ANTH Chapter 6 & 7
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ANTH Chapter 6 & 7

Course Number: ANTHRO 100, Spring 2011

College/University: Golden West

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 6 Subsistence Economies: An economy where able-bodied adults are engaged in getting food for themselves and their families. Foraging Foraging is a food getting strategy that obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. Foragers today are referred to as hunter-gatherers, which are not very many and live in the marginal areas of the earth,...

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ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER CULTURAL 6 Subsistence Economies: An economy where able-bodied adults are engaged in getting food for themselves and their families. Foraging Foraging is a food getting strategy that obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. Foragers today are referred to as hunter-gatherers, which are not very many and live in the marginal areas of the earth, deserts, the arctic and the tropical forests. In modern times only about 5 million people are foragers. Pg. 95 Australian Aborigines In the 1960s they still lived by hunting and gathering as described by Richard Gould. Their diet was mostly plant food. Pg. 96 The Inuit (Eskimo) They eat mostly sea and land mammals. Ernest Burch describes them in the beginning of the 19th century. They kill sea mammals with a harpoon and a lance from a kayak. Woman butcher and also hunt small. Currently they mostly work and have modern conveniences. Pg. 96 General Features of Foragers Most live in small communities, are nomadic, do not recognize individual land rights, do not have different classes, no political officials, division of labor is based on age and gender, men hunt animals and women gather plant foods. Complex Foragers There is still considerable variability among societies that depend on foraging. The pacific coast and New Guinea coastal people are examples. The Tlingit of southeastern Alaska and the Nimpkish of British Columbia depend on annual Salmon runs. Both have class systems and slaves. Inequality and competitiveness. In New Guinea about 40 societies depend on foraging. Paul Rosco found the the dependence on fishing is associated with density of population and settlement size. Pg. 98 Food Production About 10,000 years ago many peoples made the changeover to food production. They began to cultivate and then domesticate plants and animals. Anthropologists distinguish three major types of food production systems- horticulture, intensive agriculture, and pastoralism. Horticulture The growing of crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields. The tools are generally hand tools and the methods do not include fertilization, irrigation, etc. There are two kinds of horticulture. The more common involves independence on extensive (shifting) cultivation, the land is worked for short periods and then left idle for some years, the use the slash and burn techniques so that nutrients can be returned to the soil. The other kind involves dependence on long-growing tree crops. They both may be practiced in the same society. The Kayapo of the Brazilian amazon leave in search of game for months. The Yanomamo Horticultural society that also forages. The use slash-and-burn horticulture. They may go on treks to forage from time to time. The Samoans They numbered 56,000 in 1839. Their land is volcanic and it rains a lot. There is little flat land for cultivation. Samoan horticulture involved 3 tree crops. They cultivate Taro. None of their farming required much work. This kind of casual farming prompted Captain Bligh, of Mutiny on the Bounty fame, to describe the Tahitians as lazy. His attitude was ethnocentric. They cannot weed often because of the erosion of their soil. They keep chickens and pig which they eat occasionally; main source of protein is fish. General Features of Horticulturalists They yield more food than foragers. It supports larger communities. Horticulturalists are more sedentary. The exhibit the beginnings of social differentiation. Pg. 100 Intensive Agriculture People that use this technique use techniques that enable them to cultivate fields permanently. Nutrients may be put back into the soil by the use of nutrients. Another way is that The Luo of western Kenya plant beans around corn plants to restore nutrients. Rural Greece In the 1950s Ernestine Friedl described the village of Vasilika as having 220 inhabitants. Grapevines and wheat are cultivated. The make newly pressed grape juice or must and turn it into wine. Bread is their staple food, they also eat cereal called trakhana. Cotton and tobacco are the main cash crops. Woman harvest cotton in October and Irrigation is considered mens work. Pg. 101 Rural Vietnam: The Mekong Delta The Village of Khanh Hau is comprised of about 600 families when Gerald Hickey described it in the 1950s. Wet rice is the primary cultivation. All members of the family help with the harvest. Aside from harvesting, women do little work in the fields mostly doing household chores. Pg. 101 General Features of Intensive Agricultural Societies They are more likely to have towns and cities, high degree of craft specialization, complex