chapter_2--an_integrative_a
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chapter_2--an_integrative_a

Course: PSYCH 474, Spring 2010

School: NMSU

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Chapter 2--An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Key 1. The best description of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that it is based on: A. biological and psychological causes B. biological causes only C. learned helplessness and social learning theory D. the physical structure and chemical processes of the brain 2. Within the multidimensional integrative approach...

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2--An Chapter Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Key 1. The best description of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that it is based on: A. biological and psychological causes B. biological causes only C. learned helplessness and social learning theory D. the physical structure and chemical processes of the brain 2. Within the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology, learned helplessness is considered a(n) (((( dimension. A. biological B. psychological C. emotional D. psychological 3. The basis of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that each dimension (psychological, biological, emotional, etc.): A. operates independently B. is sufficient to cause pathology C. builds on the dimension that precedes it D. is influenced by the other dimensions 4. Your uncle spent most of his teen years in a hospital undergoing treatment for a severe physical illness. As an adult, he is rather shy and withdrawn, particularly around women. He has been diagnosed with social phobia and you believe that it is entirely due to lack of socialization during his teen years. Your theory or model of what caused his phobia is: A. multidimensional B. integrative C. one-dimensional D. biological 1 5. According to the multidimensional integrative approach to psychopathology, the following statement is true for most psychological disorders: A. if one monozygotic twin has a particular disorder, the other twin will definitely have the disorder as well B. monozygotic twins are no more likely to share psychological disorders than any other siblings C. monozygotic twins are no more likely to share disorders than any other two people selected at random from the population D. if one monozygotic twin has a particular psychological disorder, the other twin is more likely to have the disorder than the rest of the population 6. In order for a particular phobia to develop, genetic and developmental factors typically (((( with each other: A. B. C. D. 7. If siblings who are 5 and 12 years old respectively respond very differently to the same traumatic event it is probably due to: A. B. C. D. 8. interact distract protract contact cultural differences developmental differences psychosocial differences childhood differences The most accurate way to think of genes is that they: A. set boundaries for our development B. determine both our physical and psychological characteristics C. determine physical but not psychological characteristics D. actually have very little to do with any of the characteristics that we display 9. Referring to behavior and personality as polygenic means that both are: A. influenced by only a few genes, but each has a large effect B. influenced by many genes, with each individual gene contributing a relatively small effect C. influenced by individual genes only rarely D. a result of our genetic structure only 10. The procedures referred to as quantitative genetics are used to: A. determine the effects of multiple genes B. provide genetic counseling C. correct genetic abnormalities D. test the multidimensional integrative model 2 11. Most psychological disorders appear to be influenced by many individual genes rather than caused by one single gene, a process referred to as: A. B. C. D. 12. The most recent estimate is that genetics contribute approximately (((( to the development of general cognitive ability (IQ). A. B. C. D. 13. 20% 60% 80% zero The most recent estimates are that genetics contribute approximately (((( to the development of personality characteristics such as shyness or activity level. A. B. C. D. 14. multigenic polygenic unigenic morphogenic 10 - 20% 30 - 50% 75 - 85% zero According to recent estimates, genetic contributions to the development of most psychological disorders are: A. below 50% B. above 50% C. different for each disorder (estimates range from 0 to 100%) D. nonexistent 15. Recent evidence regarding the genetic influence on most psychological disorders has shown that: A. single genes are usually responsible for psychological disorders B. genes that influence psychopathology are usually recessive C. there is no evidence that genes influence psychopathology D. multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect 16. In the diathesis-stress model, diathesis refers to: A. an inherited disorder B. conditions in the environment that can trigger a disorder depending upon how severe the stressors are C. an inherited tendency or condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder D. the inheritance of multiple disorders 3 17. In the diathesis-stress