening capital add Net profit for year less Drawings Closing capital Cost 52,000 20,200 72,200 Depreciation 4,560 4,560 Net 52,000 15,640 67,640 4,330 15,740 787 15,960 650 580 14,953 50 19,333 17,190 2,143 69,783 40,000 34,043 74,043 4,260 69,783 Note Only the increase in the provision for doubtful debts of 287 is debited to the profit and loss account but the total balance on the provision for bad debts account must be deducted from debtors in the balance sheet. ABE and RRC 185 186 Final Accounts 4: Preparation Questions for Practice 1. The trial balance of A Smith, builder, at 31 March, was as follows: Capital Drawings Plant and machinery Purchases Purchases returns Wages Sundry debtors Sundry creditors Discount allowed Discount received Carriage inwards Sales Sales returns Office salaries Cash at bank Cash in hand Stock at beginning of year Rent and rates Factory expenses Carriage outwards Bad debts written off Provision for bad debts Sundry expenses 95,720 12,500 50,000 181,170 1,180 73,780 86,560 50,960 780 310 1,300 350,310 2,970 20,200 10,280 3,200 30,230 8,500 13,000 600 2,010 4,000 5,400 502,480 502,480 Allow for: (a) Wages accrued, 5,200 (b) Rates prepaid, 2,000 (c) Increase provision for bad debts by 1,000 (d) Provide 10% depreciation on plant and machinery (e) Value of stock at 31 March, 50,000. You are required to prepare trading and profit and loss accounts for the year ending 31 March, and a balance sheet as at that date. ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 2. From the following trial balance construct the final accounts of John Maxwood, a sole trader. Premises (at cost) Fixtures/fittings (at cost) Plant/machinery (at cost) Provision for depreciations: Fixtures & fittings Plant/machinery Capital (at 1st January) Stock on hand (1st January) Advertising Bad debts Heat/light Insurance Postage Rent/rates Sales (net) Carriage inwards Wages/salaries Drawings Debtors Creditors Cash at bank Purchases less returns 320,000 100,000 140,000 12,000 20,000 578,000 71,700 12,000 6,200 10,700 2,600 3,200 5,000 520,000 5,100 126,400 24,000 204,000 128,000 36,100 191,000 1,258,000 1,258,000 Closing stocks: 62,500 Depreciation: Fixtures/fittings, 5% on cost Plant/machinery, 10% on cost It was discovered, after the trial balance had been drawn up, that a piece of plant costing 8,000 had been entered in the purchases. 187 ABE and RRC 188 Final Accounts 4: Preparation 3. Set out below is the trial balance of Wood and Son as at 31 December: Capital Stock 1 Jan Purchases and sales Discounts Returns inwards and outwards Carriage inwards Carriage outwards Light and heat Insurance Telephone Rent received Salaries and wages Trade debtors and creditors Provision for doubtful debts at 1 Jan Premises Equipment Furniture Loan (repayable in 8 years' time) Provisions for depreciation at 1 Jan: Premises Equipment Furniture Bank and cash 10,658 135,196 3,000 334 197 251 5,728 800 475 57,166 396,103 614 1,400 83,259 27,600 12,951 2,120 200,000 5,000 6,000 10,000 4,000 2,000 4,500 12,356 490,854 490,854 The following information is available to you: (a) Stock at 31 December is valued at 9,327. (b) The book-keeper has recorded both discounts received and discounts allowed in a combined discounts account. You are able to ascertain that discounts received in the year amounted to 1,000. (c) Part of the firm's premises are rented out at an annual rental of 1,200. (d) The loan of 10,000 repayable in 8 years' time carries an interest charge of 10% p.a. (e) At 31 December telephone charges of 125 had accrued whilst insurance had been prepaid by 100. (f) It is discovered that Billy Bunter Ltd (one of the firm's debtors owing 700) is a bad debt and, accordingly, a decision is now made that the debt is to be written off. (g) Depreciation on the firm's fixed assets is to be charged as follows: Premises 2% p.a. on cost (straight-line method) ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation 189 Equipment 25% p.a. (reducing balance method) Furniture 25% p.a. on cost (straight-line method) (h) At 31 December the provision for doubtful debts is to be equal to 10% of debtors at that date. Required Prepare the trading and profit and loss account for the year ended 31 December and the balance sheet at that date for Wood and Son. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. Review Questions Section A 1. Identify two items which are not recorded in a trial balance, but which are present in the final accounts of a sole trader. 2. Referring to the trial balance for John Bell, explain why there are more debit entries than credit entries. Section B 1. Explain the impact depreciation has on fixed assets in a balance sheet. Section C 1. Explain why it is necessary to use a journal to correct errors in a trial balance when preparing final accounts. ABE and RRC 190 Final Accounts 4: Preparation ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. A Smith, Builder Trading and Profit and Loss Account for year ended 31 March Sales less Returns Cost of goods sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns Carriage inwards less Closing stock Wages Factory expenses Depreciation plant and machinery Gross profit Discount received Expenses Office salaries Rent and rates Carriage outwards Bad debts Sundries Provision for bad debts Discounts allowed Net profit 350,310 2,970 347,340 30,230 181,170 1,180 179,990 1,300 211,520 50,000 161,520 78,980 13,000 5,000 20,200 6,500 600 2,010 5,400 1,000 780 258,500 88,840 310 89,150 36,490 52,660 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation A Smith, Builder Balance Sheet as at 31 March 20.. Fixed Assets Plant and machinery at cost less Depreciation Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision for doubtful debts Rates prepaid Bank Cash less Current Liabilities Creditors Wages accrued Net Current Assets Financed by: Capital add Net profit for year less Drawings ABE and RRC 50,000 5,000 45,000 50,000 86,560 5,000 50,960 5,200 81,560 2,000 10,280 3,200 147,040 56,160 90,880 135,880 95,720 52,660 148,380 12,500 135,880 191 192 2. Final Accounts 4: Preparation John Maxwood Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ending . . . Sales Cost of goods sold: Stocks Purchases Carriage inwards less Closing stock Gross profit Advertising Bad debts Heat/light Insurance Postage Rent/rates Wages Depreciation Plant Fixtures/fittings Net profit 71,700 183,000 5,100 259,800 62,500 12,000 6,200 10,700 2,600 3,200 5,000 126,400 14,800 5,000 520,000 197,300 322,700 185,900 136,800 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation John Maxwood Balance Sheet as at . . . . Fixed Assets Premises Fixtures/machinery Fixtures/fittings Current Assets Stock Debtors Cash/bank less Current Liabilities Creditors Proprietor's interest Opening capital Profit Drawings ABE and RRC Cost 320,000 148,000 100,000 Depreciation 34,800 17,000 62,500 204,000 36,100 302,600 128,000 Net 320,000 113,200 83,000 516,200 174,600 690,800 578,000 136,800 714,800 24,000 690,800 193 194 3. Final Accounts 4: Preparation Wood and Son Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December Sales less Returns Net sales less Cost of Goods Sold: Opening stock Purchases less Returns Carriage inwards 396,103 334 395,769 10,658 135,196 614 less Closing stock Cost of goods sold Gross profit Discounts received Rent received less Expenses: Discount allowed Carriage outwards Light and heat Insurance (800 100) Telephone (475 + 125) Salaries Interest on loan Bad debt Increase in provision for doubtful debts Depreciation: premises equipment furniture Net profit 134,582 197 145,437 9,327 136,110 259,659 1,000 1,200 261,859 4,000 251 5,728 700 600 83,259 1,000 700 570 4,000 750 1,500 103,058 158,801 ABE and RRC Final Accounts 4: Preparation Wood and Son Balance Sheet as at 31 December Fixed Assets Premises Equipment Furniture Cost 200,000 5,000 6,000 211,000 Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision for doubtful debt Bank Prepayment 26,900 2,690 less Current Liabilities Creditors Accruals (125 + 1,000 + 200) Working capital 12,951 1,325 Depreciation 8,000 2,750 6,000 16,750 Net 192,000 2,250 194,250 9,327 24,210 12,356 100 45,993 14,276 31,717 225,967 Long term liabilities Loan Financed by: Opening capital add Net profit Closing capital ABE and RRC 10,000 215,967 57,166 158,801 215,967 195 196 Final Accounts 4: Preparation ABE and RRC 197 Study Unit 10 Control Accounts Contents Page A. Purpose of Control Accounts Dealing with Errors Practical Points 198 198 198 B. Debtors Control Account Methods Format and Double Entry 199 199 199 C. Creditors Control Account Methods Format and Double Entry 202 202 202 D. Sundry Journal Debits and Credits in both Debtors and Creditors Control Accounts 204 Answers to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 209 198 Control Accounts A. PURPOSE OF CONTROL ACCOUNTS In a business of any appreciable size, the number of accounts, comprising assets and liabilities, expenses and gains, debtors and creditors is so large that it is physically impossible to contain them within one binder (the ledger). For this reason, it is usual to find one or more debtors ledgers, i.e. those ledger accounts are kept separately from the rest in a separate binder, although they are of course still within the double entry system of book keeping. Similarly, the creditors ledger accounts may be kept separately from the rest. A control account is therefore defined as a total account to which is debited and credited in total all the transactions which have been debited and credited in detail to individual ledger accounts. Dealing with Errors The greater the number of accounts and the greater the number of transactions recorded, the greater is the likelihood that errors may creep into the work. Even the systematic checking of each entry after it is made does not entirely eliminate this danger. Perhaps errors may come to light only when a trial balance is prepared, either periodically or at the year end. We have already considered how to locate errors where a trial balance does not agree. If such 'short cut' methods fail to locate the mistake(s), nothing else can be done but to check all entries since the trial balance was last extracted and the books agreed. This complete check can take days or even weeks and is very unproductive. Even with a complete check, errors can be missed a second time. Further, agreement of a trial balance is only prima facie evidence of the arithmetical accuracy of the books; it is not at all uncommon for compensating errors to occur, which are not disclosed by a disagreement of the trial balance. Total (or control) accounts provide an answer or alternative to the detailed checking. A total (or control) account shows, in total, on its debit side all amounts which have been debited in detail to individual debtors or creditors accounts and on its credit side all items that have been credited in detail to individual debtors or creditors accounts. Provided that no errors have been made in the books of prime entry (day books), posting or balancing of the two control accounts (one for debtors and the other for creditors), the balances should agree with the total of all the individual debtors and creditors accounts of the business. Thus, if a difference arises on the trial balance, the debtors and creditors accounts can be reconciled to the total (or control) account and if no error is highlighted there (i.e. individual debtors and creditors ledger accounts agree to their respective total accounts) the error must be located in the remainder of the ledger entries and a considerable bulk of rechecking entries need not be done. Practical Points (a) Control accounts are usually kept by a senior official of a business, with semi-senior employees maintaining the individual ledger cards. In no circumstances should the two be kept by the same person. (b) Provided that the accuracy of the control account is constantly proved, management is placed in the position of knowing the net amounts due to and by the business at any time, without the necessity of preparing detailed lists of debtors and creditors from the ledger cards. This is of the utmost importance for directing financial policy and as an aid to management. (c) In a very large concern, it may be desirable to have several debtors and creditors control accounts. Accounts may be divided on the following lines: Alphabetical, e.g. Debtors Control A K ABE and RRC Control Accounts 199 Numerical, e.g. Debtors Control 1 100, where a system of numerical accounts is in operation and an index will be necessary Geographical, e.g. Debtors Control SE England Departmental, e.g. 'Hardware' Debtors Control. There are several other methods in use (d) To get the information we need in order to divide up the debtors and creditors control accounts, we have to provide further analysis columns in the books of prime entry, or to maintain separate books of prime entry for each control account division. As far as each is concerned, we must provide each debtors control with a cash received book and each creditors control with a cash paid book, the totals of these cash books being transferred daily to a general cash book. B. DEBTORS CONTROL ACCOUNT This is often known as sales control account or total debtors account. It is a summary account of the individual debtors ledger balances. Methods There are two approaches to using this type of account. Treat the individual ledger accounts as part of the double entry system and regard the control account purely as memorandum. Treat the control account as part of the double entry system and regard the individual ledger accounts as memoranda. Both methods are perfectly acceptable, but we will illustrate their use by means of the second method above. You should, therefore, regard the individual debtors ledger accounts as purely memoranda, maintained only to show the individual sums owing from customers, and the control account as a ledger account within the double entry system. Format and Double Entry The general format of the debtors control account is shown below. Debtors Control Account Balance b/d Sales Dishonoured bills of exchange Returned cheques Sundry journal debits Balance c/d X X X X X X Balance b/d Cash Discount allowed Sales returns Bad debts Bills receivable Sundry journal credits Balance c/d X X X X X X X X X Balance b/d X X Balance b/d X We shall now consider each of the above entries in turn, together with the double entry. ABE and RRC 200 Control Accounts Remember that we are regarding the control account as part of the double entry system (and not the individual debtors ledger accounts). On the debit side (a) Balance b/d This represents the total amount owing by debtors at the beginning of the period. (b) Sales This information has been obtained from the sales day book and the double entry is: Debit: Debtors control account Credit: Sales account Memo entries are also made on the individual debtors ledger cards or accounts (although the format of these is not important as they are outside the double entry system). (c) Dishonoured bills of exchange (d) Bounced (returned cheques) Both the above items occur because a bill of exchange proves non-collectable or a cheque is dishonoured it 'bounces'. The original bill or cheque will have removed the debt from the control account and this can be considered as a reinstatement of the sum owing entry. Information is obtained from the journal, in the case of a bill of exchange, and from the cash book in the case of a cheque. The double entry is: Debit: Debtors control account Credit: Bills of exchange account or cash at bank account. (e) Sundry journal debits These will be considered together with sundry journal credits once the total creditors account has also been discussed, as they often arise because of transfers between control accounts. (f) Balance c/d This arises where (say) a debtor has overpaid his account; for example, he has been sold goods worth 75 and paid 80. It would be incorrect to deduct the 5 overpaid from the total owing by the other debtors as this would result in an understatement of debtors on the balance sheet. Instead, it is shown separately in the debtors control account and classified as a current liability (overpayment by debtor) on any balance sheet. On the credit side (a) Balance b/d This represents the total amount owing to (back to) debtors at the beginning of the period. (b) Cash This represents sums received from debtors during the period and the information has been obtained from the cash book. Often the trader will add an extra column on the debit side of his cash book (in a similar manner to 'discounts allowed' discussed in an earlier study unit) into which all cash received from debtors is inserted: ABE and RRC Control Accounts 201 Cash at Bank (Extract) Discount Allowed Debtors Total Total (Bank) 50 450 20 900 800 450 5,000 900 800 70 2,150 Fred Debtor Sales of Fixed Assets Joe Debtor Carol Debtor (Total columns are balanced to find cash at bank in the normal manner.) The double entry is therefore (as illustrated by the above example): Debit: Bank account Credit: Debtors control account (c) 2,150 2,150 Discount allowed As shown above, this information can be also obtained from the cash book: Debit: Discount allowed account Credit: Debtors control account (d) 70 70 Sales returns This information is obtained from the sales returns day book and the double entry is: Debit: Sales returns account Credit: Debtors control account (e) Bad debts This information is obtained from the journal. The double entry is: Debt: Bad debts account Credit: Debtors control account (f) Bills receivable These are a method of 'paying' for debtors and are really a 'swap' of an unofficial undertaking to pay for goods for an official one. The definition of a bill of exchange is: "An unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is given to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money, to or to the order of a specified person or bearer." The double entry is: Debit: Bills receivable account Credit: Debtors control account ABE and RRC 202 Control Accounts (g) Sundry journal credits See later. (h) Balance c/d This represents sums owed by debtors at the end of the period concerned, capable of proof against individual debtors records. Hence, the control account is built up not from an analysis of debtors accounts but from information provided from subsidiary books such as day books, journal and cash book. C. CREDITORS CONTROL ACCOUNT This is often known as purchase control account or total creditors account. This is also a summary account of the individual creditors' ledger balances. Methods As with debtors control, two methods of accounting exist, namely: treating the individual ledger accounts as part of the double entry system and regarding the control account as purely memorandum; or treating the control account as part of the double entry system and the individual ledger accounts as memoranda. Again, we will consider the second method. Format and Double Entry The general format of the creditors control account is shown below. Creditors Control Account Balance b/d Cash Discount received Purchase returns Bills payable Sundry journal debits Balance c/d Balance b/d X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Balance b/d Purchases Returned cheques Sundry journal credits Balance c/d X Balance b/d X We shall now consider the double entry of each of the above. On the debit side (a) Balance b/d As with debtors control, it is likely that the trader has overpaid some accounts by small sums and this balance represents those sums due back to the trader (although in practice he will use them as part payment for future goods bought). In the final accounts such debit balances would be shown as current assets and not reduce the current liability which the credit balance represents. ABE and RRC Control Accounts (b) 203 Cash This represents sums paid to creditors during the period and the information has been obtained from the cash book by adding an extra column on the credit side. Cash at Bank (Extract) Discount Received Creditors Total Total (Bank) 20 280 900 280 900 270 20 1,180 Jane Creditor Peter Creditor Wages (Total columns are balanced to find cash at bank in the normal manner.) The double entry is therefore (as illustrated above): Debit: Creditors control account Credit: Bank account (c) 1,180 1,180 Discount received As shown above, this information also can be obtained from the cash book: Debit: Creditors control account Credit: Discount received (d) 20 20 Purchase returns This information is obtained from the purchase returns day book and the double entry is: Debit: Creditors control account Credit: Purchase returns account (e) Bills payable These are bills of exchange, used by the trader to 'pay' his suppliers and the double entry is: Debit: Creditors control account Credit: Bills payable account On the credit side (a) Opening credit balance This represents sums due to suppliers at the beginning of the period and will correspond with balance on individual ledger 'accounts' or cards. ABE and RRC 204 Control Accounts (b) Purchases The information is obtained from the purchase day book and the double entry is: Debit: Purchases account Credit: Creditors control account (c) Returned cheques These should be uncommon as they represent cheques the trader has either incorrectly written out or cheques he has bounced (dishonoured)....! The double entry is: Debit: Bank account Credit: Creditors control account (d) Sundry journal credits See later. (e) Balance c/d This represents any small sums owed back to the trader for overpayments, at the end of the period concerned. D. SUNDRY JOURNAL DEBITS AND CREDITS IN BOTH DEBTORS AND CREDITORS CONTROL ACCOUNTS The best way to illustrate these is by examples: Example 1 J Dewhurst supplied the business with 1,000 of goods and the business sold him 490 of goods. The sums are to be set off against one another, leaving a net amount owing by the business. Ledger accounts would appear as: Dr Sales Account Cr Balance b/d (which includes 490 Dewhurst from sales day book) Dr Purchases Account Cr Balance b/d (which includes 1,000 Dewhurst from purchase day book) X X ABE and RRC Control Accounts Dr Debtors Control Balance b/d (which includes 490 Dewhurst from sales day book) Dr X Creditors control Cr 490 Creditors Control 490 Debtors control 205 Cr Balance b/d (which includes 1,000 Dewhurst from purchase day book) X Note the entry (via the journal): Debit: Creditors control Credit: Debtors control 490 490 being offset of debts. A corresponding entry would be made on each of the individual debtor and creditor cards of Dewhurst. The above example dealt with sundry journal debits in the creditors control, and sundry journal credits in the debtors control. Let us now turn to the other 'pair' of sundry items. Example 2 J Brown is both a debtor and a creditor of a business. In error, the creditors control is debited with a cheque for 100 returned from the bank marked "no funds J Brown Account". The ledgers showing the correcting entries would appear as follows: Dr Debtors Control Balance b/d Creditors control (to correct error) X 100 Dr Bank Balance b/d ABE and RRC Cr X Creditors control (This should have read debtors control) 100 206 Control Accounts Dr Creditors Control Cash (Error this should have been debited to debtors control) 100 Balance c/d Debtors control (to correct error) X 100 Note what has happened here. (a) The entries: Dr Creditors control in error Cr Bank (b) The correction: Dr Debtors control Cr Creditors control ABE and RRC Control Accounts Question for Practice The following balances appear in the books for a business on 31 December 20x1: Cash balance 360 Balance at bank in favour of business 7,540 Debtors ledger control account 17,650 Creditors ledger control account 9,740 During the month of January 20x2, the following transactions occur: Jan 2 Received cheque from Debtor A Allowed discount Debtor A Received cheque from Debtor B Allowed discount Debtor B Paid by cheque Creditor E Paid by cheque Creditor F Paid by cash Creditor G 1,540 10 770 10 470 2,640 100 10 Paid cash Salaries 250 18 Received Cash sales 490 22 Received cheque from Debtor C after deducting contra account 500 Drew cash from bank 2,500 1,000 22 Paid wages out of cash Paid petty cashier out of cash Paid by cheque Creditor H 1,230 250 970 23 Received cheque Debtor D 31 Received cash sales Banked cash Credit sales during month were Returns and allowances to customers were Bad debts written off were Purchases during month were Credits for packages returned to creditors were 80 570 350 6,940 140 100 4,960 150 Required: Write up cash book and debtors and creditors ledger control accounts for the month of January 20x2. Now check your answer with that given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 207 208 Control Accounts Review Questions Section A 1. Identify and explain three reasons why a company would maintain a set of control accounts. 2. Why is it important that the same person in an organisation does not maintain a control account and the associated individual ledger cards? Section B 1. Explain the alternative methods of maintaining a debtors' control account. 2. Identify three items that will reduce the amount owing by debtors. Section C 1. If a company is having a problem with converting debtors into cash, explain how this could be reflected in the creditors' control account. 2. Identify two items that will increase the amount owed to creditors. Section D 1. If a company is both a customer and a supplier, explain how this is reconciled in the debtors' and creditors' control accounts. ABE and RRC Control Accounts 209 ANSWER TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE Dr 20x2 Jan 1 Debtors Control Account 17,650 Balance b/d Jan 31 Sales 6,940 20x2 Jan 31 Sundry journal credit (creditors control) Returns and allowances Bad debts Cash & discount Balance c/d 24,590 Dr Creditors Control Account 20x2 Jan 31 Sundry journal debits (debtors control) Returns Cash Balance c/d 500 150 4,180 9,870 14,700 The cash book is shown on the next page. ABE and RRC 20x2 Jan 1 Balance b/d Jan 31 Purchases Cr 500 140 100 4,910 18,940 24,590 Cr 9,740 4,960 14,700 Ref Cash sales 31 Cash D 23 Bank C 22 20 B Cash sales 10 A 4,890 80 2,500 770 1,540 Disc Debtor allowed 10 Balance b/d Details 18 2 Jan 1 20x2 Date 2,420 570 1,000 490 360 Cash 12,780 350 80 2,500 770 1,540 7,540 Bank 31 23 22 10 Jan 2 20x2 Date CASH BOOK 970 100 2,640 470 250 1,230 250 100 Disc Creditor Cash allowed 2,420 240 Balance b/d 4,180 350 C Ref Bank H Petty cash Wages Cash Salaries G F E Details 12,780 7,700 970 1,000 2,640 470 Bank 210 Control Accounts ABE and RRC 211 Study Unit 11 Partnerships Contents Page A. Nature of Partnership Definition Types of Partnership Comparison with Limited Companies Partnership Agreement 212 212 212 213 214 B. Partnership Capital and Current Accounts 216 C. Partnership Final Accounts Profit and Loss Account and Appropriation Account The Balance Sheet 218 218 220 Answer to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 232 212 Partnerships A. NATURE OF PARTNERSHIP Being a sole trader means being in control of the business being responsible for all the decision-making and being entitled to all the profits of the business or having to suffer all its losses. However, practising as a sole trader can be restrictive in two main areas: Limited time available (i.e. hours put in by sole trader himself). Limited resources available (i.e. capital contributed by the sole trader, although loans etc. may be available). Forming a partnership may lift these restrictions in that more man-hours and more capital become available. It may also become easier to obtain a loan. However, in a partnership no one person has total control nor a right to all the profits. Partnerships are commonly found: In family businesses. Where two or more sole traders have come together to form a partnership. In professional firms such as solicitors, accountants and doctors. Definition The Partnership Act 1890, section 1 defines a partnership as follows: "The relation which subsists between persons carrying on a business in common with a view to profit". In keeping with this definition, the essential elements of a partnership are as follows. (a) There must be a business. Under the term 'business' we include trades of all kinds and professions, but the rules of a particular profession may disallow partnerships between its own members, e.g. in the case of barristers. (b) The business must be carried on in common. (c) The parties must carry on the business with the object of gain. There are many associations of persons where operations in common are carried on, but as they are not carried on with the view to profit they are not to be considered as partnerships, e.g. a sports club. Types of Partnership We can distinguish differences in both the kinds of partnership and the kinds of partner. Kinds of partnership There are two kinds of partnership: (a) Ordinary or general partnership There are a number of ordinary partners, each of whom contributes an agreed amount of capital, is entitled to take part in the business (but is not entitled to a salary for so doing, unless specially agreed) and to receive a specified share of the profits or losses. Each partner is jointly liable to the extent of his full estate for all the debts of the partnership. (b) Limited partnerships Limited partnerships were introduced by the Limited Partnership Act 1907. These must consist of at least one general partner to take part in the business and to be fully liable for all debts as though it were an ordinary partnership. The remaining partners are limited partners who may take no part in the business and who are liable ABE and RRC Partnerships 213 for the debts of the partnership only to the extent of the capital they have agreed to put in. These partnerships, which must be registered, are not very common. Kinds of partner There are basically four kinds of partner. (a) Active partner One who takes an active part in the business. (b) Dormant or sleeping partner One who retires from active participation in the business but who leaves capital in the business and receives a reduced share of the profits. (c) Quasi partner One who retires and leaves capital in the business as a loan. Interest, based on a proportion of the profits, is credited to the retired partner's account each year and debited as an expense to profit and loss account. This type of partner would be more accurately described as a deferred creditor, i.e. one who receives payment after all other creditors. (d) Limited partner One who is excluded from active participation and who is liable only up to the amount he has contributed as capital. Comparison with Limited Companies The following table illustrates the main differences between a partnership and a public limited company. Partnership Public Limited Company Maximum number of partners is 20, with certain exceptions. A partner cannot transfer an interest to another so as to constitute a partner. A new partner can be introduced only if all existing partners agree. A shareholder may freely transfer or assign his shares to another. A partnership can be made bankrupt. An insolvent company is wound up. Partners are managers of the business and agents for the firm. A shareholder (unless a director) does not act as a manager nor as an agent of the company. A partnership terminates on the death of a partner. If the survivors remain in business, this is a fresh partnership. A company does not cease to exist if a shareholder dies. The liability of partners (other than limited partners) is unlimited. Liability of shareholders is limited to the amounts they have signed to pay for their shares. A partnership has no separate legal existence. (N.B. in Scotland a firm is a legal person as distinct from the partners.) No maximum number of shareholders. A company is a separate legal entity quite distinct from the shareholders. ABE and RRC 214 Partnerships Partnership Agreement Form of contract It is not necessary for a partnership contract to be in any special form. In practice, however, the terms of the partnership are normally drawn up in writing (usually under seal), though an unsigned document drawn up by one of the partners and acted upon by the others has been held to constitute the terms of the partnership (Baxter v. West). Where no written document sets out the terms of the partnership, the method of dealing which the partners adopt is admissible in evidence to show the terms of that partnership (Smith v. Jeyes). Where the terms of the partnership are embodied in writing, they may be varied by consent of all the partners. So far as the 1890 Act defines the duties and rights of the partners, the Act will apply; but the terms of the partnership agreement may modify such duties and rights. Usual provisions of the partnership agreement A properly drawn partnership agreement would normally contain the following provisions: Nature of the business to be carried on by the firm Capital and property of the partnership, and the respective capitals of each partner How the profits should be divided between the partners, and how the losses should be shared Payment of interest on capital, and the drawing rights of the partners Keeping of accounts, and how they should be audited Powers of the partners Provision for dissolution of the partnership How the value of the goodwill should be determined upon the retirement or death of a partner Method to be employed in computing the amount payable to an out-going partner, or to the representatives of a deceased partner Right of the majority of partners to expel one of their members A clause at the effect that disputes be submitted to arbitration. Unless there is express provision made, a majority of partners cannot vary the terms of the partnership, expel one of their members, introduce a new partner, or change the nature of the business of the firm. Where the partnership agreement makes no provision for these matters, there would have to be agreement by all the partners to effect any of these things, and not a mere majority. Section 24 of the Partnership Act This section applies where no express provision has been made in the partnership agreement. (a) The partners are entitled to share equally in the profits and capital of the business. They must contribute equally towards the losses, whether they are capital losses or otherwise. (b) Every partner must be indemnified by the firm in respect of personal liabilities incurred and payments made by him in the ordinary course of the firm's business or in respect of anything done for the preservation of the business or property of the partnership. ABE and RRC Partnerships 215 (c) A partner who advances money to the firm for business purposes over and above the amount of his agreed capital is entitled to interest on such advance at the rate of five per cent per annum from the date of the advance. (d) A partner is not entitled before the ascertainment of profits to interest on the capital he has subscribed. (e) Every partner may take part in the management of the business of the firm, but no partner is entitled to remuneration for such services. Where, however, extra work has been caused by the actions or conduct of a certain partner then, as a general rule, the other partners are entitled to some remuneration in respect of this extra work. (f) A new partner may not be introduced without the consent and agreement of the existing partners. (g) Any difference in connection with ordinary matters in the partnership may be decided by a majority of partners, but no change may be made in the nature of the partnership, unless all the partners consent. (h) The books of the partnership shall be kept at the principal place of business of the partnership and every partner is to have access to them for the purpose of inspecting them or of taking copies. Remember that they apply only when no partnership agreement is in existence or, if in existence, is silent on any of the above matters. Duration of partnership The partnership agreement may fix the duration of the partnership. It will then terminate at the fixed date. However, should the partners continue to carry on the business after the fixed date, they are deemed to be continuing the partnership on the same terms as before, except so far as they would be inconsistent with a partnership at will. Where there is no fixed duration of the partnership, it will be a partnership at will. (a) Such a partnership may be terminated by any partner at any time upon written notice to the other partners. (b) Although no fixed time has been agreed upon for the duration of the partnership, it is possible for there to be an implied agreement between the partners upon the matters, but the partner who alleges this will have the burden of proof. (Burdon v. Barkus). (c) The fact that the partners continue business and have not wound up the affairs of the firm raises the presumption that it is intended to continue the partnership (Section 27). (d) We have said above that the firm will continue upon the same terms after a fixed period for the duration of the partnership has expired so far as the terms would not be inconsistent with a partnership at will. Thus, if the terms of the partnership deed provided that one partner should take one third of the profits and the other two-thirds, this arrangement would continue, An arbitration clause in the original deed would still continue to be binding on the partners. Where a partnership is entered into for a single transaction it will terminate when the transaction is accomplished. ABE and RRC 216 Partnerships B. PARTNERSHIP CAPITAL AND CURRENT ACCOUNTS In simple terms, partnerships may be formed where: Two or more persons come together, none of whom has previously engaged in business. They contribute cash and/or assets of pre-arranged values. One or more persons join an existing trader in partnership. Two or more traders join together in partnership. In each case, the cash and assets contributed by each person constitute his/her capital. When capital is introduced the double entry is: Dr Cash/Bank Cr Partners' capital accounts If the partnership agreement provides that capitals are to remain fixed (i.e. unaltered), a separate current account must be opened for each partner to record share of profits, salary, interest on capital and loans, drawings (transferred from drawings account) and interest on drawings. Unless it is specified that profits, etc. are to be adjusted in the capital account, you should always open a current account. Where fixed capitals apply, any moneys later advanced by the partners must be treated as loans (unless they agree to incorporate such advances in capitals). These loans bear interest at 5% per year, or such other rate as may be agreed upon. Interest on capitals and drawings Where profits are not shared in the same ratio as capitals, it is usual to allow interest on capitals, but this is done only when the partners so agree. Interest is debited to interest on capital account and credited to the current account of the partner concerned. In many instances, partners' drawings are effected at irregular intervals and for varying amounts, and it is necessary to charge interest in order to adjust the rights of the partners among themselves. This charge on drawings is debited to current account and credited to interest on drawings account. In practice, the interest is charged on the amount of each drawing from the date it is drawn to the end of the year. In an examination question, if dates of drawings are unknown, calculate interest on the average level during the year, i.e. half the final total. Partners' salaries Some partners devote more time than others to the administration of partnership affairs, and this is sometimes conveniently adjusted by the mutual agreement of the payment of a specified salary to such partners. It is very popular in cases where junior partners are paid a salary and given a small interest in the profits of a business. The payment of the salary is debited to partners' salaries account. Example At this stage it will be helpful if we place these various items together in a worked example. Make a careful note of the double entry involved and, in particular, the entries in the current account. James Nelson is a partner in a firm of three partners. The terms of the partnership are that he shall: receive a salary of 12,000 per annum receive interest on capital of 5% ABE and RRC Partnerships 217 pay interest on drawings of 2%. You are told that his drawings are 4,000 and his fixed capital is 60,000. The balance of his current account is 6,000. Nelson's share of net profit is 4,800. Dr Current Account James Nelson 4,000 100 21,700 Cr Balance b/d Partners' salary a/c Interest on capital a/c Share of profit Balance b/d Drawings a/c Interest on drawings a/c Balance c/d 6,000 12,000 3,000 4,800 25,800 21,700 25,800 Dr Partners Salary Account 12,000 Current a/c Nelson Dr Partners Interest on Capital Account 12,000 Current a/c Nelson Dr Cash Profit and loss appropriation Interest on Drawings Account Profit and loss appropriation Dr Profit and loss appropriation (Total for all partners) Current a/c Nelson Partners Drawings Account 4,000 Current a/c Nelson Cr (Total for all partners) Cr (Total for all partners) Cr 100 Cr 4,000 You should become familiar with all aspects of these accounts. Notice the way in which the partners' salary account and interest account are closed by transfer to the appropriation section of the profit and loss account. Although this example ABE and RRC 218 Partnerships shows the affairs of only one partner, you should remember that there are other partners and that the closing transfers to the profit and loss account will include the total for all partners. In the case of the drawings account, the important entries are in the cash book and current account, the drawings account being used to collect each partner's annual drawings into one total. The entries are as follows: Debit: Drawings a/c Credit: Cash Book Debit: Current a/c Credit: Drawings a/c when drawings are made. with total for each partner at end of year. C. PARTNERSHIP FINAL ACCOUNTS Profit and Loss Account and Appropriation Account In the case of a partnership, the profit and loss account is really in two sections. The first section is drawn up as already indicated earlier and is debited with the net profit made (or credited with the net loss). To complete the double entry, the amount of net profit is then carried down as an ordinary balance and credited to the second section of the profit and loss account. (N.B. a net loss would be carried down to the debit side of this section.) It is this second section which shows how the net profit is allocated to the various partners, and it is called the profit and loss appropriation account, or just the appropriation account. You have already been introduced to the concept of the appropriation account. Remember that in a partnership the partners each have two accounts, known as the capital account (which is kept intact), and the current account. A partner's current account is debited with his or her drawings, and with a proportion of any loss which the business might sustain. The current account is also credited with the partner's share of the net profit, and with interest on capital if this is provided for in the partnership agreement. Where a partner lends money to the business, over and above subscribed capital, he or she will also have a loan account, which will be credited with the amount of the loan. Any interest allowed on this loan will be debited to the first section of the profit and loss account and credited to the partner's current account. Thus, the capital account and loan account (if any) of a partner, will remain constant but his or her current account will fluctuate year by year. The loan account will, however, alter with any repayments or additional amounts advanced by way of loan. (Interest on loans must always appear in the first part as a charge on profits, and not as an appropriation.) In the case of a partnership, the second part of the profit and loss account, the appropriation account, is credited with the net profit of the trading period, as stated above. This second part is debited with interest on the partners' capitals where this is provided for in the partnership agreement. Where the agreement provides for one or more of the partners to have a salary, this too must be debited to the appropriation account. Such salary will, of course, be credited to the current account of the partner concerned. Then, when these items have been debited, and only then, the remaining profit can be divided. It must be divided exactly as the partnership agreement provides. The appropriation account will be debited with the shares of the remaining profit which are due to the partners. This will close the profit and loss appropriation account and, to complete the double entry, the current account of each partner must be credited with his share of the profit. Where a loss has been sustained, of course, the reverse is the case. ABE and RRC Partnerships 219 Example 1 Smith, Brown and Robinson are partners who share profits in the proportion of their capitals, which are 50,000, 20,000 and 10,000 respectively. The net profit for the year is 71,000. Interest on capital is to be allowed at 5 per cent per annum, and Robinson is to have a partnership salary of 3,000 per annum. Show how the profit of 71,000 is allocated. Appropriation Account y/e . . . . Net profit b/d Robinson salary Interest on capitals: Smith Brown Robinson Share of profit: Smith 5/8 Brown 1/4 Robinson 1/8 3,000 3,000 2,500 1,000 500 4,000 40,000 16,000 8,000 64,000 71,000 71,000 Thus the current account will be credited as follows: Smith 42,500 (2,500 40,000) Brown 17,000 (1,000 16,000) Robinson 11,500 (3,000 500 8,000) Net profit shown in first part of profit and loss 71,000 Example 2 Messrs A, B and C share profits and losses in the proportion of 5, 3 and 2, their respective capital accounts being 50,000, 40,000 and 10,000. The net profit for the year before making the following provisions was 67,000. Interest is to be allowed on the capital accounts at the rate of 5%. C is to have a partnership salary of 4,000 per annum and interest is to be charged on the partners' drawings as follows: A 600, B 350, C 50. ABE and RRC 220 Partnerships The first half of the profit and loss account will be drawn up in the usual way, but the second half will be as follows: Appropriation Account y/e ...... Net profit b/d Interest on drawings A B C Salary C Interest on capitals: A B C Share of profit: A 1/2 B 3/10 C 2/10 600 350 50 4,000 5,000 29,500 17,700 11,800 59,000 1,000 68,000 4,000 2,500 2,000 500 67,000 68,000 Thus, A's current account will be credited with 2,500 and 29,500, and will be debited with 600. Also B's current account will be credited with 2,000 and 17,700, and will be debited with 350. Lastly, C's current account will be credited with 500, 4,000 and 11,800 and will be debited with 50. Never debit drawings to profit and loss account. Remember that these are withdrawals of cash or stock in anticipation of profit. They are not in any sense expenses of running the business. Special note on partnership salaries If an item appears in the trial balance for partnership salaries, only one entry will appear in the final accounts, i.e. the debit to the appropriation account. If, however, the item is mentioned as a footnote to the trial balance, it will also appear in the current account of the partner concerned, as shown in the balance sheet. The Balance Sheet The balance sheet should be drawn up in the same form as the sole trader's. Now follow carefully two complete problems concerning the final accounts of a partnership. Example 1 A, B and C entered into partnership on 1 April 20x1, sharing capitals in the ratio of 3 : 2 : 1 and profits 4 : 3 : 2. The partnership agreement provides for 6% per annum interest on capitals and also for a commission to A equivalent to 10% of the net trading profit before charging such commission and interest on loans and on advances. The following are the balances in their books at 31 March 20x2. ABE and RRC Partnerships Dr Capitals Purchases Sales Rent Insurance commissions Rates and insurance Drawings: A B C Loan B (31 December 20x1) Loan C (30 June 20x1) Freehold property Motor vehicles (30 September 20x1) Sundry debtors Sundry creditors Telephone Fixtures Salaries Lighting and heating Bad debts Bank interest Bank Cash 221 Cr 75,000 120,000 150,000 2,400 1,540 1,280 2,000 3,000 4,000 40,000 90,000 40,000 7,000 15,000 18,000 550 1,250 5,750 1,400 360 400 10,000 150 294,540 294,540 Adjustments: (a) Closing stock 12,000 (b) Depreciate vehicles and fixtures by 20% pa and 8% pa respectively. (c) The debit of 550 for telephone includes a deposit (returnable) of 50. Calls unpaid amount to 60. (d) Provide for: Salaries owing 270 Insurance prepaid 400 Rates owing 700 (e) Since the trial balance was drawn up, debts of 1,400 have proved irrecoverable and must be written off. (f) A provision for bad debts of 5% is to be created. (g) A paid general expenses of 960 out of his own pocket on 31 October 20x1. Prepare the necessary final accounts, paying special attention to order and layout. ABE and RRC 222 Partnerships A, B and C Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 March 20x2 Sales Cost of Sales Purchases less Closing stock Gross profit Insurance commissions 120,000 12,000 Expenses Rent Rates and insurance Light and heat Salaries Telephone Bad debts Provision for bad debts Bank interest General Depreciation: Motor vehicles Fixtures Loan interest Advance A 5% on 960 Net Profit 2,400 1,580 1,400 6,020 560 1,760 680 400 960 700 100 500 20 150,000 108,000 42,000 1,540 43,540 17,080 26,460 Appropriations 2,698 Commission 10% on 26,980 to A Interest on capitals: A B C 2,250 1,500 750 4,500 Share of profit: A 4/9 B 3/9 C 2/9 8,561 6,421 4,280 19,262 26,460 ABE and RRC Partnerships 223 Current Accounts A Drawings Balance 2,000 12,489 14,489 B C 3,000 5,421 8,421 A 4,000 Commission 1,030 Interest Profit Advance Interest on advance 5,030 B C 1,500 6,421 14,489 8,421 5,030 12,489 Balance 2,698 2,250 8,561 960 20 5,421 1,030 750 4,280 500 Balance Sheet as at 31 March 20x2 (Horizontal format) Fixed assets Freehold property Motor vehicles Fixtures Cost Dep'n 40,000 7,000 700 1,250 100 48,250 800 Current assets Stock 12,000 Debtors 13,600 less Provision for bad debts 680 12,920 Deposit & prepayments 450 Cash 150 Partners loan C Net 40,000 6,300 1,150 47,450 Partners interest Capital accounts A 37,500 B 25,000 C 12,500 75,000 Current accounts A 12,489 B 5,421 C 1,030 25,520 90,000 162,970 Loan account B Current Liabilities Creditors 18,000 Accrued expenses 1,030 Overdraft 10,000 18,940 93,940 40,000 29,030 162,970 Notes (a) Depreciation of vehicles for six months only. (b) Provision for bad debts calculated on good debts. It is wrong to show the 1,400 debts now written off in the balance sheet. (c) No interest on loan to C, because apparently no agreement to charge interest. (d) Interest allowed to B on his loan at 5% pa. (Section 24, Partnership Act 1890.) ABE and RRC 224 Partnerships (e) A has made an advance beyond the amount of his agreed capital contribution and, like B, is entitled to interest at 5% pa thereon (Section 24, Partnership Act 1890). (f) As A's commission is 10% of the net trading profits before charging such commission and interest, he receives 10/100 of 26,980 = 2,698. Had the commission been calculated on net profits after charging such commission, it would have been: 10 10 1 or of 26,980 2,453 (to nearest ) 11 100 10 110 ABE and RRC Partnerships Example 2 Here is a further problem of a similar nature. Polly Pink and Benjamin Brown are in partnership, sharing profits and losses two-thirds and one-third respectively. Interest on capital at five per cent is to be credited to the partners annually. The trial balance of their books at 31 December is as follows: P Pink: Capital account Current account balance, 1 January Drawings account B Brown: Capital account Current account balance, 1 January Drawings account Office furniture at cost Sundry debtors and creditors Purchases and sales Stock, 1 January Carriage inwards Returns inwards and outwards Rent Salaries Carriage outwards Discounts Provisions for bad debts Advertising Rates Insurance National insurance Telephone General expenses Printing and stationery Postage Repairs Electricity Bank charges Investments: 16,000 5% debenture stock at cost Interest on investments Cash at bank Cash in hand The stock at 31 December is valued at 12,870. ABE and RRC 36,000 1,200 10,040 16,000 800 8,470 8,400 29,340 370,600 18,800 2,920 1,250 3,750 6,300 560 8,540 430,210 2,200 3,310 5,000 8,000 1,800 620 270 260 1,330 640 1,170 210 180 60 15,570 400 12,930 190 503,660 503,660 225 226 Partnerships Required: Prepare trading and profit and loss accounts for the year ended 31 December and balance sheet at that date after making the following adjustments: (a) One quarter's rent is outstanding. (b) Rates unexpired 360. (c) Insurance unexpired 210. (d) Six months' interest accrued on investment. (e) Carry forward one-half of the amount spent on advertising. (f) Write off bad debts 670. (g) Depreciate office furniture at 5% per annum. ABE and RRC Partnerships Pink and Brown Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December Sales less Returns Cost of Sales Opening stock Purchases less Returns Carriage inwards 428,960 18,800 370,600 2,200 less Closing stock Gross profit Discounts received Interest on investment Expenses Rent Rates Salaries National Insurance Electricity Telephone Postage Insurance Printing and stationery Repairs General Carriage outwards Advertising Bad debts Bank charges Depreciation furniture Net profit 430,210 1,250 368,400 2,920 390,120 12,870 377,250 51,710 3,310 800 55,820 5,000 1,440 6,300 270 6,570 180 260 1,170 410 640 210 1,330 560 4,000 670 60 420 22,920 32,900 Appropriations Interest on capital: Pink Brown Profit sharing: Pink 2/3 Brown 1/3 ABE and RRC 1,800 800 20,200 10,100 2,600 30,300 32,900 227 228 Partnerships Current Accounts Pink Brown 10,040 13,160 8,470 3,230 Pink Brown Balance Interest Profit Balance Drawings Balance 1,200 800 1,800 800 20,200 10,100 23,200 11,700 13,160 23,200 11,700 3,230 The balance sheet, in vertical format, is as follows. Note how fixed assets are presented and the method of setting out the partners' interest. Pink and Brown Balance Sheet as at 31 December Fixed Assets Office furniture Investment Current Assets Stock Debtors less Provision Accrued interest on investment Prepayments Bank Cash Current Liabilities Creditors Accruals Cost 8,400 15,570 23,970 Dep'n 420 420 Net 7,980 15,570 23,550 12,870 28,670 5,000 23,670 400 4,570 12,930 190 54,630 8,540 1,250 9,790 44,840 68,390 Pink 36,000 13,160 49,160 Brown 16,000 3,230 19,230 Total 52,000 16,390 68,390 Represented by: Partners' interest: Capitals Current ABE and RRC Partnerships Notes (1) Prepayments: Rates Insurance Advertising (2) Accruals: Rent 1,250 ABE and RRC 360 210 4,000 4,570 229 230 Partnerships Question for Practice James, Paul and Mary are in partnership together. The balance of their capital accounts is as follows: James 100,000 Paul 80,000 Mary 60,000 The yearly drawings are: James 20,000 Paul 40,000 Mary 15,000 The following is the profit and loss appropriation account of the partnership. Appropriation Account for y/e . . . . Net profit Interest on drawings: James Paul Mary Interest on capital: James Paul Mary Salary James Profit sharing: James Paul Mary 1,000 2,000 750 10,000 8,000 6,000 30,000 20,000 20,000 100,250 3,750 104,000 24,000 10,000 70,000 104,000 There were no balances on the current accounts at the beginning of the year. You are required to prepare the balance sheet of the partnership (as far as the information permits) after completing the current accounts. Now check your answer with that given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Partnerships Review Questions Section A 1. Explain the difference between general and limited partnerships. 2. What is a "sleeping" partner? Section B 1. What is the purpose behind charging interest on a partner's drawings? 2. Describe the circumstances in which a partner will be paid a salary? Section C 1. What is the purpose of the appropriation account? 