political organization, and large differences in wealth and power. They work longer hours. More likely to face famines or food shortages even though it is more productive. It is because they produce for a market. The Commercialization and Mechanism of Agriculture There is a worldwide trend for agriculturalists to produce more and more which is called commercialization. A second trend is agribusiness, large corporation owned farms. Pg. 102 Market Foraging in Industrial Societies Most of us are market foragers, very little of us raise plants or animals. If we did not have agriculture we would not have towns, many occupations, a government, etc. pg. 102 Pastoralism Society that depends for their living on domesticated herds of animals that feed on a natural pasture. They mostly do not eat them, they drink the milk, and mix the blood with other foods. The Basseri Described by Fredrik Barth in the 1960s as a tribe of about 16,000 tent dwelling nomads. Their herds consist of sheep and goats. Donkey and camels are used for pulling and carrying. Wealthier men have horses. Annual migrations are so important that they have developed the concept of il-rah, or tribal road. They have a traditional route and schedule. There is one shepherd (unmarried boy) responsible for a flock of 300 or 400. Children herd the baby animals. Milk and its by products are the most important. But wool, hides and meat are important to their economy. Pg. 104 The Lapps The Lapps or Saami practice reindeer herding in northwestern Scandinavia as described by Ian Whitaker and T.I. Itkonen in the 1950s. They herd them either intensively or extensively. In the intensive system the herd is constantly under observation within a fenced area for the whole year. The extensive system involves allowing the animals to migrate over a large area. It requires little observation and encompasses large herds, and they are less accustomed to humans. 200 is the minimum to provide for a family of four or five. The Norwegian government now regulates it. General Features of Pastoralism Most are nomadic, yet some are more sedentary. Communites are usually small, consisting of a group of families. Trade is necessary for survival. More vulnerable to famine. Inhabit drought prone regions. Pg. 104 Environmental Restraints on Food-Getting It is of great interest to Anthropologists of why societies have different methods of getting food. The environment affects it. It is believed that foraging has been practiced everywhere. Lewis Binford argues that fishing is important in cold climates. 80% of horticulture practice in the tropics, 75% that practice intensive horticulture are not in the tropics. Pastoralists are in the grassland regions of the earth. These regions may be steppes (dry, low grass cover), prairies (taller, better watered grass), or savannas (tropical grasslands). The Origin of Food Production During the period from about 40,000 to about 15,000 years ago, people got most of their food from hunting and migratory animals. The first evidence of a changeover from food production to cultivation and domestication was in the near east in about 8000 BC. There is some evidence of cultivation in China, SE Asia, and Africa around 6000 BC. Highlands of Mexico, 7000 BC and Peru 6000 BC. Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery suggested that some change in external influences must have favored a changeover to food production. They believed that there was no great incentive. The Binford-Flannery model thought the incentive to domesticate animals and plants may have been the desire to reproduce what was wildly abundant in the hunting and gathering areas. They had to do so because they moved to more marginal areas. The model seems to fit records in the Levant. Population pressure on a global scale may have caused it according to Mark Cohen, rather than on a small scale. Recently archeologists suggest that climate change played a role. Or maybe they thought of planting crops to get them through the dry seasons. The Spread and Intensification of Food Production May be linked to the need for territorial expansion. Greater productivity enables more people to be supported. Ester Boserup suggested that intensification of agriculture is not likely to develop naturally out of horticulture because intensification requires much more work. She argued that people will intensify only if they have to. Her argument it widely accepted. That is requires more work has been argues by Robert Hunt, he found that less, not more labor is required with irrigation. Intensive horticulture has not yet spread to every part of the world. Anna Roosevelt pointed out that the physical environment does not completely control what can be done with it. Practice Quiz ____________ have the lowest population density. Correct: Foragers Intensive agriculturalists usually have settlements that are ____________. Correct: permanent The most important factor that prevents people from growing food in the Artic region is ____________. Correct: short growing seasons Pastoralists usually inhabit ____________ regions. Correct: drought-prone Horticulture is a form of food production which employs ____________. Correct: simple tools and no draft animals Beginning about ____________ years ago, certain peoples in widely separated geographic locations made the revolutionary changeover to food production. Correct: 10,000 A characteristic of pastoral societies is ____________. Correct: dependency on trade with agriculturalists Individual families in ____________ are most likely to own animals. Correct: pastoral societies Which is not a method used by the Yanomamo to catch fish? Correct: with nets What percentage of all societies that practice horticulture or simple agriculture are located in the tropics? Correct: 80 Which method of food getting requires a lot of territory because new gardens are not cleared until the forest grows back? Correct: extensive cultivation The Yanomamo of the Brazilian-Venezuelan Amazon practice ____________. Correct: horticulture Which societies depend mostly for their living on domesticated herds of animals that feed on natural pasture? Correct: pastoralists Which involves the increasing dependence on buying and selling, usually with money as the medium of exchange? Correct: commercialization What has a restraining, rather than a determining, effect on the major types of subsistence? Correct: environment Select the answer that represents a form of food production which employs simple tools and no draft animals. Correct: horticulture Select the type of society that cannot rely on their production alone but must trade with others. Correct: pastoralism The main factor that prevents humans from growing food in the Arctic region is ____________. Correct: short growing season ____________ type of food-gathering requires the most work. Correct: Intensive agriculture Most Americans are ____________. Correct: market foragers ____________ is a form of horticulture. Correct: Shifting cultivation The Near East climate became more ____________ about 13,000 to 12,000 years ago. Correct: seasonal People engage in ____________ techniques that enable them to cultivate fields permanently. Correct: intensive agriculture What term refers to the process whereby the land is worked for short periods and then left idle for some years? Correct: extensive cultivation Which term refers to dry regions with low grass cover? Correct: steppes Chapter 7 Economic Systems: Variation in economic systems is related to how a society gets its food. The Allocation of Resources Natural Resources: Land Usufruct: Property ownership in the US entails exclusive rights to use the land or other resources in whatever way the owner wishes. Private property system: Property ownership by individuals, families, or private corporations. But there is legislation that can have regulations, property is not entirely private. Foragers Members of food getting societies generally do not have private ownership of land. If there is any ownership it is by groups. Land is not bought or sold. It is more common for groups of kin to own land. They are not restrictive. Since animals are always on the move there is no benefit. Horticulturalists Do not have individual or family ownership of land. Because they are moving to new locations and the land needs to lie fallow for years. Wherever they farm or whatever the kill belongs to the person no matter where it was had. Pastoralists The territory of pastoral nomads far exceeds that of most horticultural societies. Must move on when a resource is exhausted. But they do own the animals. Some have to have the rights to pass through certain areas. In arab countries land is defended by force. Intensive Agriculturalists Individual ownership is common. In the early years of the US only property owners could vote. Colonialism, the State, and Land Rights Around the world colonial conquerors have taken away land from the natives. Conquerors have come from many countries. Reserves were often established. Governments do not like communal land use systems, it is harder to control groups who do not own land and move about freely. Technology To convert resources to food and other goods, every society makes use of technology. Societies vary in their technologies. Foragers and pastoralist have small tool kits; they must limit it as to what they can carry. tools Among foragers belong to those who made them. They also share tools. There is no superiority as in a industrial society because everyone can make them. Pastoralists share with family but a neighbor needs permission. Societies with intensive agriculture and industrialized societies have tools made by specialists, which means they have to be traded or bought. Huge things are owned collectively. Pg. 115 The Conversion of Resources In all societies resources have to be transformed through labor into food, which is what economists call production. Types of Economic Production At first most societies had a domestic mode of production (family or kinship). Industrial societies much of the work is based on mechanized production as in factories and mechanized agriculture but only some capitalists can afford the cost of production. Therefore most people are laborers. Tributary production system is found in nonindustrial societies in which most people still produce their own food but an aristocracy controls a portion of production like the feudal societies of medieval Western Europe. Many suggest that our own is moving from industrialism