model, stress refers to: A. B. C. D. 18. life events, in combination with an inherited tendency, that trigger a disorder inherited tendencies, in combination with life events, that trigger a disorder defective genes exposure to very unusual and extreme environmental conditions According to the diathesis-stress model, psychopathology is the result of the: A. interaction between normal and defective or damaged genes B. stress level of an individual and how stress is managed in a persons life C. family history of an individual D. interaction of an inherited tendency and events in the persons life 19. According to the diathesis-stress model, monozygotic twins raised in the same household will: A. not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their diathesis B. have the same disorders because their diathesis and stress are exactly the same C. not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their stress D. have no more likelihood of sharing a disorder than any other two randomly selected individuals from the population 20. According to the diathesis-stress model: A. mental disorders will always develop given a certain level of stress B. once a diathesis for a particular disorder is inherited, the disorder will eventually develop C. an individuals inherited tendencies are not affected by stressful life events he or she encounters D. it is possible to inherit a diathesis and never develop a disorder 21. The model that describes the development of psychopathology as a combination of an inherited predisposition and the events that have occurred in the individuals life is called: A. diathesis-stress B. genetic C. bio-behavioral D. psychoanalytic 22. The idea that our inherited tendencies influence the probability that we will encounter stressful life events is a characteristic of the: A. diathesis-stress model B. reciprocal gene-environment model C. genetic model D. psycho-social model 4 23. In the landmark study by Caspi et. al. (2003), the researchers studied the stressful life events and genetics of 847 individuals. For individuals who had at least four stressful life events, the risk of major depression: A. remained unchanged regardless of genetic make up B. doubled if they possessed two short alleles of the gene being studied C. was reduced by half if they possessed two short alleles of the gene being studied D. was entirely related to the genetic make-up and not the number of life stressors 24. Recent studies such as Caspi (2003) and Hariri (2002) demonstrate that psychopathology and behavior in general are the result of: A. interactions between our genetics and environment B. environmental influences more than genetics C. genetics more than environmental influences D. neurotransmitters 25. John has inherited a personality trait that makes him more likely to keep to himself than to socialize. As a result he does not have many friends and spends a lot of time alone. If John were to develop depression, the model that would probably best explain this situation and the cause of his depression is: A. diathesis-stress B. biological C. reciprocal gene-environment D. interpersonal 26. Some people may be genetically predisposed to seek out difficult relationships. These difficult relationships may contribute to their experience of depression. This is an example of the: A. diathesis-stress model B. reciprocal gene-environment model C. genetic model D. quantitative genetics 27. Research studies using the procedure called cross fostering have shown that genetically emotional and reactive young animals raised by calm mothers tended to be: A. calm B. emotional and reactive C. calm but emotional and reactive when raising their own young D. emotional and reactive but calm when raising their own young 28. Gene activation is: A. not influenced by the environment B. can be triggered by environmental experiences C. typically a random event D. has no impact on behavior or emotions 5 29. Looking at the findings of many cross fostering studies (Francis et al., 1999, Suomi, 1999, Tienari et al., 1994) it appears that positive interventions such as good parenting in early life may: A. have little effect in terms of preventing psychopathology in those genetically predisposed to such conditions B. dramatically change the genetics of individuals genetically predisposed to psychopathology C. have a greater effect on future generations than on the individual exposed to the good parenting D. override the genetically influenced tendency to develop psychopathology in later life 30. Some of the most recent research studies regarding genetic vs. environmental causes of disorders in animals and humans have suggested: A. genetic influences are greater than originally observed because positive environmental conditions do not prevent disorders B. genetics and the environment share equal roles in the development of all psychological disorders C. the relative contributions of genetics and the environment in the development of psychological disorders are different for lower animals than for humans D. genetic influences may have been overstated by previous studies, i.e., without sufficient environmental stress, the genetic predisposition may never be activated 31. Recent research suggests that identical twins