Chapter 11 Review Questions
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Chapter 11 Review Questions

Course Number: GO 101, Spring 2011

College/University: Park

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C hapter 11 Questions for Review 1. If an area is described as a good air mass source region, what information can you g ive about it? a. A good air mass source region or ideal source regions are usually those areas dominated by surface high pressure. They include the ice and snow covered artic p lains in winter and subtropical oceans in summer. 2. I t is summer. What type of afternoon weather would you expect...

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hapter C 11 Questions for Review 1. If an area is described as a good air mass source region, what information can you g ive about it? a. A good air mass source region or ideal source regions are usually those areas dominated by surface high pressure. They include the ice and snow covered artic p lains in winter and subtropical oceans in summer. 2. I t is summer. What type of afternoon weather would you expect from an air mass designated as mT? Explain. a. In summer, the weather we could expect from mT air mass would be warm, moist and usually unstable. I t would be warm because t ropical (T) air masses form in a warm t ropical region. I t would be moist because maritime (m) air masses o riginate over water. 3. Why is continental polar air not welcome to the Central Plains in winter and yet very welcome in summer? a. A summertime continental polar (cP) air is welcome in the Central Plains because is usually brings relief from the oppressive heat in the central states as cooler air lowers the air temperature to more comfortable levels. In winter, however, a continental polar (cP) can bring bit ter cold winter weather. 4. Explain why the central United States is not a good air mass source region. a. The central United States is not a good air mass source region because it is located in the middle latitude. Middle latitudes, where surface temperatures and moisture characteristics vary considerably, are not good source regions. 5. Why do air temperatures tend to be a li t t le higher on the eastern side of the A ppalachian Mountains than on the western side, even though the same winter cP or cA air mass dominates both areas? a. Air r ides up and over the lower Appalachian Mountains. Turbulent mixing and compressional heating increase the air temperatures on the downwind side. Consequently, cities located to the east of the Appalachian Mountains usually do not experience temperatures as low as those on the west side. 6. Explain how the air f low aloft regulates the movement of air masses. a. Since the air mass itself is generally uniform with low winds, its movement is almost entirely dictated by air movements aloft, which push on the air mass moving it around. 7. L ist the temperature and moisture characteristics of each of the major air mass types. a. cA - Continental Ar t ic - Extremely cold, dry stable; forms over an ice and snowcovered surface b. cP - Continental Polar - cold, dry, stable c. cT - Continental Tropical - hot, dry, stable air aloft; unstable surface air d. mP - Marit ime Polar - cool, moist, unstable e. mT - warm, moist; usually unstable 8. What are lake-effect snows and how do they form? On which side of a lake do they typically occur? a. Lake effect snows usually form on the leeward side of the lake. They form as cold air moves over the lake, warms, becomes saturated, and r ises into towering cumuliform clouds. These eventually pour out lots of snow; once it reaches the shore; low hills force t he air to r ise even more. 9. Why are mari time polar air masses along the East Coast of the United States usually colder t han those along the nation's West Coast? Why are they also less prevalent? a. They are colder because they move over the cooler Atlantic, and do not stay over the ocean for as long as the pacific air masses on the western coast. They are less prevalent because winds tend to blow from the west, which prevent many of the air masses from moving from the Atlantic into the eastern united states(and this usually only happens w hen there is a H igh pressure area in Canada, with the cyclonic effect pulling the air mass in to the northeastern united states) 10. The boundaries between neighboring air masses tend to be more distinct during the winter t han during the summer. Explain why. a. The boundaries are more distinct because in the winter this is a temperature inversion near the ground, whereas during summer the temperature profile is more normal. 