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E. J. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) INSTRUCTIONS: After you have read and studied each of the chapters for this part of the course, please answer the following questions by marking a SCANTRON form 882-E with the response that best answers the question. Clearly PRINT your name, class (day & time), and the exam number on your Scantron answer sheet. Be sure to erase any changes you make completely. Machine scoring is final. This take-home exam is due in class on the day of Exam #1. *****CHAPTER 1***** 1. In contrast to the Europeans, most natives of North America believed that land serves as the basis for a. independence and personal identity. b. material wealth. c. political status. d. common sustenance. 2. The Aztecs, one of the Meso-American empires, created a(n) a. empire that controlled a population estimated at between 10 and 20 million people. b. highly stratified society. c. capital city that amazed the Spanish with its grandeur. d. sophisticated agricultural system. 3. How did Europeans view Native American peop le and their behavior? a. as cultural savages b. as religious pagans c. as people to be hated d. All of the above. 4. Mansa Musa, who ruled the West African empire of Mali, a. led a legendary pilgrimage to Mecca. b. never succeeded in making Mali as large as Ghana. c. became so powerful that he led his army across the Sahara. d. achieved little notice from people outside West Africa. 5. Which of the following nations became the early leader of European exploration? a. France b. Spain c. England d. Portugal 6. In 1589 in France, a noble faction assassinated King a. Charles I. b. Charles II. c. Henry II. d. Henry III. 7. The Pueblo people of the American Southwest, encountered by the Spanish in the 1540s, a. built ceremonial mounds on which to worship their gods. b. failed to develop agricultural techniques suitable for their arid environment. c. used irrigation canals, dams, and hillside terracing to water their arid maize fields. d. made their clothing and utensils fro m buffalo hides and bones. 1 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 8. Many ancient humans migrated to the Americas over a a. wooden bridge. b. land bridge. c. volcanic crater. d. cobblestone road. 9. At the time of early contact with Europeans, Africa was a continent marked by a. primitive social organizations. b. sparse and undeveloped settlements. c. diverse and elaborate cultures. d. backward and ignorant peoples. 10. All of the following factors contributed to the rise of modern Europe EXCEPT the a. devastation of the population by the Black Death. b. rediscovery of ancient knowledge. c. emergence of powerful feudal lords. d. revival of long-distance trade. 11. Population growth and cultural development in West Africa a. depended upon ecological conditions and geography. b. guarded against foreign invasions and influences. c. progressed in regular and set patterns. d. required isolation from other cultures. 12. In the seventeenth century, European explorers in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys were amazed to find a. the remnants of ancient European visitors. b. Native Americans living as forest primitives. c. hundreds of large ceremonial mounds. d. a highly developed and far-flung Indian society. 13. The Spanish encountered the Aztec people in Mexico in the year a. 1492. b. 1519. c. 1545. d. 1619. 14. Archaeological studies of the Mound Builders suggest that Native American a. loss of population and land accompanying the western migration of Europeans was inevitable. b. settlements of the Atlantic seaboard represented the highest levels of pre-Columbian development. c. culture remained static for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. d. societies participated in a vast trading network that linked villages across the continent. 15. Timbuktu in the fourteenth century was a a. barren and inhospitable location in the Sahara. b. major port of trade with the eastern world on the Indian Ocean. c. military outpost in the kingdom of Ghana. d. city in Mali, with a distinguished faculty of scholars. 16. Africans in West Africa could be enslaved for a. punishment for crimes. b. being black. c. fighting against Europeans. d. refusing to embrace Islam. 2 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 17. By the 1430s, Prince Henry's captains had reached a. the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands. b. the Madeira, Azores, and Canary islands. c. China. d. India. 18. As a result of the development of agriculture in the Americas, the members of native tribes a. abandoned regional trading networks. b. engaged solely in agricultural tasks. c. lost faith in religious leaders. d. grew in numbers and founded separate societies. 19. The West African empire of Ghana became noted for its a. long-distance commerce. b. elaborate sculpture and metalwork. c. extensive urban settlement. d. All of the above. 20. The results of creating a more cohesive political confederacy for the Iroquois included a. losing hunting grounds to neighboring tribes. b. increasing village stability. c. weakening the Iroquois as warriors. d. population decrease as competition over resources increased. *****CHAPTER 2***** 21. Christopher Columbus's urge to explore a. reflected his commitment to exploit other peoples. b. came primarily from a desire to reap significant fame and riche s from his four voyages of exploration. c. developed from his family's history and experience in trade. d. was inspired by the reconquest of Spain. 