who are raised in identical environments: A. may still differ in personality B. will always have the same personality traits C. will always think alike D. may still show no genetic similarities 32. The central nervous system is made up of the: A. brain and spinal cord B. brain only C. spinal cord only D. nerves leading to and from the brain 33. The brain and the spinal cord comprise the: A. peripheral nervous system B. somatic nervous system C. parasympathetic nervous system D. central nervous system 34. The area between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is the: A. axon terminal B. soma C. synaptic cleft D. transmission cleft 6 35. The research of Eric Kandel suggests that the brain and its functions: A. are hardwired at birth B. change in response to the environment C. are not influenced by experience D. change during childhood, but not adulthood 36. The synaptic cleft is the area between the: A. B. C. D. 37. soma of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron axon of one neuron and the soma of another neuron somas of two neurons Neurotransmitters are important because they: A. allow neurons to send signals to other neurons B. maintain the oxygenation of the brain C. prevent the development of psychopathology D. allow the brain to maintain its structural integrity 38. The chemicals that allow transmission of signals between neurons are called: A. re-uptake inhibitors B. hormones C. neurotransmitters D. genes 39. GABA, dopamine, and norepinephrine are all examples of: A. electrical brain waves B. neurons C. neurotransmitters D. areas of the brain 40. Most automatic functions, e.g., breathing, sleeping, and motor coordination, are controlled by the part of the brain called the: A. B. C. D. brain stem forebrain cortex frontal lobes 7 41. Recent research has associated the (((( with autism. This is also the part of the brain that controls motor coordination. A. reticular activating system (RAS) B. medulla C. pons D. cerebellum 42. The part of the brain stem that regulates vital activities such as heartbeat, breathing and digestion is the: A. cerebellum B. reticular activating system (RAS) C. hindbrain D. thalamus 43. OCD appears to be related to the density of neurons in the: A. thalamus B. hippocampus C. cerebral cortex D. orbitofrontal cortex 44. Which of the following is true in regard to studies of brain function? A. brain structures vary across people B. people always respond the same way to stimuli C. brain imaging studies are generally consistent D. age and gender have no affect on brain structure 45. Functions of the limbic system include control or regulation of: A. basic body functions such as breathing B. sleep cycles C. emotional experiences, expressions, impulse control, and basic drives such as aggression, sex, hunger, and thirst D. body posture, coordinated movement, and involuntary responses such as reflexes and other automatic processes 46. About 80% of the neurons contained in the brain are located in the: A. cerebral cortex B. brain stem C. midbrain D. basal ganglia 8 47. The ability to plan, think, reason, and create is located in the part of the brain called the: A. thalamus B. midbrain C. cerebral cortex D. brain stem 48. The part of the brain that makes humans most distinct from other animals is the: A. thalamus B. midbrain C. brain stem D. cerebral cortex 49. The significance of the human cerebral cortex is that, in comparison to the brains of animals, it makes our ((((. A. instincts stronger B. thoughts distinct C. motor responses faster D. immune functioning superior 50. For most people, verbal and cognitive processes are usually controlled by the: A. B. C. D. 51. left hemisphere of the cortex right hemisphere of the cortex entire cortex midbrain For most people, perception and the creation of images are usually handled by the: A. left hemisphere of the cortex B. entire cortex C. midbrain D. right hemisphere of the cortex 52. The part(s) of the brain most associated with memory, thought, and reasoning is(are) the: A. occipital lobes B. brain stem C. left parietal lobe D. frontal lobes 53. Recent research suggests that learning and experience: A. only change the brain before birth B. change the brain through childhood C. change the brain through young adulthood D. change the brain at any age 9 54. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the: A. endocrine system B. brain stem and cortex C. somatic and autonomic nervous system D. brain and spinal cord 55. The major function of the peripheral nervous system is to: A. carry messages to and from the central nervous system B. process information received from the central nervous system C. regulate arousal D. control hormonal activity 56. The part of the autonomic nervous system primarily responsible for our fight or flight response to stress is the: A. parasympathetic nervous system B. sympathetic nervous system C. endocrine system D. cortex 57. Balancing the fight or flight response to stress and returning the body to a state of normal arousal is a function of the: A. sympathetic nervous system B. parasympathetic nervous system C. endocrine system D. cortex 58. Virtually all drugs that are used to treat psychopathology work by influencing: A. neurotransmitters B. electrical