to postindustrialism because manual work is being replaces by computers. Telecommuting is described by how people can work for wages at home. Its come to who owns what and society is becoming more democratic. Incentives for Labor Have to work for survival. A subsistence economy is where foods and goods are produced for personal consumption. They often work less than in commercial economies. Chayanovs rule is when there are few able bodied workers and a large number of consumers then when there are more workers they have to work less. Pg. 117 Forced and Required Labor Thus far voluntary labor has been discussed. No formal organization within the society compels people to work and punishes them for not working. Covee, a system of required labor. Like a military draft. Division of Labor All societies have some division of labor. Division of labor by gender or age or more complex specialization. By Gender and Age All societies make use of gender differences. Some cultures have children do work. Childbirth rates are higher where workloads are high. Beyond Gender and Age Some cultures have specializations or full time occupations. They are dependent on the sale of their goods. The Organization of Labor Industrial societies have to have great occupational specialization. In nonindustrialized societies kinship is an important basis for work organization. In modern industrial societies, the predominant basis of organization is the contract. The agreement between employers and employees. Making Decisions About Work Why do people go after only certain foods? Why do certain decisions become customary? A frequent source about choices is optimal foraging theory, which was developed originally by students of animal behavior and has been applied to decision making and foragers. The theory assumes that individuals seek to maximize the returns in calories and nutrients on their labor and in deciding which plants and animals to hunt or collect. The Distribution of Goods and Services Goods and services are distributed in all societies by systems under three general types: reciprocity, redistribution and market or commercial exchange. Reciprocity Consists of giving and taking without the use of money; it mainly takes form of gift giving or generalized reciprocity. There may also be bartering. Generalized Reciprocity When goods or services are given to another without an expectation of a return gift. Sustains the family in all societies. Parents give to children and dont expect anything back. Sharing increasing during a period of shortage. Balanced Reciprocity Is explicit and short term in its expectations of return. Involves an immediate exchange or expectation of return. Barter is the term most often used. Commodity exchanges focus on the objects or services received and when the transaction is received the relationship between both parties ends. The Kula Ring Horticulural islanders had a method of trading with people of neighboring islands. The Kula Ring is a ceremonial exchange of valued shell ornaments across a set of far islands. Two kinds of ornamants are involved, white shell arm bands (mwali), which are given in a counterclockwise direction, and red shell necklaces (soulava), which are given in a clockwise direction. The ornaments allow a man to organize an expedition to a trading partner. Pg. 123 Kinship Distance and Type of Reciprocity Some depends on reciprocity for the distribution of goods and labor. Sahlins says that it depends largely on kinship distance between people. Reciprocity as a Leveling Device Reciprocal gift giving may equalize the distribution of goods between communities. A Potlatch where a Native American chief enhances his status by giving gifts away to his guests. The host chief would later be invited to other Potlatches, they became more and more competitive. Redistribution The accumulation of good or labor by a particular person, or in a particular place, for the purpose of subsequent distribution. Found in all societies but most important in societies with political hierarchies. The wealthy are more likely to benefit. Market or Commercial Exchange Anthropologists call it exchanges or transactions in which the prices are subject to supply and demand, whether or not the transaction occurs in the marketplace. Involves not only the exchange of goods but also labor, land, rentals, and credit. Societies with monetary exchange usually have inequities in wealth and power. Kinds of Money Our society has General purpose money for which nearly all goods, resources, and services can be exchanged. Money is nonperishable, transportable and divisible. The earliest coins were made by the Lydians in Asia Minor and the chinese in the 7th century AD. Many peoples whose food production cannot support a large population of nonproducers of food have special purpose money. Pg. 126 Degrees of Commercialization Commercial exchange is the dominant form of distribution in the modern world. What anthropologists call peasant economies are more commercialized than transitional subsistence economies such as the Luo. Peasants produce food for their own consumption but sell part of their surplus to others. Why do Money and Market Exchange Develop? Money is invented or copied from another when bartering