Microsoft PowerPoint - Genetic Engineering
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Microsoft PowerPoint - Genetic Engineering

Course Number: CHE 201, Spring 2011

College/University: Sharif University of...

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GENETIC ENGINEERING BY S.M. RAFIGH Role of Mutation Change in structure or amount of an organism’s genetic material Change in genotype produces change in phenotype phenotype = mutant • 2 types of mutation Chromosome mutation Change in structure of one chromosome • .۱ .۲ • Chromosome mutations Change in chromosome number • Non-disjunction in meiosis .۱ Non-disjunction of sex chromosomes .۲ Complete...

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ENGINEERING BY S.M. GENETIC RAFIGH Role of Mutation Change in structure or amount of an organism’s genetic material Change in genotype produces change in phenotype phenotype = mutant • 2 types of mutation Chromosome mutation Change in structure of one chromosome • .۱ .۲ • Chromosome mutations Change in chromosome number • Non-disjunction in meiosis .۱ Non-disjunction of sex chromosomes .۲ Complete non-disjunction and .۳ polyploidy Non-disjunction during meiosis Spindle fibre fails during meiosis • Members of one pair of homologous • chromosomes fail to become separated 2 gametes receive extra copy of affected • chromosome 2 gametes lack that chromosome • Down’s Syndrome Non-disjunction in chromosome 21 Occurs in human egg mother cell One One or more abnormal eggs formed (n = 24) Fertilised by normal sperm (n = 23) Formation of abnormal zygote (2n = 47) Non dis-junction of sex chromosomes Turner’s syndrome Gamete with no sex chromosomes fuses with • normal X gamete Zygote has chromosome complement 2n = 45 • Individuals are female and short in stature • Infertile because ovaries haven’t developed • normally Klinefelter’s syndrome XX egg fertilised by normal Y sperm • or Normal X egg is fertilised by an XY • sperm sperm Zygote has chromosome complement 2n • = 47 (44 + XXY) Always male • Normally • infertile Cannot non-disjunction • produce sperm Complete and polyploidy All the spindle fibres in a gamete mother cell • fail All homologous pairs fail to become separated • Production of abnormal diploid gametes • Each contains 2 complete sets of • chromosomes instead of one Polyploidy Fertilisation of abnormal gametes • Formation of mutant plants which • possess complete extra sets of chromosomes This type of chromosome mutation is • called polyploidy A: the strawberry plant is exposed to a chemical B: due to the effect of chemical, total nondisjunction at meiosis produces diploid gametes(2n) C: C: two diploid gametes fuse at fertilisation D: a new plant develops which has four sets of chromosomes (4n) Economic significance Polyploid plants are larger than diploid relatives Increased seed and fruit size Many commercially developed crop plants are polyploid -strawberries -apples -wheat -tomatoes Give greater yields Effects of polyploidy Uneven sets of chromosome • -polyploidy plants are sterile Produce seedless fruit • Increase in vigour • Resistance to disease • This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.

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