conductivity of neurons C. brain structure D. neuronal structure 59. According to your texts discussion of how neurotransmitters such as serotonin work, the term biochemical imbalance for the cause of disorders such as depression is probably: A. an oversimplification B. about accurate C. completely incorrect D. a perfect description 10 60. Drugs that increase the activity of a neurotransmitter are called: A. agonists B. antagonists C. enhancers D. psychotropics 61. Drugs that decrease the activity of a neurotransmitter are called: A. agonists B. blockers C. re-uptake inhibitors D. antagonists 62. Drugs that interfere with the re-uptake of a neurotransmitter are called: A. agonists B. antagonists C. blockers D. enhancers 63. The neurotransmitter associated with regulation of mood, behavior, and thought processes is: A. GABA B. norepinephrine C. serotonin D. dopamine 64. The neurotransmitter associated with inhibition of anxiety is: A. norepinephrine B. dopamine C. serotonin D. GABA 65. The neurotransmitter thought to regulate or moderate certain behavioral tendencies rather than directly influencing specific patterns of behavior or psychological disorders is: A. norepinephrine B. GABA C. dopamine D. serotonin 66. The neurotransmitter associated with both schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease is: A. GABA B. norepinephrine C. dopamine D. serotonin 11 67. Extremely low activity levels of serotonin are associated with: A. aggression, suicide, and impulsive behavior B. schizophrenia C. anxiety disorders and general feelings of nervousness D. mania 68. Extremely low levels of GABA are associated with: A. decreased anxiety B. increased depression C. increased anxiety D. decreased depression 69. Extremely low levels of dopamine activity are associated with: A. muscle rigidity, tremors, and impaired judgment B. schizophrenia C. pleasure seeking D. exploratory behaviors 70. Recent research and increased understanding about the role of neurotransmitters in psychopathology point out that: A. each psychological disorder is caused by a deficit in a specific neurotransmitter B. chemical imbalances of the brain are the cause of psychopathology C. simple cause/effect conclusions stating that an individual neurotransmitter abnormality causes a disorder are incomplete D. neurotransmitters have very little to do with psychopathology for most individuals but may be the single cause of disorders for others 71. The work of Elovainio et al. suggests that serotonin and dopamine: A. balance each other because serotonin is associated with inhibition of behavior while dopamine is associated with exploratory behaviors B. balance each other because serotonin is associated with exploratory behavior while dopamine is associated with inhibition of behavior C. counteract each others effects D. do not interact in the brain 72. In the 1992 studies conducted by Baxter et al., OCD patients were provided with cognitive-behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) but no drugs. This study is important because brain imaging showed that: A. the neurotransmitter circuits of the brain had been normalized B. the patients OCD symptoms improved without changes in neurotransmitter function C. neither OCD symptoms nor neurotransmitter function had improved D. neurotransmitter circuits are the direct and only cause of OCD 12 73. What is one of the conclusions generally drawn from the 1990s studies of OCD, brain imaging and cognitive-behavioral therapy by Baxter et al., and the follow up studies by Schwartz et al.? A. neurotransmitters affect how people feel and act B. drugs are the only way to impact faulty neurotransmitter circuits C. neurotransmitters are a result of how people feel and act, not a cause D. psychosocial factors such as therapy affect neurotransmitters 74. In a recent study (Petrovic, Kalso, Peterson & Ingvar, 2002), subjects were exposed to a painful stimulus (heat to the hand) under three conditions: 1. opiate medication, 2. placebo (sugar pill) medication, and 3. no medication. Brain scans indicated that a subjects experience of reduced pain with the placebo is due to: A. activation of brain regions identical to those activated by opiate medication B. activation of brain regions that are overlapping, but not identical, to those activated by opiate medication C. psychological expectation since a placebo does not activate brain regions associated with pain control D. similarities in activated brain regions during the no medication condition 75. Insel, Champoux, Scanlan, and Scoumi (1986) raised one group of rhesus monkeys with the ability to control things in their environment and another group of monkeys who had no control of their environment (e.g., when they would receive treats and toys). When injected with a drug that produces a feeling of severe anxiety, the monkeys: A. raised with a sense of control appeared angry and aggressive while the monkeys raised without a sense of control appeared very anxious B. raised with a sense of control appeared anxious while the monkeys raised without a sense of control appeared angry and aggressive C. in both groups appeared anxious D. in both groups appeared angry and aggressive 76. The significance of the study conducted by