becomes increasingly inefficient. Money makes it easier to trade. Frederic Pryor. Possible Leveling Devices in Commercial Economies Social assistance programs, welfare. The fiesta? Pg. 127 The Worldwide Trend Toward Commercialization Worldwide dependence on commercial exchange is increasing. Money tends to invoke feelings of not wanting to share. Migratory Labor Many move to find employment. Tikopia went through many western changes. The introduction of money weakened kinship. Nonagricultural Commercial Production Commercialization can also occur when a self-sufficient society comes to depend more on trading for its livelihood. Like the Mundurucu and the Montagnais. Capitoes, or agents encourage greater rubber production. Supplementary Cash Crops A third way commercialization occurs is when people cultivation the soil produce a surplus above their subsistence requirements, which is then sold for cash. Commercialization may have been associated with the formation of peasantry. Peasants first appeared 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. Introduction of Commercial and Industrial Agriculture Commercialization can come about by the introduction of commercial agriculture, cultivation for sale rather than personal consumption. Hobsbawm noted that things became more impersonal. It brings about social consequences. Commercialization results in more unequal access to resources and a greater degree of social stratification. Current Research and Issues Does Communal Ownership Lead to Economic Disaster? Garret Hardin, tragedy results pasture is degraded by overgrazing and productivity falls. Which is more conserving, private ownership or communal ownership? Only if people are motivated. Pg. 113 Migrants and Immigrants Working Abroad to Send Money Home Going to another country generated 100 billion in remittances in 2003. Some stay in the country and some go back home and buy farms, etc. pg. 129 Applied Anthropology Impact of the World System Deforestation of the Amazon Human behavior is affecting the extent of the rainforest and the global weather system. By 2001, about 13 percent of the amazon had been cleared. Pg. 131 Review In industrial societies, much of the work is based on _______ production. Correct: mechanical In a state-level society such as the United States, the payment of taxes represents ____________, which involves massive redistribution. Correct: a form of forced labor Universally, men and women and adults and children ____________. Correct: do not do the same kind of work Select the answer that allows the individual ownership of land. Correct: intensive agriculturalists In the absence of ____________ in horticultural and food collecting societies, most individuals have the skills to make what they need. Correct: specialization The profit motive, or the desire to exchange something for more than it costs, is ____________. Correct: not universal or always the dominant motive Societies around the world divide labor by ____________. Correct: gender and age ____________ is the accumulation of goods by a particular person, or in a particular place, for the purpose of subsequent distribution. Correct: Redistribution In contrast to horticulturalists, pastoralists ____________ land for their livelihood. Correct: need a lot of Among ____________, the concept of private ownership is least likely to be present. Correct: food collectors ____________ own relatively few personal goods when compared to horticulturalists. Correct: Nomadic pastoralists In simpler societies, _____________ is most common between groups of unrelated individuals. Correct: balanced reciprocity In all of the societies studied by anthropologists, people are assigned different tasks ____________. Correct: based on gender and age Among ____________, children living in nomadic camps had virtually no work. Correct: the !Kung ____________ is an example of balanced reciprocity. Correct: The Kula ring What term refers to the activities that transform or convert resources into goods? Correct: production One characteristic of ____________ is people are most likely to be forced to work. Correct: complex societies An example of redistribution is ____________. Correct: mukama Taxation is a type of ____________. Correct: forced labor Which term refers to exchanges or transactions in which the "prices" are subject to supply and demand? Correct: market exchange ____________ appears mostly at the highest levels of productivity. Correct: Market exchange for land The corvee is a system of ____________. Correct: required labor The draft or compulsory military service is an example of ____________. Correct: corvee In modern industrial societies, the predominant basis of organization is the ____________. Correct: contract When goods or services are given to another, without any apparent expectation of a return gift, we call it ____________. Correct: generalized reciprocity Official Quiz Most of the Ngatatjara's food supply is gathered by __________ and is __________. D. women/fruit or other plant food The changeover to food production occurred about __________ years ago. D. 10,000 Before the 1950's, the Yanomamo did not have steel axes or machetes. Where did they get these tools? C. Missionaries gave them the steel axes and