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Importance of Microbiology By By S. M. S. M. Rafigh Rafigh 2011 2011 What is a Microbe • Smaller than 0.1mm • Includes bugs, things, germs, viruses, protozoan, bacteria, animalcules, small ckers suckers Nomenclature • Carolus Linnaeus (1735) • Genus species • By custom once mentioned can be abbreviated with initial of genus followed by specific epithet. E. coli • When two organisms share a common genus are related. Why study Microbiology • Microbes are related to all life. – In all environments – Many beneficial aspects elated to life processes (food web, nutrient – Related to life processes (food web, nutrient cycling) – Only a minority are pathogenic. – Most of our problems are caused by microbes EID’s • Emerging infectious diseases – Weapons of mass destruction – New evolutionary features esponse to man encroaching on the environment – Response to man encroaching on the environment • Can you name an example? Microbes in research • 10 trillion human cells 10x this number microbes • Easy to grow • Biochemistry is essentially the same • Simple and easy to study Biotechnology • Use of biological systems to produce useful items • The use of biological information to make ings or improve the human condition things or improve the human condition Diversity of Microbes • Bacteria-single celled prokaryotes • Protozoa-eukaryotic, single celled, colonial, many ways of nutrition • Fungi- absorb nutrients, single celled filamentous • Viruses-acellular entities • Others- worms, insects Bacteria • Prokaryotes • Peptidoglycan cell walls • Binary fission • For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis Figure 1.1a Archaea: • Prokaryotic • Lack peptidoglycan • Live in extreme environments • Include: – Methanogens – Extreme halophiles – Extreme thermophiles Halobacteria not om book Fungi • Eukaryotes • Chitin cell walls • Use organic chemicals for energy • Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting of masses of mycelia , which are composed of filaments called hyphae • Yeasts are unicellular Figure 1.1b Protozoa • Eukaryotes • Absorb or ingest organic chemicals • May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella • Most free some parasites Figure 1.1c Algae... View Full Document

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