2. Under what circumstances would a partner lend the business money? ABE and RRC 231 232 Partnerships ANSWER TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE James, Paul and Mary Current Accounts James Mary James Paul Mary 20,000 1,000 29,000 40,000 2,000 15,000 750 10,250 Interest Profit Salary Balance 50,000 Drawings Interest Balance Paul 42,000 26,000 10,000 30,000 10,000 50,000 8,000 20,000 14,000 42,000 6,000 20,000 26,000 Balance 29,000 Balance 14,000 10,250 James, Paul and Mary Balance Sheet as at . . . . (Extract) Partners interests Capital accounts James Paul Mary Current accounts James Mary Current assets Current account Paul 14,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 240,000 29,000 10,250 39,250 279,250 ABE and RRC 231 Study Unit 12 Limited Companies Contents Page A. Nature of Limited Companies Definitions Formation of a Company 232 232 233 B. Capital of a Company Features of Shares Classes of Share Types of Capital The Issue of Shares Bonus Shares Rights Issue 234 234 235 236 237 237 237 C. Other Sources of Company Finance Debentures Other Loan Capital 238 238 239 D. Company Profit and Loss Account Expenses Taxation Appropriations of Profit Example 239 240 240 241 243 E. Company Balance Sheet Capital Reserves Example 244 244 245 245 Answers to Questions for Practice 251 ABE and RRC 232 Limited Companies A. NATURE OF LIMITED COMPANIES The most important branch of book-keeping is that which deals with limited companies. In spite of the size of this part of the subject there is nothing really difficult about it. Nearly all companies use the double-entry system of book-keeping with which you are already familiar. The only complications which arise are those resulting from the peculiar legal structures of companies, so that before we proceed to deal with the pure accounting we must spend a little time in considering these legal matters. Definitions A company is: an association of persons banded together for some particular object, usually the carrying on of business with a view to profit. Companies must be registered, and then they acquire a legal entity distinct from that of their members. As a legal entity a company can own property, incur debts, sue and be sued (even by one of its own members). Under the Companies Act 1985 there are two types of company limited by shares public and private companies. (a) Public company A public company is a company limited by shares which must have at least two members and capital of not less than 50,000. No maximum number of members is prescribed. Public companies can offer their shares to the public. To distinguish the public company from the private company, the public company must end its name with "Public Limited Company" (PLC or plc). (b) Private company A private company is a limited company with at least two members which is not a public company. Private companies may not offer shares to the public. The book-keeping is the same for both types of limited company. Ownership Ownership of a company lies with its shareholders. There are important implications arising from this. The company itself is a completely separate entity from the shareholders who own it. As a legal person, a company can own property, incur debts, sue and be sued. Unless the rules governing the formation and running of the company state otherwise, a shareholder may freely transfer or assign his shares to another without the company being wound up, as would be the case with a partnership, which would then require a new partnership agreement to be drawn up if the remaining partners were to carry on trading. Separation of ownership of a company is separate from its management. A shareholder, unless he is also a director, does not act as a manager nor as an agent of the company. Limited liability The principle of limited liability means that a member, having agreed to take shares in the company up to a certain amount and having paid the full price of those shares, is not responsible for any debts that the company may incur, even if it becomes insolvent within a few months of his becoming a member. Generally speaking, their liability will be limited to any part of the nominal value of shares which is unpaid. ABE and RRC Limited Companies 233 This provides an absolute safeguard against the use of the private personal estate of a member to make good the company's debts (remember that this can happen in the case of an ordinary partnership). Differences between companies and sole traders The accounting differences between companies and sole traders may be summarised as follows: Item Sole Traders Companies Capital introduced: Capital accounts Issued share capital accounts Profits withdrawn by proprietors: Drawings Dividends Profits remaining in business: Capital accounts Reserves Loans from outsiders: Loan accounts Debentures We saw in the previous study unit the main differences between a partnership and a public limited company. Formation of a Company The establishment of a company known as "incorporation" is governed by law. The relevant statutes are the Companies Act 1985, as amended by the Companies Act 1989. Once certain people have agreed to form a company and to set it in operation, they are known as promoters. The promoters draw up the Memorandum and Articles of Association and register them with the Registrar of Companies. The promoters of a public company need not be subscribers to the Memorandum. Memorandum of Association Section 1 of the Companies Act 1985 states that: "Any two or more persons associated for a lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and otherwise complying with the requirements of this Act in respect of registration, form an incorporated company, with or without limited liability." The Memorandum of Association specifies the objects of the company, i.e. to conduct business of a certain kind, partly for the information of those who do business with it. The Memorandum of Association in effect constitutes a contract between the company and the outside world and can only be altered under certain conditions. The Memorandum of Association must contain the following clauses: (a) The name of the company. (b) That part of the United Kingdom where the registered office will be situated. (c) The objects of the company. (d) A statement (if a limited liability company) that the liability of its members is limited. (e) Details of the share capital which the company is authorised to issue. (f) A public company will also have a clause stating that the company is a public limited company. ABE and RRC 234 Limited Companies Articles of Association The Articles of Association constitute the internal regulations or by-laws of the company, dealing with such internal affairs as meetings and powers of directors, etc. and can be altered at any time if the members agree. The main clauses contained in the Articles are: (a) A statement as to how far the provisions of the model set of Articles provided for companies apply. (b) Issue and forfeiture of shares procedures. (c) Procedures for holding and transferring shares. (d) Shareholders' voting power. (e) Procedure at meetings. (f) Appointment, qualification, remuneration and removal of directors. (g) Borrowing powers of the company. (h) Regulations as to dividend payment and reserve creation. Certificate of Incorporation When the capital duty, based on the amount of the authorised capital, has been paid, and the Registrar is satisfied that all the statutory requirements of company legislation have been complied with, he issues a Certificate of Incorporation which brings the company into existence as a legal being. B. CAPITAL OF A COMPANY Virtually every business must have capital subscribed by its proprietors to enable it to operate. In the case of a partnership, the partners contribute capital up to agreed amounts, which are credited to their accounts and shown as separate liabilities in the balance sheet. A limited company obtains its capital, up to the amount it is authorised to issue, from its members. A public company, on coming into existence, issues a prospectus inviting the public to subscribe for shares. The prospectus advertises the objects and prospects of the company in the most tempting manner possible. It is then up to the public to decide whether they wish to make application for shares. A private company is not allowed to issue a prospectus, and obtains its capital by means of personal introductions made by the promoters. Once the capital has been obtained it is lumped together in one sum and credited to share capital account. This account does not show how many shares were subscribed by A or B; such information is given in the register of members, which is a statutory book that all companies must keep but which forms no part of the double-entry book-keeping. Features of Shares The capital of a company is divided into shares, e.g. 100,000 shares of 25p each. Members may subscribe for as many shares as they wish, provided that no more shares are issued than are provided for in the authorised capital and that no member holds less than one share. Shares are the equivalent of the fixed capital of a partnership and have certain distinctive features: ABE and RRC Limited Companies 235 Once share capital has been introduced into the company, it generally cannot be repaid to the shareholders (although the shares may change hands). An exception to this is redeemable shares. Each share has a stated nominal (sometimes called par) value. This may be regarded as the lowest price at which the share can be issued. Share capital of a company may be divided into various classes and the Articles of Association, which constitute the internal regulations of the company, define the respective rights of the various shares as regards, for example, entitlement to dividends or voting at company meetings. The Memorandum of Association specifies the objects of the company. Classes of Share Shares may be of different classes, carrying with them different rights as to dividends, i.e. as to participation in the profits of the company, return of capital on winding up and voting, etc. The Companies Act 1985 states that members should be consulted on a variation in their rights. Consent must be in writing by holders of three-quarters of the nominal value, or by extraordinary resolution. The main classes of shares are ordinary and preference and the latter are always assumed to be cumulative unless there is a statement in the Memorandum or Articles to the contrary. ("Cumulative" means that deficiencies in one year's dividend have to be made up in succeeding years before payment is made to ordinary shareholders.) Ordinary shares The holder of ordinary shares in a limited company possesses no special right other than the ordinary right of every shareholder to participate in any available profits and to vote at general meetings. If no dividend is declared for a particular year, the holder of ordinary shares receives no return on his shares for that year. On the other hand, in a year of high profits he may receive a much higher rate of dividend than other classes of shareholders. In some cases ordinary shares held are divided into two classes: (a) Preferred ordinary shares These are entitled to a fixed dividend after the preference shares. (b) Deferred ordinary shares These are entitled to a dividend after the preferred ordinary shares. Preference shares Holders of preference shares are entitled to a prior claim, usually at a fixed rate, on any profits available for dividend. Thus, when profits are small, preference shareholders must first receive their dividend at the fixed rate per cent, and any surplus may then be available for a dividend on the ordinary shares the rate per cent depending, of course, on the amount of profits available. Thus, as long as a business is making a reasonable profit, a preference shareholder is sure of a fixed return each year on his investment. The holder of ordinary shares may receive a very low dividend in one year and a much higher one in another. Preference shareholders usually have a prior claim in the event of the company being wound up. Preference shares can also be divided into two classes: (a) Cumulative preference shares When a company is unable to pay dividends on this type of preference share in any one year, or even in successive years, all arrears are allowed to accumulate and are payable out of future profits as they become available, before ordinary shareholders may receive a dividend. ABE and RRC 236 Limited Companies (b) Non-cumulative preference shares If the company is unable to pay the fixed dividend in any one year, dividends on non-cumulative preference shares are not payable out of profits in future years. Preference shareholders do no usually have the right to vote at general meetings, but may sometimes gain this when their dividends are in arrears. Redeemable shares The company may issue redeemable ordinary or preference shares (i.e. they are issued with the intention of being redeemed at some future date) only if it is so authorised by its Articles. In such cases the company repays the holders of such shares (provided they are fully paid) out of a special reserve fund of assets or from the proceeds of a new issue of shares which is expressly made for the purpose of redeeming the shares previously issued. Participating preference shares These are preference shares which are entitled to the usual dividend at the specified rate and, in addition, to participate in the remaining profits. As a general rule the participating preference shareholders take their "fixed" dividend and then the ordinary shareholders take their "fixed" dividend, and any balance remaining is shared by the participating preference and ordinary shareholders in specified proportions. Deferred, founders' or management shares These normally rank last of all for dividends. Such shares are usually held by the original owner of a business which has been taken over by a company, and they often form part or even the whole of the purchase price. Dividends paid to holders of deferred shares may fluctuate considerably, but in prosperous times dividends to deferred shareholders may be at a high rate. This type of share is not very common nowadays. Types of Capital Share capital is represented by the money subscribed by the shareholders and this is divided into a number of classes. Authorised, registered or nominal These terms are synonymously used to describe the capital that is specified in the Memorandum of Association as being the maximum amount of capital which the company has power to issue. Authorised capital must be stated in detail (normally as a note) on the balance sheet. The authorised capital may be increased quite easily if the Articles allow it. Issued or subscribed capital It is quite a regular practice for companies to issue only part of their authorised capital. The term "issued capital" or "subscribed capital" is used to refer to the amount of capital which has actually been subscribed for. Capital falling under this heading will comprise all shares issued to the public for cash and those issued as fully paid-up to the vendors of a business. Called-up capital The payment of the amount due on each share is not always made in full on issue, but may be made in stages for example, a specified amount on application and a further amount when the shares are actually allotted, with the balance in one or more instalments known as "calls". Thus, payment for a 1 share may be made as follows: 25p on application, 25p on allotment, 25p on first call, 15p on second call, 10p on third and final call. ABE and RRC Limited Companies 237 If a company does not require all the cash at once on shares issued, it may call up only what it needs. The portion of the subscribed capital which has actually been requested by the company is known as the called-up capital. Note that a shareholder's only liability in the event of the company's liquidation is to pay up any portion of his shares which the company has not fully called up. If a shareholder has paid for his shares, he has no further liability. Paid-up capital When a company makes a call, some shareholders may default and may not pay the amount requested. Thus the amount actually paid up will not always be the same as the called-up capital. For example, suppose a company has called up 75p per share on its authorised capital of 20,000 1 shares. The called-up capital is 15,000, but if some shareholders have defaulted, the actual amount paid up may be only 14,500. In this case, the paid-up capital is 14,500, and the called-up capital 15,000. Paid-up capital is therefore the amount paid on the called-up capital and the value of shares issued as paid to vendors. Uncalled capital The uncalled capital is the amount not yet requested on shares already issued and partly paid for by the public and vendors. In the above example of the company which has called up 75p per share on its authorised capital of 20,000 1 shares, the uncalled capital is 5,000. The Issue of Shares Shares are issuable at par or at a premium. When shares are issued: (a) at par, they are issued at their nominal value, i.e. a 1 share is issued for 1; (b) at a premium, they are priced at a figure above the nominal value, e.g. a 1 share is issued at, say, 1.13. Shares may not be issued at a discount. Shares are payable either in full on application or by instalments; a prospectus will always state the manner in which payment is to be made. The following examples clearly illustrate the entries that would be made in both cases. Bonus Shares A company that has made a large profit may not wish to pay a large dividend, as such a course would greatly reduce the bank balance. Also (assuming there is a Stock Exchange quotation for the shares), a high dividend would cause the Stock Exchange value of the company's shares to soar which may not be desired. In these and other circumstances, a company may decide to capitalise its profits, or at least a portion of them, by the issue of fully paid bonus shares, or by utilising the profits to pay up the uncalled portion of the capital on behalf of the shareholders, instead of paying a dividend. The authority for either of these courses, must, of course, be included in the Memorandum of Association. On the issue of bonus shares, each shareholder receives bonus shares in a proportion relative to his holding of original shares, instead of receiving a dividend at a certain rate per cent. Rights Issue The cost of making new share issues can be high, and the rights issue is a means of raising new long-term capital from existing shareholders. The company circularises the existing shareholders, informing them of the new capital to be raised, and stating how many shares they are entitled to apply for. ABE and RRC 238 Limited Companies The price at which the shares are issued will usually be an attractive one compared with the existing market price why else would an investor buy from the company direct when he or she could purchase from the market? C. OTHER SOURCES OF COMPANY FINANCE Apart from share capital, the remaining sources of finance of a company are liabilities of the company. The main such source is the issue of debentures. Debentures A debenture is a written acknowledgment of a loan to a company, given under the company's seal, which carries a fixed rate of interest. Debentures are not part of the capital of a company they are only a particular form of loan. Interest payable to debenture holders must be paid as a matter of right and is therefore classified as loan interest, a financial expense, in the profit and loss account. A shareholder, on the other hand, is only paid a dividend on his investment if the company makes a profit, and such a dividend, if paid, is an appropriation of profit. Separate accounts must always be opened for debentures and they are never grouped with shares in the balance sheet. Types of debenture Debentures are divided into a number of different classes, the main one being as follows. (a) Simple or naked debentures These are debentures for which no security has been arranged as regards payment of interest or repayment of principal. (b) Mortgage or fully secured debentures These are debentures secured by a specific mortgage of certain fixed assets of the company. In such cases, if there is a large number of debenture holders, the mortgage deed is executed by the company in favour of trustees, who act on behalf of all the debenture holders under the terms of a trust deed. There may be several classes of mortgage debenture, the first ranking in priority to the second as regards payment of interest and of principal, and so on. (c) Floating debentures These are secured by a floating charge on the property of the company. This charge permits the company to deal with any of its assets in the ordinary course of its business, unless and until the charge becomes "fixed" or "crystallised". An example should make clear the difference between a mortgage, which is a "fixed charge" over some specified asset, and a debenture which is secured by a "floating charge". Suppose a company has factories in London, Manchester and Glasgow. The company may borrow money by issuing debentures with a fixed charge over the Glasgow factory. As long as the loan remains unpaid, the company's use of the Glasgow factory is restricted by the mortgage. The company might wish to sell some of the buildings but the charge on the property as a whole would be a hindrance. On the other hand, if it issues floating debentures, then there is no charge on any specific part of the assets of the company and, unless and until the company becomes insolvent, there is no restriction on the company acting freely in connection with any of its property. ABE and RRC Limited Companies 239 Rights of debenture holders (a) They are entitled to payment of interest at the agreed rate. (b) They are entitled to be repaid on expiry of the terms of the debenture as fixed by deed. (c) In the event of the company failing to pay the interest due to them or should they have reason to suppose that the assets upon which their loan is secured are in jeopardy, they may cause a receiver to be appointed. The receiver has power to sell a company's assets in order to satisfy all claims of the debenture holders. Differences between shareholders and debenture holders The differences can most clearly be shown in tabular form as set out below. Shareholder Debenture Holder (a) In effect, one of the proprietors, i.e. an inside person (a) A loan creditor and therefore an outside person. (b) Participates in the profits of the company, receiving a dividend on his investment. (b) Secures interest at a fixed rate on his loan to the company, notwithstanding that the company makes no profits. (Shareholders receive dividends which are debited the appropriation to account.) (c) Not entitled to receive repayment of money invested (with certain exceptions) unless the company is wound up. (N.B. Debenture interest must always be debited to the profit and loss account and not to the appropriation account.) (c) Entitled to be repaid on expiry of the term of debentures as fixed by deed, unless they are irredeemable debentures. Other Loan Capital Various other categories of loan capital are usually described as "loan stock". T hese may be secured or unsecured. Unsecured loan stock, for instance, would rank equally with the other unsecured liabilities such as trade creditors on a liquidation. Convertible loan stock has the characteristics of both loan stock and ordinary shares. On issue the characteristics are of loan stock, but the issue conditions state that at certain dates in the future the holders may, if they so wish, convert their stock into a given number of ordinary shares. D. COMPANY PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT A limited company may prepare its final accounts for presentation to either directors or shareholders. Although company law does not dictate specific formats for internal final accounts, it is normal practice to follow the presentation specified in company law for published accounts. Internal final accounts do, however, normally contain much more detail than published accounts. (We shall examine the specific requirements for the published final accounts of a limited company in the next unit.) ABE and RRC 240 Limited Companies The trading account of a limited company is basically similar to that of a sole trader. A company profit and loss account, however, has various distinctive features, which we shall now consider. Expenses In general, the majority of expenses charged to a company's profit and loss account are similar to those for a sole trader, e.g. wages and salaries, rent and rates. There are, however, two items of expense which are peculiar to limited companies: Directors' remuneration Directors are employees of the company (even if they are also shareholders) and as such the remuneration they receive in the form of salaries and fees is part of the running expenses of the business and hence is charged to the profit and loss account as an expense. Debenture interest Debentures are loans to a company. The interest payable on the loan is an expense to the company and is payable whether profits are made or not. So debenture interest is charged as an expense in the company profit and loss account. Taxation No mention of taxation of profits is made in the final accounts of sole traders and partnerships. This is because they, the owners of the business, are liable personally for the tax on their share of the profits. However, in the case of a company, the owners (shareholders) are much more numerous and it would be very difficult to collect tax direct from them. For this reason, the company is liable to account for tax on its profits, and this is called corporation tax. Corporation tax for a financial year is not due to be paid immediately, but nine months or more after the year-end. Thus the figure for corporation tax shown in the final accounts is a provision for tax, based on the profits of the year. The accounting entries are: Debit Profit and loss account Credit Corporation tax account (shown as a current liability in the balance sheet) In the next year, when the tax is paid, the entry would be: Debit Corporation tax account Credit Bank account The deduction for corporation tax is shown in the profit and loss account as follows: Gross profit less Expenses Profit on ordinary activities before taxation less Corporation tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit on ordinary activities after taxation X X X X X ABE and RRC Limited Companies 241 Appropriations of Profit Once the net profit for the year after taxation has been computed, the company must decide how much, if any, of this profit is to be appropriated. In the final accounts of limited companies you will find an item which you have not previously encountered the balance of undistributed profits brought forward from last year. This arises because the company can choose, to an extent, the level of appropriations from profit which it wishes to make, and leave the balance of undistributed profits to be carried forward from year to year. Thus the profit and loss appropriation account takes the following general form: Profit on ordinary activities after taxation Undistributed profits b/f from previous year less Appropriations Undistributed profits carried forward to next year X X X X X This is different from the treatment of net profit for sole traders and partnerships, where the whole of the net profit is credited to the capital or current accounts respectively. The following items are the main specific appropriations from net profit after tax: Transfers to reserves These are amounts which the directors have decided need to be set aside and not be available for dividends to shareholders in that year. A reserve may be specific, such as a fixed asset replacement reserve, or it may be a general reserve. An example is the plant replacement reserve. Under conventional historic cost accounting, the purpose of depreciation is to allocate the original or historic cost of a fixed asset over its useful life. The effect of the depreciation charge in the profit and loss account is to reduce the profit available for distribution as a dividend. Hence funds which might otherwise be distributed by way of a dividend to the shareholders are kept within the company. At the end of the useful life of the asset, the company has accumulated a provision for depreciation which, provided the cost of the asset has not increased, will be sufficient to finance replacement of the asset. In inflationary times, however, the cost of replacing plant will be far greater than its original cost and consequently the accumulated depreciation provision will be insufficient to finance replacement. Setting up a plant replacement reserve will help this problem as each year profit available for distribution is reduced by a further amount (over and above the historic cost depreciation) by the entry: Debit Profit and loss appropriation account Credit Plant replacement reserve Note the different treatment of the provision for depreciation, which is a charge against the profit and loss account, and the transfer to a replacement reserve, which is an appropriation of profit. Dividends The profit made by a sole trader belongs to him absolutely. It is shown on his profit and loss account and is credited to his capital account. The profit of a partnership belongs to the partners. It is shown in the appropriation section of their profit and loss account and is credited, in profit-sharing ratios, to their current accounts. ABE and RRC 242 Limited Companies There is a marked difference when we come to deal with the profit of a limited company. A company is an entity legally distinct from its members and any profit made by the company does not belong to the members. They may be entitled to share in the profits (or in part of the profits) when a dividend is declared, but there is no legal compulsion on a company at any time to distribute profits earned. However, if the directors decide that some profit will be distributed to shareholders, then an amount of dividend is proposed. Dividend is the portion of a limited company's profits which is distributed to shareholders. The shareholders cannot propose a higher dividend for themselves than that already proposed by the directors. (They can propose a lower dividend be paid, but this is very rare.) The directors' decision on the amount proposed as dividends is a very complex one. Many factors will need to be taken into account, including prior transfers to reserves, effects of taxation, government directives, availability of bank balances to pay the dividends, and the possibility of takeover bids. You should be clear about the distinction between dividends, which are an appropriation of profits and can thus only be paid when there are profits, and interest payable on debentures or loans, which is a charge against profits and must be paid even if a loss is made. We will now consider an example of how the proposed dividends on shareholdings are calculated. Example John Smith plc has an issued and fully-paid share capital of: 20,000 5% preference shares of 1 each 40,000 ordinary shares of 1 each The net profit after taxation for the year ended 31 December was 45,000. The directors have proposed to pay a dividend on the preference shares and a 10% dividend on ordinary shares for the year. You are required to calculate the amounts to be included in the profit and loss appropriation account. Calculation must be based on issued share capital, not authorised. Preference shares: Dividend to be paid 5% (20,000 1) 5 20,000 1,000 100 Ordinary shares: Proposed dividend 10% (40,000 1) 10 40,000 4,000 100 Some companies adopt the practice of declaring and paying an interim dividend during the year and then proposing a final dividend at the year-end. Both interim and proposed final dividends are appropriations of profit and should be included in the profit and loss appropriation account. However, they are treated differently in the balance sheet. Proposed dividends have not been paid at the end of the financial year and must be included as current liabilities in the balance sheet. Interim dividends are paid during the year and are therefore not outstanding at the year-end. ABE and RRC Limited Companies 243 Example Prepare the profit and loss and appropriation account of Brunt Ltd from the information below: (a) The company generated a gross profit of 73,500 on which it paid expenses of 45,800. (b) Corporation tax was charged on profit on ordinary activities before taxation at 20%. (c) The company transferred 6,000 to general reserve. (d) Brunt Ltd paid dividends of 5,000 during the year (amounting to a 2% dividend on issued ordinary shares). The directors proposed a dividend of 5% at the end of the year. No changes in share capital occurred during the year. (e) The unappropriated profits at the start of the year amounted to 63,450. Brunt Ltd Profit and Loss and Appropriation Account for the year ended . . . . Gross profit Expenses Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit on ordinary activities after taxation Unappropriated profit b/f Transfer to general reserve Dividends: paid proposed ABE and RRC 5,000 10,000 75,300 45,800 29,500 5,900 23,600 63,450 87,050 6,000 81,050 15,000 66,050 244 Limited Companies E. COMPANY BALANCE SHEET There are many similarities between the balance sheets of sole traders, partnerships and companies. The following example illustrates some differences in terminology and in the capital section. (Note: WDV written down value, or net value) Ash Limited Balance Sheet as at 31 December Year 2 Fixed Assets Freehold land and buildings Motor vans Cost 37,000 4,950 41,950 Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank Cash in hand Prepayment Creditors: Amounts Falling Due Within One Year Creditors 10,370 Proposed dividend 4,000 Net current assets Total assets less current liabilities Dep'n 1,850 3,315 5,165 WDV 35,150 1,635 36,785 8,800 12,618 11,750 46 112 33,326 14,370 18,956 55,741 Capital and Reserves 40,000 ordinary shares of 1 each Share premium account General reserve Profit and loss account 40,000 3,600 5,000 7,141 55,741 The marshalling and grouping of items in the balance sheet is of great importance. Capital (a) Authorised capital Full particulars must be given of the classes and numbers of shares the company has power to issue. It is usual to include this information as a note to the balance sheet. (b) Issued capital Full details must be given of the classes and numbers of shares issued. Shares will either be shown as fully paid or, if not fully paid, the amount called up on each class of share should be shown. Any calls in arrears or calls in advance should be shown ABE and RRC Limited Companies 245 separately. Details of issued share capital are normally shown as a note to the balance sheet, although calls in arrears are included within the balance sheet as an asset. Reserves Reserves are created for different purposes. Some reserves are not legally allowed to be used for distribution as dividend, but others could be used in future years to provide a dividend if required. A company needs to retain funds within the business to provide for working capital and to ensure future expansion will be possible. It is not usual, therefore, for all profits made in a year to be distributed to shareholders by way of dividends. There are several different types of reserves and these must be shown separately in the balance sheet. Three types of reserve cannot, by law, be used to distribute by way of a dividend. These are: (a) Share premium account A company may issue shares at a premium. The premium is the difference between the price paid for a share and the nominal value of the share. The nominal value will be credited to the share capital account and the premium will be credited to the share premium account. It is, in effect, a part of share capital. For example, if a company has shares with a nominal value of 1 and it issues new shares for 1.50 each, the share premium is 50p per share. (b) Capital redemption reserve This arises when shares are redeemed or purchased other than out of the proceeds of a new share issue. (c) Revaluation reserve This arises when the directors wish to show the increased value of an asset in the balance sheet. The asset account is debited with the increase and revaluation reserve is credited with the increase. It is most commonly used for sums arising from the valuation of assets in current cost terms, after allowing for depreciation. Other reserves which can, if so required, be used to pay dividends, include the general reserve, fixed asset replacement reserves and the unappropriated balance on the profit and loss account. In general it is the latter which is used to make a distribution of profits by way of dividend. It is usual practice to show movements in reserves during the year as a note to the balance sheet. Example Prepare the balance sheet (extract) for capital and reserves from the following information. State where items not included in capital and reserves would appear in the balance sheet. Authorised share capital 60,000 50p ordinary shares 30,000 Issued share capital 50,000 50p ordinary shares 25,000 Ordinary share dividend proposed Share premium account 5,000 General reserve 8,000 Profit and loss account 1,250 7,000 ABE and RRC 246 Limited Companies Balance Sheet as at . . . . (Extract) Authorised share capital 60,000 50p ordinary shares Issued share capital 50,000 50p ordinary shares Share premium account General reserve Profit and loss account 30,000 25,000 5,000 8,000 7,000 45,000 The authorised capital may, alternatively, appear in the notes to the accounts. The ordinary share dividend proposed is a short-term liability which is included under Creditors: amounts falling due within one year. ABE and RRC Limited Companies 247 Questions for Practice 1. Kin Ltd's balance sheet (extract) for capital and reserves at the start of the year was: Called-up share capital 30,000 Ordinary 1 shares General reserve Profit and loss account 30,000 8,000 18,400 56,400 The appropriation account for the subsequent year was as follows: Appropriation Account for the year ended . . . . Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit on ordinary activities after taxation Unappropriated profit b/f Transfer to general reserve Dividends paid and proposed Unappropriated profit c/f 74,300 10,200 64,100 18,400 82,500 10,000 72,500 3,000 69,500 There were no issues or redemptions of shares during the year. Prepare the balance sheet (extract) for capital and reserves at the end of the year. ABE and RRC 248 Limited Companies 2. This question will help you clarify the differences (and similarities) between t ypes of business. You are given three parallel trial balances and sets of information for: (i) A sole trader (ii) A partnership (iii) A company The following trial balance relates to the financial year of a business in three different forms. Trial Balance as at Sole Trader Partnership Dr Dr Cr 107,000 Sales Purchases 69,000 Stock 5,000 Heat and light 7,000 Rent and rates 8,000 Sundry expenses 6,000 Director's remuneration Net fixed assets 60,000 Debtors and creditors 9,000 4,000 Bank 2,000 Drawings 12,000 Drawings: A B Capital 67,000 Capital account: A B Current account: A B Share capital 1 shares Profit and loss account 178,000 178,000 (a) Cr 107,000 69,000 5,000 7,000 8,000 6,000 60,000 9,000 2,000 4,000 Company Dr Cr 107,000 69,000 5,000 7,000 8,000 6,000 12,000 60,000 9,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 6,000 28,000 28,000 5,000 6,000 178,000 178,000 40,000 27,000 178,000 178,000 Prepare a trading and profit and loss account for the year and a balance sheet as at the end of the year for a sole trader. Take the following into account: (i) Rent and rates prepaid 1,000. (ii) Heat and light accrued 2,000. (iii) Closing stock 4,000. ABE and RRC Limited Companies (b) Prepare a trading, profit and loss and appropriation account for the year and a balance sheet as at the end of the year for a partnership. Take the following into account: (i) (ii) Heat and light accrued 2,000. (iii) Closing stock 4,000. (iv) (c) Rent and rates prepaid 1,000. Profits are shared equally. Prepare a trading, profit and loss and appropriation account for the year and a balance sheet as at the end of the year for a company. Take the following into account: (i) Rent and rates prepaid 1,000. (ii) Heat and light accrued 2,000. (iii) Closing stock 4,000. (iv) Corporation tax of 1,000 is to be provided for. (v) No dividends have been paid during the year. The directors propose an end-of-year dividend of 5%. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 249 250 Limited Companies Review Questions Section A 1. What is the major difference between public limited and private limited companies? 2. Outline the key stages in the formation of a company. Section B 1. Explain the differences between ordinary and preference shares. 2. What is a redeemable share? Section C 1. What is a debenture? 2. Explain two differences between a shareholder and a debenture holder. Section D 1. Why are directors' salaries charged to the profit and loss account? 2. What are "transfers to reserves"? Section E 1. What is the difference between authorised and issued capital? 2. What is the capital redemption reserve? ABE and RRC Limited Companies ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. Kin Ltd Balance Sheet as at . . . . (Extract) Called-up share capital 30,000 Ordinary 1 shares General reserve Profit and loss account ABE and RRC 30,000 18,000 69,500 117,500 251 252 Limited Companies 2. (a) Sole Trader Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended . . . . Sales Opening stock Purchases 5,000 69,000 74,000 4,000 less Closing stock Gross profit Heat and light (7,000 2,000) Rent and rates (8,000 1,000) Sundry expenses Net profit 9,000 7,000 6,000 107,000 70,000 37,000 22,000 15,000 Balance Sheet as at Net Fixed Assets Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank Prepayment Current Liabilities Creditors Accruals Capital Net profit less Drawings 60,000 4,000 9,000 2,000 1,000 16,000 4,000 2,000 6,000 10,000 70,000 67,000 15,000 82,000 12,000 70,000 ABE and RRC Limited Companies (b) A and B Trading, Profit and Loss and Appropriation Account for the year ended . . . . Sales Opening stock Purchases 107,000 5,000 69,000 74,000 4,000 less Closing stock Gross profit Heat and light (7,000 2,000) Rent and rates (8,000 1,000) Sundry expenses Net profit 9,000 7,000 6,000 Profit share: A B 7,500 7,500 70,000 37,000 22,000 15,000 15,000 Balance Sheet as at . . . . Net Fixed Assets Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank Prepayment Current Liabilities Creditors Accruals Capital account Current account Profit share less Drawings 60,000 4,000 9,000 2,000 1,000 16,000 4,000 2,000 6,000 A 28,000 5,000 7,500 12,500 6,000 6,500 B 28,000 6,000 7,500 13,500 6,000 7,500 10,000 70,000 56,000 14,000 70,000 ABE and RRC 253 254 Limited Companies (c) Company Ltd. Trading, Profit and Loss and Appropriation Account for the year ended . . . . Sales Opening stock Purchases less Closing stock Gross profit Heat and light (7,000 2,000) Rent and rates (8,000 1,000) Sundry expenses Director's remuneration Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit on ordinary activities after taxation Unappropriated profit b/f Proposed dividend Unappropriated profit c/f 5,000 69,000 74,000 4,000 9,000 7,000 6,000 12,000 107,000 70,000 37,000 34,000 3,000 1,000 2,000 27,000 29,000 2,000 27,000 ABE and RRC Limited Companies Company Ltd. Balance Sheet as at . . . . Net Fixed Assets Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank Prepayment Creditors: amounts falling due within one year Creditors 4,000 Accruals 2,000 Corporation tax 1,000 Proposed dividend 2,000 Net Current Assets Total Assets less Current Liabilities Capital and Reserves Called-up share capital: 40,000 1 Ordinary shares Profit and loss account ABE and RRC 60,000 4,000 9,000 2,000 1,000 16,000 9,000 7,000 67,000 40,000 27,000 67,000 255 256 Limited Companies ABE and RRC 257 Study Unit 13 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies Contents Page A. The Law and Company Accounts General Requirements Small and Medium-Sized Companies Directors' Report Auditors' Report 258 258 258 259 260 B. The Balance Sheet Disclosure of Accounting Policies Accounting Bases Form of Presentation Format 1 Notes on the Format General Notes Layout of Format 1 261 261 262 262 264 265 266 C. The Profit and Loss Account Form of Presentation Format 1 Notes on the Format General Notes Example of Internal and Published Profit and Loss Account 269 269 270 270 272 D. Non-Statutory Information 275 ABE and RRC 258 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies A. THE LAW AND COMPANY ACCOUNTS You will appreciate, from your work in this course so far, that companies are a special type of business. The benefits of limited liability are clear. However, legislators are keen to see that the benefits of limited liability are not wrongly exploited. Hence, there are many regulations governing the life and actions of companies. General Requirements When a company draws up its own final accounts for internal use it may use any format it likes because there are no rules to prevent such accounts from being drafted in the manner most suitable for management. However, its published accounts must be in accordance with the formats laid down in the Companies Act 1985, as updated by the Companies Act 1989. Companies must prepare accounts each year. The 1985 Act gives companies the choice of two alternative formats for the balance sheet and four for the profit and loss account. When a format has been chosen, it must be followed in each successive year and the items must be listed in the order set out in the schedule to the Act. Any deviation from this shall be disclosed. Every profit and loss account of a company must show the amount of the company's profit and loss on ordinary activities before taxation. Furthermore, every profit and loss account must show separately: any amounts set aside (or proposed to be set aside) to, or withdrawn from, reserves the aggregate amount of any dividend paid and proposed. Corresponding amounts for the previous financial year must be disclosed. A company must lay before its shareholders in general meeting a balance sheet and profit and loss account at least once in every calendar year. The balance sheet must be signed on behalf of the board by two directors and have attached to it a directors' report and auditors' report. The Companies Act 1989 requires the directors' report to be approved by the board of directors and signed on their behalf by one director. The balance sheet of a banking company must be signed by the secretary or manager and by at least three directors. Any member or debenture holder is entitled to be supplied, within seven days of demand, with a copy of the last balance sheet, and documents required to be attached, free of charge. This ensures that the financial situation of a company can be clearly seen. Small and Medium-Sized Companies Small and medium-sized companies are permitted to file modified financial statements. Section 248 of the Companies Act 1985 defines a company as small or medium-sized if it satisfies two or more of the qualifying conditions in (a) or (b) below, in respect of any financial year of the company and the financial year immediately preceding that year. (a) Small company From 16 November 1992 the limits are: The amount of its turnover must not exceed 2.8m. Its balance sheet total must not exceed 1.4m. (Balance sheet total means the total assets before deduction of any liabilities.) The average number of persons employed by the company in the financial year in question must not exceed 50. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (b) 259 Medium-sized company The amount of its turnover must not exceed 11.2m. Its balance sheet total must not exceed 5.6m. The average number of persons employed by the company in the financial year in question must not exceed 250. The modified financial statements (now termed "filing exemptions") required for such companies are as follows: To be forwarded to Registrar Small Company Medium Company Balance sheet Abridged Full Profit and loss account None Abridged Directors' report None Full Notes to accounts Reduced No need to disclose turnover or margin of gross profit Information on directors' and employees' salaries None Full disclosure Note that these concessions relate only to documents filed with the Registrar. They do not affect the information which must be given to members of the company and thus they actually involve more work for the company in preparing two sets of financial statements. However, less information is available to the world at large than can be seen in larger companies' accounts. If directors file such modified statements with the Registrar, they must include a special auditors' report which: States that the auditors consider that the requirements for exemption from filing full accounts are satisfied. Reproduces the full text of the auditors' report on the financial statements issued to members of the company. Directors' Report A report by the directors must be attached to every balance sheet laid before a company in general meeting (S.235, CA 1985). It must contain the following: (a) A fair review of the development of the business of the company and its subsidiaries during the financial year ended with the balance sheet date, and of their position at the end of it. (b) Details of the dividends proposed. (c) Details of transfers to reserves. (d) Details of the principal activities of the company and subsidiaries, and any significant changes during the period. (e) Any significant changes during the period in the fixed assets of the company or subsidiaries. (f) Any significant differences between the market values and book values of land and buildings or any of the company's subsidiaries. ABE and RRC 260 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (g) The following details of the company or subsidiaries: Likely future business developments. (h) Research and development activities. Any important events occurring since the financial year-end. Details of the interests in group shares or debentures as they appear in the register of directors' interests at: the start of the period, or the date of the director's appointment, if later, and the end of the period. This information must be given for each director at the end of the financial year, either here or in the notes to the accounts. A nil statement must be made, where applicable. (i) Details of any political and charitable contributions over 300 in value in total. (j) If the employees' average number is more than 250 during the financial year, details of the policy regarding: Continued employment and training of those who are disabled during employment in the company (k) Employment of the disabled Training, promotion and career development of the disabled. Full details of any disposals or purchase of a company's own shares. Auditors' Report The auditors must make a report to the members on the accounts examined by them and on every balance sheet and profit and loss account laid before the company in general meeting (S.236, CA 1985). The report which may be drawn up at some future time must state: (a) Whether, in their opinion, the company's balance sheet and profit and loss account have been properly prepared in accordance with the law. (b) Whether, in their opinion, a true and fair view is given: In the case of the balance sheet, of the state of the company's affairs at the end of its financial year. In the case of the profit and loss account, of the company's profit or loss for its financial year. In the case of group accounts, of the state of affairs and profit or loss of the company and its subsidiaries, so far as concerns members of the company. The Accounting Standards Committee sought legal advice concerning the definition of "true and fair", and a summary of Counsel's opinion is as follows: "True and fair" evolves as times change. The legal requirements, such as the formats contained in the Companies Act 1985, are guidelines offered by Parliament at the time of drafting the legislation. It is conceivable that they could be superseded by accounting practice in order to give a true and fair view e.g. if an SSAP or FRS were to say that historical cost accounting would not give a true and fair view in times of high inflation, and recommended instead current cost accounting or some other alternative, then the courts might well accept the fundamentally altered true and fair view. SSAPs and FRSs are documents embodying seriously and deeply considered accounting matters which are accepted by the profession. Although the courts ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies 261 may disregard their terms, their requirements are likely to indicate a "true and fair" view of the handling of specific accounting problems, and they are likely to be used by the courts as influential guidelines. However, SSAPs/FRSs evolve, and it must be accepted that what is "true and fair" when one is originally written may not be considered "true and fair" at some future date. Accurate and comprehensive disclosure of information within acceptable limits is important. Over time, the meaning of "true and fair" will remain the same but the content will differ. It is the duty of the auditors to carry out such investigations as will enable them to form an opinion as to whether: (a) Proper books of account have been kept by the company, and proper returns adequate for audit have been received from branches not visited by them. (b) The company's final accounts are in agreement with these books and returns. If their opinion is that proper books have not been kept, or adequate returns have not been received, or the final accounts do not agree with them, they must state this in their report. The report of the auditors must be read before the company in general meeting. You should note that auditors are also bound to consider and report, if necessary whether the accounts of the company comply with standard accounting practice. Normally an auditors' report is very short, stating that, in their view, the accounts have been properly prepared, give a true and fair view of the profit or loss, etc. and comply with the Companies Act and with standard accounting practice. The report can then be qualified by stating the respects in which the accounts do not conform to the requirements. B. THE BALANCE SHEET Disclosure of Accounting Policies Limited companies must publish their financial statements every year. The information provided to shareholders (and other interested parties) would be of little value were there no explanation of the way in which the figures had been compiled. Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP) 2 entitled The Disclosure of Accounting Policies was issued by the Accounting Standards Committee (ASC) in November 1971 to address this area namely a company's accounting policies. SSAP 2 achieves three things: It defines the fundamental concepts of accounting. It recognises that these concepts may be applied in a variety of ways in any given set of circumstances and defines the methods of applying accounting bases. It requires every entity to adopt one specific basis in each relevant area as its accounting policy and to disclose such policies by way of a note in its financial statements. There are four fundamental accounting concepts within SSAP 2 and these are as follows: (a) Going concern concept in which the entity will continue in existence for the foreseeable future, with no intention or necessity to liquidate or significantly curtail its scale of operations. (b) Accruals concept in which revenue costs are recognised as they are earned or incurred, not as cash when it is received or paid. They are then matched with one ABE and RRC 262 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies another, as far as a relationship can be determined, in order to arrive at a resulting profit or loss. (c) Consistency concept which recognises the need for consistency of the accounting treatment of like items within each accounting period and from one period to another. (d) Prudence concept which requires revenue and profits to be recognised only when realised into cash or other assets whose ultimate cash realisation is reasonably certain. Provision is to be made for all known liabilities (expenses and losses) whether such amounts can be determined with accuracy or are the best estimate based on the circumstances prevailing at the time the financial statements are prepared. The Standard does not require disclosure of these four concepts, but an entity is assumed to be applying them. Disclosure is only required to the extent that this may not be the case. Accounting Bases The fundamentals concept and the accruals concept may be applied in various ways. For example, there are several valid methods for calculating depreciation. A company may make its choice from the available methods. Its choice will become its accounting policy in that area for consistent application. Differing accounting bases occur, for example, in the areas of: Depreciation of fixed assets Valuation of stock and work in progress Leasing and hire purchase transactions. Form of Presentation Format 1 The Companies Act provides two possible balance sheet formats but we shall only consider Format 1 here. This is the vertical presentation used by most United Kingdom companies. The items to be included, where relevant, and their order in the balance sheet are as follows. The figures in brackets refer to the notes which follow. We shall also go on to consider further general requirements. A. Called-up share capital not paid (a) B. Fixed assets I Intangible assets 1 2 Concessions, patents, licences, trademarks and similar rights/assets (b) 3 Goodwill (c) 4 II Development costs Payments on account Tangible assets 1 2 Plant and machinery 3 Fixtures, fittings, tools and equipment 4 III Land and buildings Payments on account and assets in course of construction Investments 1 Shares in group undertakings 2 Loans to group undertakings ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies 3 Loans to undertakings in which the company has a participating interest 5 Other investments other than loans 6 Other loans 7 C. Participating interests 4 263 Own shares (d) Current assets I Stocks 1 2 Work in progress 3 Finished goods and goods for resale 4 II Raw materials and consumables Payments on account Debtors (e) 1 2 Amounts owed by group undertakings 3 Amounts owed by undertakings in which the company has a participating interest 4 Other debtors 5 Called-up share capital not paid (a) 6 III Trade debtors Prepayments and accrued income (f) Investments 1 2 Own shares (d) 3 IV Shares in group undertakings Other investments Cash at bank and in hand D. Prepayments and accrued income (f) E. Creditors: amounts falling due within one year 1 Debenture loans (g) 2 Bank loans and overdrafts 3 Payments received on account (h) 4 Trade creditors 5 Bills of exchange payable 6 Amounts owed to group undertakings 7 Amounts owed to undertakings in which the company has a participating interest 8 Other creditors including taxation and social security (i) 9 Accruals and deferred income (j) F. Net current assets (liabilities) (k) G. Total assets less current liabilities ABE and RRC 264 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies H. Creditors: amounts falling due after more than one year 1 2 Bank loans and overdrafts 3 Payments received on account (h) 4 Trade creditors 5 Bills of exchange payable 6 Amounts owed to group undertakings 7 Amounts owed to undertakings in which the company has a participating interest 8 Other creditors including taxation and social security (i) 9 I. Debenture loans (g) Accruals and deferred income (j) Provisions for liabilities and charges 1 Pensions and similar obligations 2 Taxation, including deferred taxation 3 Other provisions J. Accruals and deferred income (j) K. Capital and reserves I Called-up share capital (l) II Share premium account III Revaluation reserve IV Other reserves 1 2 Reserve for own shares 3 Reserves provided for by the articles of association 4 V Capital redemption reserve Other reserves Profit and loss account Notes on the Format (a) Called-up share capital not paid (Items A and C.II.5) This item may be shown in either of the two positions given in the format. (b) Concessions, patents, licences, trademarks and similar rights and assets (Item B.I.2) Amounts in respect of assets shall only be included in a company's balance sheet under this item if either: (i) the assets were acquired for valuable consideration and are not required to be shown under goodwill; or (ii) the assets in question were created by the company itself. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (c) 265 Goodwill (Item B.I.3) Amounts representing goodwill should only be included to the extent that the goodwill was acquired for valuable consideration. (d) Own shares (Items B.lll.7 and C.III.2) The nominal value of the shares held must be shown separately. (e) Debtors (Items C.II.1-6) The amount falling due within one year must be shown separately for each item shown under debtors. (f) Prepayments and accrued income (Items C.II.6 and D) This item may be shown in either of the two positions given. (g) Debenture loans (Items E.1 and H.1) The amount of any convertible loans must be shown separately. (h) Payments received on account (Items E.3 and H.3) Payments received on account of orders must be shown for each of these items insofar as they are not shown as deductions from stocks. (i) Other creditors including taxation and social security (Items E.8 and H.8) The amount for creditors in respect of taxation and social security must be shown separately from the amount for other creditors. (j) Accruals and deferred income (Items E.9, H.9 and J) The two positions given for this item at E.9 and H.9 are an alternative to the position at J, but if the item is not shown in a position corresponding to that at J it may be shown in either or both of the other two positions (as the case may require). (k) Net current assets (liabilities) (Item F) In determining the amount to be shown for this item any amounts shown under "Prepayments and accrued income" must be taken into account wherever shown. (l) Called-up share capital (Item K.I) The amount of allotted share capital and the amount of called-up share capital which has been paid up must be shown separately. General Notes (a) The headings such as B.I (Intangible assets) and B.II (Tangible assets) must be disclosed, whereas items such as 1 (Development costs) and 2 (Concessions, patents etc.) may be combined where they are not material. However, if items are combined then a breakdown of such combinations must be shown in the notes. (b) All fixed assets, such as property and goodwill, must be depreciated over the economic life of the asset. (c) The notes accompanying the accounts must show: The effects of acquisitions, revaluations, disposals, etc. The cost of fixed assets at the beginning and the end of the financial year. Full details of depreciation, i.e. the accumulated balance at the beginning of the financial year, depreciation charged for the year and the effects of disposals on depreciation in the year, and also any other adjustments. ABE and RRC 266 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (d) The value of any hire-purchase agreements outstanding must not be deducted from assets. (e) Only goodwill that has been purchased must be shown, and internally-generated goodwill must not be shown, although this does not apply to consolidated accounts. (f) When an asset is revalued, normally this is an adjustment to show the asset at the market value instead of cost. The difference of the revaluation must be debited or credited to the revaluation reserve. (g) Preliminary expenses, and expenses and commission on any share or debenture issues, should either be written off against the share premium account or written off to the profit and loss account. (h) The Act lays out the accounting principles to be followed when preparing the financial accounts: A company is presumed to be a going concern. Accounting policies must be applied consistently from year to year. The accruals concept must be followed. The prudence concept must be observed. Each component item of an asset or liability must be separately valued, e.g. if the organisation has five types of stock then each type must be independently valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value. Amounts representing assets or income may NOT be offset against items representing liabilities or expenditure, e.g. debit and credit balances on a debtor's account may not be aggregated or, as per (d) above, the amount outstanding on a hire-purchase contract may not be deducted from the asset concerned. Layout of Format 1 The layout of the balance sheet under Format 1 is shown on the following pages and you are advised to use it at all times. Advantage is taken of the concessions whereby detail may be disclosed in the notes instead of on the face of the balance sheet. As most UK companies now elect to use the abbreviated form of balance sheet, the various totals must be enhanced by additional notes at the end of the balance sheet. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies J & K Plastics plc Balance Sheet as at 31 December Current Year Fixed Assets Intangible assets Tangible assets Investments Current Assets Stocks Debtors Cash at bank and in hand Creditors: Amounts falling due within one year Net current assets Total assets less current liabilities Creditors: Amounts falling due after more than one year Provisions for liabilities and charges Capital and Reserves Called-up share capital Share premium account Revaluation reserve Other reserves Profit and loss account Approved by the board (date) Names (Directors) ABE and RRC Previous Year X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (X) X (X) X X X (X) (X) XXX (X) (X) XXX X X X X X XXX X X X X X XXX 267 268 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies Example of Notes to the Balance Sheet (a) INTANGIBLE ASSETS Development Patents & costs trademarks Goodwill Total Cost At 1 Jan Additions Disposals At 31 Dec X X (X) X X X (X) X X X (X) X X X (X) X Amounts written off Depreciation At Jan 1 balance Charge for the year, P & L a/c etc. Deductions in respect of disposals At 31 Dec X X (X) X X X (X) X X X (X) X X X (X) X X X X X X X X X Net Book Values At 31 Dec current year At 31 Dec previous year (b) TANGIBLE ASSETS Land & buildings Plant & machinery Vehicles Total X X X (X) X X X X (X) X X X X (X) X X X X (X) X X X X X X X X X Cost or Valuation At 1 Jan Additions Revaluations (additional value only) Disposals At 31 Dec Net Book Value At 31 Dec current year At 31 Dec previous year (c) Full details of creditors: amounts falling due within one year, creditors: amounts falling due after more than one year, and provisions for liabilities and charges, must be shown as notes. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies 269 C. THE PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT The Companies Act provides four possible formats for the profit and loss account for publication but, as with the balance sheet, we shall only consider Format 1 here. This is the form of presentation used by most United Kingdom companies. Form of Presentation Format 1 The items to be included, where relevant, and their order in the balance sheet are as follows. The figures in brackets refer to the notes which follow. We shall also review further legal requirements concerning profits and losses. 1 Turnover (a) 2 Cost of sales (b) 3 Gross profit or loss 4 Distribution costs (b) 5 Administrative expenses (b) 6 Other operating income 7 Income from shares in group undertakings 8 Income from participating interests 9 Income from other fixed asset investments (c) 10 Other interest receivable and similar income (c) 11 Amounts written off investments 12 Interest payable and similar charges (d) 13 Profit/loss on ordinary activities before taxation 14 Tax on profit or loss on ordinary activities 15 Profit or loss on ordinary activities after taxation 16 Extraordinary income 17 Extraordinary charges 18 Extraordinary profit or loss 19 Tax on extraordinary profit or loss 20 Other taxes not shown under the above items 21 Profit or loss for the financial year 22 Dividends paid or proposed Then, either on the face of the profit and loss account or by way of note, the following: 23 Retained profit brought forward 23 Retained profit carried forward 24 Earnings per share This is the list of all the items which must be shown in the profit and loss account. The numbers do not have to be shown but the order of the items must be adhered to; if some of the items do not exist for the company, however, then there is no need to include such items, e.g. if a company does not have any outside investments then items 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 would not appear and so item 6 would be followed by item 12. ABE and RRC 270 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies Notes on the Format (a) Turnover (Item 1) Turnover is not defined in the Act but it is widely regarded as gross income from normal trading. Turnover should be shown and calculated net of trade discounts, VAT and other sales taxes. Notes must show the turnover broken down by classes of business and by geographical markets, having regard to the manner in which the company's activities are organised, insofar as these classes and markets differ substantially. This additional information on turnover may be omitted if disclosure would be seriously prejudicial to the company's interests. (b) Cost of Sales, Distribution Costs and Administrative Expenses (Items 2, 4 and 5) These must all be stated after taking any provision for depreciation or diminution of asset value into account. (Cost of sales is the direct expenses attributable to bringing the raw materials to the point of sale.) (c) Income from Other Fixed Asset Investments, Other Interest Receivable and Similar Income (Items 9 and 10) These must be split between income and interest from group undertakings and income and interest from other sources. The amount of rents from lands must be disclosed if they are a substantial part of the company's income for the year. (d) Interest Payable and Similar Charges (Item 12) Again, these must be split between the sums payable to group undertakings and to others, and also between bank loans and overdrafts, and other loans wholly repayable within five years, by instalments or otherwise, secured or unsecured. General Notes (a) In Format 1 expenses are classified by function, e.g. distribution costs, administrative expenses. (b) Whichever format a company adopts, the account must show separately the amount of the company's profit or loss on ordinary activities before taxation. (c) The account must show separately the allocation of profit or the treatment of loss and in particular it must show: The aggregate amount of any dividends that have been paid and proposed. Any amount that is transferred to reserves. Any amount that is withdrawn or proposed to be withdrawn from reserves. (d) Goodwill (but not goodwill arising on consolidation) is to be written off over a period not exceeding its useful economic life. (e) The 1985 Act requires the following items to be shown separately by way of notes: (i) Interest on bank loans, overdrafts, and other loans that are: Repayable before the end of a period of five years Repayable after five years from the end of the accounting period (ii) The amounts set aside for redemption of share capital and of loans. (iii) The sum involved in depreciation. (iv) Development costs written off. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (v) Income from listed investments. (vi) 271 Rents from land if material. (vii) The cost of hire of plant and machinery. (viii) The auditors' remuneration and expenses. (f) The following are also required by way of notes: (i) The basis on which the charge for corporation tax is computed. (ii) Particulars of special circumstances which affect liability in respect of taxation of profits, income or capital gains for the current and succeeding financial years. (iii) The amount of corporation tax charged. (iv) If, but for double taxation relief, the amount would have been greater, that amount must be stated. (v) The amount of income tax. (vi) The amount of any tax charged outside the United Kingdom. All the above must be stated separately. (g) Where the company carries on business of two or more classes which, in the opinion of the directors, differ substantially from each other, there must be stated by way of note: (i) (ii) The amount of profit attributable before tax to each class. (iii) (h) The amount attributable to each class. Information regarding different geographical markets if the directors think that the markets differ substantially. The following are required by way of note: (i) The average number of persons employed during the financial year. (ii) The average number within each category of persons employed. (iii) Details of aggregate wages, social security costs and other pensions. (i) Accounting standards have altered the position regarding extraordinary items, which are virtually never seen any more. (j) Additional requirements the following items must be shown: (i) (ii) Any material respects in which any items in the profit and loss account are affected by transactions of a sort not usually undertaken by the company; or circumstances of an exceptional or non-recurrent nature; or any change in the basis of accounting. (iii) Any amounts relating to the previous financial year which are included in the profit and loss account, and the effects thereof. (iv) (k) The corresponding figures for the immediately preceding year i.e. comparative figures, except in the case of the first profit and loss account of a business. Where sums originally in a foreign currency are translated into sterling, the basis of translation (e.g. exchange rate). SSAP 20 gives further guidance on this point. Payments to directors and highly-paid employees the notes to the profit and loss account must show the following information: (i) The aggregate amount of directors' emoluments (including emoluments received by a director of the company from any subsidiary company, fees, commission, expense allowances charged to UK tax, pension contributions, and the estimated ABE and RRC 272 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies money value of any benefits received in kind), distinguishing emoluments received in their capacities as directors (e.g. fees) from other emoluments e.g. salaries as full-time executives. (ii) The aggregate amount of directors' or past directors' pensions. (iii) The aggregate amount of any compensation to directors or past directors in respect of loss of office. (iv) The number of directors whose emoluments (as given in (i) above, but excluding pension contributions) fall into the brackets 0-5,000, 5,000-10,000, 10,00015,000, etc., unless the aggregate is under 60,000. (v) The emoluments of the highest-paid director, if greater than the emoluments of the chairman, excluding pension contributions. (vi) The number of directors who have waived rights to receive emoluments during the year, and the aggregate amount thereof. (vii) The emoluments of the chairman during the year, excluding pension contributions. Where two or more directors have acted as chairman during the year, the figure to be disclosed is the aggregate of the amounts of the various chairmen during the periods they held office. If the accounts do not give the required information, the auditors must supply it in their report. It is, however, the duty of directors to supply all relevant information to the company. Example of Internal and Published Profit and Loss Account In order to see how one kind of profit and loss account can be changed into another, study the following example. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (a) 273 Profit and loss account for internal distribution J & K Plastics plc Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December Net sales less Cost of sales: Stock 1 Jan Purchases Stock 31 Dec Gross profit Distribution costs: Salaries and wages Motor vehicle costs General Depreciation: MV Depreciation: Machinery Administration expenses: Salaries and wages Directors' remuneration Motor vehicles General Auditors Depreciation: Office furniture Office machinery 300,000 1,500,000 1,800,000 400,000 1,400,000 350,000 40,000 25,000 20,000 7,000 3,000 95,000 45,000 22,000 12,000 27,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 115,000 Other operating income: Rents receivable 3,000 1,500 1,000 Interest payable: Loans repayable in less than 5 years Loans repayable in less than 10 years Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit on ordinary activities after tax Undistributed profits brought forward from last year 5,500 5,000 ABE and RRC 210,000 140,000 9,000 149,000 Income from shares in related companies (participating interests) Income from shares in non-related companies Other interest receivable Transfer to general reserve Proposed ordinary dividend Undistributed profits carried forward to next year 1,750,000 47,000 60,000 5,500 154,500 10,500 144,000 48,000 96,000 45,000 141,000 107,000 34,000 274 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies (a) Profit and loss account for publication J & K Plastics plc Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December Note 1 1 1 Turnover Cost of sales Gross profit Distribution costs Administration costs 1,750,000 1,400,000 350,000 95,000 115,000 210,000 140,000 9,000 149,000 Other operating income 2 2 3 Income from participating interests Income from other fixed asset investments Other interest receivable 3,000 1,500 1,000 5,500 154,500 10,500 144,000 48,000 96,000 45,000 141,000 Interest payable Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities Profit for the year on ordinary activities after taxation Undistributed profits from last year Transfer to general reserve Proposed ordinary dividend Undistributed profits carried to next year 47,000 60,000 107,000 34,000 Notes 1 These items must be stated after taking into account any necessary provisions for depreciation or diminution of value of assets. 2 Income and interest derived from group undertakings must be shown separately from income and interest from other sources. 3 The amount payable to group companies must be shown separately. 4 The amount of any provisions for depreciation and diminution in value of tangible and intangible fixed assets must be disclosed in a note to the accounts. Notes disclosing details as given earlier must also be included. It would be legally possible for the internal accounts shown above to be published as they stand because the items are shown in the correct order. However, the Companies Act does not force companies to publish full details as this would lead to competitors being placed in a better position than would be fair to the company. Nevertheless, basic information about performance can be obtained from published records. ABE and RRC The Published Accounts of Limited Companies 275 D. NON-STATUTORY INFORMATION Companies must prepare profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and so on. However, they also prepare other documents which can be seen as useful. Here are some examples: Chairman's report This is a summary of the business by the chairman. Such reports tend to be subjective and show the business in the best light. A chairman's report is not audited and therefore the information is less reliable than audited information. Employee reports These indicate how funds have been used by and for employees. Although they are rarely seen, some companies produce them to illustrate their commitment to employees. In general terms, these reports have little relevance for credit managers. They are not audited and so are less reliable than, say, the profit and loss account. Value added statements These treat profit and loss information in a different way and show how income is shared between employees, shareholders and others. Once fashionable, they are now rarely seen. The information is as relevant as profit and loss details to the credit manager. However, value added statements are not audited so are less reliable than the profit and loss account. ABE and RRC 276 The Published Accounts of Limited Companies Review Questions Section A 1. Describe two legal requirements of drawing up published accounts for limited companies. 2. What is a "Directors' Report"? Section B 1. Explain what is meant by the term "Prudence Concept". 2. Provide two examples of intangible assets. Section C 1. Explain what is meant by "turnover". 2. Explain where "rent receivable" would be recorded in a trading, profit and loss account. ABE and RRC 277 Study Unit 14 Cash Flow Statements Contents Page A. Introduction Requirements for a Cash Flow Statement Format of the Year-end Cash Flow Statement 278 278 278 B. Contents of the Cash Flow Statement Operating Activities Returns on Investments and Servicing of Finance Taxation Investing Activities Financing Cash Inflows and Outflows Cash and Cash Equivalents 279 279 280 280 280 281 281 C. Example 282 D. Use of Cash Flow Statements 286 Case Study A: Global Holdings Ltd (cont'd) Part 2 Going From Strength To Strength 289 289 Answer to Question for Practice 299 ABE and RRC 278 Cash Flow Statements A. INTRODUCTION In this unit we concentrate on cash flow statements, which are now part of the requirements for published accounts. Requirements for a Cash Flow Statement Preparation of a profit and loss account and a balance sheet does not give a total picture of the finances of a business. The profit and loss account discloses the profit (or loss) for the accounting period and the balance sheet shows us what and how resources have been used at the period end date. What is missing is a statement showing what cash has come into the business during the accounting period and how it has been used. This is remedied by two accounting standards requirements. Since 1992 companies have been required to prepare a year-end cash flow statement in accordance with Financial Reporting Standard (FRS) 1 issued by the Accounting Standards Board. This replaced the Source and Application of Funds (funds flow) statement prescribed by the previous standard SSAP 10 (now withdrawn). Under the ASB requirements, all but the smallest companies must produce cash flow statements. In addition, under International Accounting Standard (IAS) 1, a cash flow statement is one of the required "primary statements" (the others include a profit and loss account and a, balance sheet), and IAS 7: Cash Flow Statements provides details for its preparation. (FRS1 requires a greater breakdown of information than the IAS7.) Format of the Year-end Cash Flow Statement Most UK companies have to publish a cash flow statement for each accounting period. It is basically a summary of all movements of cash and its equivalents into and out of the business during the accounting period. A cash flow statement prepared under the terms of FRS 1 separates: operating activities returns on investments and servicing of finance taxation investing activities financing. Hence the statement gives an overview of changes in these areas to illustrate the success of management in controlling the different functions. Briefly, the overall presentation of a cash flow statement is as follows: Operating activities Returns on investments and servicing of finance Taxation Investing activities Net cash inflow/outflow before financing Financing Increase/(decrease) in net cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents at start of year Cash and cash equivalents at end of year a b c d e f g h j ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 279 You can see from this example that the emphasis at the bottom of the statement is on liquidity. The accumulating effect on cash and cash equivalents (which may appear as a separate note) is clearly shown. Let us look now at the different terms and what they represent. B. CONTENTS OF THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT Operating Activities Cash flows from operating activities are, in general, the cash effects of transactions and other events relating to operating or trading activities. This can be measured by a direct or indirect method. Direct method The direct method picks up individual categories of cash flow including income fr om customers, cash paid to suppliers, cash paid to employees and cash paid to meet expenses. In other words, you will see: Operating activities Cash received from customers Cash payments to suppliers Cash paid to and on behalf of employees Other cash payments Net cash inflow from operating activities a (b) (c) (d) e This would then be followed by any extraordinary items directly relevant to operating activities. Extraordinary items relevant to, say, investing activities would appear under the investing activities heading. Any exceptional items should be included within the main categories of this heading as above and be disclosed in a note to the cash flow statement. Indirect method Many businesses will not readily have available cash-based records and may prefer the indirect method (which is accruals based) of dealing with operating activities. A typical presentation of the indirect method for operating activities would be: Operating Activities Profit before tax, interest and before extraordinary items Depreciation charged Increase/decrease in debtors Increase/decrease in stock Increase/decrease in creditors Net cash inflow/outflow from operating activities a b c d e f Alternatively, you may well see in practice "Net cash inflow from operating activities" in the cash flow statement with a separate reconciliation as a note to the statement. This reconciliation will be between the operating profit (for non-financial companies, normally profit before interest) reported in the profit and loss account and the net cash flow from operating activities. This should, as above, disclose separately the movements in stocks, debtors and creditors relating to operating activities and other differences between cash flows and profits (e.g. accruals and deferrals). ABE and RRC 280 Cash Flow Statements Practically speaking, this part of the statement is not too difficult to prepare. There is no "adding back" of the tax and dividends to the profit figure though. Indeed you will see the taxation and returns on investments and servicing of finance features separately. Returns on Investments and Servicing of Finance For preparation purposes this is a "minefield" but if you are clear on matters of gross and net dividends and dividends paid and proposed you will be able to avoid the traps. We are concerned with dividends paid and so you can expect to need to add together: the interim dividend paid in the financial year; the proposed dividend in the previous year's balance sheet. The proposed dividend in this year's balance sheet will not result in a cash outflow until the next year. Thus, it is not included in the computation. To clarify the advance corporation tax situation, dividends are shown net. The FRS states: "Cash inflows from returns on investments and servicing of finance include: (a) interest received including any related tax recovered; (b) dividends received (disclosing separately dividends received from equity accounting entities), net of any tax credits. Cash outflows from returns on investments and servicing of finance include: (a) interest paid (whether or not the charge is capitalised), including any tax deducted and paid to the relevant tax authority; (b) dividends paid, excluding any advance corporation tax; (c) the interest element of finance lease rental payments." Taxation Again, the conflict between cash and accruals arises. If you look at published accounts you may find that it is virtually impossible to see how the tax charge in the cash flow statement equates with that in the rest of the accounts. in some circumstances, you may be able to extract the tax information directly but we would, more often, expect you to need to make a computation such as: Corporation tax advance corporation tax in Year 1 balance sheet less Corporation tax advance corporation tax in Year 2 balance sheet plus Profit and loss figure for corporation tax (Year 2) It may not always be that straightforward of course but we are suggesting this as a useful starting point. Investing Activities Cash inflows from investing activities include: (a) Receipts from sales or disposals of fixed assets (b) Receipts from sales or investments in subsidiary undertakings net of any balances of cash and cash equivalents transferred as part of the sale ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 281 (c) Receipts from sales of investments in other entities with separate disclosure of divestments of equity accounted entities (d) Receipts from repayment or sales of loans made to other entities by the reporting entity or of other entities' debt (other than cash equivalents) which were purchased by the reporting entity. Cash outflows from investing activities include: (a) Payments to acquire fixed assets (b) Payments to acquire investments in subsidiary undertakings net of balances of cash and cash equivalents acquired (c) Payments to acquire investments in other entities with separate disclosure of investments in equity accounted entities (d) Loans made by the reporting entity and payments to acquire debt of other entities (other than cash equivalents). Financing Cash Inflows and Outflows Financing cash inflows include: (a) Receipts from issuing shares or other equity instruments (b) Receipts from issuing debentures, loans, notes and bonds and from other long and short-term borrowings (other than those included within cash equivalents). Financing cash outflows include: (a) Repayments of amounts borrowed (other than those included within cash equivalents) (b) The capital element of finance lease rented payments (c) Payments to re-acquire or redeem the entity's shares (d) Payments of expenses or commission on any issue of shares, debentures, loans, notes, bonds or other financing. The amounts of any finance cash flows received from or paid to equity accounted entities should be disclosed separately. Supplementary notes are essential to explain certain movements. Paramount in these notes are reconciliations of the movements in cash and cash equivalents and the items in the financing section of the cash flow statement with the related items in the opening and closing balance sheets of the period. Cash and Cash Equivalents The terms "cash" and "cash equivalents" are perhaps best defined as they exclude overdrafts which are hardcore in nature. Cash This is defined by FRS 1 as "cash in hand and deposits repayable on demand with any bank or other financial institution. Cash includes cash in hand and deposits denominated in foreign currencies". Cash equivalents These are: "short-term, highly liquid investments which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash without notice and which were within three months of maturity when acquired; less advances from banks repayable within three months from the date of the advance. Cash equivalents include investments and advances denominated in foreign currencies provided that they fulfil the above criteria". ABE and RRC 282 Cash Flow Statements C. EXAMPLE The summarised accounts of Frizbee Ltd for the last two years are as follows: Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 December 20x2 000 Turnover Cost of sales Gross profit Distribution costs Administrative expenses Income from other fixed asset investments Interest payable Profit on ordinary activities before taxation Tax on profit on ordinary activities before taxation Profit on ordinary activities after taxation Extraordinary income Tax on extraordinary income Profit for the financial year Dividends Retained profit brought forward Retained profit carried forward 1,070 7,290 1,120 360 000 26,320 9,280 17,040 8,360 8,680 660 (890) 8,450 2,370 6,080 760 6,840 2,000 4,840 6,210 11,050 ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 283 Balance Sheet as at 31 December 20x1 000 Fixed assets @ cost less Depreciation 20x2 000 44,190 14,660 29,530 Current assets: Investments Stocks Debtors Cash at bank and in hand ACT recoverable 8,170 36,170 33,110 8,720 450 86,620 Creditors: amounts falling due within one year Bank loans and overdrafts Trade creditors 30,470 Corporation tax 2,170 ACT payable 450 Dividends proposed 1,350 34,440 Net current assets 52,180 Total assets less current liabilities 81,710 Creditors: amounts falling due after more than one year Debenture loans 25,000 56,710 Capital and Reserves Called up share capital Ordinary 1 shares Share premium account Profit and loss account ABE and RRC 50,000 500 6,210 56,710 000 000 40,130 12,260 27,870 5,920 39,220 30,090 500 75,730 6,680 29,940 2,370 500 1,500 40,990 34,740 62,610 62,610 51,000 560 11,050 62,610 284 Cash Flow Statements You are also given the following information: (a) Fixed asset schedule Cost at start of year Disposals Cost at end of year 000 44,190 4,060 40,130 Depreciation: 000 At start of year 14,660 Disposals (4,000) Charge to profit and loss for the year 1,600 12,260 Fixed assets disposed of during the year were sold for 20,000. (b) The extraordinary item arose on the sale of a business segment and the tax on this was paid during the year. (c) Interest received and payable took place within the year resulting in amounts accrued at the start or end of the year. Required: Prepare a Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 December 20x2. The specimen answer is set out on the next page. ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 285 Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 December 20x2 000 Cash flow from operating activities Extraordinary income Net cash inflow from ordinary activities Returns on investment and servicing of finance Interest received 660 Interest paid (890) Dividends paid (2,000 + 1,350 1,500) (1,850) Net cash outflow from returns on investment and servicing of finance Taxation Corporation tax paid (2,370 + 2,170 + 450 2,370 500) (2,120) Tax on extraordinary item (360) Investing activities Receipts from sale of fixed assets 20 Net cash inflow from investing activities Net cash inflow before financing Financing Issue of ordinary share capital (1,000 + 60) 1,060 Repayment of debenture loans (25,000) Notes Reconciliation of operating profit to net cash inflow from operating activities: Operating profit Depreciation charges Loss on disposal of fixed assets (4,060 4,000 20) Increase in stocks (39,220 36,170) Decrease in debtors (33,110 30,090) Increase in deferred assets (500 450) Decrease in creditors (30,470 29,940) (2) 000 8,680 1,600 40 (3,050) 3,020 (50) (530) 9,710 Analysis of the balances of cash and cash equivalents Cash at bank and in hand Short term investments Bank overdraft ABE and RRC (2,080) (2,480) 20 6,290 (23,940) 17,650 Decrease in cash and cash equivalents (1) 000 9,710 1,120 10,830 20x2 000 5,920 6,680 760 20x1 000 8,720 8,170 16,890 change 000 (8,720) (2,250) (6,680) (17,650) 286 Cash Flow Statements If, as well as preparing such a statement, you are asked to analyse it you will find that the separate headings prove useful in helping you identify the changes: The debenture has been redeemed (financing). Hence as the financing has reduced we can expect the future cost of servicing that financing to reduce. We are not told the amount needed to finance the debentures from the 890,000 interest paid expense but clearly this amount will decrease. The debenture redemption has been funded largely by a reduction in cash and cash equivalents primarily the elimination of the cash and bank balances and creation of an overdraft. However, this is not too worrying as the overdraft is virtually matched by short-term investments and other elements of working capital have largely been left untouched. Assuming similar results by way of profitability in future years, the bank overdraft should be eliminated in a couple of years. We have assumed that the investments are all short-term, i.e. redemption within three months. It is possible that the term is longer so we might need to reclassify these and to alter the figure for cash and cash equivalents. We can also see that the bank loans and overdrafts might well, unless they are on a roll-over basis, comprise some elements not repayable for more than a three month period. Again we might need to reclassify these as part of the working capital and alter our figures for cash and cash equivalents. Watch for guidance on such matters. D. USE OF CASH FLOW STATEMENTS The ASB feels that the cash flow statement will help analysts in making judgments on the amount, timing and degree of certainty of future cash flows by giving an indication of t he relationship between profitability and cash generating ability and thus the "quality" of the profit earned. Looking at the cash flow statement in conjunction with a balance sheet provides information about liquidity, viability and financial adaptability. The balance sheet provides information about an entity's financial position at a particular point in time including assets, liabilities and equity on their interrelationship at balance sheet date. The balance sheet information is regularly used to obtain information about liquidity but as the balance sheet is only the picture on one day, the liquidity information is incomplete. The cash flow statement extends liquidity information over the accounting period. However, to give an indication of future cash flows, the cash flow statement needs to be studied in conjunction with the profit and loss account and balance sheet. The concentration on cash as opposed to working capital emphasises the pure liquidity of the reporting business. Organisations can have ample working capital but run out of cash, and fail. ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements Question for Practice The following are the (not fully classified) balance sheets of Victor plc for 20x0 and 20x1, together with the profit and loss statement for 20x1. Balance Sheets of Victor plc as at 31 December Goodwill at cost (less amortisation) Land at cost Buildings at cost less Provision for depreciation Motor vehicles at cost less Provision for depreciation Stocks Debtors Prepaid expenses Bank Called-up capital (1 shares) Share premium account General reserve Retained profits Debentures Corporation tax payable Bank overdraft Creditors Accrued wages ABE and RRC 20x0 000 000 110 140 168 22 146 162 46 116 76 60 6 10 664 20x1 000 000 100 230 258 28 230 189 41 148 100 64 5 300 44 96 60 60 99 5 664 360 48 60 130 100 70 24 79 6 877 877 287 288 Cash Flow Statements Victor plc Profit and Loss Statement for the year ended 31 December 20x1 000 Sales revenue less Cost of sales Gross operating profit Profit on disposal of motor vehicles less Wages Office expenses Selling expenses Depreciation of: motor vehicles buildings Interest Amortisation of goodwill 000 670 323 347 7 354 112 27 9 22 6 18 10 Net profit before taxation less Corporation tax Net profit after taxation 204 150 70 80 Additional information is provided as follows: (a) During 20x1, motor vehicles, costing 42,000 and depreciated by 27,000, were sold. New motor vehicles costing 69,000 were purchased in the year. (b) A dividend of 30,000 was paid out in June 20x1. (c) Corporation tax paid over in 20x1 amounted to 60,000. Required: A cash flow statement in accordance with FRS 1 for year ended 31 December 20x1. Now check your answer with that given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 289 CASE STUDY A: GLOBAL HOLDINGS LTD (cont'd) In this second part of the case study of Global Holdings, we shall look at the accounts of the business from when it started through to its incorporation as a limited company. In doing so, we shall both illustrate the differences in the way in which the accounts are presented under the different forms of ownership and consider what the accounts tell us about the business. Part 2 Going From Strength To Strength As outlined in Part 1 of the Case Study (in Unit 1), Jim Baxter started out as a sole trader in 1995. Two years later he formed a partnership with Tom Watkins. During this period, Jim's profits rose as the demand for his services increased. However, Jim found it extremely difficult to obtain credit from building suppliers. Consequently he struggled with cash flow. Jim reflected upon his experiences as a sole trader and considered that he would have coped better if he had been familiar with cash flow statements. Consider the following financial statements. Final Accounts of J Baxter as at 31 December 1995 and 31 December 1996 Trading, Profit and Loss Accounts Sales Opening Stock Purchases Closing Stock Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Expenses Net Profit ABE and RRC 31 Dec 1995 000 000 65 0 37 9 28 37 11 26 31 Dec 1996 000 000 85 9 39 12 36 49 12 37 290 Cash Flow Statements Balance Sheets 31 Dec 1995 000 000 Fixed Assets Workshop at cost Motor vehicle at cost Current Assets Stock Trade debtors Bank Current Liabilities Trade creditors Creditors Net Current Assets Total Assets less Current Liabilities less Long-Term Liabilities Bank Loan Financed By: Opening capital add Net profit less Drawings 31 Dec 1996 000 000 25 15 40 25 30 55 9 13 5 27 12 18 3 33 12 3 15 14 5 19 12 52 14 69 12 40 10 59 25 26 11 40 40 37 18 59 At the end of 1996, a cash flow statement was drawn up as follows. ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 291 J Baxter Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 Dec 1996 000 Operating Activities + / (-) Operating Profit (i.e. Net Profit) + / (-) Creditors (+) / Debtors (+) / Stock Net Cash Flow From Operating Activities 37 4 5 3 33 Investing Activities Purchase of motor vehicle Net Cash Flow From Investing Activities 15 15 Financing Activities Drawings Reduction in bank loan Net Cash Flow From Financing Activities 18 -2 20 Opening Cash Balance (Bank) Overall Net Cash Flow Closing Cash Balance (Bank) 5 2 3 This cash flow statement highlights the problems Jim was suffering from when he was operating as a sole trader. Namely, he increased his profitability, but was beginning to have major problems with cash flow. During 1996, his bank balance was reduced from 5,000 to 3,000. He was unable to raise additional finance from the bank or gain any more credit from his suppliers. In order to sustain the business, Jim decided to form a partnership with Tom Watkins. The profit and loss accounts and balance sheets for 1998 and 1999 are set out below, and these are followed by the cash flow statement for 1999. ABE and RRC 292 Cash Flow Statements Final Accounts of J Baxter and T Watkins as at 31 December 1998 and 31 December 1999 Trading, Profit and Loss Accounts Sales Opening stock Purchases Closing stock Cost of goods sold Gross profit Expenses Net profit less Appropriation of profit Salary J Baxter Salary T Watkins 31 Dec 1998 000 000 220 34 85 23 96 124 84 40 15 15 31 Dec 1999 000 000 300 23 120 35 108 192 110 82 25 25 30 Share of remaining profits J Baxter T Watkins 5 5 50 16 16 10 40 32 82 ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 293 Balance Sheets 31 Dec 1998 000 000 31 Dec 1999 000 000 150 50 3 203 190 80 5 275 Fixed Assets Workshop & retail premises at cost Motor vehicles at cost Computer system at cost Current Assets Stock Trade debtors Bank 23 45 11 79 56 21 77 Current Liabilities Trade creditors Creditors 35 56 4 95 45 13 58 Net Current Assets Total Assets less Current Liabilities less Long-Term Liabilities Bank Loan Financed By: Capital Accounts Opening balance Additions Closing balance add Salary Share of profit less Drawings 2 205 37 312 130 75 160 152 J Baxter T Watkins J Baxter T Watkins 25 0 25 25 0 25 25 15 40 25 15 40 15 5 20 9 36 15 5 20 11 39 25 16 41 5 76 25 16 41 10 76 75 ABE and RRC 152 294 Cash Flow Statements J Baxter and T Watkins Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 Dec 1999 000 Operating Activities + / (-) Operating Profit (i.e. Net Profit) + / (-) Creditors (+) / Debtors (+) / Stock Net Cash Flow From Operating Activities 82 19 11 12 40 Investing Activities Purchase of workshop Purchase of motor vehicles Purchase of computer system Net Cash Flow From Investing Activities 40 30 2 72 Financing Activities Drawings Increase in salaries Increase in bank loan Additional capital Net Cash Flow From Financing Activities 15 20 30 30 25 Opening Cash Balance (Bank) Overall Net Cash Flow Closing Cash Balance (Bank) 11 7 4 Forming a partnership with Tom Watkins proved to be very successful and it allowed the business Jim Baxter started in 1995 to move to its next phase of development. Sales rose from 85,000 in 1996 to 300,000 in 1999. The major source of finance to fund this expansion was a bank loan that was secured against Jim and Tom's personal assets. In 1999, the bank loan was increased by 30,000 to help pay for a new motor vehicle, improvements to the workshop and retail premises, and an upgrade to the business's computer system. From 1998 to 1999, the net profit of the business increased from 40,000 to 82,000. However, during this period the company's cash resources were being severely stretched. This is illustrated in the cash flow statement shown above. In part, the rise in sales had been produced by offering customers improved credit facilities. A rise in credit sales necessitates higher levels of debtors and stock, and this puts pressure on working capital resources. Jim and Tom had encountered a number of problems paying suppliers at this time and, consequently, several of their creditors reduced their credit facilities. Thus, at a time of rising sales, Jim and Tom had to pay off a number of creditors, resulting in the firm's bank balance being reduced from 11,000 to 4,000 by the end of 1999. Also, Jim and Tom were becoming increasingly worried about their level of personal indebtedness which they had incurred to finance the growth of the business. If a partnership fails, the personal assets of the partners can be legally seized by the business' creditors to pay outstanding bills. ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 295 The cash flow statement for Jim and Tom illustrates the problems that can be encountered by a business that is undergoing rapid expansion. As sales expand, further investment in additional fixed assets is often required, and working capital resources are put under pressure as more money is tied up in debtors and stock. Jim and Tom could have eased the problems to some extent by forgoing their increases in salaries and by not taking out any drawings. This would have kept an additional 35,000 in the business. However, this would only have provided short-term respite. A rapidly expanding needs adequate finance to draw upon to bolster its working capital resources in order to deal with higher levels of debtors and stock. Towards the end of 1999, Jim and Tom opened negotiations with a number of different people who were interested in investing in their business and the business was converted into a private limited company Global Holdings Ltd. We move forward now to when the new company has been in existence for three years. The financial results for the last two years are shown below. Final Accounts of Global Holdings Ltd as at 31 Dec 2001 and 2002 Trading, Profit and Loss Accounts Sales Opening stock Purchases Closing stock Cost of goods sold Gross profit Expenses Net profit Appropriation Account Net Profit For Year Before Tax less Corporation Tax (20% pa) Profit After Tax less Dividends Ordinary Shares Transfer To General Reserve Retained Profit For Year add Balance of Retained Profit at Beginning of Year Balance of Retained Profits at End of Year ABE and RRC 31 Dec 2001 000 000 700 176 298 190 284 416 356 60 31 Dec 2002 000 000 900 190 400 200 390 510 340 170 60 12 48 24 12 36 12 30 42 170 34 136 68 34 102 34 42 76 296 Cash Flow Statements Balance Sheets 31 Dec 2001 000 000 Fixed Assets Workshop & retail premises at cost Motor vehicles at cost Computer system at cost Current Assets Stock Trade debtors Bank Current Liabilities Trade creditors Creditors 250 100 5 355 350 120 10 480 190 121 45 356 200 111 15 326 154 34 188 178 45 223 Net Current Assets Total Assets less Current Liabilities less Long-Term Liabilities Bank Loan Financed By: Authorised & Issued Share Capital 600,000 ordinary 1 shares partly paid Revenue Reserves General Reserve Profit & Loss Account Shareholders Funds 31 Dec 2002 000 000 168 523 150 373 142 441 300 31 42 103 583 300 73 373 65 76 141 441 ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements 297 Global Holdings Ltd Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 Dec 2002 000 Operating Activities + / (-) Operating Profit (i.e. Net Profit) + / (-) Creditors (+) / Debtors (+) / Stock Net Cash Flow From Operating Activities 170 35 10 10 205 Investing Activities Purchase of workshop Purchase of motor vehicles Purchase of computer system Net Cash Flow From Investing Activities 100 20 5 125 Financing Activities Reduction in bank loan Dividends Corporation tax Net Cash Flow From Financing Activities 8 68 34 110 Opening Cash Balance (Bank) Overall Net Cash Flow Closing Cash Balance (Bank) 45 30 15 The major advantage for Jim and Tom of converting the business into a private limited company is limited liability. This means that if the company goes out of business, their personal assets are not at risk. The downside is that they have less control over the business. This is because, in return for investing their money in the business, new investors will want to have a say in how the venture is going to be managed. If you refer to the balance sheet for Global Holdings you will see how it is being financed. 600,000 1 ordinary shares (partly paid @ 0.50 each have been created). Jim and Tom have 100,000 shares each and four other investors also have 100,000 shares each. To date, each shareholder has only paid 50,000 for their shares. This is because they are partly paid. The directors have the option to call up the remaining 0.50 per share (i.e. 300,000) as and when the business needs this money. As stated in Part One of Case Study A, Global Holdings has launched the Zephron an energy saving product. New products need time to be developed and gain acceptance in the market, which means that they will be resource hungry. The directors can use the 300,000 that can be called from the shareholders to fund the development of the Zephron. The cash flow statement for the company shows that its cash position has deteriorated from 2001 to 2002. However, there is little need to be alarmed because some of the 300,000 share capital that can be called upon could be used to pay off some of the company's debts and provide additional working capital resources. ABE and RRC 298 Cash Flow Statements Review Questions Section A 1. What are "Primary Statements"? 2. What are "operating activities"? Section B 1. What is the difference between the direct method and indirect method of presenting a cash flow statement? 2. Why is it necessary to include the "interim dividend paid" in the financial year in the cash flow statement? Section D 1. What information about the "liquidity" of a company does a cash flow statement provide? 