machetes. Most pastoralists get their animal protein C. from the milk and blood of the animals they raise. Of the following, which is not a consequence of horticulture? C. strict egalitarianism 100% Student Response In which type of society would you be likely find the greatest surpluses of food and thus the greatest number of specialist workers? A. technologically advanced agricultural societies Why do members of food-collecting societies not have private ownership of land? A. Land has no intrinsic value to foragers, only the animals and plants on the land. Generalized reciprocity most commonly occurs between B. close kin such as parents and children. In all societies studied by anthropologists, ___________is/are a universal means through which labor is divided in society: C. age and gender. __________ is the type of exchange system whereby prices or values of goods exchanged are subject to the forces of supply and demand. C. Commercial exchange For food, most recent food-collectors depend primarily on C. fish Of the following, which is not a consequence of intensive agriculture? D. smaller population groups One characteristic of pastoral societies is A. dependence on trade with agriculturalists. The Yanomamo do all of the following except B. shrink the heads of their enemies killed in battle. 100% Student Response The Inuit subsist mostly on __________ because __________ do not exist in large numbers at their northerly latitude. A. meat/plants Generalized reciprocity most commonly occurs between B. close kin such as parents and children. In parts of Melanesia, pigs can be purchased using strings of shell, which cannot be used to buy any other goods or services. In this context, economic anthropologists would refer to these shells as _________. B. special-purpose money In all societies studied by anthropologists, ___________is/are a universal means through which labor is divided in society: C. age and gender. When the federal government collects a portion of our wages as taxes and then returns that money in the form of national security, roads, education, and other goods and services to its citizens, they are demonstrating which type of economic exchange? A. redistribution __________ is the type of exchange system whereby prices or values of goods exchanged are subject to the forces of supply and demand. C. Commercial exchange

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The price of chicken has increased from $1.50 to $2.00 per pound because a poultry disease caused a decrease in the supply of chicken. What is likely to happen in the market for fish, ceteris paribus, assuming that fish is priced at $3.00 per pound? Corr
University of Texas - ECONOMICS - 1110
A shortage is the same thing as scarcity. results from the imposition of a price floor. results when a price ceiling is imposed above the market-clearing price. results when the amount that suppliers wish to supply exceeds the amount that consumer
University of Texas - ECONOMICS - 1110
A measure of sensitivity or responsiveness to changes in price or income is calledCorrect Answer: elasticity.A horizontal supply curveCorrect Answer: is perfectly elastic.A vertical demand curveCorrect Answer: is perfectly inelastic.A vertical suppl
University of Texas - ECONOMICS - 1110
Marginal utility is best associated withCorrect Answer: Correct value in exchange.A consumer buys less chicken and more ham because the price of chicken has increased relative to the price of ham. This is an example of theCorrect Answer: Correct subs
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
Second Homework Exam: Study Guide 1. Write a program that translates a number between 0 and 4 into the closest letter grade. For example the number 2.8 (which might have been the average of several grades) would be converted to B-. Break ties in favor of
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
JAVA PROGRAMMING ONECHAPTER ONESoftware controls computers (often referred to as hardware).JAVA is one of todays most popular software development languages.JAVA was developed by Sun Microsystems.JAVA is a fully object-oriented language with strong s
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
#include <string>uusing std:string;class grade bookcfw_public:Gradebook( string );void setCourseName( string );string getCoursename();void displaymessage();vid inputgrades();void displayGradereport;private:string courseName;int aCount;int b
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
#include "GradeBook.h"int main()cfw_GGradeBook my Gradebok( "CS101 C+ Prgramming" );myGradeBook.displayMessage();myGradeBook.inputGrades();myGradeBook.displayGradeReport();return 0;
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
#include <iostream>##include <string>uusing namespace std;int main()cfw_bool flag = true;string answer;int counters[9]=cfw_0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0;int sales;int commission;iint index;wwhile ( flag)cfw_cout < "Enter employee's sales" < endl;cin
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
#include <iostream>uusing namespace std;int main()cfw_iint code;int flag = 1;while (flag !=0)cfw_cout < " Please enter the employee's paycode: ";cin > code;ccout < endl;"\t";switch (code) cfw_case 1:float managerSalary;cout < "Please ent