22. According to Martin Luther, good "works" a. offered the means to heavenly salvation. b. represented only the external evidence of grace won through faith. c. enabled an individual to reduce his or her time in purgatory. d. conferred upon an individual the blessings of the Church. 23. Protestantism did not gain an early foothold in the Americas because a. nations most affected by the Reformation entered overseas exploration later than Spain and Portugal. b. Catholic missionaries were more daring than Protestant missionaries and bravely faced dangers Protestants refused to confront. c. Protestants were more interested in earning profits than in converting souls. d. of Indian resistance. 24. All of the following are true about Queen Elizabeth I of England EXCEPT: a. She ruled from 1558 to 1603. b. She favored Protestantism. c. She initially disfavored overseas expansion. d. All of the above. 3 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 25. How many Africans do historians estimate were taken as slaves to the New World? a. 96 million b. 9.6 million c. 1 million d. 200,000 26. In his travels through the Gulf of Mexico region, Spanish explorer de Soto a. failed to conquer the people he encountered. b. enslaved Indians to serve as pack animals. c. witnessed the ravages of European diseases on native people. d. All of the above. 27. Between 1519 and the early 1800s, which of the following ethnic groups crossed the Atlantic to the Americas in greater numbers than any other? a. Europeans. b. Asians. c. Africans. d. Australians. 28. Europeans brought which of the following animals to the New World? a. cattle b. pigs c. goats d. All of the above. 29. Most African slaves sent to the Americas were a. criminals. b. debtors. c. war captives. d. the insane. 30. Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries a. helped soothe the Catholic-Protestant division within Christianity. b. prompted immediate competition from England and France. c. retarded the growth of western European economies. d. shifted commercial power from Mediterranean ports to those of the Atlantic. 31. The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England in 1588 a. solidified Protestantism in England. b. increased English interest in overseas exploration and colonization. c. fanned a nationalistic spirit in England. d. All of the above. 32. Which of the following crops did Europeans use African slave labor to produce in the Americas? a. sugar b. rice c. tobacco d. All of the above. 4 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 33. Why did the African slave trade begin? a. African rulers wanted to sell slaves to the Chinese. b. Europeans wanted to fill a labor shortage in the Mediterranean world. c. Europeans wanted new workers to drive down wages in the colonies. d. European elites valued African culture and viewed Africans as equals. 34. The consequences of sugar production in the New World included a. colonizing Brazil. b. revolutionizing European tastes. c. stimulating the transport of millions of African slaves. d. All of the above. 35. An African known as Estevan and enslaved by the Spanish a. sailed on all of Columbus's voyages. b. taught the Spanish how to communicate with their slaves. c. was the first African to die in the New World. d. became an important trailblazer for Spanish explorers. 36. The doctrines of Protestant leader John Calvin a. appealed only to the poorest and most oppressed peoples of Europe. b. offered a system for both self-discipline and social control. c. emphasized the need for a hierarchical church structure. d. denied hope of salvation to most believers. 37. By the early 1700s, the foremost slave-trading nation in the world was a. India. b. England. c. Spain. d. France. 38. A negative image of Native Americans among English settlers a. justified their claim that natives had disqualified themselves as rightful owners of the land. b. explained for them the easy conquest of the natives by the Spanish. c. spurred their desire to civilize and convert the natives to Christianity. d. resulted from their lack of information about indigenous peoples of the Americas. 39. How did the Pueblo native people benefit from Spanish arrival? a. They obtained Spanish military protection against enemy Apaches. b. They had access to grain during times of drought. c. They had access to mission livestock. d. All of the above. 40. The massive flow of silver bullion from the Americas to Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a. increased prevailing wage rates in Europe. b. delayed further exploration of America. c. triggered a century of inflationary pressures. d. hampered capitalist modes of production. 5 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) *****CHAPTER 3***** 41. The organizers of the Jamestown colony were motivated primarily by a desire to a. pursue military adventures against the Spanish. b. spread Christian religion to native peoples. c. earn profits by discovering gold and developing trade with Indians. d. escape political oppression and religious persecution. 