2. What is the difference between "profit" and "cash"? Case Study A 1. What benefits would Jim Baxter have gained by having a greater understanding of cash flow statements when he started his business in 1995? ABE and RRC Cash Flow Statements ANSWER TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE Victor plc Cash Flow Statement for the year ended 31 December 20x1 Notes (1) Net Cash Inflow from Operating Activities Returns on Investments and Servicing of Finance Interest received Interest paid Dividend paid June 20x1 Net Cash Outflow from Returns on Investments and Servicing of Finance Taxation Corporation tax paid Investing Activities Payments to acquire fixed assets Receipts from sales of fixed assets Net Cash Outflow before Financing Financing Increase in share capital Issue of debentures Net Cash Inflow from Financing Decrease in Cash and Cash Equivalents (2) Notes: (1) Net profit before taxation Profit on disposal of fixed assets Depreciation Interest paid Amortisation of goodwill Increase in stocks Increase in debtors/prepayment expenses Decrease in creditors/accrued wages (2) 000 150 (7) 28 18 10 (24) (3) (19) 153 10 Cash at bank 31.12.20x1 (24) Net decrease in cash Cash at bank 31.12.20x0 (34) ABE and RRC 000 000 153 (18) (30) (48) (60) (249) 22 (227) (182) 108 40 148 (34) 299 300 Cash Flow Statements Workings: (a) Fixed Assets Land Buildings Balance 20x0 Sales Purchases Balance 20x1 Additions 140 140 230 90 168 168 258 90 Depreciation Land Buildings Balance 20x0 Sales Motor Vehicles 162 (42) 69 189 189 Total Motor Vehicles 46 (27) 19 41 22 Total 470 (42) 69 497 677 180 (b) Balance 20x1 Profit and Loss Account (c) 68 (27) 41 69 28 Receipt from sales of fixed assets Motor vehicles Depreciation Net book value Profit (d) 22 22 28 6 42 (27) 15 7 22 Increase in share capital: Increase in the issued share capital, 60 Share premium, 48 108 ABE and RRC 301 Study Unit 15 Budgets and Budgetary Control Contents Page A. Overview of Budgets and Budgetary Control Definitions and Principles Main Purposes and Benefits of Preparing Budgets 302 302 302 B. Budget Preparation Steps in the Preparation of a Budget Timescales for Preparation of a Budget 304 304 306 C. Types of Budgets Fixed, Flexible and Rolling Budgets Zero-based and Incremental Budgets Cash Budgets 308 308 308 309 D. Budgetary Control Systems Overview Calculating and Interpreting Variances 309 309 310 Case Study B: Crest Computers plc 313 Answers to Case Study Tasks 315 ABE and RRC 302 Budgets and Budgetary Control A. OVERVIEW OF BUDGETS AND BUDGETARY CONTROL Definitions and Principles (a) Budgets The CIMA definition of a budget is: "A plan quantified in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated and/or expenditure to be incurred during that period and the capital to be employed to attain a given objective." A budget is therefore an agreed plan which evaluates in financial terms the various targets set by a company's management. It includes a forecast profit and loss account, balance sheet, accounting ratios and cash flow statements which are often analysed by individual months to facilitate control. Budgets are normally constructed within the broader framework of a company's longterm strategic plan covering the next five and ten years. This strategic plan sets out the company's long-term objectives, whilst the budget details the actions that must be taken during the following year to ensure that its short- and long-term goals are achieved. (b) Budgetary Control The CIMA definition of budgetary control is: "The establishment of budgets relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results, either to secure by individual action the objective of that policy or to provide a basis for its revision." Companies aim to achieve objectives by constantly comparing actual performance against budget. Differences between actual performance and budget are called variances. An adverse variance tends to reduce profit and a favourable variance tends to improve profitability. Budgetary control therefore allows management to review variances in order to identify aspects of the business that are performing better or worse than expected. In this way a company will be able to monitor its sales performance, expenditure levels, capital expenditure projects, cash flow, and asset and liability levels. Corrective act ion will be taken to reduce the impact of adverse trends. Main Purposes and Benefits of Preparing Budgets (a) Planning As noted above, budgeting is part of the planning system and planning is a key requisite for improving the performance of any organisation. It requires managers to be proactive as opposed to being reactive that is, managers must plan for future events as opposed to simply responding to them as they occur. This process helps managers to clarify their objectives, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action and choose the best course that is available. (b) Co-ordination For organisations to function efficiently and effectively, and therefore to produce their best results, all the various parts of the organisation must work together in harmony. Budgeting is one part of the process which ensures that this happens. ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 303 The preparation of a budget involving, as we shall see, plans which encompass all sections and departments produces an overall plan for the organisation. That plan, whilst expressed in financial terms, is based on agreed activities designed to meet the organisations objectives. Thus, keeping to the budget, in each section and department, will ensure that the right activities are carried out, in the right way, to meet those objectives. For example, it is important that one department does not undertake a major activity without consulting, and working together, with other departments if marketing and sales launched a new advertising campaign to sell more products, but did not inform the production team, output may not be increased to match the increased demand from customers. The budget provides the vehicle through which activities may be coordinated to achieve the desired results. With the budgets for each function and department of the business or organisation being co-ordinated, so that each relates to all other budgets, the activities of the business are interlinked. This helps to optimise the use of the firms resources (such as fixed assets, current assets, people, etc) and provides the means by which to achieve the stated corporate objectives. (c) Control Budgets provide the main means of financial control and of evaluating performance. At the end of a budget period, a company will compare actual income and expenditure with the budgeted values. As noted above, the differences between these two sets of figures are called variances. The reasons why these variances have incurred will be investigated and corrective action will be taken to improve future performance. (d) Motivation The establishment of clear targets embodied in the budget in terms of income and expenditure, and the activities which are necessary to achieve them provide objectives for management and staff to work towards. Assuming that these targets are agreed and achievable, they will form the basis for working effectively throughout the organisation. Thus, teams at all levels will be motivated to achieve those targets, with the process of budgetary control enabling them to understand and know their achievements at all stages. (b) Improved communications The process of preparing budgets provides a common, shared means to communicate upwards, downwards and across the organisation. Through this process, senior executives can specify the responsibility and authority of each departmental manager, and each departmental head, will in turn, inform their supervisory staff and employees of their duties and responsibilities in helping the organisation achieve its objectives. The budgetary process also requires that information about activities is communicated up through the organisation to enable senior management to understand and set realistic objectives. ABE and RRC 304 Budgets and Budgetary Control B. BUDGET PREPARATION Steps in the Preparation of a Budget Step 1 - Setting the budget period You will probably be most familiar with the idea of a budget being for a period of one year. However, whilst it is normal for this to be the main period over which they are implemented, it would be wrong to think that the plans which they reflect , and against which performance is monitored, are confined to that period. An annual budget will invariably be set within a longer period as in next year's targets forming part of a longer term strategy to achieve certain objectives and may also be broken down into shorter periods. Let us assume that West plc has set a target of increasing its sales by 600,000 per year for the next three years and at the beginning of this period it has sales of 1.2m per annum. This objective will have been set by the board of directors and they will disseminate this information to its departmental managers to ensure that the whole company works in a coordinated and effective towards this objective. However, the feasibility of this objective will have been determined by the board of directors consulting with their middle managers. For the plans to be effective, it is pointless executive management setting targets for sales, etc, if their departmental heads and support team are unable to deliver the desired results. So, therefore, the longer term plans must be agreed before they can be translated into shorter, more specific financial plans through the budget. The 3-year sales plan will be broken down into three annual budgets i.e. T1, T2 and T3. Each departmental head will have a 12-month budget which reflects the targets for that department as its contribution to the whole plan. It is more than likely that this 12 month budget will then be broken down again into half-yearly and quarterly budgets. In some situations, a weekly budget may even be put into operation. At a very simple level if we assume that there are no major seasonal fluctuations in the demand for the companys products, then for the next 36 months sales will be due to increase at 50,000 per month. Given that West plc has a 3-year sales plan, external factors (such as the response from competitors, etc.) are likely to have a major impact on whether it is achieved or not. Therefore, at this stage, the company will only prepare a comprehensive set of budgets for T1. Skeleton budgets will be prepared for T2 and T3, and will be modified in light of the experiences gained from T1. Step 2 Limiting budgeting factor This is the constraint that limits the activities of the business. In most cases, it is sales demand how much can we realistically sell? However, there are other limiting factors. If we assume, in our example, that the company has undertaken a market survey to ascertain the likely demand for its products and this is felt to be realistic, then the limit ing factor could be its productive capacity. So, if current sales are 100,000 per month, then in T1 sales will rise to 150,000 per month, 200,000 per month in T2 and 250,000 per month in T3. If, however, the companys manufacturing capacity can currently deal with a maximum of 200,000 sales per month, then this is the limiting factor on the budget. You can see, now, that identifying limiting factors is a key to both the setting of budgets and their achievement. If the sales targets are to be achieved (or exceeded), then West will have to find a way to address the limiting factor of its productive capacity. However, it is very unlikely that this situation will be reached before the end of T1 and, therefore, the company has a minimum of 12 months to consider its option perhaps opening negotiations with other suppliers to discuss the possibility of outsourcing some of its additional production requirements. Another constraint could be the availability of raw materials or skilled labour. ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 305 Step 3 Data collection and analysis As well as discussing the feasibility of the 3-year sales plan with its middle managers, the board of directors must sanction the collection and analysis of all data relevant to the plan. In terms of generating information about costs, most of what is required should be available from Wests accounting system. The key question to be asked is whether any costs are likely to fluctuate substantially during the next three years and, if so, this must be incorporated into the three annual budgets. For example, increases in the cost of raw materials may be expected to be no more than 5% per year. However, such forecasts should be treated with a great deal of caution. When the various budgets are compiled, it is prudent to allow for a margin of safety. Thus, if raw material costs are expected to rise by 5% per year, then perhaps a figure of, say, 10% should be allowed when the budgets are being prepared. This approach will encourage the management team to look for savings elsewhere in order to keep costs to a minimum. Data about anticipated demand the level of sales the company may be able to generate will come from advance sales orders, from the sales force through their contact with customers and from market surveys. Step 4 The preparation of functional and subsidiary budgets A functional budget is a plan for a specific function (or department) within a business or organisation. Here are some examples: Sales budget i.e. sales income to be received by the business in the next 12 months Production budget i.e. this covers the number of items to be produced and their cost Selling and distribution budget i.e. this includes costs such as commission, advertising and delivery Administration budget i.e. this is the cost of providing administrative support to the whole organisation. Within each functional budget, there will be a number of subsidiary budgets. For example, the production budget will have a number of subsidiary budgets, such as: materials budget labour budget direct expense budget overheads budget In this way, the managers and supervisors for these areas are set their own budgets and they are budget holders for their section of the production function. Step 5 The preparation of the cash, capital expenditure and master budgets The end result of the budgeting process is the production of a master budget which takes the form of forecast financial statements forecast profit and loss account and balance sheet at the end of the budget period. The master budget (i.e. the master plan) shows how all the other budgets work together towards achieving the objectives of the organisation. It brings together: functional budgets cash budget showing the anticipated flow of money paid in and out of the bank account capital expenditure budget showing when fixed assets are planned to be purchased. ABE and RRC 306 Budgets and Budgetary Control Table Showing The Budgeting Process For A Manufacturing Business MASTER BUDGET Forecast profit and loss account Forecast balance sheet Compiled from other budgets Used in the business plan submitted to lenders when raising finance CASH BUDGET Money paid into the bank account Money paid out of the bank account SALES BUDGET PRODUCTION BUDGET ADMINISTRATION BUDGET How many of each can we sell? At what price? How much income will we receive? How much will it cost to make the products we expect to sell? How much will the administration costs be? SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION BUDGET CAPITAL EXPENDITURE BUDGET How much will the selling and distribution costs be? What new fixed assets do we need to buy? Timescales for Preparation of a Budget Let us assume that the financial year of West plc runs from January to December. T1 is the first year of its 3-year sales plan. Therefore, all of the budgets outlined in the table above must be complete and operational when T1 starts i.e. 1st January. Generally speaking, the bigger the company, the more time it will take to prepare the budgets. This is because very small organisations, such as sole traders or partnerships, have less formalised structures and fewer people involved in the budgeting process. This makes the communication of ideas, clarification of issues, etc. very easy to complete and, therefore, to produce all of the budgets highlighted above should take just a few weeks. A large company, on the other hand, will be organised into a number of departments and may also operate overseas. Face-to-face communications will be difficult to facilitate and may not happen at all, with e-mail, telephone and video conferencing having to fill the void. Overseas operations may mean that everything has to be produced in two languages. Given these complications, the budgetary process is likely take several months to complete in a large company. In view of the importance of the budget and the time it can take to prepare and ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 307 note that the longer it takes, the less precise the forecasts are likely to be most large companies employ full-time budgetary teams to work on budgeting. Ultimately, in a large organisation, it is the financial director that has the responsibility for ensuring that the budgetary process is completed within an acceptable time period. The dayto-day management of the process is likely to the responsibility of a management accountant who will report directly to the finance director. Many large businesses have developed formal procedures for ensuring the completion of budgets on time and for their successful operation, and are likely to have the following elements in place to aid this: Budget manual this provides a set of guidelines as to who is involved with the budgetary planning and control process, and how the process is to be conducted. This will ensure that budgets are prepared in accordance with the stated procedures and are finished on time. Budget committee This organises the process of budgetary planning and control. It will consist of the financial director, the management accountant responsible for the process, possibly other members of the accounting function and managers from the different functions (such as sales, marketing, production, purchasing, etc.) within the company. It is likely that the management accountant will be given the role of budget coordinator. This will entail being responsible for overseeing the activities of the committee. T1 begins on 1st January and it is imperative that West plc allows sufficient time for preparation of the master, functional and subsidiary budgets. Therefore, the planning process might commence in June, as follows: June Budget committee meets to plan next years (i.e. T1) budgets July First draft of budgets prepared August Review of draft budgets September Draft budgets amended in light of review October Further review and redrafting to final version November Budgets submitted to directors for approval December Budgets for next year circulated to managers January Budget period (i.e. T1) commences Some budgets may have to be drafted and approved at an earlier stage due to external factors. For example, some of the raw materials West uses in its manufacturing process may have to be ordered quarterly in advance from the suppliers. Therefore, the production budget will have to be completed by the end of September to allow sufficient time for the ordering of certain raw materials. Failure to place the order at this time could result in West receiving the materials at the end of January, rather than at the end of December and this would result in the company failing to meet its output targets in order to satisfy customer orders. ABE and RRC 308 Budgets and Budgetary Control C. TYPES OF BUDGETS Fixed, Flexible and Rolling Budgets These types of budget reflect different approaches to the way in which budgetary figures are applied throughout the period. Fixed budgets A fixed budget is used when the figures set at the beginning of the budgetary period are adhered to and monitored, whatever the circumstances i.e. the budgeted figures do not change. The main advantage of fixed budgets is that they uncomplicated and relatively easy to put together. Their main disadvantage is that they are static and do not offer any flexibility. This type of budget is useful where circumstances are relatively stable and/or overall total figures must be adhered to for example, a department in a secondary school where a set amount each year may be spent on textbooks. Flexible budgets A flexible budget changes with the level of activity and takes into account different types of costs. For example, the sales for a new product could either exceed expectations or fall disastrously short. In either situation, the budgeted figures for sales will be inaccurate. Therefore, a flexible production budget will be prepared assuming 80%, 90% and 100% of normal activity. With different levels of activity, variable costs such as direct materials and direct labour change with the level of production and will have to be adjusted accordingly. Fixed costs such as rent, though, will remain the same regardless of the level of output. These budgets overcome the limitations of fixed budgets and allow a company to accommodate a variety of possible outcomes. This flexibility is very useful when a companys sales can be affected by a variety of external influences. Rolling budgets Many companies are recognising that the conventional static budget produced near the year end and then used as a guide for the following year even though circumstances nay have rendered it out of date is just not good enough. Instead, they are turning to rolling budgets forecasts that are updated every few months to, in effect, reassess the companys outlook several times a year. The result is an always-current financial forecast that not only reflects a businesss most recent monthly results, but also any material changes to its business outlook or the economy. The major advantage of rolling budgets is that they are updated with actual results on a periodic basis. This allows the management team of a company to re-assess key aspects for example, working capital, sales activity, control of costs, etc of its performance in the light of changing events and take corrective action if required. Zero-based and Incremental Budgets These types of budget reflect the basis on which they are prepared. Zero-based budgets The budget starts from zero, and each item going into the budget has to be justified by the budget holder normally the manager of the department. ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 309 This type of budget forces the budget holder to justify every item of expenditure. The advantage of this approach is that inefficiencies and overspending are avoided. However, it also has the disadvantage of being an extremely time consuming process. Incremental budgets In an incremental budget, the previous budget figures are used as a base and a small percentage added on (the increment) to allow for general rises in costs brought about by inflation. For example, in the existing budget, wages may be 50,000 per year. In the new budget, 5% may be added to for cost of living rises and the new wages target will be set at 52,500. The big advantage of this approach is that it is easy to understand and implement. The downside is that no attempt is made to analyse the reasons why the costs are at their current level. They are simply taken as a given. This means that certain items and a good example is photocopying may take on a life force of their own and managers never question why this particular cost simply keeps on rising. This means that inefficiencies are never challenged. Cash Budgets Cash budgets show when money is paid in and out of the bank account. When they are being prepared it is important that fluctuations in payment patterns are allowed for. For example, some customers who are allowed a one month credit period may take two months to pay their outstanding debts. Some costs are payable in advance such as rent (often quarterly in advance) or car insurance (usually payable 12 months in advance) whilst others such as electricity, gas and telephone bills are usually payable quarterly in arrears. These budgets allow managers to gain a greater understanding of the pattern of cash inflows and outflows their company must deal with. For example, if a company has credit sales of 100,000 in January and it allows its customers one months credit, it will not r eceive the receipts until February. The time lag between the sale and the receipt of monies from customers can be incorporated into the cash budget. The main advantage of this approach is that managers can plan much more of their expenditure much more effectively. The disadvantage is that in reality not all of the customers will pay in February some may take two to three months to pay their debts and others will not pay at all. This will make the cash budget unrealistic. Of course it is possible to create a rolling cash budget to overcome this problem. D. BUDGETARY CONTROL SYSTEMS Overview When the budget is approved by the owner or board of directors, it becomes the official plan of the business. The normal budgetary period for the majority of organisations is 12 months. During this period, when the budget is current, the process of budgetary control acts as a control mechanism. The main purpose of budgetary control is to compare actual results with what was planned to happen in the budget. As the budget period progresses, separate budget reports are prepared monthly. The actual and budget columns are completed and the cumulative figures for the year-to-date are recorded. ABE and RRC 310 Budgets and Budgetary Control Westbury Computers Ltd Sales Budget Report Income: January Income: Year-To-Date Budget Actual Variance Budget Actual (projected) Variance Shop A 100,000 120,000 20,000 FAV 1,100,000 1,000,000 100,000 ADV Shop B 120,000 105,000 25,000 ADV 1,200.000 1,150,000 50,000 ADV Shop C 145,000 155,000 10,000 FAV 1.250,000 1,300,000 50,000 FAV Mail Order 100,000 80,000 20,000 ADV 900,000 925,000 25,000 FAV Total Sales 465,000 4,450,000 4,375,000 75,000 ADV 460,000 5,000 ADV Calculating and Interpreting Variances The senior management of a business will be monitoring the budget during the year and will be watching closely for differences between the budgeted and actual figures the variances. There are two types of variance: a favourable variance (FAV), where the results are better than expected an adverse variance (ADV), where the results are worse than expected. In the sales budget example above, we have recorded a favourable variance for Shop A of 20,000 for January. This is because actual sales exceeded budgeted sales. With any type of income (i.e. sales, commission, agents fees, etc.) any business organisation will always want the actual figure to exceed the budgeted figure, showing that it is performing better than expected. With any type of expenditure, the organisation will always want the actual figure to be less than the budgeted figure. If this happens it means that the firm has spent less money than expected i.e. saved money against the budgeted figure and is performing better than expected. The situation can be summarised as follows: Actual income exceeds budgeted income a favourable variance Actual income is less than budgeted income an adverse variance Actual expenditure exceeds budgeted expenditure an adverse variance Actual expenditure is less than budgeted expenditure a favourable variance. Once the budget has been approved by owner/board of directors and the period to which it refers has started, the process of identifying and interpreting variances is continuous. It involves the following elements: Recording of actual results Comparison between budget and actual results Identification of reasons for variances between actual and budget Feedback to budget holders for corrective action to be taken Report to owner/board of directors Institute changes to overcome problems revealed by budgetary control ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 311 Feed forward into the budgetary planning for the next period Variances are an example of management by exception that is, only those variances that are considered to be significant size relative to the business need be drawn to the attent ion of senior management for further attention. Variances can be caused by internal factors, external factors or a combination of both. For example, in the sales budget report for Westbury Computers Ltd, Shop B has an adverse variance of 25,000 for January. Several internal factors could be responsible for this situation: The sales team in Shop B has underperformed because of low staff morale and poor motivation. This has resulted in the delivery of a very poor customer service and a lack of attention with regard to satisfying the needs of the customers. The staffing levels in Shop B are too low. Consequently there have been insufficient personnel to deliver the quality of service expected by the firms customers. The firms delivery service has had major problems for example, with transport, high absenteeism levels, etc. Consequently, a large number of customers have complained and many have cancelled their orders. Alternatively, or in addition, several external factors could be responsible for this situation: The suppliers have failed to deliver goods on time. Many customers have complained and some have cancelled their orders. A new competitor has opened a new store very close to Shop B offering very low prices. This has had a very negative impact on sales in January. A major employer in the area where shop B is located has recently made a large number of employees redundant. Consumer confidence has been badly affected and subsequently many customers have cancelled their orders. If something is going wrong within a business for example, the sales team is underperforming it will, ultimately, manifest itself within the firms financial statements and the budgetary control process is usually the first place that this will become apparent. With internal factors, the solution to any problems should be within the firms control. Clearly some problems can only be resolved over a longer timescale. However, by being informed on a regular basis through the calculation and interpretation of variances, the management team are constantly being made aware of issues and concerns. They should, then, be able to avoid internal problems spiralling out of control. External factors are clearly a different matter. The firm cannot obviously control external factors, but wherever possible it needs to be proactive as opposed to being reactive. That is, it must take some form of action before events unfold rather than afterwards, because otherwise the firm will always be trying to catch up with its competitors. For example, you cannot prevent a competitor opening a branch near to your retail outlet, but if the firm is aware that it is going to happen it may be able to formulate some type of response perhaps by reducing sales prices in the store for a limited period. ABE and RRC 312 Budgets and Budgetary Control Review Questions Section A 1. Explain how budgetary control systems enable businesses to become better organised and more effective at achieving their desired outcomes. 2. Explain why it is important for managers and supervisory personnel (e.g. team leaders, etc.) to involve their staff in the budget preparation process? Section B 1. What does the term limiting budget factor mean? 2. Explain the role of the budget manual, budget committee and budget coordinator in the preparation of an organisations budgets. 3. When preparing a budget for a specific start date, why is it better to allocate at least six months preparation time? Section C 1. What are the dangers involved in constantly using incremental budgeting to set up budgets for an organisation? 2. Explain the reasons why using a fixed budget approach is wholly inappropriate for a company which operates in a rapidly changing environment? 3. Explain how rolling budgets overcome the limitations of fixed budgets. (Note that review questions in respect of Section D are incorporated into the Case Study tasks which follow.) ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 313 CASE STUDY B: CREST COMPUTERS PLC The current Managing Director, Jim Marsden, started Crest Computers plc in 20x0. The company makes and sells computer systems to commercial and domestic customers. Crest is based in the UK and became a plc in 20x2. During the period 20x0 to 20x3, the company was very successful and sales increased from 100,000 to 10.50 million per annum. However, towards the end of 20x3, the number of imported computer systems into the UK increased dramatically. In December 20x3 the company introduced a budgetary control system. The purpose of this development was twofold: To provide senior management with better information on income and expenditure and where appropriate take action to ensure that the firm remains on course to achieve its budgetary targets To gain more effective co-ordination between the functions and departments in order to optimise the use of resources and to achieve the corporate objectives. The results for the first quarter for 20x4 are as follows. Crest Computers plc Budgetary Control Analysis Quarter Year Results: January March 20x4 Sales Cost of Sales Gross Profit Expenses Net Profit Budget 2,750,000 1,750,000 1,000,000 500,000 500,000 Actual 2,500,000 1,600,000 900,000 600,000 300,000 Variance 250,000 ADV 150,000 FAV 100,000 ADV 100,000 ADV 200,000 ADV Jim Marsden was worried as he read the information produced by the new budgetary control system for the first quarter in 20x4. Things were clearly not going according to plan. Sales were down and expenditure was more than it was supposed to be. Jim was confused by some of the terminology he did not understand what the phrases favourable and adverse meant. All that Jim knew was that if things were not sorted out the company would not achieve its sales and profit targets for 20x4, and the shareholders would not be pleased if this happened. You are required to complete the following tasks: 1 Explain what the terms FAV and ADV mean within the context of the information for the first quarter in 20x4. 2. Identify and explain the likely reasons why Crest Computers plc has not achieved its sales and profits target for the first quarter in 20x4. 3. For the table below, which shows initial results for the next quarter, calculate the budgeted and actual gross profit and net profit, and the variance for each item (stating whether it is favourable or adverse). ABE and RRC 314 Budgets and Budgetary Control Crest Computers plc Budgetary Control Analysis Quarter Year Results: April June 20x4 Sales Cost of Sales Gross Profit Expenses Net Profit Budget 2,300,000 1,800,000 Actual 2,600,000 1,450,000 400,000 Variance 600,000 ABE and RRC Budgets and Budgetary Control 315 ANSWERS TO CASE STUDY TASKS 1. The terms FAV and ADV mean favourable and adverse and, in the context of budgetary control, refer to the difference between actual results and budgeted values: When a firms actual income (i.e. sales, gross profit and net profit) exceeds its budgeted income, favourable variances will be recorded it is favourable because the firm has generated more income than expected. When the firms actual costs (i.e. cost of sales and expenses) exceed its budgeted costs, adverse variances will be recorded because the firm is performing less well in these areas than expected. With regard to the period January March 2004, the variances can be reconciled (explained) as follows: Sales Variance Cost of Sales Variance = Gross Profit Variance 250,000 ADV 150,000 FAV = 100,000 ADV Gross Profit Variance + Expenses Variance = Net Profit Variance 100,000 ADV + 100,000 ADV = 200,000 ADV Where variances are different (i.e. one is favourable and the other is adverse), one should be deducted from the other. Where they are the same (i.e. they are both favourable or both adverse) they should be added together. 2. The main reason why the firms actual sales are less than the budgeted values is because of increased competition from overseas companies. It is likely that these companies operate in countries (such as China or Hungary) where business-operating costs are much lower than the UK. Consequently, they will be to charge lower prices than Crest and still make higher profits. Although sales are lower than expected (down by 9.0% i.e. 250,000 / 2,750,000 x 100), Crest has been able to lower the actual cost of sales (down by 8.6% i.e. 150,000 / 1,750,000 x 100) accordingly. The major problem is with the firms expenses. They are 100,000 more than budgeted for and this is clearly a situation which cannot be tolerated. Failure to resolve the problem here will result in the sales and profit targets not being achieved. One problem that is shown up by this is with the new budgetary control system itself in terms of how often reports are produced. Only producing reports on a quarterly basis is completely inadequate. Variance reports need to be produced at least on a monthly basis since they act as an early warning system when things begin to go wrong. ABE and RRC 316 3. Budgets and Budgetary Control Crest Computers plc Budgetary Control Analysis Quarter Year Results: April June 20x4 Sales Cost of Sales Gross Profit Expenses Net Profit Budget 2,300,000 1,800,000 500,000 400,000 100,000 Actual 2,600,000 1,450,000 1,150,000 600,000 550,000 Variance 300,000 FAV 350,000 FAV 650,000 FAV 100,000 ADV 450,000 FAV ABE and RRC 317 Study Unit 16 Interpretation of Accounts Contents Page A. Accounting Ratios 318 B. Profitability Ratios Profit : Capital Employed Secondary Ratios Expense Ratios Asset Turnover Ratio 320 320 321 322 322 C. Liquidity Ratios Working Capital Quick Assets or Acid Test Ratio (Current Assets less Stock : Current Liabilities) Stock Ratios (Closing Stock : Cost of Sales per Day) Debtors Ratio Creditors Ratio 322 323 324 325 325 326 D. Capital Structure Proprietorship Ratio (Shareholders' Funds : Total Indebtedness) Shareholders' Funds : Fixed Assets Capital Gearing Ratio 326 326 327 327 E. Investment Ratios Earnings per Share (EPS) Price : Earnings Ratio 327 328 329 F. Limitations of Historical Cost Reporting 329 Answers to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 333 318 Interpretation of Accounts A. ACCOUNTING RATIOS In order to measure the success or failure of a business, financial analysts often use figures obtained from the annual accounts of that business as the starting point of their examination. Some figures will be more useful to the analyst than others. Absolute figures are usually of little importance so it is necessary to compare figures by means of accounting ratios in order to interpret the information meaningfully. Accounting ratios are only a guide and cannot form the basis for final conclusions they only offer clues and point to factors requiring further investigation. The ratios obtained are subject to the same weaknesses as the financial statements from which they are computed. They are of little value unless they are compared with other ratios. Comparisons may be made: with different accounting periods to establish a trend with similar firms in the same type of business with budgeted ratios to see how actual ratios compare with planned ratios. Under the first method, we may establish that a company has improved its performance over previous years, but this does not necessarily mean that the result is satisfactory. It may be more meaningful to compare actual performance with planned performance or, alternatively, compare performance with similar firms in the same industry. If we adopt the latter method, we must remember that all the information that is required may not be available from an ordinary set of published accounts and also that accounting rules are capable of different interpretation. Therefore, when examining published accounts, we may not be comparing like with like and it is essential to be aware of this fact when making comparisons and drawing conclusions. It is vital that the analyst ensures that the items to be compared are defined in the same terms and measured by the same rules. For example, one company may have revalued its assets in line with inflation, whereas another may be showing its assets at historical cost. The ratios that we shall investigate are: Profitability Liquidity Capital structure and Investment. Note at the outset that there are sometimes more than one way to define and calculate the ratios we shall be considering. As you will see in later studies, and in some of the textbooks, different approaches may be adopted and it is important, therefore, that you always state the way in which you are defining a particular ratio and how you have arrived at the figures used. We shall use the annual accounts of ABC Ltd in each instance. The profit and loss account and balance sheet follow. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 319 ABC Ltd Profit and Loss Account for the years ending 31 December 20x0 Sales less Production cost of goods sold Administration expenses Selling and distribution expenses Net Profit less Corporation tax Proposed dividends Retained Profits 630,000 135,000 45,000 36,000 54,000 20x1 900,000 810,000 90,000 90,000 Nil 1,200,000 818,000 216,000 64,000 1,098,000 102,000 40,800 61,200 102,000 Nil Balance Sheet as at 31 December 20x1 20x0 20x1 300,000 190,000 10,000 500,000 Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank 100,000 50,000 50,000 200,000 less Current Liabilities Proposed dividends Creditors 54,000 46,000 100,000 100,000 600,000 800,000 500,000 54,000 46,000 100,000 600,000 Fixed Assets Land and Buildings Plant and machinery Motor vehicles ABE and RRC 150,000 95,000 5,000 250,000 61,200 138,800 200,000 Net Current Assets Represented by Share Capital Authorised: 800,000 Ordinary shares of 1 each Issued and fully paid: Ordinary shares of 1 each Reserves General reserve Profit and loss account 662,000 180,000 8,000 850,000 50,000 900,000 800,000 800,000 80,000 20,000 100,000 900,000 320 Interpretation of Accounts B. PROFITABILITY RATIOS We need, at the outset, to be clear about certain definitions. (a) Profit There is some debate as to what figure should be taken for profit, i.e. should the figure used be net profit before or after tax? Some argue that changes in corporation tax rates over a number of years can obscure the ratio of net profit after tax to capital employed; others, that taxation management is a specialist job and that profit after tax should therefore be used. The important thing is to be consistent and it may be better in practice to compute both ratios. Another point to remember is that gains or losses of an abnormal nature should be excluded from net profit in order to produce a realistic ratio. (b) Capital employed It is also necessary to decide which of the following items should be used as capital employed: Total shareholders' funds i.e. share capital plus reserves Net assets i.e. total assets less current liabilities (when loans are included it is necessary to add back loan interest to net profit) Net assets less value of investments i.e. excluding any capital which is additional to the main activities of the business with a view to assessing the return achieved by management in their particular f ield (if this approach is adopted it is also necessary to deduct the investment income from the net profit) Gross assets i.e. total assets as in the assets side of the balance sheet. Again, there is no general agreement as to which of the above methods should be adopted for the calculation of capital employed. (c) Asset Valuation A further factor to be considered is that the assets are normally recorded in the balance sheet on a historical cost basis. A clearer picture emerges if all the assets, including goodwill, are revalued at their current going concern value, so that net profit, measured each year at current value, can be compared against the current value of capital employed. Profit : Capital Employed The return on capital employed is the first ratio to be calculated, since a satisfactory return is the ultimate aim of any profit-seeking organisation. The return on capital employed is sometimes called the primary ratio. Let us now proceed, using net profit before tax:net assets as the basis for the calculation. 20x0 Profit Capital employed : 90,000 15% 600,000 20x1 102,000 11.33% 900,000 What conclusions can we draw from the above ratios? We need to consider the decline in profitability in 20x1 in relation to the current economic climate. It may be that the decline can be accounted for by the fact that the industry as a whole is experiencing a recession, so the ratio of this company should be compared with that of similar firms. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 321 Another factor to be considered is that 362,000 appears to have been expended on additional land and buildings. If the buildings were purchased in December 20x1, it would be wrong to include this additional amount as capital employed for 20x1. In such circumstances it is advisable to use average capital employed rather than the year-end figure. This illustrates the fact that ratios are only a guide and cannot form the basis for final conclusions. The decline in the return on capital employed in 20x1 may be due either to a decline in the profit margins, or to not utilising capital as efficiently in relation to the volume of sales. Therefore, we should now examine two secondary ratios net profit:sales, and sales:capital. Secondary Ratios (a) Net profit : sales This ratio measures average profit on sales. The percentage net profit to sales for ABC Ltd was 10% in 20x0 and 8.5% in 20x1, which means that each 1 sale made an average profit of 10 pence in 20x0 and 8.5 pence in 20x1. The percentage profit on sales varies with different industries and it is essential to compare this ratio with that of other firms in the same industry. For instance, supermarkets work on low profit margins while departmental furniture stores work on high profit margins. (b) Sales : capital employed If profit margins do decline, the return on capital employed can only be maintained by increasing productivity unless there is a greater proportionate increase in capital employed. This ratio measures the efficiency with which the business utilises its capital in relation to the volume of sales. A high ratio is a healthy sign, for the more times capital is turned over, the greater will be the opportunities for making profit. A low ratio may indicate unused capacity. Like the net profit:sales ratio, this ratio varies considerably according to the type of business concerned. Again, a supermarket may work on low profit margins with a very high turnover while a large departmental furniture store works on higher profit margins with a lower turnover. 20x0 Sales : Capital employed 900,000 1.5 times 600,000 20x1 1,200,000 1.33 times 900,000 This indicates that each 1 capital employed produced on average a sale of 1.50 in 20x0 and 1.33 in 20x1. What are the possible reasons for the decline in this ratio? It may be that additional capital has not been justified by increased sales. Alternatively, there may have been expansion of plant facilities based on expectation of future sales. ABE and RRC 322 Interpretation of Accounts Expense Ratios The next question we may ask is "Why have profit margins on sales declined?" To answer this question, we must calculate the following expense ratios: 20x0 % 70 15 5 10 100 Production expenses : sales Administration expenses : sales Selling and distribution expenses : sales Net profit : sales 20x1 % 68.16 18.00 5.34 8.50 100.00 We could analyse these items still further by examining the individual items of expense falling within each category, e.g. material costs of production:sales, office salaries:sales, etc. On the basis of the above information, we may be justified in investigating the administrative expenses in detail to account for the increased percentage in 20x1. Asset Turnover Ratio In order to find out why capital has not been utilised as efficiently in relation to the volume of sales we now consider the fixed assets turnover ratio (sales:fixed assets). If the ratio is low this may indicate that assets are not being fully employed. An investigation of the accounts of ABC Ltd reveals the following ratios: 20x0 Sales : Fixed assets 900,000 1.8 times 500,000 20x1 1,200,000 1.4 times 850,000 This indicates that each 1 invested in fixed assets produced on average a sale of 1.80 in 20x0 and 1.40 in 20x1. In practice, it may be advisable to compare the ratio for each individual fixed asset and not merely total fixed assets. The reasons for the decline of sales:capital employed may apply equally to this ratio. C. LIQUIDITY RATIOS The objects of any business are to earn high profits and remain solvent. Because accountants realise revenue when the goods are delivered and match expenses with revenue, it follows that profits may not be represented by cash. Therefore, a company may be successful from a profitability point of view, but may still have liquidity problems. The following areas should be examined when investigating the liquidity position of a company: Working capital Has the company sufficient funds to meet its working capital requirements? Immediate commitments Has the company sufficient resources to meet its immediate commitments? Stock control Is the company carrying excessive stocks? ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 323 Debtors and creditors control Is the company maintaining adequate credit control of debtors and creditors? Working Capital Working capital is defined as the excess of current assets over current liabilities, i.e.: Working Capital Current Assets Current Liabilities Every business requires cash to meet its liabilities and all the constituents of working capital will, in the short term, turn into cash or require cash. Working capital or current ratio (current assets : current liabilities) This ratio compares current assets, which will become liquid in 12 months, with liabilities due for payment within 12 months, i.e. it measures the number of times current assets cover current liabilities. Therefore, the ratio measures the margin of safety that management maintains in order to allow for the inevitable unevenness in the flow of funds throughout the current asset and liability accounts. Creditors will want to see a sufficiently large amount of current assets to cover current liabilities. Traditionally, it has been held that current assets should cover current liabilities at least twice, i.e. 2:1, but this depends on the type of business and the req uirements of individual firms. Generally, a low ratio indicates lack of liquidity and a high ratio indicates inefficient use of capital. An investigation of the accounts of ABC Ltd reveals that current assets cover current liabilities twice in 20x0 and 1.25 times in 20x1. The decline in 20x1 may cause concern but whether this ratio is held to be satisfactory depends on the length of the period from when the cash is paid out for production until cash is received from the customer. It may well be that any planned increase in production is being held back because of lack of funds, and that additional permanent capital is required by means of an issue of shares or debentures. Working capital cycle When a business begins to operate, cash will initially be provided by the proprietor or shareholders. This cash is then used to purchase fixed assets, with part being held to buy stocks of materials and to pay employees' wages. This finances the setting -up of the business to produce goods/services to sell to customers for cash or on credit. Where goods are sold on credit, debtors will be created. When the cash is received from debtors, it is used to purchase further materials, pay wages, etc; and so the process is repeated. The following diagram summarises this cycle: CASH Expenses incurred with suppliers/ employees Cash from debtors DEBTORS CREDITORS Goods/services produced STOCK ABE and RRC 324 Interpretation of Accounts The working capital cycle is taking place continually. Cash is continually expended on purchase of stocks and payment of expenses, and is continually received from debtors. Cash should increase overall in a profitable business and the increase will either be retained in the business or withdrawn by the owner(s). Problems arise when, at any given time in the business cycle, there is insufficient cash to pay creditors, who could have the business placed in liquidation if payment of debts is not received. An alternative would be for the business to borrow to overcome the cash shortage, but this can be costly in terms of interest payments, even if a bank is prepared to grant a loan. Importance to the Organisation Working capital requirements can fluctuate because of seasonal business variations, interruption to normal trading conditions, or government influences, e.g. changes in interest or tax rates. Unless the business has sufficient working capital available to cope with these fluctuations, expensive loans become necessary; otherwise insolvency may result. On the other hand, the situation may arise where a business has too much working capital tied up in idle stocks or with large debtors, which could lose interest and therefore reduce profits. It is therefore extremely important to ensure that there is sufficient working capital at all times, but that it is not excessive. Without adequate working capital a company will fail, no matter how profitable or valuable its assets. This is because, if a company cannot meet its short-term liabilities, suppliers will only supply on a cash-on-delivery basis, legal actions will start and will cause a "snowball" effect, with other suppliers following suit. Conversely, if working capital is too high, too much money is being locked up in stocks and other current assets. Possibly excessive working capital will have been built up at the expense of fixed assets. If this is the case, efficiency will tend to be reduced, with the inevitable running-down of profits. The balance sheet layout is ordered so as to show the calculation of working capital (i.e. current assets less current liabilities). Provision of information about working capital is very important to users of balance sheets, e.g. investors and providers of finance such as banks or debenture holders. A prudent level of current assets to current liabilities is considered to be 2:1 but this depends very much upon the type of business. Striking the right balance Excess working capital is a wasted resource and therefore the aim of good working capital management should be to reduce working capital to the practical minimum without damaging the business. The areas of concern will be stock, debtors, cash and creditors. The management of these areas is an extremely important function in a business. It is mainly a balancing process between the cost of holding current assets and the risks associated with holding very small or zero amounts of them. Quick Assets or Acid Test Ratio (Current Assets less Stock : Current Liabilities) It is advisable to investigate not only the ability of a company to meet its commitments over the next 12 months but also its ability to meet immediate commitments. Only those assets which can be quickly turned into cash are included, so stocks are excluded from current assets since they will have to be processed into the finished stocks and sold to customers. Ideally, one would expect to see a ratio of 1:1. If the ratio were below 1:1 and creditors pressed for payment, the company would have great difficulty in meeting its commitments. If the ratio were above 1:1, it could be argued that the company was carrying too high an investment in funds which are not earning any return. The ratios for ABC Ltd were 1:1 in 20x0 and 0.5:1 in 20x1. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 325 The ratio for 20x1 appears to be a cause for concern, though much depends on how long the debtors and creditors accounts have been outstanding. Nevertheless, if creditors pressed for payment, the company would not have sufficient funds available to pay them. Do not forget, however, that the ratios are taken from figures recorded at one point in time and the position may have been considerably different on 1 January 20x2. Stock Ratios (Closing Stock : Cost of Sales per Day) Excessive stocks are to be avoided since, apart from incidental costs (e.g. storage and insurance costs), capital will be tied up which perhaps could otherwise be invested in securities, or otherwise profitably employed. Also, where stocks are financed by overdraft, unnecessary interest costs are incurred. Therefore, it may be advisable to calculate a ratio which will give us an approximation of how many days' usage of stocks we are carrying at one particular point in time. Example Assuming the cost of sales figure is 365,000, dividing by the days in the year, a figure of sales cost per day of 1,000 is obtained. Assuming this rate of sales continues and the balance sheet stock figure is, say, 80,000, it can be seen that we have sufficient stock requirements for 80 days. If the company is a manufacturing company, different types of stocks are involved. Therefore, the following stock ratios should be prepared: Raw material This is raw material stock : purchases per day. Work in progress This is work in progress stock : cost of production per day. Finished goods This is finished stock : cost of sales per day. The average numbers of days' stock carried by ABC Ltd are as follows: 20x0 Closing stock 100,000 : 58 days Cost of sales 365 630,000 365 20x1 150,000 67 days 818,000 365 From the above figures we can see that ABC Ltd appears to have been carrying larger stock requirements in 20x1. Remember again, however, that these figures have been taken at one point in time and the position may have been completely different on 1 January 19x6. ABC may have purchased in bulk at special terms, or there may be an impending increase in the price of raw materials. Therefore, the increase in 20x1 may not necessarily be a bad thing. Nevertheless, this ratio does highlight the stock-holding period and, if the increase cannot be accounted for, an investigation into the stock control system may be warranted. Debtors Ratio Debtors ratio Debtors Average credit sales per day Cash may not be available to pay creditors until the customers pay their accounts. Therefore, an efficient credit control system ensures that the funds tied up in debtors are kept to a minimum. It is useful to calculate a ratio which will give us an approximation of the number of sales in the debtors figure at one particular point in time. ABE and RRC 326 Interpretation of Accounts The ratios of ABC Ltd are as follows: 20x0 20x1 50,000 20 days 900,000 365 95,000 29 days 1,200,000 365 It therefore appears that debtors were taking longer to pay their accounts in 20x1, but whether this is good or bad depends on what ABC considers to be an acceptable credit period. Again, this ratio represents the position at one particular point in time and may not be representative of the position throughout the year. It may well be that the credit control department concentrates on reducing the debtors to a minimum at the year end, so that the figures appear satisfactory in the annual accounts. Therefore, there is a need for more detailed credit control information, to be provided at frequent intervals. Nevertheless, this ratio gives an approximation of the number of days debtors are taking to pay their accounts and it may be helpful to use this ratio for comparison with competitors. Creditors Ratio Creditors ratio Creditors Average credit purchases per day The above calculation could be made to compare how long ABC are taking to pay creditors in the two years. The actual cost of purchases is not disclosed in the data given but if we take the production cost of goods sold as an alternative, we find: 20x0 46,000 27 days 630,000 365 20x1 138,800 62 days 818,000 365 D. CAPITAL STRUCTURE Let us consider the case of X who commences business. If she requires various assets of 10,000 (premises, stock, etc.) where can she obtain the money to finance the business? Should she provide all the capital herself or should she obtain most of it from parties outside the business? (For example, a loan of 7,000 at 10% plus 2,000 from trade creditors and 1,000 from herself.) What effect will such a capital structure have on the future of the business? If there is a business recession, has the business sufficient earnings to meet the annual 700 interest cost on the loan? If X requires more funds, how will trade creditors and lending institutions view the fact that X has provided only 10% of the total funds of the business? These problems suggest that there is a need for the financial analyst to investigate the capital structure of the business. Proprietorship Ratio (Shareholders' Funds : Total Indebtedness) This ratio shows what proportion of the total funds has been provided by the shareholders of the business and what proportion has been provided by outside parties. Potential investors and lenders are interested in this ratio because they may wish to see the owners of the business owning a large proportion of the assets (normally over 50%). ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 327 The ratios for ABC Ltd were as follows: 20x0 Shareholde rs' funds : Total indebtedne ss 600,000 86% 700,000 20x1 900,000 82% 1,100,000 Certainly a large proportion of the funds has been provided by the owners of ABC but whether this ratio is good or bad depends on many other factors, e.g. the current economic climate and taxation policy regarding dividends and fixed interest payments. Shareholders' Funds : Fixed Assets This ratio reveals whether any part of the fixed assets is owned by outsiders. If fixed assets exceed shareholders' funds, it is apparent that part of the fixed assets is owned by outside parties, which may be interpreted as a sign of weakness. This does not appear to be the case for ABC Ltd, since shareholders' funds were 600,000 in 20x0 and 900,000 in 20x1, while fixed assets were 500,000 and 850,000. Capital Gearing Ratio Capital gearing ratio Fixed-interest capital (i.e. preference shares and debentures) Ordinary share capital This ratio measures the relationship between the ordinary share capital of a company and the fixed interest capital. A company with a large proportion of fixed interest capital is said to be high geared. A company with a high proportion of ordinary share capital is low geared. Where the capital structure of a company is low geared, preference shareholders and debenture holders enjoy greater security, while potential dividends payable to ordinary shareholders will not be subject to violent fluctuations with variations in profits. The opposite applies to a high geared capital structure (i.e. less security for preference shareholders and debenture holders and violent fluctuations in dividends for ordinary shareholders). This relationship between ordinary share capital and fixed interest capital is important to an ordinary shareholder because of the effects on future earning prospects. Some use of fixed interest capital is desirable, provided this capital earns a profit in excess of the fixed interest charges it creates. Any such excess profit will rebound to the ordinary shareholders, who thereby enjoy a higher return than they would if the whole capital had been contributed by them. E. INVESTMENT RATIOS Investment ratios provide valuable information to actual or potential shareholders. These ratios are also of interest to management, since a company depends upon potential investors for further funds for expansion. Let us now calculate the appropriate investment ratios from the annual accounts of ABC Ltd. ABE and RRC 328 Interpretation of Accounts Earnings per Share (EPS) This is a very important ratio and one which is covered by the accounting standard SSAP 3 as amended by FRS 3. Formula The earnings per share (EPS) calculation is based on the following formula as defined by FRS 3: "The profit in pence attributable to each equity share, based on the profit (or in the case of a group the consolidated profit) of the period after tax, minority interests and extraordinary items and after deducting preference dividends and other appropriations in respect of preference shares, divided by the number of equity shares in issue and ranking for dividend in respect of the period." Or in other words: Profit (or consolidated profit) for the financial year less Taxation Minority interests Extraordinary items Preference dividends divided by Number of equity shares in issue which rank for dividend. An examination of the accounts of ABC Ltd for 20x1 reveals an earnings per share of 7.65 pence i.e. 61,200 100 7.65p 800,000 Complicating factors EPS seems a simple formula to adopt but in practice this can be very much otherwise. We have listed some complications below, sufficient for your purposes. The capital structure of the company may not remain static throughout the accounting period. Dividends payable in respect of certain types of preference shares may be deducted from after-tax profits, whether or not the dividend has actually been paid. Normally, losses should be determined as if profit had been made and the result be shown as a loss per share but complications can arise when the tax charge for a particular year is reduced as a result of losses brought forward. Further, there are two methods of calculating EPS: Net basis Profit less all taxation Nil basis Profit less constant elements of taxation (i.e. the profit figure used is after the tax occurring if distributions were nil). It is called the "Nil basis" because it seeks to calculate what the earnings would be if there were no dividend. Most companies will not normally incur either of the variable tax charges, and the resultant earnings per share will therefore be the same on both bases. SSAP 3 recommends that where there is a material difference between earnings per share on the Net basis and the Nil basis, both shall be reported. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 329 In the audited accounts of listed companies, the earnings per share should be shown on the face of the profit and loss account on the net basis both for the period under review and for the corresponding previous period. The basis of calculating earnings per share should be disclosed either in the profit and loss account or in a note to the accounts. In particular the amount of the earnings and the number of equity shares used in the calculation should be shown. Where earnings per share are likely to be diluted in the future as a result of further shares issues, this information should also be shown on the face of the profit and loss account. Price : Earnings Ratio This ratio may be calculated in two ways as follows: Market price per share or Earnings per share Total market value of issued share capital Profits after Corporation tax and Preference dividend The ratio is ascertained by comparing the market price of an ordinary share with the earnings per share (after deduction of corporation tax and preference dividends). This may be expressed as so many years purchase of the profits (in other words, assuming stability of market price, an investor's capital outlay will, at the present level of earnings, be recouped after so many years, in the form of either dividends received or capital growth by virtue of retained profits). On the assumption that a person who buys a share is buying a proportion of earnings, the larger the PE ratio, the higher is the share valued by the market. In other words, the ratio indicates how many times the market price values earnings. Assuming a market value of 1.20, the price:earnings ratio of ABC Ltd is: 1.20 15.7 7.65p F. LIMITATIONS OF HISTORICAL COST REPORTING As we come to the end of the financial accounting part of this course, you have no doubt become aware of the limitations of cost reporting using the historical accounting convention. Let us now consider some of those limitations. Unrealistic fixed asset values The values of some assets, particularly land and property, generally increase substantially over the years, especially in times of high inflation. This makes comparisons between organisations using ratios such as return on capital employed very dangerous. You must ensure that you are comparing like with like. Also, it is not sensible for a company to undervalue its assets. Invalid comparisons over time Because of the changing value of money a profit of 50,000 achieved this year is not worth the same as 50,000 profit earned five years ago. Again, there is the problem of comparing like with like. Inadequate depreciation There are two reasons for this: Sufficient sums may not be provided to replace an asset which has increased in value. ABE and RRC 330 Interpretation of Accounts The annual depreciation charge may not be a true indicator of the economic value of the asset used in that year. Holding gains not disclosed Let us assume that we buy an article on 1 January for 100 and sell it on 31 March for 200. Historical cost accounting tells us that a profit of 100 has been made and we may be tempted to withdraw 100 and spend it on private needs. However, if at 31 March it costs us 150 to replace the article sold, we cannot now do it because we have only 100 left. The "true" position at 31 March when the article was sold was a holding gain of 50 and an operating profit of only 50. Gains on liabilities and losses on assets were not shown This means that we will pay creditors in money worth less than when we bought goods but, similarly, debtors will pay us in money worth less than when we sold goods. You should be able to appreciate that the effect of the above problems will lead t o an overstatement of what might be considered to be the correct profit figure. This may lead to companies being pressed by shareholders to declare higher dividends than is prudent and almost certainly will lead to higher taxation! Question for Practice In this question we extend the information about ABC Ltd. to 20x2 and 20x3. The Profit and Loss Accounts and Balance Sheets for these years are given on the next page. 1. Complete the following accounting ratios for 20x2 and 20x3: Net Profit:Sales Sales:Capital Employed Asset Turnover Ratio Current Ratio Acid Test Ratio Closing Stock:Cost of Sales per Day Debtors Ratio Creditors Ratio 2. Profit:Capital Employed Shareholders' Funds:Total Indebtedness Analyse the results produced by the ratios, comment upon any concerns you have and make recommendations on what action the company should take to improve its performance. (Use any information that you feel is appropriate from the earlier consideration of the financial statements and ratios for 20x0 and 20x1 for ABC Ltd.) Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts 331 ABC Ltd Profit and Loss Account for the years ending 31 December 20x2 and 20x3 20x2 Sales less Production cost of goods sold Administration expenses Selling and distribution expenses Net Profit less Corporation tax Proposed dividends Retained Profits 830,000 295,000 75,000 120,000 180,000 20x3 1,500,000 1,200,000 300,000 300,000 Nil 1,900,000 995,000 420,000 100,000 1,515,000 385,000 154,000 116,000 270,000 115,000 Balance Sheet as at 31 December 20x2 and 20x3 20x2 20x3 700,000 200,000 20,000 920,000 Current Assets Stock Debtors Bank 200,000 150,000 60,000 410,000 less Current Liabilities Proposed dividends Creditors 180,000 250,000 430,000 (20,000) 900,000 800,000 800,000 80,000 20,000 100,000 900,000 Fixed Assets Land and Buildings Plant and machinery Motor vehicles ABE and RRC 250,000 195,000 75,000 520,000 116,000 414,000 530,000 Net Current Assets Represented by: Share Capital Authorised: 800,000 Ordinary shares of 1 each Issued and fully paid: Ordinary shares of 1 each Reserves General reserve Profit and loss account 750,000 250,000 25,000 1,025,000 (10,000) 1,015,000 800,000 800,000 80,000 135,000 215,000 1,015,000 332 Interpretation of Accounts Review Questions Section A 1. Identify and describe two benefits that can be gained by applying accounting ratios to a set of final accounts. 2. What problems would be encountered if you only applied accounting ratios to one year's set of accounts for a company? Section B 1. Identify and explain two problems which may be encountered when applying ratios concerned with profitability. 2. Why is it important to calculate Expense Ratios? Section C 1. Identify and explain two reasons why a firm may encounter problems with its working capital resources. 2. If a company had a Current Ratio of 6:1 what conclusions could you draw about its ability to manage its working capital resources? Section D 1. Explain why a bank may be interested in a company's capital structure. 2. What are the advantages of a high proportion of ordinary share capital as opposed to fixed interest capital? Section E 1. What information about a company's performance does the Earnings per Share Ratio provide to a potential investor? Section F 1. Identify and explain two limitations of historical cost reporting. ABE and RRC Interpretation of Accounts ANSWERS TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE 1. Accounting ratios 20x0 20x1 20x2 20x3 Net Profit:Capital Employed 15.00% 11.33% 300,000 = 33.33% 900,000 385,000 = 38.00% 1,025,000 8.50% 300,000 = 20.00% 1,500,000 385,000 = 20.26% 1,900,000 1,500,000 = 1.67 times 900,000 1,900,000 = 1.87 times 1,015,000 1.40 times 1,500,000 = 1.63 times 920,000 1,900,000 = 1.85 times 1,025,000 1.25:1 times 410,000 = 0.95:1 times 430,000 520,000 = 0.98:1 times 530,000 0.5:1 times 210,000 = 0.5:1 times 430,000 270,000 = 0.5:1 times 530,000 Net Profit:Sales 10.00% Sales:Capital Employed 1.50 times 1.33 times Asset Turnover Ratio 1.80 times Current Ratio 2:1 times Acid Test Ratio 1:1 times Closing Stock:Cost of Sales per Day = 92 days 150,000 (1,500,000 /365 days) 195,000 (1,900,000 /365 days) = 37 days = 37 days 250,000 (830,000/3 65 days) 414,000 (995,000/3 65 days) = 110 days 67 days 250,000 (995,000/3 65 days) = 88 days 58 days 200,000 (830,000/3 65 days) = 151 days Debtors Ratio 20 days 29 days Creditors Ratio 27 days 62 days Shareholders' Funds:Total Indebtedness 900,000 = 68% 86% 82% 1,320,000 ABE and RRC 1,015,000 = 66% 1,545,000 333 334 Interpretation of Accounts 2. Note that the answer here is very detailed. You would not be expected to pick up on all of the points that follow, but you would be expected to have identified the key elements. The more detailed information gives you a flavour of what can be gleaned from analysis of both the financial statements and the accompanying ratios. Over the course of the 4 year period (20x0 20x3), ABC Ltd has invested heavily in new fixed assets. In this time sales have increased from 900,000 to 1,900,000. In 20x0 and 20x1, the Net Profit:Capital Employed ratio was disappointing. However, in 20x2 and 20x3 it rose dramatically to 33.33% and 38% respectively. This indicates that the company is making an excellent return on its investment in new fixed assets. Also in the last two years the net profit margin has risen significantly. This in part could be because the company is now in a position to negotiate bigger trade discounts from suppliers because they now purchase more items for resale. In 20x2 and 20x3 the Sales:Capital Employed and Asset Turnover Ratios have also improved. This means that the company has become more effective at managing its assets and resources to generate higher sales and profits. Whilst the company has performed well in the aforementioned areas, its lack of liquidity is a major area for co concern. In the last two years, the Current Ratio is less than 1:1. This is very alarming. The Acid Test Ratio has been 0.5:1 for the last three years. The firm needs to generate more cash resources immediately, as an unforeseen calamity could force it out of business. Part of the problem has been caused by rising stock levels. In 20x3, the company is taking 92 days to turn its stock over. This needs to be reduced. The Debtors Ratio has risen to 37 days. In 20x0, it only took ABC Ltd 20 days to convert its debtors into cash. This indicates that part of the company's large increase in sales could have been fuelled by offering customers more favourable credit terms. The Debtors Ratio needs to be reduced to 30 days. This will turn its debtors into cash at a faster rate. Also the company should consider giving customers large trade discounts for cash sales. This will reduce overall profitability but will substantially improve its cash flow. The major area for concern is the Creditors Ratio. It rose to 110 days in 20x2 and 151 days in 20x3. This would seem to indicate that ABC may have engaged in some form of short-term borrowing to finance the purchase of additional fixed assets, since no additional shares have been issued nor has the company taken out a bank loan. This change is reflected in the Shareholders' Funds:Total Indebtedness Ratio. ABC needs to reduce its Creditors Ratio. This can be achieved by increasing its stock turnover rate, which will reduce the amount of stock the company holds and will give it more cash. Alternatively, if the company can maintain its current sales growth and net profit margin, it should consider not paying a dividend to its shareholders instead, it should use this money to pay off its creditors. ABC could also consider a share issue in order to raise 100,000 or taking out a bank loan for approximately the same amount, and using this money to reduce its short-term creditors. ABE and RRC 335 Study Unit 17 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting Contents Page A. The Nature of Management Accounting Purpose of Cost Accounting Objectives of a Cost Accounting System Cost Accounting Compared with Financial Accounting 336 336 336 337 B. Elements of Cost Direct and Indirect Costs Fixed and Variable Costs 338 338 340 C. The Costing Process Basic Costing Methods Cost Centres and Cost Units Structure of Costs Reason for Analysis 340 340 341 342 344 D. Costing Principles and Techniques 344 E. Cost Behaviour Patterns Fixed Cost Variable Cost Semi-Variable (or Semi-Fixed) Cost 345 345 346 347 Case Study C: Reducing the Costs of High Street Banking ABE and RRC 348 336 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting A. THE NATURE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants has given the following definitions: Management accounting is: "The provision of information required by management for such purpose as: 1. Formulation of policies, 2. Planning and controlling the activities of the enterprise, 3. Decision-taking on alternative courses of action, 4. Disclosure to those external to the entity (shareholders and others), 5. Disclosure to employees, 6. Safeguarding assets. The above involves participation in management to ensure that there is effective: (a) (b) formulation of short term operation plans (budgeting/profit planning), (c) recording of actual transactions (financial accounting and cost accounting), (d) corrective action to bring future actual transactions into line (financial control), (e) obtaining and controlling finance (treasureship), (f) formulation of plans to meet objectives (long term planning), reviewing and reporting on systems and operations (internal audit, management audit)." Cost accounting is: "That part of management accounting which establishes budgets and standard costs and actual costs of operations, processes, departments or products and the analysis of variances, profitability or social use of funds." Note that the use of the term costing is not recommended by the CIMA. Purpose of Cost Accounting When cost accounting was first used, its main purpose was to provide additional information concerning the financial accounts of an organisation. For many firms this is still its main purpose, and this usually implies historical cost accounting and the production of regular detailed statements and statistics. A more modern concept of cost accounting is that its purpose is to assist management by providing control information. This usually demands more from the cost and management accountant. He or she will still produce statistical statements but comparisons will be made with budgets and standards. The exception system of reporting advising management only where action is required will probably be used. Objectives of a Cost Accounting System Every organisation should have its own tailor-made cost accounting system and each system will have its own objectives. Indeed, different organisations will use cost accounting for different purposes. Nevertheless, every system will involve some of the objectives listed below. ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 337 Cost control This will be assisted by the following processes: (a) (b) Comparing the costs with budget, standard or past performance figures to indicate the degree of efficiency attained. (c) Analysing the variances from budget or standard figures in order to highlight inefficiency and waste and to identify the person or department responsible, so that prompt, constructive action may be taken. (d) Disclosing to what extent production facilities are used and indicating the amount and cost of idle and waiting time. (e) Ascertaining the cost of each product (or service), process and department. Costs must be ascertained in phase with manufacturing activity, enabling remedial action to be taken quickly when it is required. Presenting the information suitably to management, in such a form as to provide a guide in taking any action. Advice to management in the formulation of policy This will include: (a) Production of short-period profit and loss accounts; (b) Provision of information to assist in the regulation of production and the systematic control of the organisation; (c) Provision of special investigations and reports, e.g. (i) (ii) Whether to make a part or to sub-contract, or The advisability of installing new machinery. Advice on the effects of management policy This will be disclosed through reports (both regular reports and those following special investigations). Estimating and price setting Figures will be provided from standards or past results as the basis of future estimates. Cost is an important factor in price setting, but it is not the only one; demand and competitive activity are also crucial. Therefore, a firm's profitability may depend largely on its ability to control costs in ways described above. Cost Accounting Compared with Financial Accounting You are already familiar with the end products of financial accounting, namely the balance sheet and the profit and loss account. These are valuable documents for management, the first giving the position of a company or firm at a specific time, the second showing the results of the company's operations over a specific period of time. The books of accounts from which the profit and loss account and balance sheet are derived are also of value since they provide a record of every transaction. Despite the value of the financial accounts, it was their inadequacy which gave rise to the introduction of cost accounting and the development of cost accounting techniques. The financial accounts show primarily external transactions (sales, purchases, borrowing, etc.) and show the profit for the organisation as a whole. Management requires detailed knowledge of the cost of each product or unit, of each department or process, to show how the profit was built up and the relative profitability of each section of the business. Cost accounting has now become an essential factor of every business. ABE and RRC 338 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting It is of interest that in recent years "integrated accounts" have grown in popularity. Integrated accounts combine the financial and cost accounts into one set of books. We seem to have come full circle, from the separation of the financial and cost accounts, through the development of cost accounting, to the joining together of the two systems into one integral system. Of course, in many businesses, increasing computerisation has assisted this development. B. ELEMENTS OF COST The expenditure we consider in cost accounting is, of course, the same expenditure (subject to certain considerations which will be mentioned) as that which is dealt with in the financial accounts. It is merely that we are looking at it in a different way. Whereas the financial accounts are normally concerned only with the nature of the expense, e.g. whether it is wages, lighting and heating, etc., the cost accounts are concerned with the purpose of the expense, e.g. whether the wages are in respect of, say, manufacturing or distribution, and if manufacturing, whether they are in respect of labour directly or indirectly concerned with the product, and so on. All expenditure can be classified into three main groups labour, materials and expenses. The costs incurred under these headings can be further sub-divided in two important ways: direct and indirect costs items which can or cannot be directly applicable to a product; and fixed and variable costs according to whether or not the level of cost varies with the level of output. You need to be clear about these distinctions. Direct and Indirect Costs Direct costs cover any expense that can be wholly associated with a particular product or service. The total of such direct costs direct materials, direct labour and direct expenses is known as prime cost. The total of indirect materials, indirect labour and indirect expenses is called overhead. Direct labour cost This is defined as: "The cost of remuneration for employees' efforts and skills applied directly to a product or saleable service and which can be identified separately in product cost." Examples of direct labour, as defined above, would include the costs of employing bricklayers, machine operators, bakers, miners, bus drivers. There is no doubt as to where you would charge these labour costs. Doubt would arise, however, with a truck driver's wage in a factory. His wage cannot be charged direct to any product, as he is helping many departments and operators. Therefore, his wage would have to be classified as indirect. In a few exceptional circumstances it may be established that the truck driver is employed only to transport materials for the manufacture of one product. If this were the case, his wage could be charged direct to the product, and he would be as much a direct worker as the operator who is using the materials. The cost of any idle time of the productive workers is not a direct labour cost. ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 339 Direct materials cost These are materials: "entering into and becoming constituent elements of a product or saleable service and which can be identified separately in product cost." The following materials fall within this definition: All materials specially purchased for a particular job, order or process. All materials requisitioned from the stores for particular production orders. Components or parts produced or purchased and requisitioned from the finished goods store. Material passed from one operation to another. Thus, the metal used to make a car is a direct material, but the oil used to lubricate the production machinery is an indirect material (part of the manufacturing overheads). Cost of carriage inwards is usually added to material cost. Direct expenses These are costs, other than materials or labour, which are incurred for a specific product or saleable service. Direct expenses are not encountered as often as direct materials or labour costs. An example would be electric power to a machine, provided that the power is metered and the exact consumption by the machine is known. We can then charge the cost of power direct to the job. More often, however, we will know only the electricity bill for the whole factory, so this will be an indirect expense. Other examples of direct expenses include: the line of special tools for one particular production order the cost of special designs royalties payable. Overhead Overhead is the total cost of indirect labour, indirect materials and indirect expenses. Examples of indirect materials include oils, cotton waste and grease. Examples of indirect labour include the costs of employing maintenance workers, oilers, cleaners and supervisors. Examples of indirect expenses include lighting, rent and depreciation. Overheads may be divided into four main groups: works or factory expense; administration expense; selling expense; distribution expense. ABE and RRC 340 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting Fixed and Variable Costs There is a further subdivision of costs which we may briefly note here (and about which we will say more later), and that is between fixed costs and variable costs: fixed costs are those which remain constant (in total) over a wide range of output levels; variable costs are those which vary (in total) more or less according to the level of output. Examples of fixed costs include rent, rates, insurance, depreciation of buildings and management salaries. Examples of variable costs include raw materials, commission on sales, piece-work earnings. This division is of great significance, and we shall be dealing with it later. Observe, now, that by its very nature "prime cost" consists of variable items only, while the various overhead categories may contain some of each kind. C. THE COSTING PROCESS Basic Costing Methods The basic costing method employed by an organisation must be devised to suit the methods by which goods are manufactured or services are provided. The choice is between specific order costing, service/function costing and continuous operation/ process costing. Specific order costing This costing method is applicable where the work consists of separate contracts, jobs or batches, each of which is authorised by a special order or contract. The subdivisions of specific order costing are: (a) Job costing This applies where work is undertaken to a customer's special requirements. Each "job" is of comparatively short duration. Throughout the manufacturing process, each job is distinct from all other jobs. Examples of industries using job costing are: building maintenance, certain types of engineering (e.g. manufacture of special purpose machines) and printing. (b) Batch costing This is a form of specific order costing which applies where similar articles are manufactured in batches, either for sale, or for use within the undertaking. In most cases the costing is similar to job costing. (c) Contract costing This applies when work of long duration is undertaken to customers' special requirements, e.g. builders, civil engineers, etc. In job costing, costs of each job (or batch) can be separately identified. Continuous operation/process costing This is the basic costing method applicable where goods or services are produced by a sequence of continuous or repetitive operations or processes to which costs are charged before being averaged over the units produced during the period. This procedure is widely used, for example, in the chemicals industry. ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 341 Service/function costing This is the method used for specific services or functions, e.g. canteens, maintenance and personnel. These may be referred to as service centres, departments or functions. We shall examine some of these methods in detail in a later unit. Cost Centres and Cost Units A cost centre is any unit within the organisation to which costs can be allocated. It is defined by CIMA as: "a location, function or items of equipment in respect of which costs may be ascertained and related to cost units for control purposes". It could be in the form of a whole department or an individual, depending on the preferences of the organisation involved, the ease of allocation of costs and the extent to which responsibility for costs is decentralised. Thus an organisation which prefers to make senior management alone responsible will probably have very few centres to which costs are allocated. On the other hand, firms which allocate responsibility further down the hierarchical ladder are likely to have many more cost centres. If we were to take as an example a small engineering firm, it may be the case that it is organised so that each machine is a cost centre. It may also be the case, of course, that it is not always beneficial to have too many cost centres. This is partly because of the administrative time involved in keeping records, allocating costs, investigating variances and so on, but also because an operative of a single machine, for instance, may have no control over the costs of that machine in terms of power, raw materials, etc., along with any apportioned cost. This brings us to another point, which is the distinction between the direct costs of the centre and those which are apportioned from elsewhere (e.g. general overheads). Although it is important to allocate out as much cost as possible, it must also be remembered that the cost centre has no control over the apportioned cost. This is important when considering who is responsible for the costs incurred. An important part of any costing system is the ability to apply costs to cost units. The CIMA Official Terminology describes cost units as: "A quantitative unit of product or service in relation to which costs are ascertained". Thus, a cost unit in a hospital might be an operation or the cost of a patient per night. Generally, such terms are not mutually exclusive, although it is of course better to take a consistent approach to aid comparison. Once the cost system to be used by the particular organisation has been identified, costs can be coded to it (we shall look at cost codes in more detail shortly) and its total cost built up. This figure can then be compared with what was expected or what happened last year or last month and appropriate decisions taken if action is required. The point is that the organisation is able to identify the lowest item in the system that incurs cost, which can then be built up into the total cost for a cost centre by adding all the costs of the cost units together. Different organisations will use different cost units; in each case it will be the most relevant to the way they operate. Here are a few examples: Railways cost per tonne mile. Airlines cost per flight/cost per passenger. ABE and RRC 342 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting Manufacturing cost per batch/cost per contract. Oil extraction cost per 1,000 barrels. Textile manufacture cost per garment. Football clubs cost per match. Car manufacture cost per vehicle. Structure of Costs Total cost is built up of constituent elements as set out in Figure 17.1. Figure 17.1: Structure of costs Direct Materials Direct Labour Direct Expenses Prime Cost Manufacturing Overheads Production Cost Administration, Selling, and Distribution Overheads Total Cost ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 343 Example 1 Confectionery industry The cost of production of most commodities is made up mainly of the cost of the raw materials of which they are manufactured and the cost of labour which is employed making them, i.e. wages. The following is the breakdown of the costs involved. Direct Materials Consumed Flour Opening stock Purchases 2,080 5,720 7,800 less Closing stock Part-finished goods Gelatine Opening stock Purchases 990 300 less Closing stock Part-finished goods Sugar and other materials Opening stock Purchases 55 60 less Closing stock Part-finished goods Cost Of Raw Materials Used Direct Labour Direct Expense Prime Cost Factory Overhead Factory Cost (Cost Of Production) 1,290 6,510 1,720 3,180 4,900 115 4,785 5,040 10,920 15,960 4,985 360 5,345 10,615 21,910 3,720 25,630 6,650 32,280 To this total of factory cost will be added administration, selling and distribution expenses, to arrive at a figure of total cost, to which will be added profit to give the selling price. (This method of costing is known as Absorption Costing see later.) Example 2 Photographic industry Let us now consider a business which manufactures cameras, where the amount of labour involved in manufacture is small compared with the amount of precision machinery which is necessary for the manufacture of efficient apparatus. In such an industry, costs arising from the depreciation and obsolescence of machinery may be of much greater importance compared with the cost of materials and labour than they were in the case of the confectionery manufacturing company. These charges which are related only indirectly to output are said to constitute indirect expenditure, as against materials and labour and other similar items which constitute direct expenditure. ABE and RRC 344 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting In addition to depreciation, all the charges incurred in the general offices (such as salaries of managers, rent and rates) together with the expenses involved in marketing the product (such as advertising and carriage) must be included in the indirect expenses. You will appreciate, therefore, that in order to give a reflection of the cost of production for each unit of output, accounts must be prepared to show the allocation of these indirect expenses as well as the direct expenses (provided it is intended to follow absorption costing methods rather than marginal costing see later). Reason for Analysis We have analysed expenses: as direct or indirect cost, under the headings "material", "labour", "expenses". by function, i.e. factory, administration, selling and distribution. The treatment of costs and their classification as direct or indirect is important as it has a bearing on the accuracy of the final result. The more items which can be charged direct to a cost centre or cost unit, the smaller the number of remaining items whose costs must be apportioned. Apportioning costs is a subjective process so the result can never be completely accurate. Nevertheless, all businesses will have examples of direct costs which are treated as indirect. This is done because it is more practical, or because it would cost more than the article is worth to segregate the cost and charge direct. For instance, in the clothing industry, cotton thread is treated as an indirect material even though it is part of the finished product, because it would be far too costly to measure the amount which has been used on each garment. D. COSTING PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES Whichever costing method is in use (a choice which will be largely dictated by the production method), there is a choice of principles and techniques which may be adopted in presenting information to management. The main ones with which we shall be concerned here are outlined below and we will study them in detail later. Absorption costing This principle involves all costs, including the costs of selling and administration, being allotted to cost units. Total overheads are "absorbed", via the method thought most appropriate. Marginal costing This is a principle whereby variable costs only are charged to cost units, and the fixed cost attributable to the relevant period is written off in full against the "contribution" for that period, contribution being the difference between total sales value and total variable costs. At this stage therefore, remember when using marginal costing, do not attempt to apportion fixed costs to individual cost units. Variance accounting This is a technique whereby the planned activities of an undertaking are quantified in budgets, standard costs, standard selling prices and standard profit margins. These are then compared with the actual results, and note is taken of the differences, i.e. the "variances", for subsequent examination. ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 345 E. COST BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS As we saw earlier in this study unit, costs can be divided either into direct and indirect costs, or variable and fixed costs. Direct costs are variable, that is the total cost varies in direct proportion to output. If, for instance, it requires 10 worth of material to make one item it will require 20 worth to make two items and 100 worth to make ten items and so on. Overhead costs, however, may be either fixed, variable or semi-variable. Fixed Cost A fixed cost is one which can vary with the passage of time but, within limits, tends to remain fixed irrespective of the variations in the level of output. All fixed costs are overhead. Examples of fixed overhead are: executive salaries, rent, rates and depreciation. A graph showing the relationship of total fixed cost to output appears in Figure 17.2. Figure 17.2: Fixed costs Formatted Cost Fixed cost Output Note the words "within limits" in the above description of fixed costs. Sometimes this is referred to as the "relevant range", that is the range of activity level within which fixed costs (and variable costs) behave in a linear fashion. Suppose an organisation rents a factory. The yearly rent is the same no matter what the output of the factory is. If business expands sufficiently, however, it may be that a second factory is required and a large increase in rent will follow. Fixed costs would then be as in Figure 17.3. ABE and RRC Formatted 346 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting Figure 17.3: Change in fixed costs Formatted Cost Fixed cost Including two rents Including one rent Formatted Output A cost with this type of graph is known as a step function cost for obvious reasons. Variable Cost This is a cost which tends to follow (in the short term) the level of activity in a business. As already stated, direct costs are by their nature variable. Examples of variable overhead are: repairs and maintenance of machinery; electric power used in the factory; consumable stores used in the factory. The graph of a variable cost is shown in Figure 17.4. Figure 17.4: Variable costs Formatted Cost Variable cost Output ABE and RRC Formatted Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 347 Semi-Variable (or Semi-Fixed) Cost This is a cost containing both fixed and variable elements, and which is thus partly affected by fluctuations in the level of activity. For examination purposes, semi-variable costs usually have to be separated into their fixed and variable components. This can be done if data is given for two different levels of output. Consider the following example: At output 2,000 units, costs are 12,000. At output 3,000 units, costs are 17,000. Therefore for an extra 1,000 units of output, an extra 5,000 costs have been incurred. This is entirely a variable cost, so the variable component of cost is 5 per unit. Therefore at the 2,000 units level, the total variable cost will be 10,000. Since the total cost at this level is 12,000, the fixed component must be 2,000. You can check that a fixed component of 2,000 and a variable component of 5 per unit gives the right total cost for 3,000 units. An example of a semi-variable cost is the cost of a telephone, where there is a fixed rental charge and then a charge of so much per unit. The graph is shown in Figure 17.5. Figure 17.5: Semi-Variable (or Semi-Fixed) Cost Formatted Cost Variable element Fixed element Output The amount per unit of the variable element of the cost is equal to the slope of the line. ABE and RRC Formatted 348 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting CASE STUDY C: REDUCING THE COSTS OF HIGH STREET BANKING For high street banks and building societies, opening new branches used to be an integral part of their strategy to expand their customer base and gain a higher profile in new locations throughout the UK. Since the late 1980s, this strategy has been turned on its head. The Thatcher government in the 1980s deregulated the financial services industry and removed the barriers to competition. After the Second World War, there were over 2,000 building societies. There had always been mergers and takeovers, and this process gained momentum with the deregulation of the financial services markets. Famous names such as the Halifax and Abbey National Building Societies sought to become more competitive through the process of "demutualisation" and conversion into high street banks. This allowed them to offer a wider range of services and compete more effectively with the traditional banks such as Barclays, Lloyds, etc. The concepts of management accounting were originally developed and applied to manufacturing environments. However, they are as equally applicable to service industries. When markets become more competitive, opportunities to generate a higher level of sales may become very limited. In such situations business organisations must look inwards and examine how their cost structures can be radically reduced. When two companies merge, this provides the opportunity to reduce overheads for example, only one head office will be needed, and the other one can be sold off. The rapid development of technology over the last 20 years has allowed the providers of financial services to create on-line banking and a new range of financial services. This "automation" of financial services means that services once provided by people can be replaced with technology. In 1987, there were 14,000 bank outlets in the UK. Today, this figure has been reduced to less than 7,000 and shows little sign of abatement. For example, in the mid-1990s, Barclays had 2,000 branches, but then started closing branches and in 2000, this cost-cutting programme had been stepped up to the extent that 200 branches were closed in that one year. This means that costs such as property maintenance, insurance and security were dramatically reduced. Also, since the mid-1990s, the number of people who have access to on-line banking facilities has increased dramatically in the late 1990s, Barclays had 400,000 on-line customers and this figure was growing at a rate of 5,000 new customers per week. All major financial service providers have followed a strategy similar to the one pursued by Barclays. Lowering costs provides the opportunity to become more competitive in the market. This can be achieved by offering a cheaper price than anyone else, or it can be obtained by providing customers with an enhanced product/service offering which commands a premium price. ABE and RRC Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting 349 Review Questions Section A 1. Provide two objectives of a cost accounting system. 2. Identify and describe two major differences between cost and financial accounting. Section B 1. What is the difference between direct and indirect costs? 2. Rozita own and runs a small hotel can you identify two direct material costs she will have to pay for? Section C 1. What is the difference between job and batch costing? 2. Identify two industries which use process costing. Section D 1. What is the major difference between absorption and marginal costing? Section E 1. What is the long-term relationship between fixed costs and the level of output? 2. Identify and describe two types of semi-variable costs. Case Study C 1, Think about an organisation with which you are familiar. Describe how management accounting techniques could enable this organisation to review its cost structure and achieve significant savings in the long-term. ABE and RRC 350 Introduction to Costs and Management Accounting ABE and RRC 351 Study Unit 18 Overheads and Absorption Costing Contents Page A. Overheads Classification of Overheads 352 352 B. Cost Allocation and Apportionment Methods of Cost Apportionment 353 353 C. Absorption Cost Accounting Common Methods of Overhead Absorption Example 1 358 358 359 D. Treatment of Administration Overheads 362 E. Treatment of Selling and Distribution Overheads Variable Elements Fixed Elements 362 362 362 F. Activity Based Costing (ABC) ABC and Cost Drivers Absorption Costing v. Activity Based Costing 363 363 363 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 366 352 Overheads and Absorption Costing A. OVERHEADS Overhead is defined as: The total cost of indirect materials, indirect labour and indirect expenses. This means those items of material, labour or expense which, because of their general nature, cannot be charged direct to a particular job or process but have to be spread in some way over the various jobs or processes. Classification of Overheads There are three main classes of overheads, i.e. production, administration, and selling and distribution. These are associated with the three main functions of the business organisation and we should, as a first step, attempt to classify overhead expenditure into the appropriate categories. There are certain items of cost which appertain to all three, such as electricity, rent and rates, and it will be necessary to apportion these costs between the main categories. (a) Production overheads Before any business can start producing goods, it must have a building, which must have heat, light and ventilation and be provided with steam or electricity to operate the machines. The building must be kept clean and will need repair and redecoration from time to time. In addition, rent and rates will have to be paid. The products will have to be designed and production must be planned, supervised and checked. Records have to be kept, wages calculated, some form of stores must be operated and materials must be conveyed from point to point within the building. These functions, and others, are not directly concerned with actual production, but are nonetheless essential and may be looked upon as services to the actual job of production. It is the cost of providing these services which constitutes the production overheads. Such overheads include: Insurance and depreciation of plant and machinery and factory buildings Salaries of the chief technical officials Repairs and maintenance of plant and machinery Lubrication of machinery Consumable stores used in the factory Holidays, paid sick leave and idle time of factory employees Factory heating and lighting (b) Rent and rates of buildings and land Internal transport expenses Selling and distribution overheads The dividing line between production overheads and selling and distribution overheads comes when the finished goods are delivered to the finished goods store. Examples of selling and distribution overheads include: Salesmen's salaries, expenses and commission Sampling Advertising Carriage outwards ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing Warehouse charges (c) Van drivers' wages 353 Depreciation of delivery vans Administration overheads Examples include: Office salaries Office heating and lighting Office repairs Depreciation of office machinery Postage Stationery Share of rates (for the office area) B. COST ALLOCATION AND APPORTIONMENT The definitions of cost allocation and cost apportionment are as follows: Cost allocation This is the charging of discrete, identifiable items of cost to cost centres or cost units. For example, repairs to the building housing the raw materials store could be allocated directly to the stores department cost centre. Cost apportionment This is the division of costs amongst two or more cost centres in proportion to the estimated benefit received, using a proxy, e.g. square feet. Those items which cannot be allocated must be apportioned. As the definition implies, there is no single correct way to apportion costs. We have to use the most logical basis possible with the data at our disposal. Methods of Cost Apportionment The following are among the methods of cost apportionment found in practice: (a) Capital value of cost centre Where cost is increased by reference to the capital value of the cost centre, it should be apportioned in the same way, e.g. fire insurance premium charged by reference to capital value. (b) Cost centre labour cost Where the cost depends on the extent of labour cost of the centre, such as in the case of employers' liability insurance premiums, this should also form the basis for the apportionment of the premium paid. (c) Cost centre area Where cost depends on the floor area it should be apportioned in the same way, e.g. rent and rates. ABE and RRC 354 Overheads and Absorption Costing (d) Cost centre cubic capacity Where cost is incurred in relation to cubic capacity it should be spread back on this basis, e.g. heating. (e) Number of employees at cost centre The cost of providing a canteen service is generally proportional to the numbers employed, so it is reasonable to apportion it by reference to the numbers employed at each cost centre. (f) Technical estimate The chief engineer of a factory is in a position to estimate how certain expenses should be apportioned between the various cost centres of the factory. Examples of this type of expense are: Light The wattage used in each department can be calculated and the cost of lighting apportioned to each cost centre accordingly. Power The horse-power of machines in each cost centre can be established and the cost of power apportioned on this basis. (g) Proportionate to materials issued The expenses of operating the stores department, and "normal" stores losses, may be apportioned by this method, measuring materials by value, weight or volume, as appropriate. (h) Proportionate to production hours There are many items of expenditure which can be apportioned on this basis, although the figures are usually available only where a fairly comprehensive cost accounting system is in operation. Either labour-hours or machine-hours may be used. Items which may be apportioned on this basis are: Overtime wages (where not allocated direct) Machine maintenance (where not chargeable direct) ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 355 Example 1 A company has two production departments, X and Y, and three service departments Stores, Maintenance and Production Control. The data to be used in apportioning costs is shown in Table 18.1. Table 18.1 Stores Areas in sq m Main- Production tenance control X Y Total 300 400 100 3,000 4,200 8,000 No. of employees 4 12 30 200 300 546 Value of equipment (000s) 8 20 12 40 Electricity (000 units) 20 320 210 550 No. of extraction points 1 2 14 23 40 Indirect material cost () 11 25 44 31 63 174 287 671 1,660 1,040 1,805 5,463 117 245 518 880 Indirect labour cost () Maintenance hours Table 18.2 shows an estimate of the overhead appropriate to each department or cost centre. Table 18.2 Item Basis of Apportionment Total Cost Stores Main- Product'n tenance Control 000 000 000 X Y 000 000 000 Rent Area 800 30 40 10 300 420 Indirect material Allocation 174 11 25 44 31 63 Indirect labour Allocation 5,463 287 671 1,660 1,040 1,805 Factory administration No of employees 2,184 16 48 120 800 1,200 Machine depreciation Value 440 88 220 132 Power Electricity 550 20 320 210 Heat and light Area 80 3 4 1 30 42 Machine insurance Value 40 8 20 12 Fumes extraction plant No. of extraction points 120 3 6 42 69 9,851 350 910 1,835 2,803 3,953 Total ABE and RRC 356 Overheads and Absorption Costing However, we really need to express all overhead costs as being appropriate to one or other of the two production departments, so that we can include in the price of our products an element to cover overhead for it is only in this way that costs incurred will be recovered. Although costs have been incurred by the service departments, they have really in the end been incurred for the production departments. The next step is therefore to re-apportion the costs of the service departments. The methods employed are similar to those used in the original apportionment. Table 18.3 shows the apportionment using the following additional data: (a) The total number of material requisitions was 1,750, of which 175 were for maintenance department, 1,000 for Dept X and 575 for Dept Y. This data will be used to apportion the costs of the stores department to these three departments. (b) Maintenance costs will be apportioned on the basis of hours worked for each department, already given. (c) Production control costs will be apportioned between Departments X and Y according to the number of employees in those departments (already given). Note that, when a department's costs are re-apportioned, the cost is credited to that department. Having completed the re-apportionment, you will see from Table 17.3 that the total of overhead now attributed to Departments X and Y is equal to the original total of overhead. This is something you should always check. Table 18.3 Item Basis of Apportionment Stores 000 Costs b/f from previous table 000 X Y 000 000 000 350 Stores Dept: costs re-apportioned No of requisitions Maintenance Dept: costs re-apportioned Production Control: costs re-apportioned No of employees 910 1,835 2,803 3,953 350 35 200 115 945 126 263 556 1,961 784 1,177 4,050 5,801 No of hours Totals Main- Production tenance Control In this example, some of the stores department's cost was incurred on behalf of the maintenance department, but not the other way round. When service departments serve each other as well as the production departments (sometimes called reciprocal services), we must use repeated distribution to apportion their costs to the production cost centres. An example follows: ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 357 Example 2 A manufacturing company has two production departments (Machining and Assembly) and two service departments (Tooling and Maintenance). The expenses of the service departments are dealt with as follows: Tooling: 70% to Machining 20% to Assembly 10% to Maintenance Maintenance: 50% to Machining 30% to Assembly 20% to Tooling Overhead incurred during the month was: Machining Assembly Tooling Maintenance Indirect material 4,600 5,200 1,800 600 Indirect labour 6,100 1,200 2,700 1,600 Miscellaneous 700 900 500 300 We are required to apportion all costs to the production departments. The first stage is to find the total of all the costs incurred. We can then apportion the costs of each service department in turn until our objective is achieved. Machining Assembly 11,400 Total 7,300 Maintenance Tooling 5,000 2,500 Redistribution of service department costs: From: Tooling Maintenance Tooling Maintenance Tooling Total ABE and RRC 3,500 1,000 5,000 500 1,500 900 600 3,000 420 120 600 60 30 18 12 60 9 3 12 16,859 9,341 358 Overheads and Absorption Costing C. ABSORPTION COST ACCOUNTING Absorption cost accounting is the process of apportioning overheads to the products produced or the services provided, i.e. the whole costs of the organisation will now be absorbed into the final (or total) cost of the product. Absorption cost accounting is the oldest system of cost accounting in operation. In order for costs to be absorbed as production takes place or services are provided, two estimates must be made: An estimate of overhead for the period; and An estimate of the basis of apportionment chosen. A predetermined overhead rate (of absorption) can then be calculated. This will become clearer as we now look at the most common methods of overhead absorption found in practice. Common Methods of Overhead Absorption It is not possible to generalise and claim one of these methods to be the best. In broad terms, however, the first and second methods are usually preferable, since most overhead costs are time-based. For example, rates, rent, salaries and depreciation occur with the passing of time. Rate per labour-hour This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period Direct labour-hour rate Estimated number of direct labour hours in period If labour is a predominant factor in the production process, this method is preferable. Rate per machine-hour This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period Machine-hour rate Estimated number of machine hours in period If machinery is a predominant factor in the production process, this method is preferable. Percentage of direct material cost This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period 100 Material percentage rate Estimated direct materials to be used in period This method is normally unsuitable because overhead seldom varies in proportion to direct materials. ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 359 Percentage of direct labour cost This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period 100 Direct labour cost percentage rate Estimated direct labour cost for period This method may be reasonable when one factory-wide wage rate applies. It will not be suitable when wage rates differ from department to department. Percentage of prime cost This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period 100 Prime cost percentage rate Estimated prime cost for period This method is a combination of the two methods above, so it shares the weaknesses of both. Rate per unit produced This rate of absorption is given by the following formula: Estimated overhead for period Rate per unit Estimated number of units to be produced in period This method is only suitable where all the products being manufactured are of similar or equal value. Example 1 The budgeted production overheads and other budgeted data of Felling Limited for the year commencing 1 November are as follows: Budgeted Production Department 1 Direct materials cost 64,000 Direct labour cost 80,000 Machine-hours 20,000 Direct labour-hours Production Department 2 28,000 Units of production Overhead cost 1,000 50,000 15,000 What five methods could be used by Department 1 and one method used by Department 2 to absorb the overhead costs? Calculate the overhead absorption rates, using the methods identified and explain which method or methods are the most appropriate. ABE and RRC 360 Overheads and Absorption Costing Answer For Department 1, total production cost is made up as follows: 64,000 80,000 Direct materials Direct labour Prime cost Overheads 144,000 50,000 Total production cost 194,000 Possible absorption methods are: (a) % of direct materials 50,000 64,000 78.1% (b) % of direct labour 50,000 80,000 62.5% (c) % of prime cost 50,000 34.7% 144,000 (d) Direct labour-hour rate 50,000 28,000 1.79 per hour (e) Machine-hour rate 50,000 20,000 2.50 per hour Overheads are incurred on a time basis and therefore should be recovered on a time basis. The most appropriate rates are, then, machine-hour and labour-hour rates. For Department 2, there is only one possibility from the information available unit of production: Unit of production 15,000 = 15 per unit 1,000 Example 2 The Excel Company has a small factory with three departments machine shop, assembly shop and canteen. The budgeted overhead costs for a 12-month period are: Rent and business rates 120,000 Heat and light 60,000 Repairs to plant and machinery 60,000 Depreciation of plant and machinery 30,000 Stock fire insurance premium 5,000 Indirect material 25,000 Indirect wages 29,600 ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 361 The following additional information is available: Machine Shop Area square metres Assembly Canteen 1,500 1,000 500 25 10 6,000 7,600 16,000 10,000 15,000 Value of plant 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 Value of stock 75,000 75,000 No. of employees Indirect wages Indirect materials The budgeted direct labour wage rates are as follows: Machine shop 4 per hour Assembly shop 3 per hour The budgeted total machine-hours for the machine shop for next year is 38,900 hours. The budgeted total direct labour-hours for the assembly shop for next year is 16,900 hours. Required: (a) Prepare the budget overhead analysis sheet. (b) Calculate the budgeted overhead absorption rate for the machine shop and the assembly shop. (c) A product takes 4 hours in the machine shop (on this job it is one person per machine) using 50 of direct material and a further 2 hours in the assembly shop using another 15 of direct material. Calculate the total production cost, clearly showing the breakdown of your figure. Register to View Answer Overhead Analysis Sheet Expense Rent & bus. rates Heat and light Repairs to P & M Dep'n of P & M Stock insurance Indirect material Indirect wages ABE and RRC Department Total Machine Shop Assembly Shop Canteen 60,000 30,000 24,000 12,000 2,500 10,000 6,000 144,500 50,000 194,500 40,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 2,500 15,000 7,600 115,100 20,000 135,100 20,000 10,000 16,000 8,000 16,000 70,000 (70,000) 120,000 60,000 60,000 30,000 5,000 25,000 29,600 329,600 Basis Area Area Plant value Plant value Value Alloc Alloc No of Emps 329,600 362 Overheads and Absorption Costing (b) Machine shop: 194,500 5.00 per machine-hour 38,900 hrs Assembly shop: 135,100 8.00 per direct labour-hour (rounded to nearest ) 16,900 hrs (c) Total production cost is calculated as follows: Machine Dept Direct material Direct labour Production overheads Total 50.00 (44) 16.00 66.00 (45) 20.00 86.00 Assembly Dept Total 15.00 (23) 6.00 21.00 (28) 16.00 37.00 65.00 22.00 87.00 36.00 123.00 D. TREATMENT OF ADMINISTRATION OVERHEADS It is not generally worthwhile attempting to be too scientific in apportioning administration costs to products. For pricing purposes the inclusion of an agreed percentage on production costs will generally be adequate. For other purposes there is no need to absorb administration costs into product costs; they can be treated as period costs to be written off in the profit and loss account. E. TREATMENT OF SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION OVERHEADS Variable Elements Some elements of selling and distribution overhead vary directly with the quantities sold for example, commission of so much per unit paid to a salesman. Such items can be charged directly to the product concerned in addition to the production cost. Fixed Elements Other items are incurred whether products are sold or not for instance, rent of showrooms, salaries of salesmen. Such items may be treated as period costs and written off in the profit and loss account, or may be absorbed in one of three ways: Percentage on sales value This method is useful when prices are standardised and the proportions of each type of article sold are constant. Rate per article This method is particularly applicable where a restricted range of articles is produced, but it can be used for an extended range by evaluating different sizes using a points system. ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 363 Percentage of production cost Care must be taken in applying this method. For instance, suppose a company makes two products, A and B. A costs twice as much as B to produce. Therefore a percentage on production cost basis would charge A with twice as much selling and distribution overhead as B. However, suppose there is a ready market for Product A, which means that the firm has no need to advertise it, while with Product B the firm is in competition with others and spends 5,000 pa on advertising B. Then it is clearly incorrect to charge A with twice as much overhead as B! (In fact, the cost of advertising B should have been charged directly to Product B.) The method is, however, acceptable if the costs involved are small, or if there is a limited range of products and those costs which clearly do not vary with cost of production (as in the above example) can be charged direct. F. ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) In this study unit we have considered the apportionment of overheads to the product produced or service provided, as the basis of a percentage over prime or direct costs, so that each unit of production bears its fair share of the total overheads to be absorbed. The apportionments have therefore been on the basis of benefits received. However, you should also be aware of another basis of apportionment sometimes used by cost accountants, known as Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC and Cost Drivers This alternative basis of allocation uses the principle that the more a cost unit (i.e. product produced or service provided) causes the generation of an overhead, the more overhead it should bear as an apportioned cost. In other words, if one product type causes 50% of a particular overhead then 50% should be apportioned to it. These types of cost units are called cost drivers because they generate cost. Cost accountants argue that Activity Based Costing is more relevant to the requirements of today's competitive markets than the conventional benefits of absorption costing. For instance, a certain type of manufacturing process may require a liquid waste to be treated before it can be flushed into the sewerage system. The treatment plant, once installed, may be useful for other activities as well, but because the manufacturing process is driving the cost generation of the treatment plant, then 100% of the cost should be borne by the manufacturing process rather than being apportioned across all users. Another example could be the use of delivery vehicles for moving finished goods to customers, where the same vehicles are sometimes also used for internal collection purposes. In this case Activity Based Costing would require 100% of the delivery vehicle's cost to be charged to the cost of the finished goods. Absorption Costing v. Activity Based Costing Some cost accountants argue that many types of overheads, such as rent, rates, heating and lighting, telephone expenses etc. are not dependent on whether or not an individual product is made and therefore should not be shared out equally across all cost units. Activity Based Costing ensures that true costs are calculated. Activity Based Costing ensures that overheads are more effectively controlled as an element of the product cost. ABE and RRC 364 Overheads and Absorption Costing Questions for Practice 1. The following figures have been extracted from the books of a manufacturing company. All jobs pass through the company's two departments. Working Dept Finishing Dept Material used 6,000 500 Labour (direct) 3,000 1,500 Factory overhead 1,800 1,200 Direct labour-hours 12,000 5,000 Machine-hours 10,000 2,000 The following information relates to Job A100: Working Dept Finishing Dept Material used 120 10 Direct labour 65 25 Direct labour-hours 265 70 Machine-hours 255 25 You are required to: (a) (b) 2. State four methods of absorbing factory overheads by jobs, showing the rates for each department for each method quoted. Prepare a statement showing the different cost results for Job A100 under any two of the methods referred to. The following information relates to a small engineering company: Budgeted data for next year: 000 Overheads: Business rates, building insurance 800 Repairs and maintenance of machines 200 Depreciation of machinery 280 Power consumption 180 Production Manager's salary and expenses 50 Supervisors' salaries: Dept A 30 Dept B 30 Dept C 25 Heating and lighting Basic hourly wage rates: 120 Dept A 5 per hour Dept B 6 per hour Dept C 6 per hour ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing 365 Other information: Floor Area Machine Value Machine Hours Number of Employees (square metres) 000 Dept A 10,000 1,500 6,000 100 Dept B 14,000 2,000 6,000 75 Dept C 16,000 500 8,000 75 The Production Manager's costs are to be apportioned in proportion to each department's machine-hours. Required: (a) Prepare an overhead analysis sheet. (b) Compute machine-hourly overhead absorption rates for each department rounded to the nearest whole pound. (c) Prepare a price quotation for a job which requires 30 hours' machining in Department A, 20 hours' machining in Department B and 45 hours' machining in Department C. 2,000 of material will be required from stores. Administrative/distribution overheads are absorbed by adding 20% to total production costs. The company operates a standard profit margin of 25%. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 366 Overheads and Absorption Costing ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. (a) Four methods of absorbing factory overheads are: Factory overhead Machine hours (i) Machine-hour rate (ii) Direct labour-hour rate (iii) % on direct labour (iv) % on prime cost Factory overhead Direct labour hours Factory overhead 100 Direct labour cost Factory overhead 100 Prime cost Calculation of departmental rates: Working Dept Finishing Dept Material used Direct labour Prime cost 6,000 3,000 9,000 500 1,500 2,000 Factory overhead 1,800 1,200 20% 60% 60% 80% Direct labour-hours Overhead rate per direct labour-hour 12,000 0.15 5,000 0.24 Machine-hours Overhead rate per machine-hour 10,000 0.18 2,000 0.60 Overhead % on prime cost Overhead % on direct labour (b) Cost Statements for Job A100 (i) Using overhead rate per machine-hour Material used Direct labour Overhead (see note) Total cost of job Working Finishing Dept Dept 120.00 10.00 65.00 25.00 45.90 15.00 Note: Overhead for Working Dept: Total 130.00 90.00 60.90 280.90 255 hrs at 0.18 45.9 Overhead for Finishing Dept: 25 hrs at 0.60 15.0 ABE and RRC Overheads and Absorption Costing (ii) 367 Using % on direct labour Material used Direct labour Overhead (see note) Total cost of job Working Finishing Dept Dept 120 10 65 25 39 20 Note: Overhead for Working Dept: Total 130 90 59 279 60% of 65 39 Overhead for Finishing Dept: 80% of 25 20 2. (a) Overhead Analysis Sheet Expense Department Total Basis A 000 B 000 C 000 200 280 320 800 Area 75 100 25 200 Mach. value 105 140 35 280 Mach. value Power 54 54 72 180 Mach. hours Production Manager 15 15 20 50 Given Supervisors 30 30 25 85 Given Heat and light 30 42 48 120 Area 509 661 545 1,715 Business rates etc. R & M of mach. Depreciation of mach. (b) Machine-hourly overhead absorption rates: Department A: Department B: 661,000 110 per machine-hour 6,000 hrs Department C: 509,000 85 per machine-hour 6,000 hrs 545,000 68 per machine-hour 8,000 hrs ABE and RRC 000 368 Overheads and Absorption Costing (c) Price quotation: Direct material Direct labour: Dept A 30 5 Dept B 20 6 Dept C 45 6 Production overheads: Dept A 30 85 Dept B 20 110 Dept C 45 68 Production costs Administration and distribution overheads Total costs 1 Profit ( 33 3 % on cost: 25% on sales) 2,000 150 120 270 2,550 2,200 3,060 540 7,810 10,350 2,070 12,420 4,140 16,560 ABE and RRC 369 Study Unit 19 Labour and Material Costing Contents Page A. Stock Control Stock Control and Working Capital Management The Purchasing Cycle Stock Control and Just-In-Time (JIT) Systems Stock Control Coding Systems 370 370 370 371 372 B. Stock Valuation Methods First In First Out (FIFO) Last In First Out (LIFO) Average Cost (AVCO) The Impact of Stock Valuation Methods on Final Accounts The Advantages and Disadvantages of FIFO, LIFO and AVCO 373 373 374 375 376 377 C. Labour Costing and Remuneration How are Employees Remunerated? Recording Labour Costs 379 379 381 Answers to Questions for Practice ABE and RRC 384 370 Labour and Material Costing A. STOCK CONTROL Stock Control and Working Capital Management After wages and salaries the second biggest item of expense for a business is likely to be stock. A manufacturing business will hold three types of stock: Raw materials and components These are used in the companys manufacturing process. Work-in-progress A companys manufacturing process may consist of five stages and at any point in time, there will partly finished goods throughout these stages. These items are called work-in-progress. Finished goods These items are complete and are ready for sale to customers. By contrast, a trading business (such as a wholesaler and retailer) buys goods in and sells them at a higher price, and will, therefore, only have stock which consists of finished goods. A service business (such as a travel agent) will only hold consumable materials (such as paper for the photocopier) in stock. Planning for the purchase of materials and the control of stocks of materials is critical to the efficiency of a business. It is necessary to have enough stock of finished goods to satisfy customer demand. For a manufacturing business, it is also necessary to have sufficient stocks of raw materials and work-in progress to ensure that there is a flow of finished goods to replenish stock that is sold. If it has concerns over its ability to get raw materials and components delivered, it may attempt to build up its stock levels to ensure that it has sufficient supplies. However, holding stocks is expensive. In effect, it represents dead money whilst items are held in stock, they are tying up valuable cash resources. Plus there incur storage costs, including rent and rates, security and insurance. So, in any business, the finance department will want to minimise stock levels to keep costs as low as possible. (Although, on the other hand, the production and marketing teams will want to keep stocks high for the reasons mentioned above.) Effective working capital management the control of stock, debtors, creditors and cash is vital to the survival of any organisation. If a firm is able to substantially lower its working capital costs, this can help to make it more competitive. It means that the benefits of lower costs can be passed on to customers in the form of reduced prices. If a firm establishes a reputation for effective working capital management, this may also help it to negotiate better terms in respect of its purchasing activities (as it will be perceived as being a lower risk than other firms). The Purchasing Cycle At one time, the main objective of the purchasing function was to secure the companys stock requirements at the cheapest possible price. So, if a new supplier could offer the same goods at a cheaper price the company would switch to this new source. After a short period of time, the company could well find itself dealing with 50 suppliers or more often on an infrequent basis, and regularly switching from one to the other in order to secure a lower price. Today most companies endeavour to award preferred supplier status to a much smaller number of suppliers. The primary objective of the purchasing function today is to build strategic partnerships with key suppliers in order to generate mutual benefits. For the supplier, there is clearly a benefit in this in terms of ensuring regular orders. For the purchaser, the benefits arise in the ability to negotiate better than average terms and conditions of trade in two areas: ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 371 Extended credit periods (say 30 days instead of 20) and higher credit limits which, by reducing the need for overdraft finance and as a result helping to lower certain expenses (such as interest and bank service charges), increase the amount of working capital within the firm Larger (trade) discounts for bulk orders and for prompt payment for example, where the normal cost price per unit may be 10.00, a 5% discount may be available for orders of over 100 units, but a 20% discount may be offered if 1000 are ordered. In addition, purchasers may be able to negotiate staggered delivery and payment dates for placing a large order, and thus not be faced with a big rise in stock control costs as a result of buying 1000 items. In order to fully harmonise a relationship with preferred suppliers and gain the maximum benefits for all parties, a company may set up integrated stock control and accounting systems. Such developments provide the opportunity to share information, reduce costs further and take full advantage of new technological developments in particular, "just-intime" systems. Stock Control and Just-In-Time (JIT) Systems The amount of stock held depends on a number of issues in particular, lead times in respect of ordering, manufacture and delivery, and the nature of customer buying patterns (such as spontaneous demand, stock bought to satisfy specific orders, etc.). JIT systems are increasingly being used to almost eliminate the need for holding stock. The basic idea is simple. If made-in-parts are produced in just the quantity required for the next stage in the process i.e. just in time for the next operation to be carried out then work-inprogress (WIP) stocks may be almost eliminated. If bought-in parts and components are delivered direct to the production line without delays in stores or inspection i.e. just-in-time for the needs of production and in just the quantity needed then material stocks may be largely eliminated too. JIT systems, therefore, provide the opportunity to reduce stock maintenance costs and gain competitive advantage. The following example highlights this by reference to two firms which one is operating JIT? Sales Revenue Cost of Goods Sold Gross Margin General & Administrative Overhead Cost Of Holding Stock Gross Profit Firm A 100.00 60.00 40.00 27.00 5.00 8.00 Firm B 100.00 60.00 40.00 27.00 1.25 11.75 Stock turn rate is closely linked with profitability. If firm B achieves a stock turn rate four times as high as firm A, assuming that the two firms are in all other respects similar, then firm B will incur only a quarter of the stockholding costs incurred by firm A. Firm B could be much more profitable. ABE and RRC 372 Labour and Material Costing Stock Control Coding Systems Coding systems underpin the effective management of stock. This is best understood by considering a practical example. Viking Direct sells three types of products: PCs, printers and software. The current coding system (shown below) is very basic and merely tells us that Viking sells 9 items in total: Product Code Description 01 Universal Cyrix 300 PC 02 Omega Pentium II PC 03 Micromark Hi-Grade PC 04 Hi-Grade Notebook PC 05 Lexmark 5 Jet Printer 06 Sharp 7 Inkjet 07 Microsoft Excel 08 Microsoft Word 09 Microsoft Access To be more informative the coding system could be developed as follows. PC-UNI-CYR-01 PC-OME-PEN-01 PC-MIC-HIG-01 PC-HIG-NOT-01 PR-LEX-JET-01 PR-SHA-INK-01 SO-MIC-EXE-01 SO-MIC-WOR-01 SO-MIC-ACC-01 Under this system, each part of the code signifies something in relation to the product. So, the first two letters indicate the category: PC Personal computer PR Printer SO Software The next three letters tell us the manufacturer and the final three letters tell us about the nature of the item. The two numbers at the end indicate the number of items in this range. This coding system will allow the firm to monitor sales by product category, manufacturer, etc., to analyse sales trends and to review the effectiveness of its purchasing policy. The 10 digit product coding system could be further refined to include information about types of customer (for example, industry type, geographical location, etc.) if required. The product coding system developed by a company must be capable of satisfying the needs of the following functions: sales and marketing; production; finance; purchasing; warehousing. If the company has set up integrated IT systems with its preferred suppliers, then clearly a product coding structure that meets the needs of both parties must be ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 373 negotiated and put into practice. With this type of system in place, it allows the management team to make much more informed decisions about stock levels, which items to delete from its product range, etc. B. STOCK VALUATION METHODS Stock is an important element of cost it forms a key part both the profit and loss account and the balance sheet, and also contributes to the cost of production. However, stock is likely to be made up of items produced, or bought, at different times and, therefore, having cost different amounts. How, then, do we put a value on it? There are, basically, three ways of doing so. First In First Out (FIFO) Under this method, it is assumed that items issued from stock (either as finished goods for sale or as part-processed goods for further processing as part of a manufacturing process) are always the oldest. The remaining stock is valued at the cost of the later items. As a very simple example, assume that a warehouse contains 10 items bought at a cost of 10 each and a further 10 items bought later at a cost of 12 each, making a total opening stock value of 220 (10 x 10 + 10 x 12). If five items are sold, it is assumed that these are the oldest and would, therefore, be those which cost 10. The total value of the remaining stock would now be 170 (5 x 10 + 10 x 12). If, now, a further six items are sold, it would be the remaining 5 which cost 10 plus one more which had cost 12, leaving a stock value of 108 (9 x 12). This seems entirely logical. In terms of the issue of stock, it is invariably good practice to use the oldest stock first, followed by the next oldest and so on. This method of storekeeping means that the old stock is not kept in store for too long, thus avoiding deterioration or obsolescence. You will be familiar with this in respect of supermarkets, where it is especially important to use this approach when dealing with fresh foodstuffs and dairy products which have a very limited shelf-life and are clearly marked with a sell-by-date. However, the same approach is not necessary in all circumstances. For example, it is less important for items such as tinned foodstuffs in a supermarket because they have a much longer shelf-life. And when dealing with some other types of product, perhaps a furniture warehouse or a CD shop, it is not really relevant at all. Here, items may be stored in such a way that they are a mixture of old and new stock, and it is often not possible to identify each separate purchase. Nevertheless, under the "first in, first out" or, commonly, FIFO method of stock valuation, it is assumed that items issued from stock are always the oldest and are valued, therefore, at the oldest prices whether or not it is actually done in practice. This clearly makes sense in that it matches a logical approach to the physical issue of goods, and also values remaining stock at prices which are closer to their current value. It is also acceptable for tax purposes. On the other hand, FIFO may involve using a considerable number of different prices in order to work out the value of remaining stock, which makes it extremely complicated to use. ABE and RRC 374 Labour and Material Costing Example South Records buys and sells CDs. During January it makes the following purchases (receipts into stock) and sales (issues from stock: Date Jan 01 Jan 07 Jan 15 Jan 17 Jan 17 Jan 21 Receipts (quantity) 50 75 50 15 Cost Price 2.50 2.25 2.50 2.00 2.50 2.25 Issues (quantity) 65 95 The following table shows the use of FIFO to value stock issued at the oldest available cost price, and leaving the remaining stock valued at the later prices. (In the next sections, we shall look at the same receipts and issues to see the effect of different methods of valuation.) First In First Out (FIFO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 07 (quantity) 50 75 (quantity) 50 75 2.50 2.25 125 Jan 15 65 0 60 293.75 2.50 2.25 60 Jan 17 Jan 17 60 50 15 50 15 95 0 15 15 30 135.00 135.00 2.25 2.00 2.50 125 Jan 21 Stock Value 125.00 168.75 135.00 100.00 37.50 272.50 2.25 2.00 2.50 30.00 37.50 67.50 Last In First Out (LIFO) With this method, the latest price is used to value stock issues. If more goods are being issued than were received at that price, the price prior to the latest price is used, and so on. Under LIFO, therefore, it is stock issues which are charged with costs that are close to current economic values (as opposed to remaining stock under FIFO). Remaining stock is valued at the older prices. ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 375 Items with a low intrinsic value and a very long shelf-life (such as furniture or bricks) would be suitable for being valued using LIFO. However, the method is unsuitable for perishable goods. It is relatively easy to calculate the cost of issued stock, but can be complicated to value remaining stock. Note, too, that it is not acceptable for tax purposes. We can show the way in which it works by reference to the example of South Records: Last In First Out (LIFO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 07 (quantity) 50 75 (quantity) 50 75 2.50 2.25 125 Jan 15 65 50 10 293.75 2.25 60 Jan 17 Jan 17 50 10 50 15 50 15 95 30 0 0 0 30 125.00 22.50 147.50 2.50 2.25 2.00 2.50 125 Jan 21 Stock Value 125.00 168.75 125.00 22.50 100.00 37.50 285.00 2.50 2.25 2.00 2.50 75.00 75.00 Average Cost (AVCO) Under AVCO, issues from stock are always valued at the average unit cost applying at the time of issue. Each time additional receipts are taken into stock, a new average unit cost is calculated by dividing the total value of the stock by the total quantity of remaining stock. This, then, is the cost applied to the next issues. AVCO is relatively easy to calculate on an on-going basis and it produces a price that is not distorted by low or high prices paid, or by small or large quantities purchased. It may not, though, relate to the prices actually paid. It is the best method of valuation where the purchase price may fluctuate considerably over relatively short periods of time. If FIFO or LIFO were used in such a situation, the cost of production would vary enormously, making it extremely difficult to monitor profits from one period to the next Again, we can see the effects in relation to the same flows of receipts and issues as we have considered above. ABE and RRC 376 Labour and Material Costing Average Costs (AVCO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 07 (quantity) 50 75 (quantity) 50 75 2.50 2.25 Stock Value 125.00 168.75 125 2.35 293.75 60 2.35 141.00 Jan 15 65 60 141.00 Jan 21 95 141.00 100.00 37.50 2.23 278.50 30 50 15 2.35 2.00 2.50 125 Jan 17 Jan 17 60 50 15 2.23 66.90 30 66.90 The Impact of Stock Valuation Methods on Final Accounts Using the above example, we can now see the effect of the different valuation methods on the Trading Account. We shall assume that all items sold (a total of 160 units) are priced at 5.00. South Records Trading Account, January 20x4 FIFO Sales Opening stock Purchases: 50 @ 2.00 75 @ 2.25 65 @ 2.50 Closing stock Cost of sales Gross profit 800.00 LIFO 800.00 AVCO 800.00 100.00 168.75 162.50 431.25 67.50 431.25 75.00 431.25 66.90 363.75 436.25 356.25 443.75 364.35 435.65 The different valuation methods result in different values for both closing stock and cost of sales, and, hence, different gross profit. In fact, when the cost prices of items purchased fluctuate, it is not possible to say whether FIFO or LIFO will produce the higher closing value, as is demonstrated by the next example. North Records buys 100 units with a very low cost price (e.g. 1.00 per unit) at the beginning of the accounting period, and purchases another 100 units at the end of the accounting ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 377 period at a high price (e.g. 5.00 per unit). If 150 items are issued, the following closing stock values are obtained under the different methods: FIFO: 50 items x 5.00 each = 250.00 LIFO: 50 items x 1.00 each = 50.00 A higher closing stock value reduces the cost of sales and produces a bigger gross profit and ultimately a higher net profit. (And if this happens the company will have to pay more tax on its profits.) Using AVCO as a stock valuation method would produce the following result: Average unit cost of purchases = (100 x 1) (100 x 5) = 3.00 200 Closing stock value = 50 units x 3.00 each = 150.00. Given the variation in the cost price, AVCO would probably be the most suitable method to use. The Advantages and Disadvantages of FIFO, LIFO and AVCO We can summarise the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of valuation as follows: Advantages FIFO LIFO Logical in that it assumes that goods are issued in order of receipt. Goods are issued at latest prices. Stock valuation comprises actual prices at which items have been bought. Closing stock valuation is close to the most recent prices. Ensures that the sell-by dates for perishable foodstuffs are fully complied with. Easy to calculate. AVCO Over a number of accounting periods reported profits are smoothed i.e. high and low profits are avoided. Fluctuations in purchase prices are smoothed out so that issues do not vary greatly. Logical in that it assumes that identical units, even if purchased at different times, have the same value. Closing stock valuation is close to current market values (in times of rising prices, it will be below current market values). ABE and RRC 378 Labour and Material Costing Disadvantages FIFO LIFO Prices at which goods are issued are not necessarily the latest prices. Illogical in that it assumes goods are issued in reverse order from that in which they are received. In times of rising prices, profits will be higher than with than LIFO and AVCO this means that the company will have to pay more tax. Difficult to calculate. AVCO Issues and stock valuations are usually at prices which never existed. Closing stock valuation is not usually at the most recent prices. When stocks are being run down, issues will dip into old stock at out-ofdate prices. Question for Practice 1 In January 20x5, West Ltd has purchased items for stock and made sales (all at 5.00 per unit) as follows: Date Jan 01 Jan 03 Jan 06 Jan 08 Jan 11 Jan 15 Jan 17 Jan 19 Jan 20 Jan 21 Receipts (quantity) 95 65 Cost Price 2.50 2.25 Issues (quantity) 55 15 2.25 25 20 50 15 2.25 2.10 2.50 100 75 2.65 Required: (a) Value the stock after each receipt and issue using FIFO, LIFO and AVCO. (b) Prepare a Trading Account for each valuation method. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 379 C. LABOUR COSTING AND REMUNERATION How are Employees Remunerated? Direct labour is the phrase used to describe those employees who work on a production line, are involved in assembly, or are involved in the output of a service. Remuneration refers to wages and salaries. The main methods of direct labour remuneration are as follows. (a) Time rate Workers are paid on the basis of the number of hours spent at work. The basic hourly refers to hours worked during the normal working day (usually 7 to 8 hours per day) with additional hours worked being paid at a different "overtime" rate. Example Hearts plc employs production workers who are paid at a basic hourly rate of 8.00 per hour. Their basic working week is 35 hours (i.e. 7 hours per day from Monday to Friday). If the employees work extra hours on a week day they are paid at time and a half (i.e. 12 per hour) and weekend working is double time (i.e. 16 per hour). Tom works the following hours: Monday to Friday: 43 hours Saturday: 3 hours Sunday: 2 hours. How much will he earn? 37 hours x basic hourly rate (8) = 296 6 hours x time and a half (12) = 72 5 hours x double time (16) = 80 Total pay 448 (b) Piecework rate The principle of piecework is that workers are paid a set amount for each unit produced. However, it is rare for this to comprise the total of a workers pay. It is more common for workers to either be guaranteed a minimum wage or to be paid a basic weekly rate with the piecework rate added to this. Examples Spades Ltd pays its employees 40p for each unit produced. During the first week of March, Billy produced the following: Monday: 110 units Tuesday: 121 units Wednesday: 99 units Thursday: 134 units Friday: 109 units Total number of units produced = 573 units. Therefore, Billy's pay will be (573 x 40p) = 229.20. ABE and RRC 380 Labour and Material Costing Diamonds Ltd pay their workers a basic weekly wage of 100 and 20p per item produced on top of this. If Billy worked for this firm and produced the same level of output, his pay would be: 100 + (573 x 20p) = 214.60 (c) Differentiated piece rate Workers are paid for their output, with higher levels of output attracting a higher rate. This is designed to motivate workers to work harder and produce more in order to increase their earnings. Again, it is more usual to combine such schemes with either a guaranteed minimum wage or for the piecework rate to be paid on top of a basic weekly wage. Example Clubs plc operates a piecework payment scheme as follows: Level 1: 0 25 units 0.00 per unit Level 2: 26 100 units 1.00 per unit Level 3: 101 150 units 1.50 per unit Level 4: 151 200 units 1.75 per unit Level 5: 201+ units 0.10 per unit (Clearly the output must comply with the specified quality standards. This is why only 0.10 per unit is paid on everything produced over 201 units.) If David produced 189 units how much would he earn? Level 1: 25 units x 0.00 per unit = 0.00 Level 2: 75 units x 1.00 per unit = 75.00 Level 3: 50 units x 1.50 per unit = 75.00 Level 4: 39 units x 1.75 per unit = 68.25 Total pay 218.25 (d) Bonus system Workers are paid a time rate and then receive a bonus if output achieves a specified target. One approach to this where expected output is expressed as a standard performance in an hour (a standard hour). If this expected standard is exceeded, a bonus is payable as an agreed percentage of the standard hours saved. Example No Trumps plc pays its employees a basic hourly rate of 8.00 per hour for shifts of 8 hours. Output per standard hour is 10 units (i.e. 80 units per each 8 hour shift), and a time bonus is payable for exceeding this at 50% of the basic hourly rate for each standard hour saved. Jane produces 100 units in her 8 hour shift. How much bonus would she earn? She has exceeded the target output by 20 units which is the equivalent of 2 standard hours saved. Her bonus will, therefore, be: 2 hours x 50% x 8 per hour = 8.00. ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 381 Recording Labour Costs In order to calculate gross wages, information about hours worked and/or work done must be recorded. The documents used include: Time sheets These are used to record the hours that employees have worked. Before they are processed, they will have to signed by an authorised signatory such as the production manager, team leader, etc. Clock cards Employees clock in when they start work and clock out when they leave. These systems are computerised and record the total number of worked by each employee. Job cards A manufacturing company may make bespoke items for customers. When these items are being made they will be given a job number. As the employees move from one job to another, they will record the time spent working on each item on a job card. Piecework tickets These are completed by employees who work on a batch of output. Route cards These are used to follow a product through the production process with each employee working on the process recording the amount of time they spend working on the product. As well as having a standard time for making items, companies will usually also have a standard cost for each unit of output. Therefore, the above methods of recording labour costs are not only concerned with the accurate calculation and payment of wages they also provide information which allows a company to compare the standard cost for making a number of items with the actual costs. If actual costs continue to exceed the standard costs, the company will not make the anticipated profit. Corrective action will have to be taken to improve the performance and effectiveness of the production function. ABE and RRC 382 Labour and Material Costing Question for Practice 2 For many years, West Ltd have paid their production workers a basic hourly rate and overtime at time and a half. In order to increase output, it has been decided that a variety of remuneration systems should be evaluated. In the first instance, information about four workers is to be used and you are required to calculate their gross pay under each of three systems. 1. Time rate bonus system A time rate bonus will be paid where production is completed faster than the standard hour output. The bonus will be paid at half of the basic hourly rate for production time saved. The information about the four workers' basic hourly rates, their actual hours and output per week and the standard hour output levels is as follows: Employee Basic hourly rate Hours worked Std hour output Actual production N Ball 8.00 35 30 units 1200 units T Smith 9.00 37 40 units 1560 units L Lewis 10.00 40 20 units 855 units 7.00 38 25 units 940 units M Wilson 2. Piecework rate system Under this system, pay will be based on a specified rate per unit of production, although all workers will be guaranteed a minimum weekly wage. The information about the four workers' guaranteed minimum, their weekly output and the rate to be applied per unit of output is as follows: Employee Guarantee wage pw Units produced pw Rate per unit N Ball 150 100 2.00 T Smith 100 85 1.50 L Lewis 300 200 3.00 M Wilson 150 125 2.75 ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 3. 383 Differentiated piecework rate system Under this scheme, workers will be paid solely on the basis of their output there will be no minimum guaranteed wage. Different rates per unit will be payable depending upon total output, with higher rates paid for higher levels of output according to the following schedule. 0 25 units 0.00 per unit 26 100 units 1.00 per unit 101 150 units 1.50 per unit 151 200 units 1.75 per unit 201+ units 0.10 per unit Output levels for the four workers are as set out above in relation to scheme 2. Required Calculate the gross pay for each worker under each of the three schemes. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. Review Questions Section A 1. What could be the impact on cash resources of carrying too much stock? 2. Explain the benefits a company can gain by forming strategic partnerships with its suppliers. 3. Explain the importance of an effective product coding system in terms of managing stock. Section B 1. Explain the three different methods of stock valuation and state the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Section C 1. State three methods of employee remuneration and identify the documentation required to calculate gross pay associated with each. ABE and RRC 384 Labour and Material Costing ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE Practice Question 1 (a) First In, First Out (FIFO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 03 (quantity) 95 65 (quantity) 95 65 2.50 2.25 160 Jan 06 55 40 65 383.75 2.50 2.25 105 Jan 08 40 65 15 15 25 15 65 15 2.50 2.25 2.25 Jan 15 20 2.50 2.25 2.25 Jan 17 50 2.50 2.25 2.25 2.25 Jan 19 15 180 37.50 146.25 33.75 45.00 262.50 2.50 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.10 165 15 65 15 20 50 15 37.50 146.25 33.75 217.50 115 15 65 15 20 50 100.00 146.25 33.75 280.00 95 15 65 15 20 100.00 146.25 246.25 120 Jan 11 Stock Value 237.50 146.25 37.50 146.25 33.75 45.00 105.00 367.50 2.50 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.10 2.50 37.50 146.25 33.75 45.00 105.00 37.50 405.00 Continued over ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) (quantity) 100 (quantity) 15 50 15 2.25 2.10 2.50 Jan 20 80 Jan 21 75 15 50 15 75 155 ABE and RRC Stock Value 33.75 105.00 37.50 176.25 2.25 2.10 2.50 2.65 33.75 105.00 37.50 198.75 375.00 385 386 Labour and Material Costing Last In First Out (LIFO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 03 (quantity) 95 65 (quantity) 95 65 2.50 2.25 160 Jan 06 55 95 10 383.75 2.50 2.25 105 Jan 08 95 10 15 15 Jan 15 25 20 95 95 95 20 2.50 2.25 2.25 Jan 17 50 2.50 2.50 2.25 Jan 19 15 2.50 2.25 2.10 100 80 2.50 2.25 2.10 2.50 Jan 21 75 155 237.50 45.00 105.00 37.50 425.00 2.50 80 80 75 237.50 45.00 105.00 387.50 180 Jan 20 237.50 237.50 237.50 45.00 282.50 165 95 20 50 15 237.50 22.50 33.75 293.75 115 95 20 50 237.50 22.50 260.00 120 Jan 11 Stock Value 237.50 146.25 200.00 200.00 2.50 2.65 200.00 198.75 398.75 ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing Average Costs (AVCO) Date Receipts Issues In stock Cost Price (quantity) Jan 01 Jan 03 (quantity) 95 65 (quantity) 95 65 2.50 2.25 Stock Value 237.50 146.25 160 2.40 383.75 105 2.40 252.00 Jan 06 55 105 252.00 15 Jan 11 25 2.40 2.25 252.00 33.75 120 Jan 08 105 15 2.38 285.75 95 2.38 226.10 95 226.10 Jan 21 (b) 75 Workings: Sales: 180 units x 5.00 = 900 Purchases: 50 @ 2.10 100 @ 2.25 110 @ 2.50 75 @ 2.65 Total ABE and RRC 105.00 225.00 275.00 198.75 803.75 376.10 2.28 2.50 376.10 37.50 2.30 413.60 80 2.30 184.00 2.30 184.00 80 75 100 2.28 2.30 2.65 184.00 198.75 155 Jan 20 271.10 105.00 80 15 2.36 2.10 180 Jan 19 271.10 165 15 50 2.36 165 Jan 17 226.10 45.00 115 50 20 2.38 2.25 115 Jan 15 95 20 2.47 382.75 387 388 Labour and Material Costing West Ltd Trading Account, January 20x5 FIFO Sales Opening stock Purchases: Closing stock Cost of sales Gross profit LIFO 900.00 AVCO 900.00 803.75 803.75 803.75 375.00 398.75 900.00 382.75 428.75 471.25 405.00 495.00 421.00 479.00 Practice Question 2 1. Time rate bonus system A time rate bonus will be paid where production is completed faster than the standard hour output. The bonus will be paid at half of the basic hourly rate for production time saved. The information about the four workers' basic hourly rates, their actual hours and output per week and the standard hour output levels is as follows: Employee Basic hourly rate Hours worked Std hour output Actual production N Ball 8.00 35 30 units 1200 units T Smith 9.00 37 40 units 1560 units L Lewis 10.00 40 20 units 855 units 7.00 38 25 units 940 units M Wilson N Ball has worked 35 hours. The standard output for this time is 35 hours x 30 units per unit = 1050 units. However, he has produced 1200 units in this time, and this should have taken 40 hours (i.e. 30 units per standard hour output x 40 hours = 1200 units). Therefore, 5 hours production time have been saved and therefore, his time rate bonus will be as follows: 5 hours saved x time rate (8 per hour) x 50% = 20.00. Add this to his basic weekly wage (35 hours x 8 = 280) to give gross pay of 300.00. Applying the same calculation to the other workers: T Smith Standard time for producing 1,560 units = 1,560 = 39 hours 40 units/hr Time rate bonus = 2 hours saved x time rate (9 per hour) x 50% = 9.00. Add to basic weekly wage (37 hours x 9 = 333): Gross pay = 342.00 ABE and RRC Labour and Material Costing 389 L Lewis Standard time for producing 855 units = 855 = 42.75 hours 20 units/hr Time rate bonus = 2.75 hours x time rate (10 per hour) x 50% = 13.75 Add to basic weekly wage (40 hours x 10 = 400): Gross pay = 413.75 M Wilson Standard time for producing 940 units = 940 = 37. 60 hours 25 units/hr In 38 hours, M Wilson should have produced 950 units. Therefore, he is not eligible for a time rate bonus. Gross pay = basic weekly wage (38 hours x 7) = 266 2. Piecework rate system Employee Units produced pw Rate per unit Gross pay Guarantee wage pw Piecework Bonus 100 2.00 200.00 150 50.00 T Smith 85 1.50 127.50 100 27.50 L Lewis 200 3.00 600.00 300 300.00 M Wilson 125 2.75 343.75 150 193.75 N Ball 3. Differentiated piecework rate system N Ball: Units 25 75 Total output 100 Rate x 0.00 = x 1.00 = Gross pay 0.00 75.00 75.00 Rate x 0.00 = x 1.00 = Gross pay 0.00 60.00 60.00 T Smith Units 25 60 Total output 85 ABE and RRC 390 Labour and Material Costing L Lewis Units 25 75 50 50 Total output 200 Rate x 0.00 = x 1.00 = x 1.50 = x 1.75 = Gross pay 0.00 75.00 75.00 87.50 237.50 Rate x 0.00 = x 1.00 = x 1.50 = Gross pay 0.00 75.00 37.50 112.50 M Wilson Units 25 75 25 Total output 125 ABE and RRC 391 Study Unit 20 Methods of Costing Contents Page Introduction 392 A. Job Costing Procedure Elements of Cost Involved Specimen Cost Calculations for a Job 392 393 393 394 B. Batch Costing 396 C. Process Costing Method of Process Costing Elements of Cost Involved Comparison of Job and Process Costing Treatment of By-Products Wastage in Process Costing Treatment of Work in Progress 397 398 398 399 399 400 400 ABE and RRC 392 Methods of Costing INTRODUCTION Costing techniques and principles such as absorption costing (which we have seen), marginal costing and standard costing (which will be considered in later units) are of general application to different industries and services. These techniques are used for purposes of decision making and control over costs and performance and they are applicable to all types of manufacturing and service industries. Costing methods refers to the system (or systems) adopted to arrive at the cost of products or services within a particular organisation. The type of costing system to be adopted should be tailored to meet the needs of the individual business and its manufacturing processes. Different types of business operate with different costing systems the main ones which we shall consider being job, batch or process costing. Job and batch costing is used where products or batches of products are made to individual customer specifications. Examples include general engineering, printing, foundries, contracting, and building. Individual cost analyses are prepared for each separate order. Process costing applies where large quantities are made in a continuous flow or by repetitive operations. The total costs incurred are averaged over all production (see the next study unit). Although you do need not need to know the workings of job, batch or process costing systems, you do need to be aware of their features. A. JOB COSTING The CIMA Official Terminology refers to job costing as applying: "....where work is undertaken to customers' special requirements and each order is of comparatively short duration (compared with those to which contract costing applies). The work is usually carried out within a factory or workshop and moves through processes and operations as a continuously identifiable unit. The term may also be applied to work such as property repairs and the method may be used in the costing of internal capital expenditure jobs." Businesses that operate in a job-costing environment generally do not manufacture for stock but instead to specific customer requirements. Very often an enquiry will be received from a prospective customer asking the firm to quote for producing a particular item. The estimating department will price up the potential work using standard charge-out rates based on its job costing system. Pricing is generally on a "cost-plus" basis. This means that a standard percentage is added to the calculated cost to arrive at the price to the customer. Not all work is arrived at in this way; the foregoing example only applies where new business is involved. Very often the work undertaken by a firm operating a job-costing system will be repeat business and the cost of such work will already be known. ABE and RRC Methods of Costing 393 Procedure (a) Setting up the system There are two main items to which attention must be paid when setting up a method of job costing: We must first establish what is to be considered as a job this being our logical unit of cost. In factories where job costing is employed, we may look upon the job in any of the following ways: (i) (ii) (b) An order for a quantity of stock units of production which is required to keep up the warehouse supply. (iii) An order for one large unit of production which has to be made to specification. A number of small orders for the same unit of production which can be conveniently accumulated into a batch and regarded as a single job. There must be an adequate method in operation whereby it is possible to allocate distinctive numbers to the various jobs which have to be done, so that cost can be coded by reference to the job number. Total cost of each job The total cost of each job is obtained by labelling cost as it occurs with t he number of the job on behalf of which the cost was expended. The collection of these labelled costs will give the total job cost. Elements of Cost Involved We shall now consider the elements of cost which are involved, and decide on the techniques which should be used in cost collections to obtain the appropriate cost for each job number. (a) Accounting for materials When dealing with the control of materials, material issued from stores has to be signed for on a stores requisition slip. The description and quantity of material issued is shown on this slip. If we associate the correct job number with each slip, we have the basis for associating materials used with the jobs for which they were used. Of course, where the material is indirect, the slip will bear the reference number of the appropriate overhead account. Copies of the stores requisition slips will be passed to the costing department, to be priced and entered, and at the end of each costing period, they are analysed by job number and to the appropriate job account or to an overhead account, in the case of indirect material. The total material cost posted to the debit of job and overhead accounts will, of course, equal the total of the postings to the credit of the individual stores ledger accounts. (b) Accounting for labour Wages will be charged as follows: Direct wages direct time: charged to job number idle time: charged to overheads Indirect wages charged to overheads The data will be obtained in the following ways: ABE and RRC 394 Methods of Costing (c) The charges for labour applicable to overheads will be obtained from the gate cards of the indirect workers. If indirect workers serve several cost centres in the course of the week, they will fill up job cards showing the time spent on each, and the cost centre reference number. The direct labour force will be issued with a job card on which they will record the time spent on each job, and its number. The job cards will be analysed and the relevant amount posted to each job account. Accounting for overheads Overheads are charged to the various cost units in a costing routine by means of a system of precalculated overhead absorption rates. The method to be used will vary from system to system, and it is almost certain that a variety of methods will be used in each organisation, dependent on the characteristics of the various cost centres, e.g. some will use a rate per machine-hour and others a rate per labour-hour. This will give a fairer allotment of cost than the use of a blanket (average) rate to cover the whole organisation. Specimen Cost Calculations for a Job Job number 707, the copper plating of 100 tubes, was completed in three departments of a factory. Cost details for this job were as follows: Department Direct Materials Direct Wages Direct Labour Hours X 650 800 1,000 Y 940 300 400 Z 230 665 700 Works overhead is recovered on the basis of direct labour hours and administrative overheads as a percentage of works cost. The figures for the last cost period for the three departments on which the current overhead recovery rates are based, were: Departments X Y Z Direct material 6,125 11,360 25,780 Direct wages 9,375 23,400 54,400 Direct labour hours 12,500 36,000 64,000 Works overhead 5,000 7,200 9,600 Administrative overhead 2,870 14,686 8,978 Calculation of the cost of job 707 is set out as follows. We can also establish the price charged, assuming a profit margin of 20% on total cost. ABE and RRC Methods of Costing (a) 395 Calculation of works overhead recovery rate Department X Z Works overhead 5,000 7,200 9,600 Direct labour hours 12,500 36,000 64,000 Recovery rate per direct labour hour 0.40 0.20 0.15 Direct labour hours spent on job 707 1,000 400 700 Works overhead recovered on job 707 (b) Y 400 80 105 Calculation of administrative overhead recovery rate Department X Y Z Direct materials 6,125 11,360 25,780 Direct wages 9,375 23,400 54,400 Works overhead 5,000 7,200 9,600 20,500 41,960 89,780 2,870 14,686 8,978 14% 35% 10% Works cost Administration overhead Administration overhead as % of works overhead (c) Cost and price of Job 707 Department Total X Direct materials Direct wages Works overhead (from (a)) Works cost Administration overhead (applying percentages found in (b)) Total cost Profit margin 20% Price to be charged ABE and RRC Y Z 650 800 400 1,850 940 300 80 1,320 230 665 105 1,000 1,820.00 1,765.00 585.00 4,170.00 259 2,109 462 1,782 100 1,100 821.00 4,991.00 998.20 5,989.20 396 Methods of Costing B. BATCH COSTING Batch costing is defined in the CIMA Terminology as: "That form of specific order costing which applies where similar articles are manufactured in batches either for sale or for use within the undertaking. In most cases the costing is similar to job costing." A batch cost is described as: "Aggregated costs relative to a cost unit which consist of a group of similar articles which maintains its identity throughout one or more stages of production." The main point to note, therefore, is that it is a method of job costing, the main difference being that there are a number of similar items rather than just one. Batch costing will apply in similar situations to those we mentioned in job costing, i.e. general engineering, printing, foundries, etc. Costs will be worked out in a similar fashion to job costing and then apportioned over the number of units in the batch to arrive at a unit cost. The following is an example of how batch costing operates. Example The XYZ Printing Co. has received an order for printing 1,000 special prospectuses for a customer. These were processed as a batch and incurred the following costs: Materials 500 Labour: design work 150 hours at 15 per hour printing/binding 10 hours at 5 per hour Administration overhead is 10% of factory cost. The design department has budgeted overheads of 20,000 and budgeted activity of 10,000 hours. The printing/binding department has budgeted overheads of 5,000 and budgeted activity of 1,000 hours. The cost per unit is calculated as follows. (a) The overhead absorption rates are as follows: Design: 20,000 2 per labour hour 10,000 Printing/binding: 5,000 1,000 5 per labour hour. ABE and RRC Methods of Costing (b) 397 The cost per unit can therefore be calculated as: Direct material Direct labour: Design Printing Prime Cost Overheads: Design Printing 150 15 500 2,250 10 5 50 2,300 2,800 150 2 10 5 300 50 Factory Cost Admin. cost (10% of factory cost) Total Cost 350 3,150 315 3,465 As this is the total cost of the batch, we find the cost per unit simply by dividing by the number of units in the batch, i.e.: 3,465 3.465 per unit (3.47 rounded). 