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
ConditionalsDarin BrezealeThe University of Texas at ArlingtonConditionals p.1/22Basic Concepts ConditionalsConditionals are used for making decisions.The conditionals available in C are if and if-else statements the switch statement the conditio
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
CSE 1311 Exam #2Name: March 30, 2009If you show your work, you should CLEARLY indicate what your answer is. Problems 114 are worth 5 points each. ASCII values of alphanumeric characters 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 space ! "
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
2 CONDITIONALS Answers to select problems are at the end.1Statements and printf()1. printf() has a very large number of format speciers. There are a number of options that can be used with the format speciers for altering the way that information is di
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
2 CONDITIONALSAnswers to select problems are at the end.1Statements and printf()1. printf() has a very large number of format speciers. There are a number of optionsthat can be used with the format speciers for altering the way that information isdi
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
http:/publications.gbdirect.co.uk/c_book/ [ C book ]http:/en.wikibooks.org/wiki/C_Programminghttp:/publications.gbdirect.co.uk/c_book/the_c_book.pdfhttp:/cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/ctut.pdfhttp:/www.trap17.com/index.php/Cc-Programming_f56.htmlhtt
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
Lab Assignment 3CSE 13102011-09-13 15:11:19CSE 1310 Laboratory Assignment #3This assignment was written by Dr. Darin Brezeale & refined by Dr. Arthur Reyes.Week of September 28, 2009name: Darin Brezealecourse: CSE 1310assignment: lab 3adate: Sept
University of Texas - JAVA - 2312
#include<stdio.h>int odd_even(int num)cfw_if(num%2=0)return 1;elsereturn 0;int main()cfw_int number;printf("Enter a Number:");scanf("0",&number);if(odd_even(number)cfw_printf("\nNumber is Even\n");elseprintf("\nNumber is Od
USC - BIO - 120
Your Name: _Webbs Answer Key_MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes thestatement or answers the question (2 points each).1) Thread-like pseudopodia that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic ofwhich group?A) r
USC - ECON - 101
Your Name: _Webbs Answer Key_MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes thestatement or answers the question (2 points each).1) Thread-like pseudopodia that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic ofwhich group?A) r
USC - ECON - 101
USC - ECON - 101
USC - ECON - 101
1.Whichofthefollowingorganellesisenclosedbyanenvelopeoftwomembranes?a.chloroplastb.lysosomec.Golgiapparatusd.ribosomee.centralvacuole2.Youmeasurethevoltageoneachsideofamembraneandfindittobeminus()300millivolts.Thistellsyouthata.thecellisanervecell
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Financial Statements, Taxesand Cash FlowChapterTwoBalance Sheet The balance sheet is a snapshot of thefirms assets and liabilities at a given pointin time Assets are listed in order of liquidity Ease of conversion to cash Without significant los
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Working With FinancialStatementsChapterThreeSample Balance Sheet Assets $000s2006CashA/RInventoryOther CATotal CANet FATotal Assets2005 Difference$3,171$6,489 -$3,3181,095,118 1,048,99146,127388,947295,25593,692314,454232,30482,150
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Long-Term Financial Planningand GrowthChapterFourFinancial Planning Model Ingredients Sales Forecast many cash flows depend directly on thelevel of sales (often estimated using a growth rate insales) Pro Forma Statements setting up the plan as pro
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Introduction to Valuation: TheTime Value of MoneyChapterFive1Basic Definitions Present Value earlier money on a timeline Future Value later money on a time line Interest rate exchange rate betweenearlier money and later money Discount rate Cos
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Discounted Cash FlowValuationChapterSix1Multiple Cash Flows FVExample 1 Suppose you invest $500 in a mutual fundtoday and $600 in one year. If the fundpays 9% annually, how much will youhave in two years?FV = 500(1.09)2 + 600(1.09) = 1248.052
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Interest Rates and BondValuationChapterSeven1Bond Definitions Par value (face value, its also the futurevalue of the bond) Coupon rate (use it to find couponpayment) Coupon payment (equal to coupon ratetimes the par value for annual bonds) Mat
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Stock ValuationChapterEight1Cash Flows for Stockholders If you buy a share of stock, you canreceive cash in two ways The company pays dividends You sell your shares, either to anotherinvestor in the market or back to the company As with bonds, t
USC - BUAD304 - 304
Net Present Value and OtherInvestment CriteriaChapter 91Good Decision Criteria We need to ask ourselves the followingquestions when evaluating decisioncriteria Does the decision rule adjust for the timevalue of money? Does the decision rule adju