42. Which of the following hallmarks of American society might be traced to the Puritans? a. celebration of religious and cultural diversity b. individual freedom of thought and action c. stress on literacy and education d. separation of church and state 43. In the colony of Maryland, the Calvert family intended to a. initiate all colonial legislation. b. carefully limit population growth. c. offer a religious refuge to Catholics. d. promote economic and social equality. 44. Which of the following factors was most instrumental in securing victory for the New England colonists in King Philip's War? a. political cohesion among the colonies b. efficient mobilization of colonial manpower and supplies c. internal problems for the Indians, such as food shortages, disease, and defections d. conversion of King Philip to Christianity 45. Slavery never became the foundation of the northern colonial workforce because a. labor-intensive crops were not grown by the Puritans. b. New England merchants refused to participate in the international slave trade. c. colonists there viewed slavery as immoral. d. it proved impossible to train slaves as domestic servants or artisans. 46. By 1720, the population of South Carolina a. shared common social and religious goals. b. enjoyed a relatively disease-free environment. c. consisted mostly of black slaves. d. engaged in a variety of economic pursuits. 47. The Virginia Company attracted new settlers to its colony after 1609 by a. offering them a share of the company's profits. b. advertising the benefits of Virginia's healthy environment and comforta ble living conditions. c. promising free land at the end of seven years' labor for the company. d. paying significantly higher wages than those prevailing throughout Europe. 48. After experimenting with various crops, the colonists of South Carolina decided to concentrate upon the cultivation of a. rice. b. cotton. c. sugar. d. indigo. 6 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 49. The life of Anthony Johnson, an African slave who first arrived in Virginia in 1621, illustrated that a. from the beginning, black immigrants faced a life of degradation and bondage. b. living conditions for colonial blacks steadily improved through the seventeenth century. c. racial boundaries were not firmly marked in the early seventeenth century. d. colonial blacks could gain their freedom by workin g industriously on the land. 50. Which of the following elements contributed to the cohesion of Puritan village life in New England? a. substantial investments in bound labor b. absence of women and children c. cold and rainy weather d. predominance of families 51. Unlike the Puritans, the Pilgrims a. expected to convert a sinful world. b. preferred to settle in rather Holland than America. c. squabbled with local Indians. d. separated from the Church of England. 52. In contrast to Virginia, the colony of Massachusetts Bay thrived almost from the beginning because the early Puritan settlers a. chose a location uninhabited by hostile Indians. b. arrived as young, single, and healthy males unburdened by family commitments. c. were less educated and thus less easily dissatisfied. d. came as freemen in families, possessed a strong work ethic, and valuable skills. 53. The Society of Friends, or Quakers, a. enjoyed official approval and widespread popularity in England during the se venteenth century. b. preached the need for a rigid social hierarchy to preserve order and stability. c. believed the church and its ministers provided the keys to heavenly salvation. d. renounced the use of force in human affairs and rejected a hierarc hical society. 54. Most English Protestants considered Quakers as dangerous fanatics for all of the following reasons EXCEPT refusal to a. pay taxes in support of the Church of England. b. defer to superiors in their customs and speech. c. sign witnesses' oaths on the Bible. d. admit women, blacks, and Indians to church membership. 55. New Englanders built more private and comfortable houses at an earlier stage than colonists in the Chesapeake because of the a. stunted and unstable family life in New England. b. less worldly and materialistic attitudes of southerners. c. unhealthy climate and environment in New England. d. need of southerners to invest available capital in labor. 56. As a result of the Indian assault of 1622 upon the Virginia colony, the colonists a. pursued more ruthless and determined efforts to displace the Indians. b. adopted a more peaceful and conciliatory attitude and policy toward the Indians. c. secured a new charter from the king with greater powers of self -government. d. suffered relatively few casualties and minor property losses. 7 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 57. By the early seventeenth century, the French a. developed a fur trade in Canada. b. rapidly populated the province of Quebec. c. befriended the Iroquois in local Indian wars. d. became preoccupied with internal struggles. 58. Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 relieved much of the social tension among white Virginians by a. opening additional lands for white settlers. b. halting the influx of black slaves. c. quieting the Indian frontier with a program of educational missions and regulated trade. d. making government more responsive to the common people. 