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2511 Ant 09Summer A THE ORIGINS AND DISPERSAL OF MODERN HUMANS Introduction First modern Homo sapiens evolve in Africa (200,000) All contemporaries are placed in this species First are descendents of premodern humans Especially from African populations of H. heidelbergensis Approaches to Understanding Modern Human Origins 1) Complete replacement 2) Regional continuity And a third compromising theory 3) partial replacement Complete Replacement Model (Recent African Evolution) Modern populations arose in Africa (only) No species - no admixture Migrated from Africa, replacing populations in Europe and Asia. (single origin) Mitochondrial DNA Evidence of African origin Genetic data - living peoples Mitochondrial DNA (inherited through mother) Concluded the worlds population descended from single African lineage. Y-chromosome More genetic data Y-chromosome (male chromosome) Variation in DNA less compared to other primates Bolsters complete replacement model Neandertal DNA Distinctive 1 Strong direct evidence of genetic discontinuity between Neandertal and early fully modern humans Argues for substantial replacement The Partial Replacement Model Gradual dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens out of Africa. Modern humans mixed with local archaic populations in Eurasia Some interbreeding The Regional Continuity Model (Multiregional Evolution) Local populations in Europe, Asia and Africa evolve into anatomically modern humans Why Similar Gene flow between archaic populations Moderns humans not separate species Never independent. Always single species Seeing the Big Picture Current evidence that earliest modern humans from Africa The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans Africa Early fossil fully anatomically modern forms Omo Ethiopia Earliest of the fully modern found in Africa 195,000 years old Klasies River Mouth Cave And Border Cave Southern Africa on coast Fully anatomically modern form Herto 2 Ethiopia Well-preserved and well-dated H. sapiens fossils Most conclusive evidence of African origin of modern humans Near East Early modern H. sapiens sites Israel Skhul Cave at Mt. Carmel Earliest good evidence anatomically modern humans out of Africa Qafzeh Cave Tabun Cave nearby indicates modern H. sapiens and Neandertals occupations overlapped. Asia Zhoukoudian Upper Cave Examples moderns Ordos Mongolia Could be oldest moderns in China date 50,000 y.a. Origins (China) Chinese paleoanthropologists see continuous evolution from Homo erectus to archaic H. sapiens to AMH Oppose complete replacement model Australia By 50,000 y.a. New Guinea and Australia inhabited by modern humans Australia not connected to mainland Bamboo rafts used? Lake Mungo Earliest finds in Australia Kow Swamp Some archaic robust traits difficult to explain Central Europe 3 Oase Cave Romania Earliest anatomically modern H. sapiens discovered in Europe Robust but with a chin Mladec Czech Republic Another early modern human site in central Europe Western Europe Many anatomically modern human fossils Back to 40,000 years Cro-Magnon France Most famous site early modern Best known western European samples Frances earliest anatomically modern human Associated with Upper Paleolithic Abrigo de Lagar Velho Portugal Mixture of traits (modern/Neandertal) Best evidence for hybridization Four-year-old childs skeleton Modern & Neandertal features 5,000 years later than last clearly Neandertal find Something New and Different Homo erectus in Java survives a long time Other population branched off in Indonesia Flores of Island Indonesia East Java Liang Bua Cave Homo floresiensis Small-bodied and small-brained hominid Nicknamed hobbits Homo floresiensis Three feet tall 4 Probably descended from H. erectus populations Isolated island population diverged Natural selection favors reduced body size Dwarf elephants also found Chap 11 Part 2 Homo sapiens sapiens continued Technology and Art in the Upper Paleolithic Europe Cultural Period Upper Paleolithic Western Europe 40,000 years ago Upper Paleolithic Five cultural periods Stone tool technologies: Chatelperronian Aurignacian Gravettian Solutrean Magdalenian (final phase) Late Ice Age Major environmental shifts Late Pleistocene Last glacial period of Ice Age Terrain Permafrost prevents growth of trees Treeless tundra and steppe in Eurasia Flowering plants, mosses, other vegetation in short summer Herbivores Abundant pasture for herbivorous animals Large herds of reindeer Mammoths, bison, horses Across tundra and grasslands Abundance Upper Paleolithic people spread over Europe Caves, open-air camps, large shelters 5 Elaborate burials found Sungir Moscow Most spectacular burial Bed of red ocher Thousands of ivory beads Mammoth tusk spears Cultural Innovations Better shelters Sewn tailored clothing Increased use of bone, ivory, antler Upper Paleolithic Age of Technological Innovation Anatomically modern humans Invented new and specialized tools Solutrean Blades Most highly developed Upper Paleolithic industry Considered as possible art Magdalenian Last Stage of Upper Paleolithic More advances in technology Spear Thrower, harpoon, bow and arrow Spear thrower or atlatl A hooked rod enhancing force and distance Barbed harpoons for salmon and other fish Bow and arrow First during the Magdalenian Burins Common Upper Paleolithic tool Pointed stone blade 6 Engrave bone Biocultural Impact Upper Paleolithic more specialized and efficient tools Less requirement for large teeth Dental reduction Chin develops Upper Paleolithic Art Upper Paleolithic well-known for art Symbolic representations best known in Europe Includes North Africa, South Africa, Australia Portable Art Numerous small sculptures in Europe Elaborate engravings on tools and handles Venuses Female figurines throughout Europe Some realistically carved Others with sexual characteristics exaggerated Perhaps for fertility or ritual purposes Dolni Vestonice Czech Republic First fired ceramic Small animal figures Prehistoric Art in Europe Art final phases of Upper Paleolithic Particularly during the Magdalenian Cave Art Majority in France and Spain People in other areas didnt use deep caves for art Painted and carved on rock surfaces in open Eroded away 7 Lascaux Cave France Wild bulls dominate And horses, deer, other animals Altamira Cave Spain Bison Used bulges in cave to give relief Grotte Chauvet France Dots Stenciled handprints (blow liquid pigment on hand held flat on wall) Hundreds of animals By same artist? Africa Southern Africa Apollo 11 Rock Shelter Namibia Rock Shelter Painted slabs Pinnacle Point Ocher Personal adornment? 165,000 years ago Central Africa Katanda Congo Excavations show remarkable bone craftsmanship. Harpoons End of Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic lasts until around 10,000 years ago Ice Age ends 8 Dynamic age doomed by climatic changes 10,000 years ago Temperature rises, glaciers retreat End of the Ice Age Traditional prey animals disappear Decrease herds large animals) Forests replace grassland natural pastures 9 ... View Full Document

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