Insel, Champoux, Scanlan, and Scoumi (1986), in which rhesus monkeys were raised either with a sense of control or without a sense of control and later exposed to an anxiety-inducing drug is that chemicals such as neurotransmitters: A. have direct very effects on behavior B. influence behavior in different ways depending upon the psychological history of the individual C. influence individuals in fairly direct and consistent ways regardless of the psychological history of the individual D. have few reliable and consistent effects on observed behavior 13 77. The most recent research evidence suggests that the relationship between the brain (structure, function, neurotransmitters) and psychosocial factors (socialization, rearing, life events) is best described as: A. a system where our brains directly influence our behavior and psychosocial factors but not the other way around B. an interaction where the brain affects our psychosocial factors and psychosocial factors impact our brain C. a system where our behavior and psychosocial factors impact our brain but not the other way around D. far too complex to ever understand whether one system influences the other 78. Bullying studies in mice suggest that the functions of the mesolimbic system: A. can be switched from avoidance to reinforcement B. can be switched from reinforcement to avoidance C. cannot be changed by experience D. can only be changed with drugs 79. When comparing the brains of rats raised in a rich environment requiring lots of learning and motor behavior with the brains of rats raised as couch potatoes (Greenough, 1990), the cerebellums of the more active rats: A. contained more neuronal connections and dendrites B. contained fewer neuronal connections but more axons and dendrites C. were less likely to possess pathological neurotransmitter circuits D. were exactly the same as the inactive rats 80. Studies regarding rat learning and brain structure by Greenough, (1990) and Wallace et al. (1992), suggest that: A. early experiences such as learning cause physical changes in the brain B. psychopathology is the result of early learning experiences C. while psychopathology is often a result of early life experiences, it is generally due to the physical changes in the brain that such experiences cause D. genetically caused brain structure problems can be corrected by positive life experiences 81. One conclusion that can be drawn from the studies regarding rat learning and brain structure (Greenough, 1990; Wallace et al, 1992) is that: A. early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and will absolutely determine whether or not the individual will develop a psychological disorder later in life B. early psychological experience does not result in physical changes to the nervous system but can still influence whether or not one develops a psychological disorder C. early psychological experience affects the development of the nervous system and influences vulnerability to psychological disorders later in life D. early psychological experience has little to do with brain structure or later development of psychopathology 14 82. Regarding biological influences on the development of psychopathology, the most accurate statement is: A. both genetics and life events play a part in the development of brain structure and function that can affect vulnerability to psychopathology B. life events can only cause changes in brain structure or function for those with genetic defects C. early life events play a much greater role in the development of brain structure or function than genetics D. vulnerability to psychopathology has little to do with the brain changes associated with genetics or early life events 83. When one examines the current state of knowledge regarding genetics and life experience effects on brain structure and function, the best overall conclusion is that most psychological disorders are: A. the result of a complex interaction of genetics and faulty neurotransmitter circuits B. the result of stressful early life experiences and the negative effects such experiences have on brain structure or function C. the result of both biological and psychosocial factors D. beyond our current ability to understand in any meaningful way 84. Which of the following results in the greatest increase in lifespan? A. low blood pressure B. low cholesterol C. no history of smoking D. an optimistic outlook 85. Learned helplessness is demonstrated in laboratory animals by: A. creating aversive stimuli (such as electrical shocks to the foot) that the animal can control B. creating aversive stimuli (such as electrical shocks to the foot) that the animal cannot control C. creating pleasant stimuli (such as a food pellet) that the animal cannot control D. creating pleasant stimuli (such as a food pellet) that the animal can control 86. Placing a rat in a cage where electrical shocks, over which the rat has no control, are occasionally administered through the floor is a way to create: A. social learning B. learned helplessness C. unconscious learning D. negative neurotransmitter pathways E. one angry rat 15 87. It is important to understand the process of how learned helplessness is created in laboratory animals because learned helplessness