1,000 C. PROCESS COSTING In job costing each job is a separate unit which maintains its identity until completion, even though various operations and processes may be involved. In process costing the situation is completely different, for here we are dealing with a continuous production of identical products which are often quite incapable of being identified separately and which combine to form distinct processes, the finished product of one process being the raw material of the next. The CIMA Official Terminology defines process costing as: "The basic costing method applicable where goods or services result from a sequence of continuous or repetitive operations or processes to which costs are charged before being averaged over the units produced during the period." This method of costing applies not only to the areas mentioned above, but may also be used in situations of continuous production of large numbers of low cost items such as tin cans or light bulbs. Diagrammatically, process costing can be represented as follows: Figure 20.1 Bought-in materials ABE and RRC Process A Input labour/materials/ prod'n overhead Output to Process B Process B Input labour/overhead Output to finished goods stock Finished goods stock 398 Methods of Costing Production is moved from process to process and the costs are transferred with it so that it is the cumulative cost that is carried to finished goods stock. Method of Process Costing The method is essentially one of averaging, whereby the total costs of production are accumulated under the headings of processes in the manufacturing routine, and output figures are collected in respect of the various processes. The total process cost is divided by the total output of the process, so that an average unit cost of manufacturing is arrived at for each process. Where there are several processes involved in the production routine, it is normal to cost each process, and to build up the final total average cost step by step. The output of one process may be the raw material of a subsequent one, thus making it necessary to establish the process cost at each stage of the manufacturing operation. Each process carried out is regarded as a cost centre, and information is collected on the usage of materials, costs of labour and direct expenses exclusively attributable to individual processes. Each process, in an absorption costing system, will be charged with its share of overhead expenses. (We have assumed this to be in operation throughout.) We have stated that an average cost per unit is obtained for each process. This average cost is arrived at by dividing the cost of each process by the number of good units of production obtained from it. Hence, it is necessary to set up a report scheme to find the number of units produced by each process. Since it is unlikely that all material entering a process will emerge in the form of good production, the recording scheme should provide records of scrap from each process, in addition to records of good production achieved. Elements of Cost Involved (a) Material usage The method of charging material usage will depend on the factory layout and organisation. If there is only one injection of raw material at the stage of the initial process, the problem is simplified, and material usage can be computed from the stores requisition slips. In this case, the output of the first process becomes the raw material of the second, and so on. If further raw material is required in a subsequent process, it may be convenient to establish new material stores adjacent to the point of usage, and record the usage from the stores requisition slips. In many cases, material may be used which is of little value unit-wise (e.g. nails) and the volume of paperwork required to record each issue would be prohibitive. In such cases, the method of charging would be to issue the anticipated usage for a costing period at one time, the issue being held for use at the point of manufacture. A physical stocktaking at the end of the period would establish actual usage of material, which could be compared with the theoretical usage expected for the output achieved. (b) Accounting for labour Accounting for labour where process costing is in operation is, normally, straightforward. Fixed teams of operatives are associated with individual processes, and the interchange of labour between processes is not encouraged from the point of view of efficiency. It is often as simple as collating names on the pay sheets to establish the wages cost for a process. Where process labour is interchangeable, labour charges per process may be established by issuing job cards to employees, to record the time spent on each process. ABE and RRC Methods of Costing (c) 399 Direct expenses All expenses wholly and exclusively expended for one particular process will be given the proper process number and allotted to the cost centre on this basis. (d) Overhead expenses In absorption costing, the indirect material, labour and expenses not chargeable to one particular process must be borne, eventually, by production. Absorption rates are used as before, and we need to establish rates in advance for each of our cost centres. This means that the total overhead expenses of the business must be estimated and allocated or apportioned to the processes, in terms of the rules which we have already explained. As we have seen, it is necessary to assess the output expected at each cost centre. Then, the absorption rates for the cost centres can be calculated by dividing the estimated costs associated with them by the estimated output per cost centre. In this way, we establish a relationship between overhead cost and activity and, at the close of each period, the actual activity achieved by the cost centre is multiplied by the predetermined rate, to give the charge for overheads. Comparison of Job and Process Costing The similarities and differences between the two methods are summarised in the following table. Table 20.1 Job Process Items are discrete and identifiable. Items are homogeneous. Costs are allocated to individual units of production. No attempt is made to allocate costs on an individual basis. Losses are not generally expected to occur in the course of production. Losses are expected to occur (see later). Direct costs (labour, materials and product overhead) are the same under both systems. As costs are allocated to each unit, each item of finished production has its own costs. As costs are allocated to the process, finished goods have an average value. Stock consists of unlike units. Stock consists of like units. Treatment of By-Products The costing of by-products of a process may be dealt with in three different ways. By-products of little value The clerical work involved in calculating the cost of products which are of little value is not justified. The process concerned should be credited with the market value of the by-product less any selling expenses incurred in disposing of it. By-products of considerable value As accurate an assessment as possible must be made of these by-products and the value transferred to a by-product account. The value might be based on a formula ABE and RRC 400 Methods of Costing determined by consultation with the technical staff, or assessed on the market price of the by-product. Joint products It sometimes happens that a process produces two products of approximately the same value, and here the problem is to ascertain the cost of each product up to the point of separation. This is usually done by apportioning the costs to that point on the market value of the products. The market values used may be the values at the separation point or the ultimate values after further processing. Wastage in Process Costing The main problem here is to distinguish between normal waste and abnorm al waste; each is dealt with quite differently. Normal waste It is almost inevitable that a certain amount of waste will occur in any process, and the cost of this expected waste must remain with the good production and be passed on to the next process. For example, if the total cost of process A was 1,000 and the total number of units produced was 1,000 (there being no wastage), the unit cost would be 1. If, however, there was a wastage of 10%, the 1,000 transferred to the next process would represent 900 units and the unit cost would be 1.111. The total cost of each process must therefore be absorbed by the good production. Abnormal waste Abnormal waste may be the result of faulty material, faulty machinery or careless labour. Where this occurs, it is usual to transfer the cost to a separate account, which is written off direct to the costing profit and loss account. Treatment of Work in Progress One of the difficulties that arises with process costing is the valuation of work -in-progress. This is because costs need to be apportioned fairly over the units of production which, as you are now aware, are not generally separately identifiable. Materials may be added in full at the start, or at varying rates through the differing processes; the cost of labour may not necessarily be incurred in proportion to the level of output achieved. In order to apportion costs fairly, the concept of equivalent units is used. The CIMA Official Terminology defines them as: "A notional quantity of completed units substituted for an actual quantity of incomplete physical units in progress, when the aggregate work content of the incomplete units is deemed to be equivalent to that of the substituted quantity of completed units, e.g. 150 units 50% complete 75 units. The principle applies when operation costs are being apportioned between workin-progress and completed output." Example A new process has been started by your company, and for the first month costs were as follows: Material X 400 kilos at 2.50 per kilo Material Y 3,000 kilos at 0.80 per kilo Labour 2,200 hours at 3 per hour Overheads 100% of labour cost ABE and RRC Methods of Costing 401 During the first month 3,000 kilos of the product were completed and taken into stock. There was no gain or loss in process. The work in progress (i.e. 400 kilos) was considered 75% complete in relation to labour and overhead and 100% complete as far as material was concerned. The following statement and process account for the month shows the value of completed items transferred to finished stores and the closing work in progress. Note how we treat work in progress in terms of percentage completion, and calculate an equivalent number of completed units. Material Complete (units) WIP (equivalent units) Total (units) Costs Cost per unit Labour Overheads 3,000 400 3,400 3,000 300 3,300 3,000 300 3,300 3,400 1 6,600 Total 6,600 2 2 5 Review Questions Section A 1. What are the problems with adopting a "cost-plus" approach towards pricing? 2. Describe what job costing involves and provide an example of when it could be used. Section B 1. Briefly describe how batch costing deals with factory overheads. Section C 1. Describe two differences between job and process costing. 2. What is the difference between normal and abnormal waste in process costing? ABE and RRC 402 Methods of Costing ABE and RRC 403 Study Unit 21 Marginal Costing Contents Page A. The Principles of Marginal Cost Accounting Elements of Cost Involved Contribution Relevant Costs 404 404 405 406 B. Uses of Marginal Cost Accounting Selling Price Additional Contracts Selling Price for Additional Work Unprofitable Items Make or Buy 406 406 406 407 408 409 C. Contribution and the Key Factor Sales as a Key Factor Production as Key Factor 410 410 411 D. Opportunity Cost 413 E. Comparison of Marginal and Absorption Cost Accounting 413 ABE and RRC 404 Marginal Costing A. THE PRINCIPLES OF MARGINAL COST ACCOUNTING Absorption cost systems, which we discussed previously, are based on the assumption that all costs should be absorbed into the products, activities or cost centres identified within the cost accounting system. This concept of cost accounting is of course, cost accounting on the basis of total cost, and is an important aid to management in the control of costs. However, the accountant's task of providing information on costs for decision-making purposes may require a different approach. When planning the volume of output in the short term, the accountant has to provide information about the behaviour of fixed and variable costs over the planned range of output. For a number of special decisions relating to alternative courses of action, such as making or buying a component, he or she has to provide cost information which will help management to choose the most profitable course of action. The total absorption of all costs in products, etc. can lead to bad decisions, and this is why a marginal (or variable) cost accounting approach is used in many decision-making situations. Elements of Cost Involved At the heart of marginal costing is the distinction between fixed, variable and semi-variable cost. Before going any further, we should review the terms. Fixed costs A fixed cost is one which tends to remain constant regardless of the level of production. Examples are rent and the salary of the production manager. It should be clear to you that any expense classified as fixed is only fixed for a certain period of time, and only within certain levels of production. For instance, business rates are likely to be increased once a year or once every few years, but within the year they are fixed regardless of the level of production at the factory. If, however, production increased so greatly that it was necessary to acquire a new factory, there would be another rates demand to pay. Variable costs Consider, on the other hand, a selling expense such as sales staff commission. If the organisation makes no sales, no payment or expense will arise. As sales begin to rise from zero, the cost of commission will increase according to the level of sales achieved. This is an example of variable costs. Semi-variable costs Between these two extremes, one of which is affected by activity while the other is not, there is another type of cost which is partly fixed and partly variable. It is known as a semi-fixed or semi-variable cost. An example is the charge for electricity, which consists of a standing charge per quarter (the fixed element) and a charge per unit of usage (the variable element). Any semi-variable cost can be separated into fixed and variable components. Now we can move on to marginal cost itself. Marginal cost CIMA defines marginal cost as: "The variable cost of one unit of a product or a service; i.e. a cost which would be avoided if the unit was not produced or provided." From the above description of fixed, variable and semi-variable costs, it should be clear to you that producing one item less does not avoid any fixed cost, nor any of the fixed element of semi-variable costs. ABE and RRC Marginal Costing 405 A statement of cost on a marginal basis will therefore contain only the variable cost, built up as follows: Direct material Direct labour Direct expenses Prime cost add Variable overheads: Factory Selling Marginal cost Cost per unit X X X X X X X X Contribution When the total variable (or marginal) cost of a number of products is deducted fr om the total sales revenue, the amount that is left over is called the contribution. Since fixed costs have not yet been taken into account, this contribution has to cover fixed costs; any amount remaining is profit. (That is why it is called the contribution it contributes to fixed costs and then to profit.) We can write this symbolically as: SV FP (Sales revenue Variable cost Fixed cost Profit) This is the basic equation of marginal cost accounting. We can also talk about the contribution per unit of a product, which is simply the selling price minus the variable (marginal) cost. It should be clear that under marginal cost accounting we cannot talk about the profit from any one product, since fixed costs are considered only in total and are not apportioned to the individual products. However, a number of decisions can be made by looking at the contribution: clearly, if a company maximises its contribution it is also maximising its profit, provided that fixed costs are truly fixed. A profit statement for three products built up on a marginal cost accounting basis would appear as follows (the numbers are included purely for illustration, so that you can see the format): Product J 1,344,000 Product E 840,000 Product N 680,000 Total 2,864,000 Direct materials Direct labour Variable overhead Marginal cost 336,000 201,600 268,800 806,400 294,000 168,000 168,000 630,000 374,000 136,000 204,000 714,000 1,004,000 505,600 640,800 2,150,400 Contribution Fixed overhead Profit 537,600 210,000 (34,000) 713,600 113,600 600,000 Sales ABE and RRC 406 Marginal Costing Relevant Costs The costs which are relevant for decision-making will depend on the type of decision problem for which they are required. In the next section we will examine several different types of decision problems. However, we can at this stage identify two important points relating to relevant costs: Future costs Costs that have been incurred in the past, known sometimes as "sunk" costs, are not relevant to future decisions, except insofar as they may help the accountant to estimate future costs. Differential costs Anything that remains the same regardless of the alternative selected should be ignored, even if it is a future cost. B. USES OF MARGINAL COST ACCOUNTING Selling Price Marginal cost accounting does have limitations as a price-setting tool but it is useful when a company has carried out some market research to ascertain the likely sales of a product at different selling prices. Example The variable costs of Product A are 10 per unit. The company has undertaken some market research which indicates what the likely sales at each of a number of possible selling prices would be: Selling Price 12 15 20 Sales (thousands) 20 10 4.5 The company wants to decide which selling price it should adopt. To determine the optimum price, we need to ascertain the price at which the contribution is maximised: Selling Price 12 15 20 (a) Contribution per unit (selling price variable cost) 2 5 10 (b) Sales (thousands) 20 10 4.5 Total contribution (000) ((a) (b)) 40 50 45 Clearly, the company should sell the product at 15, since this will maximise the contribution it makes. Additional Contracts In times when it is short of work, a firm can accept additional work provided that the sales revenue covers the marginal cost of that work and any additional fixed costs incurred. This is because, although the new work might not show a profit on a full costs basis (wher e it will be given a share of the total fixed costs), it will provide an additional contribution and so reduce any overall loss (or increase overall profit). In the long term, of course, a firm will not survive unless it covers all its fixed costs. ABE and RRC Marginal Costing 407 Example 1 A company manufactures articles for 6 each (variable cost) and normally sells them at 10 each. Fixed costs are 10,000 per month. The firm is currently short of work it is selling only 2,000 units a month. It has the chance of an additional contract for 500 units a month for four months if it will accept a reduced selling price of 8 per unit. Fixed costs will not be increased if the contract is accepted. Should the company accept the contract? The contribution per unit on the additional contract would be 2 (8 6). Since this is positive (i.e. selling price is greater than marginal cost) the contract should be accepted. We can demonstrate the effectiveness of this decision by considering the current and potential positions: On present sales of 2,000 units the contribution is 4 per unit (10 6). Total monthly contribution 2,000 4 8,000 Fixed costs, monthly, are 10,000 2,000 Therefore, monthly loss If the new contract is accepted, the additional contribution is 500 2 = 1,000 per month. Therefore, the loss is reduced by 1,000 to 1,000. N.B. Since the contract is for four months, the company would have to take into account the likelihood of sales at the normal selling price picking up within that time. Obviously, if sales are likely to pick up, the company would prefer full price sales rather than being tied to a reduced price contract. But if sales are unlikely to improve, the reduced price contract is better than nothing! Example 2 A company manufactures articles at a variable cost of 5 each, and usually sells them for 10 each. It has the chance of an additional contract for 600 articles at 9 each but is unsure whether to accept as fixed costs would be increased by 1,500. Contribution per unit on the extra sales 4 Total additional contribution = 600 4 2,400 Additional fixed costs incurred 1,500 Additional profit 900 Therefore the company should accept the contract. Selling Price for Additional Work In the long run, a company must set selling prices which ensure that all its costs are covered. However, in the short term, as we have seen above, it will accept work at lower prices than normal, rather than lose the work altogether, if it is short of work. Marginal cost accounting can be used to determine the minimum price which should be charged for such additional work. Example A company manufactures articles at a marginal cost of 12 each, which it sells for 20. It has been approached by a charity who would purchase 2,000 articles if a mutually acceptable reduced price could be negotiated. Fixed costs are expected to increase by 6,000 if the extra 2,000 articles are produced. What is the minimum price which the company should quote for the contract? ABE and RRC 408 Marginal Costing The contribution from the extra 2,000 articles must at least cover the extra fixed costs incurred, i.e. extra contribution needed is 6,000 minimum. Therefore, extra contribution needed per unit is: 6,000 minimum 3 minimum 2,000 Therefore, minimum price to be quoted is: Marginal cost 3 15 each. Minimum price for whole order is 2,000 15 = 30,000. Unprofitable Items Consider the following statement of the profitability of three products, drawn up on a total cost basis: Profit Statement Total Cost Basis Element of Cost Direct wages Direct material Factory overheads Selling overheads Total cost Profit/(loss) Sales value Total Cost 12,000 14,000 5,000 7,000 38,000 38,000 Product A 3,000 6,000 1,000 3,000 13,000 3,000 16,000 Product B 4,000 6,000 3,000 2,000 15,000 (1,000) 14,000 Product C 5,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 10,000 (2,000) 8,000 From the above statement of the facts as they emerge under the total cost basis, management is entitled to assume that products B and C are distinctly unprofitable and that the obvious thing to do would be discontinue production of these lines. We will now evaluate the problem from the marginal viewpoint. This means eliminating fixed expenses from the figures of product cost. The figures we will assume to be fixed will be factory overheads of 3,000 and selling overheads 4,000. These elements are now excluded so that we can view the position with a greater degree of clarity. ABE and RRC Marginal Costing 409 Profit Statement Marginal Cost Accounting Basis Element of Cost Direct wages Direct material Variable overheads (a) Factory (b) Selling Marginal cost Sales value Contribution less Fixed expenses Profit Total 12,000 14,000 Product A 3,000 6,000 Product B 4,000 6,000 2,000 3,000 31,000 38,000 7,000 7,000 800 2,000 11,800 16,000 4,200 800 300 11,100 14,000 2,900 Product C 5,000 2,000 400 700 8,100 8,000 (100) From the statement above the true picture emerges, and it is possible to arrive at a policy decision which is certain to prove of greater value to the business than any decision based on the total cost statement. The following are the facts: Product C does not even cover marginal cost by its sales value. From this it will be seen that expansion of sales of C will result in greater and greater losses being incurred. This product should be discontinued forthwith unless there is a special necessity to have it available for sale, e.g. if A and B can only be sold if C is available. Product B makes a positive contribution and this is the fact which should ensure its continuance as an item of manufacture. If we had discontinued products B and C as indicated by the total cost statement, the fixed expenses of the business would fall exclusively on product A and, far from breaking even, the business would suffer a loss of 2,800. The figure of loss in the first statement attributed to product B was caused by the arbitrary application of fixed expenses. If we continue with products A and B, it will be seen that, given the same cost structure, the profit would be increased by 100, the amount of the marginal loss on the discontinued product C. To summarise, the effect of a policy decision based on the statement of total cost would have meant a future loss of 2,800, whereas basing our decision on the statement of marginal cost gives a future profit of 100. The benefits to be obtained by expressing problems in terms of marginal cost are very considerable indeed. Make or Buy A company makes several components, one of which, X, has the following cost structure: Direct material Direct labour Variable overhead Fixed overhead ABE and RRC per unit 10 5 5 6 26 410 Marginal Costing The component could be purchased from an outside supplier for 23 per unit. The total fixed overhead bill would be unchanged if outside purchase were adopted. Should the company make or buy component X? Since the total fixed overhead bill is unaff ected, the absorbed fixed overhead of 6 per unit is irrelevant. The cost of purchase (23) must be compared with the marginal cost of manufacture (20). On this basis continued production is preferable. C. CONTRIBUTION AND THE KEY FACTOR Up until now we have regarded contribution as a real and reasonable measure of profitability and this is perfectly in order in the absence of any special circumstances. However, special circumstances exist where there is a "key factor" in the organisational set up. A key (or limiting) factor is any factor in an organisation which will place a limit to the level of business which can be carried on. There are two main factors which may hinder the expansion or activity of a business. Sales level It is obvious that, if there is a limited market for a company's products, it will not be good business to produce output much in excess of the expected sales. In this case the sales level puts the limit on the activity which will be carried on by the business. Production level If the plant and machinery available to manufacture the items cannot supply the demand, it is clear that the production level will be the factor which controls the level of activity. It is also possible that a shortage of raw materials or labour can have the same effect. If we are faced with a situation which is affected by a key or limiting factor, and there are few businesses which are not, we must ensure that we make the best use of the facilities which form the key factor, i.e. attain the highest level of profitability that is possible from their use. Where sales is the limiting factor in the operation of a business, we should endeavour to make up our sales value total of products which yield the highest margin of profit. Where production is the limiting factor, we should ensure that we produce those products which earn the highest profit margins. In solving our business problems we should evaluate the effect of the key factors on the profit to be earned by the various products. This may be regarded as a further exercise to be undertaken when we have evaluated the various levels of contribution earned by our products. Sales as a Key Factor The natural method of assessing the most profitable lines when sales is the limiting factor is the expression of each product's contribution as a percentage of the selling price. This is in fact the creation of a series of profit volume ratios for each item sold. ABE and RRC Marginal Costing 411 Example Marginal costs Selling price Contribution Profit volume percentage Product A 4,000 5,000 1,000 Product B 7,000 8,000 1,000 20% 12% Product C 18,000 20,000 2,000 10% Obviously, the rate of contribution is most effective from Product A and the ideal situation would be to direct the whole of the sales effort to A. This would give a contribution of 20% of 33,000 or 6,000 compared with the current 4,000. However, it may be that there is tremendous sales resistance to Product A, making it impossible to expand the sales level, in which case Product B should be pushed. The object is to enhance the lines which are most effective in relation to the limiting factor. Production as Key Factor Where production is limited by the availability of material or labour, we must calculate not simply the contribution per unit of each product, but each product's contribution related to the amount of the scarce resource which it uses. Example A manufacturing company is reviewing its product range, as the basic material used in all its products has suddenly increased in price. The budget figures for the next period are as follows: Maximum production (units) Selling price per unit Variable costs: material labour overhead A 5,000 25 9 8 4 Product B C 5,000 5,000 33 43 12 17 10 12 5 6 D 5,000 56 20 18 9 The total amount of material available to the company is limited by the supplier's production capacity to 200,000. The budget fixed costs total 80,000. The company wishes to make the best use of the company's capacity and resour ces, and wants to know the product mix that would produce the maximum profit, and the maximum profit. ABE and RRC 412 Marginal Costing Selling price per unit () less Total variable cost per unit () Contribution per unit () A 25 21 4 Product B C 33 43 27 35 6 8 D 56 47 9 Contribution per 1 of material (p) contribution divided by material cost 44 50 47 45 4 1 2 3 Order of preference of products (based on contribution per 1 material) If we were able to choose only one product, we would choose product B, since, in terms of contribution earned, that makes the best use of the limited amount of raw material available. However, we shall also be able to produce some of the other products, and we must ascertain how much material we have left over after producing the maximum amount of B (5,000 units). Total material available Produce 5,000 units of B: material used 5,000 12 Material remaining Produce 5,000 units of C: material used 5,000 17 Material remaining Produce 2,750 units of D: material used 2,750 20 Material remaining 200,000 60,000 140,000 85,000 55,000 55,000 Therefore the best possible product mix is: 5,000 units of B 5,000 units of C 2,750 units of D None of A If this product mix is produced, the maximum profit will be obtained as follows: B Contribution per unit () Output (units) Total contribution less Fixed costs Profit 6 5,000 30,000 Product C 8 5,000 40,000 D 9 2,750 24,750 Total 94,750 80,000 14,750 ABE and RRC Marginal Costing 413 D. OPPORTUNITY COST This is the value of a benefit sacrificed in favour of an alternative course of action. Example Take as an example a piece of equipment in a factory which can be used only in the manufacture of one article. Each article takes half an hour to make, and there is a demand for 80 per week. The cost of the article works out as follows: Material 1.00 Direct labour 30 mins @ 2 hr. 1.00 Marginal cost 2.00 Contribution 3.00 Selling price 5.00 It is discovered that there is a possibility of using the equipment to make another article. The demand for this is 80 units per week. If the new article is produced, the present article will have to be discontinued. The marginal cost of the alternative article is: Material 2.70 Direct labour 30 mins @ 2 hr. 1.00 Marginal cost 3.70 What is the minimum selling price for the alternative product? The making of a new product always means the loss of an old one. There is therefore a n opportunity cost in making the new product, i.e. the lost contribution from the old product. The minimum price must take this into account and is derived as follows: Marginal cost 3.70 Opportunity cost (lost contribution) 3.00 Minimum price 6.70 E. COMPARISON OF MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COST ACCOUNTING It is appropriate at this stage to draw some comparisons between the techniques of marginal and absorption cost accounting. You should remember that both are acceptable and useful techniques, provided that they are used in appropriate circumstances. Marginal cost accounting is easier to use, since the apportionment of overheads is unnecessary. The problem of over or under-absorption of overheads at the end of an accounting period is avoided. Marginal cost statements which are presented to managers for control purposes usually contain only the detail for which the managers are responsible. Overheads often fall outside of an individual manager's control and are not included. ABE and RRC 414 Marginal Costing Overhead recovery rates are often applied in an arbitrary fashion. Overall profit figures do not highlight the contributions made by individual products. As we saw in the last unit, marginal cost accounting is generally preferred in most decision-making situations, particularly those of a short-term or special nature. In the long term, overheads must be recovered if the business is to make a profit. Total absorption cost accounting may well be a better basis for long -term pricing. Review Questions Section A 1. Explain the major difference between marginal and absorption costing. 2. Cutting the selling price of a product will usually result in higher sales. What are the negative aspects of reducing the selling price of a product? Section B 1. Describe the circumstances under which a company may continue to sell a product even though the variable costs of making it are not being covered. 2. Explain how marginal costing can be used to determine whether or not an additional contract to produce more goods should be taken on. Section C 1. Large companies that dominate a market (for example, the market for detergents is dominated by Proctor and Gamble and Lever Brothers) will endeavour to avoid a price war. Explain how establishing a strong brand loyalty for a product can increase the contribution generated per unit sold. 2. Explain how the limited availability of a material or labour can influence the manufacturing decisions of a company that makes several products. Section D 1. Explain how the concept of opportunity cost can influence the manufacturing decisions of a company that makes several products. Section E 1. Briefly outline the advantages and disadvantages of marginal and absorption costing. ABE and RRC 415 Study Unit 22 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Contents Page A. Break-Even Analysis Calculation of Break-Even Point Formulae Comparison of Different Price/Output Scenarios 416 416 416 418 B. Break-Even Chart Plotting the Graph Assumptions and Limitations Interpretation 419 419 420 421 C. Profit Volume Graph 422 D. The Profit/Volume or Contribution/Sales Ratio Use of Ratio 423 424 Case Study D: Whizzo Ltd 428 Answers to Questions for Practice 431 Answers To Case Study Tasks 433 ABE and RRC 416 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis A. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS For any business there is a certain level of sales at which there is neither a profit nor a loss, i.e. the total income and the total costs are equal. This point is known as the break-even point. It is very easy to calculate, and it can also be found by drawing a graph called a break-even chart. Calculation of Break-Even Point Let us assume that the organising committee of a Christmas party has set the selling price of tickets at 7 per ticket. It has agreed with a firm of caterers that a buffet be supplied at a cost of 5.50 per person. The other main items of expense to be considered are the costs of the premises and discotheque, which will amount to 40 and 50 respectively. The variable cost in this example is the cost of catering, and the fixed costs are the amounts for premises and discotheque. The first step in the calculations is to establish the amount of contribution per ticket: Contribution Price of ticket (sales value) less Catering cost (marginal cost) Contribution 7.00 5.50 1.50 Now we must evaluate the fixed expenses involved. Fixed costs Premises hire Discotheque Total fixed expenses 40 50 90 The organisers know that for each ticket they sell, they will obtain a contribution of 1.50 towards the fixed costs of 90. Clearly, it is only necessary to divide 90 by 1.50 to establish the number of contributions which are needed to break-even on the function. The break-even point is therefore 60, i.e. if 60 tickets are sold there will be neither a profit nor a loss on the function. Each ticket sold in excess of 60 will provide a profit of 1.50. Formulae The general formula for finding the break-even point is Fixed costs Contribution per unit This is, of course, exactly what we did in the example above. There are a number of other ways of expressing the formula, depending on the circumstances in which the analysis is to be applied. If the break-even point is required in terms of sales revenue, rather than sales volume, the formula simply has to be multiplied by the selling price per unit, i.e. BEP (sales revenue) Fixed costs Selling price per unit Contribution per unit ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 417 In our example, the break-even point in revenue would be 60 7.00 420. The organisers would know that they had broken-even when they had 126 in the kitty. Suppose the committee were organising the party in order to raise money for charity, and had decided in advance that the function would be cancelled unless at least 60 profit would be made. The committee would want to know how many tickets it would have to sell to achieve this target. Now, the 1.50 contribution from each ticket has to cover not only the fixed costs of 90, but also the desired profit of 60, making a total of 150. Clearly, they will have to sell 100 tickets (150 1.50) to reach this point. To state this in general terms: Volume of sales needed to achieve a given profit Fixed costs Desired profit Contribution per unit Suppose the organisers actually sold 110 tickets. Then they have sold 50 more than the number needed to break-even. We say they have a margin of safety of 50 units or of 350 (50 7.00). Margin of safety Sales achieved Sales needed to break-even It may be expressed in terms of sales volume or sales revenue. Margin of safety is very often expressed in percentage terms: Sales achieved - Sales needed to break - even 100 Sales achieved Thus the party committee have a percentage margin of safety of 50 100 45% 110 The significance of margin of safety is that it indicates the amount by which sales could fall before a firm would cease to make a profit. Thus, if a firm expects to sell 2,000 units, and calculates that this would give it a margin of safety of 10%, it will still make a profit if its sales are over 1,800 units (2,000 10% of 2,000) but, if its forecasts are more than 10% out, then it will make a loss. The profit for a given level of output is given by the formula: (Output Contribution per unit) Fixed costs It should not, however, be necessary for you to memorise this formula, since when you have understood the basic principles of marginal cost accounting you should be able to work out the profit from first principles. Consider again our example of the party. What would be the profit if the organisers sold (a) 200 tickets or (b) 700 worth of tickets? (a) We already know that the contribution per ticket is 1.50. Therefore, if they sell 200 tickets, total contribution is 200 1.50 300. Out of this, the fixed costs of 90 must be covered and anything remaining is profit, so profit 210. (Check: 200 tickets is 140 more than the number needed to break-even. The first 60 tickets sold cover the fixed costs; the remaining 140 show a profit of 1.50 per unit. Therefore profit 140 1.50 210, as before.) ABE and RRC 418 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis (b) 700 worth of tickets is 100 tickets since they are 7.00 each. Total contribution on 100 tickets less Fixed costs Profit 150 90 60 (You will see that this checks with an earlier calculation.) Comparison of Different Price/Output Scenarios We can also apply the above forms of analysis to comparing the profit arising from changes in price and sales volumes. Consider the following example. A shoe manufacturer has fixed costs (premises, labour and machinery) of 50,000 per year in producing 10,000 pairs of shoes. The marginal cost for each pair of shoes, in terms of materials used, is 5 and the manufacturer sells them at 15. Break-even and profit are calculated as follows: Contribution price per item marginal cost 15 5 10 Break-even sales volume Fixed costs Contribution per unit 50,000 10 5,000 Profit on sales of 10,000 (Output Contribution per unit) Fixed costs (10,000 10) 50,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 It has been estimated that the company could increase sales by 10% if it reduced the price by 10%. What would be the effect of this? First, we need to re-calculate the contribution per unit to take account of the 10% reduction (1.50): Contribution per unit 13.50 5 8.50 The new break-even sales volume is: 50,000 5,882.36 or 5,883 8.50 The profit at the new price is: (11,000 8.50) 50,000 43,500 Thus, profit would fall, despite the larger volume of sales and the price reduction should not be implemented. ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 419 B. BREAK-EVEN CHART A break-even chart plots the relationship between costs and sales revenue, and output. Output is the independent variable and is plotted along the x axis, and sales and costs, as dependent variables, are plotted on the y axis. To illustrate the construction of a break-even chart, we shall use the following information: Sales revenue We need the total sales revenue which would be received at various outputs, as shown in the following table: Output (units) 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 Sales revenue 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 Costs We must first establish which elements of cost are fixed in nature, together with the fixed element of any semi-variable costs must also be taken into account. Let us assume that the fixed costs total 8,000. The variable element of cost must also be assessed at varying levels of output. Output (units) 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 Variable costs 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Plotting the Graph The following are the stages in the construction of the graph: (a) Plot the sales line from the given figures. (b) Plot the fixed costs line. This line will be parallel to the horizontal axis. (c) Plot the total costs line. This is done by adding the fixed expense of 8,000 to each of the variable costs above. (d) The break-even point is represented by the meeting of the sales revenue line and the total cost line. If a vertical line is drawn from this point to meet the horizontal axis, the break-even point in terms of units of output will be found. The graph is illustrated in Figure 22.1. ABE and RRC 420 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Figure 22.1: Break-even Chart Revenue/ 40,000 Cost Sales 30,000 Total cost (fixed + variable) 20,000 Break-even point 10,000 Fixed cost 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Output Note that, although we have information available for four levels of output besides zero, one level is sufficient to draw the chart, provided we can assume that sales and costs will lie on straight lines. We can plot the single revenue point and join it to the origin (the point where there is no output and therefore no revenue). We can plot the single cost point and join it to the point where output is zero and total cost fixed cost. In this case, the break-even point is at 4,000 units, or a revenue of 16,000 (sales are at 4 per unit). This can be checked by calculation: Sales revenue 4 per unit Variable costs 2 per unit Contribution 2 per unit Fixed costs 8,000 Break-even point Fixed costs Contribution per unit 4,000 units Assumptions and Limitations The following points should be borne in mind when constructing and using break-even charts: Break-even charts are accurate only within fairly narrow levels of output. This is because the proportion of fixed costs could change with a substantial change in the level of output. Even with only one product, the income line may not be straight. A straight line implies that the manufacturer can sell any volume he likes at the same price but this may well ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 421 be untrue. If he wishes to sell more units he might have to reduce the price and whether this increases or decreases his total income depends on the elasticity of demand for the product. Therefore, the sales line may curve upwards or downwards, but in practice is unlikely to be straight. Similarly, we have assumed that variable costs have a straight line relationship with level of output, i.e. variable costs vary directly with output. Again, this might not be true. For instance, the effect of diminishing returns might cause variable costs to increase beyond a certain level of output. Break-even charts hold good only for a limited time-span. Nevertheless, within these limitations a break-even chart can be a very useful tool. Managers who are not well-versed in accountancy will probably find it easier to understand a break-even chart than a calculation showing the break-even point. Interpretation In addition to the break-even point itself, there are two further pieces of information which may be read from a break-even chart. These are illustrated in the skeleton chart shown in Figure 20.2. Margin of safety The margin of safety, i.e. the extent by which sales could fall before a loss was incurred, is easily read from the graph. Angle of incidence The angle marked on the chart is referred to as the angle of incidence. This shows the rate at which profits increase once the break-even point is passed. A large angle of incidence means a high rate of earning. (It also means that if sales fell below breakeven point, the loss would increase rapidly.) This is also illustrated by the size of the profit and loss wedges. Figure 22.2: Skeleton break-even chart Cost/ revenue Sales revenue Profit wedge Total cost Margin of safety Fixed cost Loss wedge Break-even point ABE and RRC Actual output Volume of output 422 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis C. PROFIT VOLUME GRAPH The profit volume graph provides an alternative presentation to the break-even chart. It may be more easily understood by managers who are not used to accountancy or statistics. In this graph, sales revenue is plotted on the horizontal axis, against profit/loss on the vertical axis. It is therefore necessary to work out the profit before starting to plot the graph. This is done by using the marginal cost accounting equation given earlier. The form of the equation which is most convenient will depend on the presentation of the information in the particular question. Sales revenue Variable cost Fixed cost Profit; or Profit Sales revenue Variable cost Fixed cost; or Selling Number price of units per unit sold Profit Variable Number cost of units per unit sold Fixed cost; or Contribution per unit Number of units Fixed cost. The general form of the graph is illustrated in Figure 22.3. Figure 22.3: Profit/volume graph Profit Contribution line O Fixed cost Loss (BEP) Sales A The distance AO on the graph represents the amount of fixed cost, since when no sales are made there will be a loss equal to the fixed cost. ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 423 D. THE PROFIT/VOLUME OR CONTRIBUTION/SALES RATIO This ratio has historically been referred to as the "Profit:Volume Ratio". This is not a very sensible name because it does not describe what the ratio actually is. In fact, it is now being called by the more descriptive name of "Contribution:Sales Ratio" (C/S Ratio) but you should watch out for the alternative term P/V Ratio. The ratio may be calculated as either: Selling price per unit - Variable cost per unit Selling price per unit or Total sales revenue - Total variable cost Total sales revenue Alternatively, it may be calculated when variable costs are not known, provided that the sales revenue and profit figures are known for two different levels of output. Example Calculate the profit/volume (C/S) ratio from the following information: Sales Figures Profit Figures Activity Level I 3,500 625 Activity Level II 3,000 500 The calculation of the profit/volume ratio is as follows: (a) Variation in profits, Level I Level II: 625 500 125. (b) Variation in sales, Level I Level II: 3,500 3,000 500. This means that for additional sales of 500 there is an additional profit of 125. (c) Profit volume ratio 125 (a) or 0.25 (b) 500 This figure can be checked by drawing up profit statements for the two activity levels, bearing in mind that if the P/V ratio is 0.25, i.e. contribution is 25p per of sales, then variable costs will be 75p per of sales. We must also remember that fixed cost = contribution profit, and that the fixed cost will by definition be the same at each of the two activity levels. Sales less Marginal cost (0.75 per 1) Contribution less Fixed expenses Profits ABE and RRC Level I 3,500 2,625 875 250 625 Level II 3,000 2,250 750 250 500 424 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Use of Ratio (a) Calculating profit at different levels of sales Using the data in the last example, what would be the profit on 2,000 sales and what sales level would be required to produce a profit of 1,000? At sales of 2,000 Sales as above 2,000 P/V percentage as calculated 25% Contribution on 2,000 sales (25% of 2,000) 500 Fixed expenses as calculated 250 Profit on 2,000 sales (contribution less fixed expenses) 250 For profit requirement of 1,000 Profit requirement as above 1,000 Fixed expenses as calculated Total contribution required (profit fixed expenses) 250 1,250 PV percentage as calculated Sales required: 1,250 (b) 100 25 25% 5,000 Calculating break-even point An alternative formula for calculating the break-even point is: Fixed cost C/S ratio This gives the break-even point in terms of sales value. Using the same data again, break-even point will be: 250 0.25 250 100 1,000 25 Thus, the break-even point occurs when sales are 1,000. (c) Worked example (i) Define and illustrate by means of simple arithmetical examples: Contribution/sales ratio Margin of safety. (ii) What is the significance of a firm's margin of safety? ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis (iii) 425 The following details relate to product X: Selling price Costs: Material Labour Variable overhead Fixed overhead Profit 60 15 5 10 120 90 30 During the forthcoming year it is expected that material costs will increase by 10%, wages by 33.33% and other costs by 20%. Calculate the percentage increase in the selling price of X which would maintain the firm's contribution/sales ratio. Solution (i) The contribution/sales ratio is the contribution (i.e. sales revenue variable cost) expressed as a proportion of sales. Thus, if selling price 100 and variable cost/unit 75, the contribution/unit is 25 and the C/S ratio 0.25 or 25%. The margin of safety is the difference between a firm's actual or expected sales and the sales which would be needed for the firm to break-even. It may be expressed as a percentage of the actual sales. For example, using the data above and supposing fixed costs to be 2,500, the sales volume required to break-even would be 100 units (2,500 25). If the firm's actual sales were 200 units, its margin of safety would be 100 units or (100 200) 100 50%. (ii) A firm's margin of safety shows its ability to withstand adverse trading conditions. For instance, in the above example the firm can afford for sales to drop by up to 50% before it will be in real difficulties. (iii) Material Labour Variable overhead Marginal cost Present Costs 60 15 5 80 Increase Expected Costs % 10 66 33.33 20 20 6 92 Since current sales revenue is 120 per unit, the current C/S ratio is 40/120 or 33.33%. The variable cost:sales ratio is 66.67%. If the C/S ratio is to remain the same, the variable cost:sales ratio will also remain the same, i.e. 66.67% of the new selling price is 92. ABE and RRC 426 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Therefore, the new selling price must be: 92 100 138 66.67 We can check this as follows: Selling price less Variable cost Contribution 138 92 46 which is 0.33 of sales revenue, as required. The two most important points to notice about this part of the question are as follows: The fixed cost per unit is given as a "red herring". In marginal cost accounting we are only interested in the fixed costs in total; fixed cost per unit is relevant only to absorption cost accounting. As it transpired, in this example we did not need any information at all about fixed costs. The variable (marginal) cost to sales ratio and the contribution to sales ratio are complementary ratios, i.e. when expressed as percentages they add up to 100%, and if one of them remains constant, then so does the other. ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 427 Questions for Practice 1. A company producing 25,000 electric fans per year has calculated its costs as follows: Fixed costs Variable costs (a) 225,000 312,500 Assuming it sells all of its output, what should be the price in order to: (i) (ii) (b) 2. break-even? achieve a profit of 30,000? The company has estimated that if the price is raised to 30 per fan it might only sell 20,000 fans. Would this be more profitable than selling all the output at the price established in (a)(ii) above? The following figures relate to one year's working in a manufacturing business: Fixed overhead 120,000 Variable overhead 200,000 Direct wages 150,000 Direct materials 410,000 Sales 1,000,000 Represent each of the above figures on a break-even chart, and determine from the chart the break-even point. Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 428 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis CASE STUDY D: WHIZZO LTD This case study applies the concepts of costing methods, break-even analysis and profitvolume analysis to investigate a complex situation. It includes a number of tasks which you should try to tackle before looking at the answers at the end of the unit. Whizzo Ltd. makes a product called the Bodgit. A Bodgit is made up of 3 items: a spring; a socket; and a do-da. These items are purchased from a supplier at 2.50, 3.00 and 5.00 respectively. The manufacturing process consists of the following four stages: Workshop 1; Workshop 2; Machining; Painting and Spraying. Each of these areas has a supervisor who earns 15,000 per annum. This is 60,000 in total and has to be divided by the annual output to give the unit cost of producing 1 Bodgit. The following amount of time is required to produce 1 Bodgit: Workshop 1 15minutes Workshop 2 10 minutes Machining 20 minutes Painting and Spraying 15 minutes Labour rates are as follows: Workshop 1 5.00 per hour Workshop 2 6.00 per hour Machining 3.00 per hour Painting and Spraying 4.00 per hour Every year each stage of the manufacturing process incurs the following expenses: grease 1,000; cleaning materials 750; consumable stores 1,000. The firm also incurs the following expenses: business rates 5,000; rent 10,000; administration 5,000; office salaries 25,000; factory light and heat 12,000; office light and heat 2,000. All of these values have to be divided by the annual output to give the unit cost of producing 1 Bodgit. The firm makes 10,000 Bodgits per annum. The selling price for a Bodgit is 30.00. Using this information we can produce the standard cost card for 1 unit and a budgeted profit statement for 10,000 units as shown in the following table. ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Standard Cost Card Direct Materials: Spring Socket Do-da Direct Labour: Workshop 1: 15 minutes x 5.00/hr Workshop 2 :10 minutes x 6.00/hr Machining: 20 minutes x 3.00/hr Painting & Spraying: 15 mins x 4.00/hr Direct Expenses: Licence fee PRIME COST Factory Overheads: Indirect Materials: Grease Cleaning Materials Consumable Stores Indirect Labour: Supervisors' Wages Indirect Expenses: Light and Heat PRODUCTION COST Office Overheads: Indirect Labour: Salaries Indirect Expenses: Business Rates Rent Administration Light and Heat TOTAL COST PROFIT SELLING PRICE ABE and RRC 2.50 3.00 5.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 Budgeted Profit Statement (10,000 units) 10.50 25,000 30,000 50,000 105,000 4.25 12,500 10,000 10,000 10,000 42,500 0.50 15.25 0.40 0.30 0.40 1.10 5,000 152,500 4,000 3,000 4,000 11,000 6.00 1.20 23.55 12,000 235,500 2.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.20 60,000 25,000 2.20 28.25 1.75 30.00 5,000 10,000 5,000 2,000 22,000 282,500 17,500 300,000 429 430 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis Tom Brown, the company's Production Director, considers that the current system of dealing with factory and office overheads is unnecessarily complicated. He wants to adopt marginal costing to analyse a number of scenarios. Therefore, all of the overheads are to be treated as a lump sum. To help Tom in this process you are required to complete the following tasks. Task 1 If the firm charged 40.00 per unit, what would the break-even point be? Task 2 At a selling price of 40 per unit, how many units would Whizzo have to sell to make a profit of 50,000? Task 3 The sales director has calculated that if the firm reduces its selling price (i.e. 30) by 20%, it can make a profit of 75,000. Calculate the BEP and the number of unit sales that would be required to achieve that level of profit. Comment upon whether you think the company should proceed with this option. Task 4 The Sales Director has calculated that if the firm charges 50.00 per unit and increases advertising by 20,000, it can achieve profits of 85,000. Calculate the BEP and the number of unit sales that would be required to achieve that level of profit. Comment upon whether you think the company should proceed with this option. Task 5 The Production Director has calculated that if the company spends 100,000 on new manufacturing equipment, it can reduce its variable costs per unit of output by 15%. Assuming that the selling price per unit is 30.00, calculate the BEP and the number of unit sales that would be required to make a profit of 50,000. Comment upon whether you think the company should proceed with this option. ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 431 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. (a) We first need to calculate the marginal cost: (i) Total variable cost Output Marginal cost 312,500 12.50 25,000 Fixed costs Contribution per unit BEP (sales volume) Therefore: Contribution per unit Fixed costs Sales volume 225,000 9 25,000 The price at the break-even point is: Contribution per unit Marginal cost 9 12.50 21.50 (ii) Volume of sales needed to achieve a given profit Fixed costs Desired profit Contribution per unit Therefore: Fixed costs Desired profit Contribution per unit Volume of sales 225,000 30,000 10.20 25,000 The price required to generate profits of 30,000 is: Contribution per unit + Marginal cost 10.20 12.50 22.70 (b) We first need to recalculate the marginal cost and contribution per unit at the lower output, as follows: Marginal cost 312,500 20,000 15.625 Contribution per unit 30 15.625 14.375 Profit (Output Contribution per unit) Fixed costs (20,000 14.375) 225,000 62,500 Therefore, the price rise would bring increased profits, despite the fall in output. ABE and RRC 432 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 2. Break-even point occurs at 500,000 sales value, as shown by the break-even chart. Costs 1,000 (000s) Sales Formatted Total cost 800 Fixed overhead + Direct materials + Direct wages 600 Break-even point 400 Fixed overhead + Direct materials 200 Fixed overhead 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Sales (000s) ABE and RRC Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis 433 ANSWERS TO CASE STUDY TASKS Task 1 BEP = Fixed costs Contribution per unit Fixed cost = Total cost Prime cost From the Standard Cost Card, the total cost of making one Bodgit is 28.25, and of making 10,000 it is 282,500. Prime cost is 15.25 per unit or 152,500 in total. Total fixed costs = 282,500 152,500 = 130,000 Contribution per unit = Selling price Prime cost At the new price of 40: Contribution per unit = 40.00 15.25 = 24.75 Therefore: BEP = 130,000 = 5,253 units 24.75 Task 2 Volume of sales needed to achieve a given profit Fixed costs Desired profit Contribution per unit Therefore: Sales needed to achieve 50,000 profit 130,000 50,000 = 7,273 units 24.75 Task 3 The new selling price = 30 x 80% = 24 Contribution per unit = 24.00 15.25 = 8.75 BEP = 130,000 = 14,858 units 8.75 Sales needed to achieve 75,000 profit 130,000 75,000 = 23,429 units. 8.75 The company should not pursue this option primarily because it will have to work a lot harder to reach the BEP. Despite lowering the selling price to 24 per unit it may not necessarily sell 23,429 units. Task 4 At the new selling price of 50: Contribution per unit = 50 15,25 = 34.75 Fixed costs have risen by the addition of the increased advertising: 130,000 + 20,000 = 150,000 Sales needed to achieve 85,000 profit ABE and RRC 150,000 85,000 = 6,763 units. 34.75 434 Break-Even and Profit Volume Analysis This option should be pursued because it offers the opportunity to lower its BEP and generate higher profits at a lower level of production. Task 5 In this scenario, prime cost is reduced by 15%, whilst fixed costs rise by the cost of the new machinery (100,000). Prime cost = 15.25 x 85% = 12.96 Contribution per unit= 30.00 12.96 = 17.04 Fixed cost = 130,000 + 100,000 = 230,000 BEP = 230,000 = 13,498 units 17.04 Volume of sales needed to achieve 50,000 profit 230,000 50,000 = 18,486 units 17.04 In the short term, the company must pay for the machinery. Based upon the results, this option will only be feasible if the machinery can be leased over a number of years. ABE and RRC 435 Study Unit 23 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Contents Page A. Standard Costing Types of Standard Standard Material Cost Standard Labour Cost Standard Overhead Cost Advantages of Using Standard Costs 436 436 436 438 439 440 B. Variances from Standard Costs How Variance is Caused 440 441 C. Summarising and Investigating Variances Reconciling Budgeted and Actual Profit Investigating Variances Examples 443 443 444 445 Answers to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 448 436 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis A. STANDARD COSTING Standard costing involves the setting of standard costs. This involves the predetermination of the various component costs, and hence the total cost, of an article or unit of production. Note, at the outset, that these costs are not estimated. Estimated costs are generally based on a consideration of past results or the personal experience or opinion of individuals. Standard costs are based on a carefully planned and standardised method or routine of manufacture for a given article. Standard costing is appropriate in the following circumstances: When the quantity and quality of materials used are fixed and defined according to a given specification. When the manufacturing processes or operations are defined and clearly established by experience and study. When the machinery and equipment used in the manufacture of the article are clearly stated. Standard costs can be established for any product, but the measurement will differ between industries. Any standard cost derived for an article will be made up of a series of standard costs for the component parts. You will recall the elements of cost material cost, labour cost and overhead cost. In exactly the same way, the component elements of standard production cost are: Standard material cost Standard labour cost Standard overhead cost Types of Standard In establishing standards, there is an important distinction between the ideal and the norm. Ideal or basic standards These are standards which could be attained under ideal conditions, and as they are rarely, if ever, attainable, they serve primarily as a base from which to measure the standard of achievement revealed by actual costs. Normal or current standards These are based upon conditions which are actually attainable, and which may be regarded as a reasonable level of achievement to be matched by actual results. In most cases these will be the standards which will be most useful for the measurement of actual manufacturing efficiency. Trying to meet ideal standards can be demotivating. Normal standards can be met and improved upon and reset at higher levels. Standard Material Cost In establishing the standard material cost, certain considerations need taking into account and these will inevitably present the purchasing officer (or whoever is responsible for buying materials) with some basic questions to be answered: ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis (a) Type of material What quality is required? (b) 437 If price constraints are important, to what price bands should purchases be limited? Quantity of material (c) If quantities are to be realistic, what allowance must be made for waste, spoilage, rejects? For what period of future production are orders to be made? Price of material How reliable is current price as an indicator of future price? Example This example shows how standard costs are built up. The 3C Company produce greetings cards and calendars. One product is a special c alendar which sets out 12 photographs of favourite ski resorts and provides a dossier of information about snow and weather conditions recorded month by month over the last three years. Specifications for the calendar are as follows: Per calendar: Card one sheet Paper 12 sheets, printed both sides Envelope plain brown Packing white cardboard box with printed top Standard material costs have been drawn up as follows: Card Paper (basic) Photography Printing Envelopes Packing Total standard materials Check: Per 1,000 calendars 300 200 500 300 20 80 1,400 1,400 1.40 per calendar for materials 1,000 More detailed records further analyse these costs: ABE and RRC Per calendar p 30 20 50 30 2 8 1.40 438 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Standard material cost Item Per 1,000 Calendars Actual Cost Waste Card Paper Photographs Printing Envelopes Box 262.50 160.00 477.50 300.00 20.00 78.00 1,298.00 Per Calendar Standard Cost per item 37.50 40.00 22.50 2.00 102.00 30p 20p 50p 30p 2p 8p 1.40 Standard Labour Cost Obviously the important factor here is time taken, but this itself is dependent on a number of other factors. Some of these are: Layout of factory, workshop or print room Type and capacity of machinery and other equipment Methods of handling materials Precision of operations carried out by machinists Establishment of exact time to be allowed for each operation Once again, the important thing from the point of view of costing is that all this information should be available. Information should be kept up-to-date so that any changes in layout, equipment or method may immediately be incorporated in the standard costs. Special allowances should be made for such items as setting of machines, training of new operatives, handling or preparation of materials, and so on. Continuing our previous example, standard labour costs have been drawn up for the Ski Calendar as follows: Cutting room Assembly room Print shop Distribution/packing Total labour materials Check: Per 1,000 calendars 400 300 600 200 1,500 Per calendar p 40 30 60 20 1.50 1,500 1.50 per calendar for labour 1,000 More detailed records further analyse these costs: ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis 439 Standard labour cost Hours Cutting room Assembly room Printshop Distribution/packing 80 100 100 100 Cost per Hour 5 3 6 2 Per 1,000 Calendars 400 300 600 200 1,500 Standard Overhead Cost This will need to be obtained from the budgeted overhead figures, and then included in the standard cost of an article Returning to our example of 3C Company, the budgeted overheads are as follows for the whole business: Production overheads Administration overheads Selling overheads Total overheads 16,000 12,000 12,000 40,000 Greetings cards make up 80% of 3C's total production, with calendars making up the other 20%. The Ski Calendar makes up 25% of total calendar overheads. The calculation of overheads attributable to the Ski Calendar is as follows: 20% (calendars) of 40,000 8,000 25% (Ski Calendars) of 8,000 2,000 This total overhead must now be added to the existing standard costs at rate of. 2,000 20p standard overhead cost per calendar 1,000 The full standard costs of the Ski Calendar can now be set out as follows: Standard Cost Of Ski Calendar Standard material cost Standard labour cost Standard overhead cost Total standard cost ABE and RRC 1.40 1.50 0.20 3.10 440 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Advantages of Using Standard Costs Efficiency is helped by the necessary preparation of products, processes and equipment. Variances from standards can be identified and action taken to correct these. Labour efficiency can be monitored. Plant capacity and performance can be evaluated and controlled. Wastage of materials is avoided. Price-fixing is made more reliable because of less fluctuating costs. Costing procedures are simplified. Targets can be fixed realistically for different departments. Management control is made easier. Long-term forecasts can be made. Standard costs are closely allied with budgetary control, enabling variations from the standard to be identified and examined. Both standard costs and budgets involve: The establishment of a predetermined standard or target of performance. The measurement of actual performance. The comparison of actual performance, in detail and in total, with the predetermined standard and budget. The disclosure of variances between actual and standard performances, and t he reasons for these variances. The suggestion of corrective action where examination of the variances indicates that this is necessary. But they differ in that: Budgets deal with totals, standards deal with articles or units of production. Budgets generally cover the entire business whereas standard costs cover only part of it. B. VARIANCES FROM STANDARD COSTS It is one thing to set standard costs, but it is quite another to ascertain how these have worked out in practice. Usually there is a discrepancy between standard and actual cost a variance. For example: Actual cost Standard cost Variance 2.50 2.30 0.20 Variances can exist in respect of each component of cost, as well as in total. They may also be either adverse i.e. actual costs are more than standard costs or favourable, where actual costs are less than expected. For example: ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Standard costs Materials 3 Labour 2 Overheads 4 Total 9 Actual costs 4 5 3 12 441 Material variance: 1 adverse Labour variance: 3 adverse Overhead variance: 1 favourable Total variance: 3 adverse How Variance is Caused There are two main causes of favourable or adverse variances: A variance because the actual price was different from the standard price. This is called a price variance, and may arise in terms of material, labour or overhead costs. A variance between the actual quantity used and the standard quantity expected. This is called a usage variance. Here again, this can arise under materials, labour or overheads. Examples will help you to understand these points. Remember that whether the variance is caused by price or by quantity, it will be the cost that is affected. Example (a) Material cost Quantity to be used (units) Price to be paid (per unit) Total cost Standard costs 60 1 60 Actual costs 50 1 50 The 10 difference is a favourable one (costs were less than expected). It can be explained as follows: Standard Usage Price Actual 60 1 50 1 Variance Adverse Favourable 10 So the variance is entirely due to usage 10 more units at 1 each have been used than was budgeted for. (b) Labour cost Quantity (hours) Price (wage per hour) Total cost ABE and RRC Standard costs 30 3 90 Actual costs 30 3.50 105 442 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis This adverse difference of 15 arises as follows: Standard Actual 30 3.00 30 3.50 Usage Price Variance Adverse Favourable 50p So the variance arises entirely by price, because 30 hours' labour cost 50p each more than planned. (c) Overhead cost Quantity (hours) Price Total cost Standard costs 10 3 30 Actual costs 8 3 24 This favourable difference of 6 arises as follows: Standard Usage Price Actual 10 hours 3 8 hours 3 Variance Adverse Favourable 2 So the variance arises entirely by usage 10 hours planned but only 8 hours used. 2 hours at 3 is 6. We can now summarise all the variances as follows: Standard Labour Materials Overheads Total Actual 90 60 30 180 105 50 24 179 Variance Adverse Favourable 15 10 6 16 15 In other words the credit for the saving of 1 in costs arises from favourable performances under the materials and overhead aspects. This would have produced a much better result, but for the adverse labour variance being 15. We know, too, that the reason for this variance is that the price per unit was more than the standard. ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis 443 C. SUMMARISING AND INVESTIGATING VARIANCES Reconciling Budgeted and Actual Profit Having identified individual variances, we can summarise them in order to see why actual profit differs from budgeted profit. Let's look at a simple example: In a one-week period, goods to the value of 3,000 were sold. The selling prices of these goods were 20% above standard cost. During the period, the following variances were recorded: Material price 25 (A) Material usage 12 (F) 8 (A) 18 (A) 5 (F) 20 (A) Labour rate (price) Labour efficiency (quantity) Direct expenses Indirect expenses What was the net profit for the period? We can prepare a simple standard costing profit and loss account: Profit and Loss Account Sales 100 Standard cost (3,000 ) 120 Standard profit Variances: Adverse: Material price Labour rate Labour efficiency Indirect expenses Favourable: Material usage Direct expenses Total net variance Net profit 3,000 2,500 500 (25) (8) (18) (20) (71) 12 5 17 (54) 446 Standard profit is the difference between actual sales and the standard cost of sales. It is the amount of profit which would have been achieved if there had been no variances. We can prepare standard costing profit and loss accounts for each department or section of a business, as well as overall, to see how actual performance is comparing with budget (standard). ABE and RRC 444 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Investigating Variances Before finally deciding whether to amend a budget, we must look carefully at each significant variance and ask: Why did it happen? How can it be prevented from happening again? This exercise is invaluable in highlighting areas where improvement may be needed is a machine wearing out? Are we using skilled enough workers, or do operators need more training to work more efficiently? Should we change our material supplier? Again, costing is helping to plan the future and improve it. Calculation of variances merely points out deviations from budget/standard and does not explain the reasons for such deviations. Ideally, management would wish for an explanation of all variances, but it is obviously not worth doing this if the cost of investigation outweighs the benefit to be obtained from any corrective action which might follow. We must therefore take into account the following factors: (a) Relative size of variance As a "rule of thumb", variances of over, say 5%, need to be investigated. However, if there was a persistent variance in one item over several control periods, it might merit investigation even if each individual period's variance was below the specified limit. (b) Size of the item of expenditure If, say, labour costs are 10 times as high as material costs, then clearly any variance on labour cost is more serious than a similar percentage variance on material cost. (c) Possibility of corrective action There is no point detailing possible reasons for variance if corrective action is not likely to be possible. (Frequently, however, it will only be after investigation that it becomes clear whether corrective action is possible.) We've seen that variances can be due to differences between actual and budgeted price (or rate) and/or quantity (or efficiency of volume). Let's look at the possible reasons for some production variances: Material price variance: Adverse Higher price owing to using different supplier, buying a smaller quantity and losing bulk discount, etc. Favourable Lower price owing to fall in general price of that material, buying in bulk etc. Material usage variance: Adverse Careless workers wasting material, poor quality material requiring more to be used, etc. Favourable High quality material, better machinery reducing wastage, etc. Labour rate variance: Adverse Higher wages owing to shortage of skilled workers, higher-grade workers, etc. Favourable Lower wages owing to using lower-grade workers, trainees etc. ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis 445 Labour efficiency variance: Adverse More hours worked owing to untrained or low-grade workers, lack of supervision, poor maintenance of machines leading to frequent breakdowns, etc. Favourable Efficient workers, good machines and supervision, etc. Can you see how some of these variances are interdependent? For instance, if you looked simply at an adverse material usage variance, you might be inclined to blame the production manager for not controlling wastage. However, if you look at this variance in conjunction with a favourable materials price variance due to buying slightly substandard materials, you can see that this might have led to high wastage. Similarly, an adverse labour rate and favourable labour efficiency variance might be related. Higher wage rates might have motivated the workers towards better performance. Or conversely, they might have been on an incentive scheme, whereby greater efficiency was rewarded by higher pay. There might be interdependence between the material and labour variances. Rapid working, as indicated by a favourable labour efficiency variance, might have led to careless working with increased wastage of materials. Examples The following examples illustrate the range of variances and the ways in which they interact to affect company performance. 1. A company provides the following figures: Actual hours worked 3,800 Standard rate 3.60 per hour Actual wages 15,200 Actual production 1,000 units Standard time per unit 4 hours Calculate the labour cost, wage rate and labour efficiency variances. (a) Labour cost variance Labour cost variance Actual Budget 15,200 (1,000 4 3.60) 15,200 14,400 800 Adverse (b) Wage rate variance Wage rate variance Actual hours (Actual rate Standard rate) 3,800 (4 3.60) 3,800 0.40 1,520 Adverse ABE and RRC 446 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis (c) Labour efficiency variance Labour efficiency variance Standard rate (Actual Standard hours) 3.60 (3,800 4,000) 3.60 200 720 Favourable Note that Labour cost Wage rate Labour efficiency: 800 (A) 1,520 (A) 720 (F) 2. York Ltd operates a standard costing system and a report of variances between actual and standard costs is prepared each month. The monthly report for May shows the following variances: Direct material price variance = 860 favourable Direct material usage variance = 1,000 adverse Direct labour rate variance = 1,200 adverse Direct labour efficiency variance = 1,600 adverse What may be the reason(s) for the variances? Possible reasons for the variances are: Material price variance: Lower purchase price Material usage variance: Inefficient production or poor quality materials Labour rate variance: Labour efficiency: 3. Incorrect staff used or staff paid incorrect rate Poor quality materials or high levels of spoilage A manufacturer produces a single product. The standard cost data is as follows: Standard weight of material to produce one unit 18 kilos Standard price per kilo Standard labour hours to produce one unit 8 9 hours Standard wage rate per hour 5 The actual production and costs for April were: Material used Material cost Hours worked Wages paid 5,810 kilos 44,100 2,610 hours 15,620 The actual output was 300 units. Calculate the relevant material and labour cost variances. ABE and RRC Standard Costing and Variance Analysis 447 These can be shown in tabular form as follows: Material price variance: (5,810 8) 44,100 Material usage variance: ((300 18) 5,810) 8 Material cost variance Labour rate variance: (2,610 5) 15,620 Labour efficiency variance: ((300 9) 2,610) 5 Labour cost variance Total variance Question for Practice A company supplies the following data: Standard cost of one unit of output: Direct material (20 kilos at 2.00 per kilo) Direct wages (10 kilos at 4.00 per hour) 40 40 80 Actual cost of 100 units of output: Direct material: 4,081 (2,182 kilos) Direct wages: 4,312 (980 hours) Calculate the following variances: (a) Direct material price variance (b) Direct material usage variance (c) Total direct material cost variance (d) Direct labour rate variance (e) Direct labour efficiency variance (f) Total direct labour cost variance Now check your answers with those given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC 2,380 Fav 3,280 Adv 900 Adv 2,570 Adv 450 Fav 2,120 Adv 3,020 Adv 448 Standard Costing and Variance Analysis ANSWERS TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE The variances can be shown in tabular form as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Direct material price variance: (2182 2) 4,081 Direct material usage variance: ((100 20) 2,182) 2 Total direct material cost variance Direct labour rate variance (980 4) 4,312 Direct labour efficiency variance: ((100 10) 980) 4 Total direct labour cost variance Total variance 283 Fav 364 Adv 81 Adv 392 Adv 80 Fav 312 Adv 393 Adv ABE and RRC 449 Study Unit 24 Capital Investment Appraisal Contents Page A. Capital Investment and Decision Making 450 B. Payback 451 C. Accounting Rate of Return Calculation Comparison of Payback and Accounting Rate of Return 454 454 454 D. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Discounting to Present Value Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) Depreciation and DCF Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method Keep DCF in its Proper Place 455 455 456 458 459 459 Answer to Question for Practice ABE and RRC 461 450 Capital Investment Appraisal A. CAPITAL INVESTMENT AND DECISION MAKING From time to time a business will need to consider making a capital outlay, in order to: Acquire fixed assets e.g. plant and machinery. Develop new business activities e.g. introduce a new product. Acquire or make an investment in another business. Decisions on such expenditure need to be properly planned for, and all relevant factors appraised in order to ensure the investment is worthwhile. Once a capital investment has been made, it will be expected to generate income. It is the balance between the initial costs (cash outflows) e.g. the purchase and set-up costs of fixed assets and the resulting income generated (cash inflows) which decides whether the investment is advisable. The process of determining whether to invest or not is called capital budgeting or capital investment appraisal. Constraints In practice the availability of finance to resource a capital project will be limited, and the choice of capital projects to appraise will generally be governed by opportunity. For instance, it is not every day that an opportunity will arise to invest in a new business, or a new product. The purchase of new fixed assets will depend on business expansion, and the replacement of existing fixed assets will depend on them wearing out or becoming obsolescent. Regarding the availability of finance, a business will normally have some flexibility in the amount of cash it can raise from shareholders or other forms of borrowing, but generally it will have to contain its capital expenditure to within the limits of what is viable in relation to the total capital structure of the company. Assuming we have the capital finance resources to spend, and having decided on the project or projects to appraise, there are a number of financial considerations which will influence whether or not to invest. Financial criteria These financial decisions fall broadly into two different types: The requirement to recover the capital outlay of the project as early as possible. This can be measured by what we call the payback method. The requirement for the investment to earn as high a return as possible. This can be measured by what we call the accounting rate of return. The results of either type of appraisal should not be taken in isolation because they may give conflicting results, mainly due to the future accounting period in which the revenue cash inflows are expected. We therefore also need to look at cash flow in the light of its value in real terms, at today's value. Cash flow in earlier periods is of greater value in real terms than cash flow in later periods. We use the discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques to enable us to calculate the net present value of the project, or alternatively the internal rate of return. It is from these results that we will be able to decide the financial viability of the project and whether or not to go ahead with the capital investment. We will now look at each of these techniques. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal 451 B. PAYBACK Payback is the method we use to measure the period of time it takes to recover the cash outlay on a project. We shall examine the way in which this work through the following two examples. The first example is a simple appraisal between three similar capital projects; the second example is more complicated, dealing with the replacement of an old machine. The investigation from a costing point of view must make it absolutely clear that a saving should accrue from the investment, this being equivalent to increasing the profits of the business. Example 1 Determine which of these three capital schemes has the earliest pay back: A Project B C Initial outlay 15,000 25,000 12,000 Net cash inflows: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 10,000 8,000 3,000 1,500 750 8,000 10,000 14,000 4,000 1,675 1,800 2,800 3,800 4,800 3,535 By aggregating the net cash inflows we can compare the period over which each project will generate the funds to cover the initial outlay. A Project B C 15,000 25,000 12,000 Cumulative net cash inflows: Year 1 10,000 Year 2 18,000 Year 3 21,000 Year 4 22,500 Year 5 23,250 8,000 18,000 32,000 36,000 37,675 1,800 4,600 8,400 13,200 16,735 Initial outlay The payback periods are as follows: For Project A: For Project B: between Year 2 and 3 For Project C: between Year 1 and 2 between Year 3 and 4 ABE and RRC 452 Capital Investment Appraisal Assuming that cash flows are spread evenly over the year during the payback periods, we can calculate the precise payback time in accordance with the following formula: Number of years prior to year of payback Cash inflow required to achieve payback in year Cash flow in year of payback Applying this to the three projects in our example: Project A: 1 + 5,000 1.625 yrs 8,000 Project B: 2 + 7,000 2.500 yrs 14,000 Project C: 3 + 3,600 3.750 yrs 4,800 Example 2 This example deals with the replacement of machines. We should not replace m erely on the basis of increasing output, but should consider the cost of the output as it exists at the present and also what it would be were the new machine purchased as a replacement. It is normally the practice to evaluate problems of this type on a marginal costing basis. The payback period in this example refers to the annual saving expected by replacement, set against the capital cost of the new machine. An organisation has a machine shop which manufactures components for sale, as well as making replacement parts for its contracting plant. The management is considering the replacement of an old machine tool with a new one of improved design which will give increased output. The following information is given in respect of the two machine tools: Old Machine New Machine 8,000 12,000 22.5p 27.5p Power 600 400 Consumable stores 300 300 Repairs and maintenance 450 150 30 40 3,000 3,000 Material cost per unit 2p 2p Selling price per unit 6p 6p Purchase price Labour cost per running hour Other running costs per annum: Units of output per hour Running hours per annum Depreciation is being written off the cost of the old machine on a straight-line basis over 10 years, and its book value is now 4,000. The cost of the new machine is to be written off over 10 years on the same basis. Assuming that all output can be sold, prepare a statement showing whether or not it would be profitable to install the new machine. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal 453 Comparison of Machine Profitability Old Machine Outputs in units per annum (30 3,000) 90,000 Sales value thereof (1) New Machine (40 3,000) 120,000 5,400 7,200 Marginal cost Direct material 90,000 @ 2p Labour costs 3,000 @ 22.5p Other running costs: Power 600 Consumable stores 300 Repairs and maintenance 450 Marginal cost (2) 1,800 675 2,400 825 Gross contribution (1) (2) (3) less Depreciation (4) 1,575 3,125 800 775 1,200 1,925 Net contribution (3) (4) (5) 1,350 3,825 120,000 @ 2p 3,000 @ 27.5p 400 300 150 850 4,075 The cost-saving to be obtained by carrying out the replacement envisaged amounts to the difference between the gross margins or contributions as per item numbered (3). This is 1,550, giving a payback period of: 12,000 years 7 years. 1550 , Thus the machine would pay for itself within its anticipated life-span. The saving of 1,550 per annum on the worst possible set of circumstances should ensure that the machine of the new type is introduced. The worst set of circumstances which could affect the issue would be if the present machine lasted for a further 10 years without loss of efficiency, and the new machine also only lasted 10 years. The position would then be as shown below. Cost-saving on gross contribution basis: 10 years at 1,550 Depreciation: New 10 years at 1,200 Old 5 years at 800 12,000 4,000 15,500 16,000 (500) In normal circumstances, however, maintenance costs would rise very quickly and efficiency would also fall after 10 years' life, and the breakeven position would be very much improved. ABE and RRC 454 Capital Investment Appraisal Another way of looking at the position is to take the net contribution saving and reduce it by the capital value write-off: Saving in net contribution over 10 years (@ 1,150) less Capital loss (400 5 yrs) Net saving 11,500 2,000 9,500 C. ACCOUNTING RATE OF RETURN Calculation The accounting rate of return is expressed as a percentag e and is calculated by dividing the average annual net profit by the average investment, i.e.: Average annual net profit % Average investment To explain this more fully we will use the figures from Example 2 above, when we calculated the payback period of a replacement machine. We will assume that the average annual net profit of the new machine is 1,925 (sales of 7,200 costs 5,275). The average investment figure is normally calculated by taking (opening value closing value), or total investment. If we assume that the new machine is depreciated on a straight-line basis over its 10-year life, the calculation will be (12,000 0) 6,000. Therefore the accounting rate of return over the life of the new machine is calculated as: 1,925 100 32.08% 6,000 This figure is an average over the 10-year life of the machine, and it must not be forgotten that there will be significant differences in the actual figures between the purchase date of the new machine and its disposal date. In our example the accounting rate of return for year 1 would be: 1,925 100 16.89% 11,400 Workings: Average investment (12,000 10,800) Comparison of Payback and Accounting Rate of Return The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are compared in the tables below. Payback Accounting Rate of Return Advantages Simple to apply and understand. Simple to apply and understand. Minimises the time cash resources are tied up in capital projects. Relates to the concept of rate of return on capital employed (ROCE). Facilitates cash flow. Takes all cash flows into account. Cash flows are confined to the most recent accounting periods and therefore are easiest to calculate. Takes the total life of the project into account. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal Disadvantages Payback 455 Accounting Rate of Return Ignores cash flows as real time values Ignores cash flows as real time values Ignores disposal value of assets Ignores cash flows after the end of the payback period Does not take into account the need to recover the capital outlay as quickly as possible Ignores project wind-up costs D. DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW (DCF) So far we have calculated a payback period in terms of years and an accounting rate of return as a percentage. However, when we apply these tests in practice to a number of competing capital projects, we will often find that the figures give us conflicting results. This is because each method only takes into account one of the two types of financial criteria described earlier. What we require is a method for evaluating capital projects which not only takes into account the total cash inflow but also recognises that earlier cash inflows have a greater value than those received in later periods. The tool we use for this is called a discount rate. Discounting to Present Value Given an interest rate freely available of 10%, would you prefer 100 now or 110 in one year's time? You would be indifferent, because 100 now and 110 in a year's time, given an interest rate of 10%, are the same. 100 is the present value (PV); 110 is the future value (FV). Cash, then, has a time value: Now 1 year from now Interest 10% 100 110 Now, assume a project involved spending 1,000 now and resulted in cash inflows over five years as follows: Cash outflows Year Cash inflows 1,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 400 500 500 600 600 The total inflow of cash is 2,600, spread over Years 1-5. The outflow of cash is 1,000 now i.e. Year 0. But we have seen that cash has a time value; we cannot correctly add Year 1 inflows to Year 2 inflows to Year 3 inflows, and so on, because they are a year apart from each other and they are different sorts of s. To add a Year 1 to a Year 2 and so on would ABE and RRC 456 Capital Investment Appraisal be like adding a to a dollar they are different currencies, and we must convert them to common currency, to a common type of . The DCF technique involves converting future cash flows to their present values, which will be less than their actual money amounts in the future. The future cash flows are discounted (i.e. reduced) to present values. Calculating Net Present Value (NPV) We can calculate the present value of a future sum of money using special tables which take into account the general interest rate or cost of capital and the length of time over which the amount is to be discounted. Here is an extract from NPV tables: Present value of 1 in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years' time Discount rate 10% 15% 18% 20% 24% 28% 32% 1 year 0.909 0.870 0.847 0.833 0.806 0.781 0.758 2 years 0.826 0.756 0.718 0.694 0.650 0.610 0.574 3 years 0.751 0.658 0.609 0.579 0.524 0.477 0.435 4 years 0.683 0.572 0.516 0.482 0.423 0.373 0.329 5 years 0.621 0.497 0.437 0.402 0.341 0.291 0.250 Thus 1 in three years' time (assuming interest of 20%) has a NPV of 57.9p. Similarly 1,000 in three years' time (assuming interest of 20%) has a NPV of 579. This means that 579 in three years' time is just as good as 1,000 now. We calculate the overall NPV of a project by discounting the expected cash inflows and then deducting the amount invested from the total discounted revenue. The higher the NPV, the more profitable the project. A negative NPV means the project is unprofitable. Let's look at two simple examples. Example 1 A company is considering investing 10,000 in buying a new machine. The expected cash inflows from using the machine are: Year 1 6,000 Year 2 6,000 Year 3 6,000 Year 4 5,000 Year 5 5,000 Interest rates are expected to be around 10% throughout the five years. Should the machine be purchased, or the money invested to earn interest directly? No scrap value is expected from the machine. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal 457 The company can make the decision by discounting the future cash receipts to present values and calculating the project's NPV as follows. Present Values of Machine Revenues Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Net Cash Flow (NCF) Discount Factor NPV (from tables) (NCF Discount factor) 10,000 10% 10,000 6,000 6,000 0.909 0.826 5,454 4,956 6,000 5,000 5,000 0.751 0.683 0.621 4,506 3,415 3,105 28,000 21,436 Net present value of project 21,436 10,000 11,436 In straight cash flow terms the opportunity presented by the machine purchase is as follows: Cash revenues resulting less Cost of machine Cash gain 28,000 10,000 18,000 But if we take into account that the 18,000 gain is not realised now but over a period of five years, the true gain is only 11,436. Another way of looking at this is to say that in order to produce revenues of 18,000 you would need to invest 11,436 in a bank or building society at the outset. In fact, you are getting 18,000 cash flows by investing only 10,000 so there is a gain of 1,436 as compared with direct investment of the money. ABE and RRC 458 Capital Investment Appraisal Example 2 Let's take another look at our original example, again assuming an interest rate of 10%: Cash outflows 1,000 Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cash inflows 400 500 500 600 600 Discount factor 0.909 0.826 0.751 0.683 0.621 363.6 413.0 375.5 409.8 372.6 1,934.5 All the cash flows have been converted into Year 0 s, and can be added, to give NPV 934.50. (Cash inflows are assumed to occur in discrete end-of-year steps. In fact the cash flow will usually occur during the year, and discount factors calculated on a "continuous" basis are available. However, using such factors makes no significant difference.) The result of this example is a positive NPV of 934.50, and this means the project is viable, on one condition that the cost of capital of the company is 10% or less. If the company's cost of capital were more than 10%, then the appraisal would have to be done using the actual cost of capital. The positive NPV in our example means, "This project offers you 10% return on your investment and a positive amount over and above that besides". In using the NPV method, we appraise at the cost of capital %. Projects having a positive return in NPV terms cover the capital cost and increase the wealth of the company. Projects with a negative NPV do not cover their cost of capital and reduce the wealth of the firm, and should be rejected. Depreciation and DCF Depreciation is ignored when making NPV calculations. Remember that "cash flow" means exactly what it says the flow of cash. Why no allowance for something as important as depreciation? The answer to this question is that there is an allowance for it. When a machine is purchased, the cash payment enters the DCF analysis, as does the scrap value at the end. The difference between these two amounts measures depreciation, so an allowance is made for it. This is not the normal accounting method of dealing with it; nevertheless, the loss in value over the life of an asset is taken into account. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal 459 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method This method of DCF capital investment appraisal seeks to answer a simple but important question: "What interest rate must be employed in order to make the NPV of a project zero?" So far, in considering the NPV method, we have seen that a percentage rate of discount will reduce a number of future cash flows to their PVs. As the discount rate is increased, the NPV of the project will diminish and eventually become negative. It is this percentage discount rate which we compare with our cost of capital. The two concepts of NPV and IRR are just different sides of the same coin. With the NPV method we said: Discount the cash flow at our percentage cost of capital, and if the NPV is positive then the project is a good one. With the IRR method we say: Work out which percentage rate will discount the project's NPV to zero, and if that rate is larger than our cost of capital, the project is a good one. We calculate the IRR by trial and error. We try first one discount rate and then another, checking our NPV result each time. If the NPV is positive, we next use a slightly higher rate; if it is negative, a slightly lower rate, and so on until a zero NPV tells us we have arrived at the IRR. Keep DCF in its Proper Place Don't be tempted to regard DCF as an infallible answer to any capital investment decision. It is indeed a useful and valuable method which eliminates some of the disadvantages of other methods, as we have seen. But its accuracy is entirely dependent on accurate forecasts of cash inflow and outflow, and you will appreciate how difficult such forecasting is if you consider the problems involved in trying to assess the rate of company taxation in, say, five years' time! In practice the results of a DCF exercise may be ignored if benefits are expected from the capital project which are not definable in terms of money extensive technological benefits, for example. ABE and RRC 460 Capital Investment Appraisal Question for Practice The ABC Printing Co. are trying to decide which type of printing machine to buy. Type A costs 100,000 and the net annual income from the first three years of its life will be respectively 30,000, 40,000 and 50,000. At the end of this period it will be worthless except for the scrap value of 10,000. To buy a Type A machine, the company would need to borrow from a finance group at 9%. Type B will last for three years too, but will give a constant net annual cash inflow of 30,000. It costs 60,000 but credit can be obtained from its manufacturer at 6% interest. It has no ultimate scrap value. Which investment would be the more profitable? Use the following discounting tables for the present value of 1: Discount rate 6% 9% 15% 20% 1 year 0.943 0.917 0.870 0.833 2 years 0.890 0.842 0.756 0.694 3 years 0.840 0.772 0.658 0.579 4 years 0.792 0.708 0.572 0.482 5 years 0.747 0.650 0.497 0.402 0.432 0.335 6 years Now check your answers with that given at the end of the unit. ABE and RRC Capital Investment Appraisal ANSWER TO QUESTION FOR PRACTICE Type A Year Net Cash Income Discount Factor (9%) Discount PV 0 1 2 3 100,000 1.000 0.917 0.842 100,000 0.772 46,320 30,000 40,000 50,000 10,000 27,510 33,680 NPV 7,510 Type B Year Net Cash Income Discount Factor (6%) Discount PV 0 1 60,000 30,000 1.000 0.943 60,000 28,290 2 3 30,000 30,000 0.890 0.840 26,700 25,200 NPV 20,190 Machine Type B has a far higher NPV than Type A and should be the better investment. ABE and RRC 461 462 Capital Investment Appraisal ABE and RRC

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AZ of Emergency RadiologyTo my mother Darshan. She was a constant source of support, humour and strengththrough my turmoil-ridden childhood.Without her I would not be where I am today,and I most certainly would not have accomplished what I have.R.R.M.
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THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF VISUAL MEDICINE SERIESAn Atlas ofDEPRESSIONDavid S. BaldwinandJon BirtwistleUniversity of SouthamptonSouthampton, UK2002 CRC Press LLCLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBaldwin, David S.,An atlas of depression
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Bone and Joint FuturesBone and JointFuturesEdited byAnthony D WoolfDuke of Cornwall Rheumatology Department,Royal Cornwall Hospital,Truro, UK BMJ Books 2002BMJ Books is an imprint of the BMJ Publishing GroupAll rights reserved. No part of this pu
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Bone Densitometryin Growing PatientsGuidelines for ClinicalPracticeEdited byAENOR J. SAWYER, MDLAURA K. BACHRACH, MDELLEN B. FUNG, PhD, RDBone Densitometryin Growing PatientsCURRENT CLINICAL PRACTICENEIL S. SKOLNIK, MD SERIES EDITORBone Densit
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Lecture Notes in MathematicsEditors: J.-M. Morel, Cachan F. Takens, Groningen B. Teissier, Paris1860Alla Borisyuk Avner Friedman Bard Ermentrout David TermanTutorials in Mathematical Biosciences IMathematical Neuroscience123Authors Alla Borisyuk Ma
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safecover (100x141x16M jpeg)Directed Molecular Evolution of Proteins: or How to Improve Enzymes for Biocatalysis.Edited by Susanne Brakmann and Kai JohnssonCopyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaAISBNs: 3-527-30423-1 (Hardback); 3-527-60064-7 (
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Critical Care and CardiacMedicineCurrent Clinical Strategies2005 EditionMatthew Brenner, MDAssociate Professor of MedicinePulmonary and Critical Care DivisionUniversity of California, IrvineMichael Safani, PharmDAssistant Clinical ProfessorSchoo
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Methods ofBEHAVIOR ANALYSISin NEUROSCIENCE 2001 by CRC Press LLCMETHODS & NEW FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE SERIESSeries EditorsSidney A. Simon, Ph.D.Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, M.D., Ph.D.Published TitlesApoptosis in NeurobiologyYusef A. Hannun, Ph.D. a
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AuthorsSiavosh Khonsari MA, MB, BCh, FRCS(C), FACS, FACCClinical Professor of SurgeryDivision of Cardiothoracic SurgeryDavid Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles, CaliforniaColleen Flint Sintek MDClinical Associate Professo
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Cardiovascular MRI in PracticeCardiovascularMRI in PracticeA Teaching FileApproachByJohn D. Grizzard, MDAssistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Director, Non-invasiveCardiovascular Imaging, VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USARobert M. Jud
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TranscriptionalRegulationin EukaryotesConcepts, Strategies, and TechniquesMichael CareyStephen T. SmaleCOLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESSTranscriptionalRegulationin EukaryotesConcepts, Strategies, and TechniquesMichael CareyStephen T. SmaleU
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C H A L L E NG E S I N.Colorectal Cancer.EDITED BYJohn H. ScholeeldAxel GrotheyProfessor of SurgeryUniversity HospitalNottingham, UKProfessorDivision of Medical OncologyMayo ClinicRochester, Minnesota, USAHerand AbcarianTim MaughanTuri Jos
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C HALLENGES INInammatory Bowel DiseaseC HALLENGES IN.Inammatory Bowel Disease.EDITED BYDerek P. JewellNeil J. MortensenA. Hillary SteinhartJohn H. PembertonBryan F. WarrenSecond editionC2001, 2006 by Blackwell Publishing LtdBlackwell Publis
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Current ClinicalStrategiesPediatrics2004 EditionPaul D. Chan, MDJane L. Gennrich, PharmDCurrent Clinical StrategiesPublishingwww.ccspublishing.com/ccsDigital Book and UpdatesPurchasers of this book can download the digitalversion and updates at
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Outpatient and PrimaryCare MedicineNew NMS guidelines2005 EditionPaul D. Chan, MDDavid M. Thomas, MDEric W. McKinley, MDElizabeth K. Stanford, MDCurrent Clinical Strategies Publishingwww.ccspublishing.com/ccsDigital Book and UpdatesPurchasers o
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Chemistryand Physicsfor NurseAnesthesiaThis page intentionally left blankChemistryand Physicsfor NurseAnesthesiaA Student Centered ApproachDavid Shubert, Ph.D.John Leyba, Ph.D.Copyright 2009 Springer Publishing Company, LLCAll rights reserved