11. What type of air mass would be responsible for the weather conditions listed as follows? a. heavy snow showers and low temperatures at Buffalo, New York b. hot, muggy summer weather in the Midwest and the East c. daily afternoon thunderstorms along the Gulf Coast d. e. f. g. h. i. heavy snow showers along the western slope of the Rockies j. record low winter temperatures in South Dakota refreshing, cool, dry breezes after a long summer hot spell on the Central Plains heavy summer rain showers in southern Arizona drought with high temperatures over the Great Plains persistent cold, damp weather with drizzle along the East Coast summer afternoon thunderstorms forming along the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada i . a) mP i i. b) mT iii. c) mT iv. d) mP v. e) cP v i. f) mT v ii. g) cT v iii. h) mP i x. i) mP x. j) cA 12. On a surface weather map, what do you know about a region where the word frontogenesis is marked? a. You know that there is/was an increase in the temperature contrast across the front, w hich means that i t strengthened and is a more vigorous frontal system. 13. Explain why barometric pressure usually falls with the approach of a cold front or occluded f ront. a. The pressure usually falls because the driving force behind and occluded front/cold front is a low pressure system. 14. How does the weather usually change along a dryline? a. The air goes from being relatively dry to quite moist. They represent a steep horizontal change in moisture. The air temperature is usually greater on the dry side, with a low dew point, contrasted with the marginally cooler weather and higher dew point on the moist side. Cumulus clouds and thunderstorms usually form along the moist side of the d ryline. 15. Based on the following weather forecasts, what type of front will most likely pass the a rea? a. L ight rain and cold today, with temperatures just above freezing. Southeasterly w inds shifting to westerly tonight. Turning colder with rain becoming heavy and possibly changing to snow. b. Cool today with rain becoming heavy at times by this afternoon. Warmer t omorrow. Winds southeasterly becoming westerly by tomorrow morning. c. Increasing cloudiness and warm today, with the possibility of showers by evening. T urning much colder tonight. Winds southwesterly, becoming gusty and shifting t o northwesterly by tonight. d. Increasing high cloudiness and cold this morning. Clouds increasing and lowering t his afternoon, with a chance of snow or rain tonight. Precipitation ending t omorrow morning. Turning much warmer. Winds light easterly today, becoming southeasterly tonight and southwesterly tomorrow. i. i i. i ii. iv. a) occluded front(cold type occluded(cold front pushes the warm front up) b) occluded front(warm type occluded(cold front r ises above the warm front) c) cold front d) warm front 16. Sketch side views of a typical cold front, warm front, and cold-occluded front. Include in each d iagram cloud types and patterns, areas of precipitation, surface winds, and relative t emperature on each side of the front. a. cold fronts are roundish, warm fronts are line like, and cold-occluded fronts have the round part of the cold front pushing up the line of the warm front 17. During the spring, on a warm, sunny day in Boston, Massachusetts, the wind shifts from southwesterly to northeasterly and the weather tu rns cold, damp, and overcast. What type of f ront moved through the Boston area? From what direction did the front apparently approach Boston? a. Northeast, probably a cold front 18. How does the t ropopause show where an upper-level front is located? a. The t ropopause extends downwards and wraps around the jet stream core, and may or may not reach the ground(where there is usually a surface front as well) Q uestions for Thought 1. Suppose an mP air mass moving from the Pacific Ocean t ravels across the United S tates. Describe all of the modifications that could take place as this air mass moves eastward in winter. In summer. a. In winter as the mP reaches the Pacific Coast it is cool, moist, and conditionally u nstable. The surface air will be warmer than the air aloft. Common temperatures would 40 to 50 near the surface while the air a kilometer aloft could be freezing. As it moves inland, coastal mountains force it to r ise and much of its water vapor condenses into rain-producing clouds. In colder air the aloft, the rain changes to snow, with heavy amounts accumulating in mountain regions. I t loses much of i ts moisture as it crosses a series of mountain ranges. Beyond these mountains, it t ravels over a cold, elevated plateau that chills the surface air and slowly t ransforms t he lower level into dry, stable cP air. East of the Rockies, mP air at the surface in winter is comparatively warm and dry, having lost much of its moisture in passing over the mountains. S kies are relatively clear. Now it brings fair weather, cool temperatures. mP air is t rapped in Pacific coast valleys and may persist for a week or more. Low stratus clouds and fog are produced, making these valleys some of the foggiest places on the continent during the winter. b. In summer mP air masses originate in the same general area over the Pacific Ocean. I n summer, however, the ocean is relatively cool compared to the land surfaces. Summer mP air is cooled from below in its source region and becomes stable. Stability in the lower layers prevents moisture from being carried to higher levels. Aloft, this air mass remains very