in animals resembles the human disorder of: A. panic disorder B. depression C. mania D. schizophrenia 88. The behavior of an individual who believes that no matter how hard she studies, she will never succeed in college can best be explained by: A. personality disorder B. faulty neurotransmitter circuits C. learned helplessness D. internal conflicts 89. In a study by Levy, Slade, Kunkel, & Kasl (2002), individuals between the ages of 50 and 94 who had positive views about themselves as well as positive attitudes towards aging: A. lived four years longer than those without such positive attitudes B. lived seven and a half years longer than those without such positive attitudes C. were found to be less likely to have heart disease D. were found to be more likely to be involved with positive community activities 90. The work of Albert Bandura regarding modeling helps us to understand the development of psychopathology because it demonstrates that animals: A. can learn patterns of behavior by observing others B. must learn through direct experience such as classical or operant conditioning C. will only learn behavior patterns if they are reinforced by a model D. acquire all of their behavior patterns by imitating the actions of others 91. One important contribution of the work of Albert Bandura regarding modeling or observational learning is that: A. much of our learned behavior depends upon our interactions with those around us B. our learned behavior has much more to do with the types of consequences (reinforcements and punishments) of our actions than our interactions with those around us C. it is impossible to learn behavioral patterns without observing those around us D. learning acquired through observation is much more resistant to extinction than behavior acquired through classical or operant conditioning 16 92. The major difference between the modern cognitive science idea of the unconscious and Freuds view of the unconscious is that Freud saw the unconscious as (((( where modern cognitive science views the unconscious as ((((. A. the function of the id; the result of multiple neuronal pathways interacting with the stimuli presented to the individual B. a seething caldron of emotional conflicts; neuronal pathways interacting with the stimuli presented to the individual C. the function of the superego; ability to process, store and act upon information without awareness D. a seething caldron of emotional conflicts; ability to process, store and act upon information without awareness 93. The most likely item to become an object of learned fear according to the theory of prepared learning is a(n): A. rock B. snake C. light bulb D. apple 94. According to modern cognitive science, the unconscious: A. clearly exists in much the same way that Freud imagined B. may or may not exist, as it is impossible to study material that we are not aware of C. clearly does not exist D. clearly exists but in a very different way than Freud imagined 95. In the Stroop color naming paradigm, a patient with a blood phobia would be expected to name the color of the printed word wound: A. more quickly than a neutral word B. in about the same time it takes to name the color of a neutral word C. more slowly than a neutral word D. with a great deal of difficulty or not at all 96. Strong emotional reactions such as extreme fear are generally experienced as unpleasant to the individual. In panic disorder, for example, patients may experience these sensations quite frequently. The primary function of human capability for such strong emotion appears to be: A. survival B. recreation C. empathy D. creativity 17 97. Emotion is generally thought to be comprised of: A. behavior, physiology, and cognition B. mood and affect C. cognition, behavior, and affect D. behavior physiology and mood 98. You and a friend are lost while walking on a street in a foreign city. A stranger approaches and you are concerned that the stranger may try to mug you. Your friend assumes that the stranger is approaching to give you directions. As the stranger approaches, you experience fear but your friend experiences relief. Your different emotional reactions can be explained by the (((( theory of emotion. A. B. C. D. 99. physiological neurological affective cognitive The relationship between emotion and health is demonstrated by the fact that: A. panic is related to poor concentration B. people with chronic diseases are often angry about their care C. those in poor physical health almost always develop psychological disorders D. anger increases risk of heart disease 100. Studies examining the effects of anger and hostility on the cardiovascular system have demonstrated that anger results in: A. decreased pumping efficiency of the heart B. increased pumping efficiency of the heart C. heart changes similar to those found when exercising D. few if any measurable changes in the heart 101. Studies of brain damage suggest that it is possible to respond emotionally to things even if they are coded only in our (((( memory. A. B. C. D. 102. explicit exhibit implicit inhibit The evil eye, Latin American susto, and the Haitian phenomenon of voodoo death are currently viewed as examples of the: A. B. C. D. unsubstantiated myths that people can become