dry, usually even d rier than summer cP, and becomes quite warm through the subsidence, which takes place in the Pacific H igh. As mP air approaches the Pacific coast, the cold, upwelling waters along the shore cause fu rther cooling, increasing relative humidity, and stimulating the formation of considerable fog low or stratus clouds. Thus, along the Pacific coast, summer mP is characterized by a cool, h umid marine layer from 1,000-2,000 feet thick, often with fog or low stratus clouds, a strong i nversion capping the marine layer, and warm, dry, subsiding air above. As mP air moves inland f rom the west coast, the strong daytime heating in interior California, Oregon, Washington, and portions of Brit ish Columbia warms the surface layers and lowers the relative humidity. The i ntense heating and the lif ting as mP air crosses the mountains may result in cumulus cloud formation and occasional scattered showers and thunderstorms at high elevations. In descending t he eastern slopes of the Rockies, summer mP is heated adiabatically as in winter, and the relative h umidity may become quite low at t imes. When i t ar rives in the Plains and the M ississippi Valley, i t is hardly distinguishable from cP air in the area and results in clear, dry weather. Continuing eastward, it becomes warmer and more unstable, and picks up moisture from the earth and p lants. By the t ime i t reaches the Appalachians, i t has become unstable and moist enough so that l ift ing can again produce showers or thunderstorms. Marit ime polar air formed over the colder waters of the North Atlantic in summer occasionally moves southward bringing cool weather and cloudiness to the Atlantic coastal areas. 2. Explain how an anticyclone during autumn can bring record-breaking low temperatures and cP air to the southeastern states, and only a day or so later very high temperatures and mT a ir to the same region. a. As an anticyclone moves into a region that region is usually on the eastern side of the anticyclone where winds are northerly and cold and often deliver cP air. Later, because of the common eastward shift of long wave patterns in the upper-air f low, the axis and finally the western side of the anticyclone move over the same region. When that happens that region is then exposed to the southerly, warm air f low along the western boundary of the anticyclone which may carry mT air into the region. If the anticyclone is especially large and strong, both the cold, northerly f low on the anticyclone's eastern edge and the warm, southerly f low on the anticyclone's western edge are especially strong and record-breaking temperatures can be set at both extremes by the same system. 3. In Fig. 11.5 (p.292), there is a temperature inversion. How does this inversion differ from t he frontal inversion illustrated in Fig. 11.21b (p.304) a. In the t roposphere temperature tends to decrease as height increases. In the t heoretical In ternational Standard Atmosphere the temperature decrease or 'lapse rate' is defined as 1.98oC per 1000 feet gain in altitude. L ike most things theoretical this doesn't a lways happen in practice. Almost always at some level in the t roposphere the t emperature will increase with height with the result that there is a warm layer of air above a cooler layer. This condition is known as a temperature inversion. Frontal i nversions occur where a mass of cold air moves into a region that was previously occupied by a warm air mass. The cold air, being more dense slides in underneath the warmer air l ift ing the warm air up. This results in the warm air mass overlaying the cold air, thus an i nversion. Any local heating of the cold air will cause it to r ise but the lift ing will not continue above the frontal inversion unless the r ising air mass is warmer than the overlaying warm layer. 4. For Chicago, I llinois, to experience heavy lake-effect snows, from what direction would the wind have to be blowing? a. Chicago, I ll inois would experience a heavy lake-effect snow during easterly or north-easterly winds. More frequently, the north side of a low-pressure system p icks up more moisture over the lake as it t ravels west, creating a phenomenon called lake-enhanced precipitation. However, lake-effect snows are uncommon in Chicago, I ll inois because the region's dominant winds are from the northwest, making them upwind from their respective Great Lakes. 5. When a very cold air mass covers half of the United States, a very warm air mass often covers the other half. Explain how this happens. a. This happens when the upper-air f low pattern is meridional with a wavelength comparable to or somewhat longer than the distance across the United States with an a ir-mass t ransition about halfway across the count ry. Under these circumstances a warm m T air mass can dominate the weather on one side of the count ry while a cold cP or cA a ir mass dominates the other side. 6. Explain why freezing rain more commonly occurs with warm fronts than with cold f ronts. a. In most cases, freezing rain results from the process of warm moist air over r unning colder air. Perhaps the most common overrunning scenario occurs as warm moist air f lows up and over a warm front associated with a mid-latitude cyclone. The r ising air cools, the water vapor condenses, producing a narrow band of freezing rain ahead of the front. This band is typically less than 50 kilometers (30 miles) wide. This band is often wrapped around and behind the low pressure center by counterclockwise winds f lowing around the cyclone. Some of the most devastating ice storms occur in association with this narrow band of freezing r ain. If freezing rain develops with a cold front it will typically be behind the cold f ront. Freezing rain develops as southerly winds at upper levels push warm moist air up and over the cold front, producing precipitation that falls in to the colder air. Freezing rain associated with the cold front is usually very light and scattered, and in rare cases, even observed ahead of the front. 7. In winter, cold-front weather is typically more violent than warm-front weather. Why? Explain why this is not necessarily t rue in summer. a. Because cold fronts are steeper and move more rapidly. The vertical displacement of air is often rapid enough that latent heat released by water vapor adds to the a irs buoyancy. The common result is cumulonimbus clouds. In summer, the t hermal g radient winds are typically much weaker in summer than they are in w inter. 8. When a cold front passes a station in the Northern Hemisphere, the wind shifts in a clockwise manner. How would the winds shift during the passage of cold front in the Southern Hemisphere? a. In the Southern Hemisphere, the reverse is t rue; a cold front usually moves from southwest to northeast, and a warm front moves from northwest to southeast. 9. Why does the same cold front typically produce more rain over Kentucky than over western K ansas? a. Most of the precipitation produced by a cold front comes not directly from the cold air mass, but from the displaced warmer air which is lifted by the advancing wedge of cold a ir. Since the average absolute humidity is generally higher in Kentucky than in Kansas, more precipitation condenses and falls from the wetter displaced warm air in Kentucky t han in Kansas. 10. You are in upstate New York and observe the wind shifting from East to South accompanied by a sudden r ise in both the air temperature and dewpoint temperature. What type of front has passed? a. The wind change, the temperature r ise and the dew point r ise are all consistent with the passage of a warm front . No other type of frontal passage is consistent with all of these changes. 11. If Lake Erie freezes over in January, is it still possible to have lake-effect snows off Lake E rie in February? Why or why not? a. Mostly likely no. But it may be possible but only if Lake Erie has thawed out again and is warm by February because lake-effect snow is caused whenen cold winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water. 12. Why are ocean-effect snow storms (described on p.291) fairly common when a persistent cold northeasterly wind blows over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, but are not common when a cold northeasterly wind blows over Long Island, New York? a. The winds were generally going from North to South over Cape Cod. T his allows the cold air over the land (say from Maine) to interact with the warm ocean water, generate snow showers and move over the Cape Cod because of the location and prevailing winds that f low over Long Island, New York this would only happen on rare occasions. For example, on a particular n ight lets say the upstream air mass for Long Island was over the cold land, there was no i nstability and hence no generation of snow showers. Meanwhile, over Cape Cod, the upstream air mass was from the ocean waters. W hen the warm waters detects the cold air mass, (similar to boiling a pot of water) instability occurs and snow showers develop. P roblems and Exercises 1. Make a sketch of North America and show the upper-air wind-f low pattern that would p roduce: (a) very cold cA air moving into the far western states in winter, (b) cold cP air over the Central Plains in winter, (c) warm mT air over the Midwest in winter, (d ) warm, moist mT air over southern California and Arizona during the summer a., b., c., and d: 2. You are presently taking a weather observation. The sky is full of wispy cirrus clouds estimated to be about 6km (20,000 ft.) overhead. If a warm front is approaching from the south, about how far away is it (assuming a slope of 1:200)? If it is moving toward you at an average warm-front speed of about 10 knots, how long will it take before it passes your area? a. If the assumed slope is correct then the distance of approaching front can be obtained f rom the direct proportion: d istance/ (6 km) = 200/1. Hence the distance is 1200 km . Let D t represent the elapsed t ime until the front arrives. Then D t = 1200 km / (10 knots 1.85 km/s/knot = 65 hours.

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