ill without physical cause power of the social environment on our physical and psychological health power of the supernatural model of psychopathology isolated cultural phenomena with little practical significance 18 103. The fact that women are more likely to suffer from insect phobias than men is most likely due to: A. biological differences B. differences in neurochemical pathways C. cultural expectations D. genetic influences 104. Anxious males tend to have a higher rate of alcoholism than females. One likely explanation for this difference is that men are: A. more likely to use alcohol to deal with anxiety rather than admit they are afraid B. less likely to be fearful of becoming alcoholic C. exposed to alcohol more often than women are D. more likely to see alcohol as a good long-term solution to problems such as anxiety 105. The influences of culture and gender on psychopathology are most clearly evident in the disorder of: A. anorexia B. panic disorder C. bipolar disorder D. depression 106. People who have many social contacts and live their lives continually interacting with others: A. develop more infections and have poorer overall health B. have not been found to differ on any health outcome C. often suffer from psychological disorders such as dependency D. live longer and healthier lives 107. Research exposing subjects to the virus that causes the common cold (Cohen et al., 1997) demonstrated that: A. B. C. D. 108. the lower the individuals socialization, the lower the chances of contracting a cold the greater the individuals socialization, the lower the chances of contracting a cold extent of socialization and chances of contracting a cold were unrelated the quality of social contact predicted whether the individual would contract a cold, but the frequency of social contact did not Regarding the research on socialization and health, the safest conclusion is that: A. social support is important but mostly for those individuals who are at high risk for various physical or psychological disorders B. having a supportive group of people around us is important to our physical health but not our psychological well being C. having a supportive group of people around us is important to our psychological well being but not our physical health D. having a supportive group of people around us is one of the most important parts of maintaining our physical and mental health 19 109. In a study conducted by Haber and Barchas (1983), monkeys were injected with amphetamine, a central nervous system stimulant. Comparison of the drugs effects on the dominant versus submissive monkeys demonstrated that the effects of brain chemicals such as drugs are: A. different for individual animals depending upon their place in the social hierarchy B. the same for all animals regardless of their place in the social hierarchy C. the same for all animals except for those with a biological predisposition for aggression D. different for individual animals but the differences appear to be random 110. Depression and schizophrenia seem to appear in all cultures but tend to be characterized by different symptoms within individual cultures. For example, depression in western culture is generally characterized by feelings of guilt and inadequacy where in developing countries it is characterized by physical distress such as fatigue or illness. This is most likely due to: A. genetic differences between individuals living in different cultures B. differences in treatment provided in different cultures C. reasons that our current methods of study are incapable of understanding D. the fact that social and cultural factors influence psychopathology 111. Research with the elderly has found that depression is more likely in those individuals who: A. have frequent social contacts B. live in group settings C. have fewer social contacts D. receive increased attention from their families when they are sick 112. Given the role of social factors in psychological disorders and the fact that psychological disorders are still associated with social stigma (people tend to think that the disorder is something to be ashamed of), there is a much greater chance that people with psychological disorders will: A. be far more easily treated than those with physical disorders B. seek help for their disorders but be more likely to receive insufficient treatment than those with physical illness C. be ignored by mental health professionals when they seek help D. not seek and receive the treatment and support of others that are most needed for recovery 113. When we compare the incidence of psychological disorders across countries and cultures, we find that: A. there is remarkable similarity in the rates of various disorders in different countries and cultures B. all western countries have a similar rate of common disorders but this is not true for developing countries C. developing countries have a much higher rate of psychological disorder than western countries D. there are enormous differences in the rates of various disorders in different countries and cultures 20 114. Political strife, war, and suffering in a country tend to (((( the rate of psychological disorders in the country. A. decrease B. have little effect on C. have unpredictable effects on D. increase 115. A lifespan psychologist would point out that the only way to understand a patients disorder is to understand how the individual: A. B. C. D. 116. developed from a childhood to adulthood developed during the psychosexual stages resolved conflicts in early life sees himself/herself as part of a family, a community, and a culture According to Eric Erikson, people: A. only experience major change in adulthood B. are fully developed by age 50 C. experience eight typical developmental crises across time D. experience no developmental changes after adolescence 117. When therapists ask patients how they are feeling and how they are experiencing their disorder today, it is essentially taking snap-shots of their lives at the moment. This approach to understanding psychopathology is criticized as incomplete by: A. B. C. D. 118. lifespan psychologists cognitive-behaviorists humanists all mental health workers In an experiment by Kolb, Gibb, and Gorny (2003), animals of varying ages were placed in complex environments. Their findings suggest that: A. the impact of the environment on the brain is different at varying stages of life B. the impact of the environment on the brain is significant but uniform throughout the life span C. environments that are beneficial to the aged may be harmful to the young D. the environment has little effect on the brain throughout the lifespan 119. The fact that some behaviors can be symptoms of many different disorders (e.g., delusions can be a result of amphetamine abuse or of schizophrenia) is an example of: A. equifinality B. psychopathology C. pathogenesis D. orthogonal causation 21 120. People who are resistant to stress are considered to be: A. resilient B. reliant C. resistant D. reactive 121. The term equifinality refers to the fact that: A. once a process has begun, it will always lead to a final outcome B. many causes of psychopathology are equal in influence C. a number of paths can lead to the same outcome D. all forms of psychopathology have similar causes 122. The fact that depression can be caused by mental illness or drug use is an example of how: A. once a process has begun, it will always lead to a final outcome B. many causes of psychopathology are equal in influence C. a number of paths can lead to the same outcome D. all forms of psychopathology have similar causes 123. The fact that a disorder can be caused by a variety of factors illustrates the principle of: A. equifinality B. isolation C. equilibration D. isolation 124. According to the abnormal psychology video clip, psychopathology is due to: A. psychological processes B. biological processes C. both biological and psychological processes D. neither biological or psychological processes 125. Our understanding of psychology as an integrated process is in part a function of: A. better measurement tools B. greater biological knowledge C. application of scientific study to psychological processes D. all of the above 22 126. Describe the diathesis-stress model. Use the model to explain how one identical twin suffers from clinical depression while the other does not. This model argues that a diathesis is a vulnerability and a stress is an unpleasant experience, which together can cause behavioral and emotional disorders. Identical twins typically share the same genetic vulnerability but may not have the same life experiences. 127. Psychoactive medications (drugs that impact our thoughts, emotions, and behavior) usually alter neurotransmitters in the brain. Explain how both an agonist and an antagonist operate on a neurotransmitter. Explain the process of re-uptake inhibition and the effect it has on a neurotransmitter. Agonists increase the effects of a transmitter, while antagontists decrease their effects. Re-uptake involves the process of neurons reabsorbing their own transmitters from the synapse. When re-uptake is inhibited the neurotransmitter stays in the synapse longer, which tends to prolong its effects in an agonistic way. 128. What are the basic components of the multidimensional integrative model, and what does the term integrative mean in this model? -Behavioral -Biological -Emotional -Social -Developmental This use of the term integrative refers to the models premise that many factors interact to cause any given disorder. 129. Name three important neurotransmitters and describe what impact each one is thought to have on human experience. GABA- inhibitory neurotransmitter Glutamate- excitatory transmitter Serotonin- neurotransmitter which regulates behavior, moods and thought processes Norepinephrine- neurotransmitter involved in endocrine regulation Dopamine- neurotransmitter implicated in psychological disorders and the control of movement 23 130. Describe some of the research findings that demonstrate the importance of relationships to our psychological well-being. Mental health can be affected by social interactions and beliefs in a variety of ways. Examples include the existence of fright disorders which are based on fear of a particular cultural threat; gender based behavioral expectations common to a particular culture; and the impact of social contacts on health and behavior. 24
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