59. William Penn believed that the Indians should be a. compensated for their land. b. freely engaged in trade. c. sold into slavery. d. removed forcibly from his colony. 60. The root cause of King Philip's War in New England stemmed from the anger of young Wampanoags at the colonists' a. refusal to sell them guns and supplies. b. unwillingness to admit Native Americans to white churches and colleges. c. attacks on their land base and political sovereignty. d. alliance with their hated enemies, the Narragansetts. *****CHATPER 4***** 61. Which of the following statements concerning immigrants to c olonial America during the first half of the eighteenth century is correct a. Most German-speaking immigrants settled in Pennsylvania. b. Newly arrived immigrants usually settled in New England. c. Slave imports fell. d. Virginia experienced the greatest influx of new settlers. 62. In contrast to conditions in the English colonies, life in New Spain was characterized by greater a. sharing of profits with natives. b. social barriers. c. racial intermixture. d. political independence. 63. Which of the following factors helped temper rebellion and offer comfort to colonial slaves? a. religion and family life b. kind treatment from masters c. good food and healthy environments d. interracial liaisons and marriages 64. The Chesapeake colonies of the early eighteenth century witnessed a. increasing profitability of, and thus reliance upon, tobacco cultivation. b. the emergence of a planter gentry as political and social leaders. c. steady replacement of slave laborers by indentured servants. d. virtual universal ownership of land and slaves. 8 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 65. As a result of extensive contact with European colonizers during the early eighteenth century, Native American tribes of the interior a. altered patterns of tribal life and leadership. b. adopted the white man's culture and religion. c. benefited from commercial trade and development. d. abandoned hunting for subsistence agriculture. 66. In 1739 a major slave rebellion broke out in a. Stono, South Carolina. b. Roanoke, Virginia. c. Richmond, Virginia. d. Boston, Massachusetts. 67. The social structure of American colonial cities from 1690 to 1770 was influenced by a. an absence of urban poverty. b. an increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor. c. steadily declining property values and taxes. d. the end of colonial warfare. 68. All of the following represent theories of Enlightenment thinkers EXCEPT the notion that a. scientific laws might be applied to human institutions in order to improve society. b. systematic investigation would unlock the secrets of the physical universe. c. God predetermined the contents of the human mind. d. man could use his reason and thus acquire knowledge. 69. Religious life in the colonies was marked by a. tightly organized and disciplined congregations. b. government compulsion to attend services. c. scarcity of trained ministers. d. discrimination against Anglicans. 70. The vast majority of inhabitants along the coast of South Carolina by the 1760s consisted of a. rice planters. b. Charleston tourists. c. black slaves. d. poor German and Scots-Irish immigrants. 71. The religious revival known as the Great Awakening a. helped stem the tide of revolutionary thought and behavior. b. reaffirmed traditional sources of authority. c. emphasized individual responsibility for conversion. d. affected the colonies equally and simultaneously. 72. All of the following were true about slave marriages and family life EXCEPT: a. Slave marriages were rarely secure. b. One spouse was often sold, resulting in the breakup of the marriage. c. Few slaves experienced stable family lives. d. Slaves easily forgot about loved ones lost to sale. 9 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 73. In 1712, a major slave rebellion occurred in a. Charleston, South Carolina. b. New York, New York. c. Boston, Massachusetts. d. Baltimore, Maryland. 74. In 1718 in North America, France settled a. St. Augustine. b. New Orleans. c. Charleston. d. Canada. 75. France's interior empire in North America a. had many settlements that were mixed -race communities. b. stressed farming more than trading, missionary work, or military efforts. c. created an ineffective shield against British expansion. d. contained no African slaves. 76. Masters controlled which of the following aspects of slave life? a. physical location b. work roles c. diet d. All of the above. 77. Many African American slaves in South Carolina spoke a. French. b. Dutch. c. Gullah. d. Spanish. 78. By 1750, English colonists numbered approximately a. 500,000. b. 1.2 million. c. 3 million. d. 4 million. 79. In the Louisiana economy, slaves worked as a. rice growers. b. metal workers. c. indigo processors. d. All of the above. *****CHAPTER 5***** 80. Colonial merchants of the early eighteenth century a. exported luxury and manufactured goods to Europe, Africa, and the West Indies. b. engaged in the tasks of shipping and distributional services only. c. typically imported more goods than Americans desired or could use. d. integrated American producers and consumers in the Atlantic basin trading system. 10 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 81. How many wars for empire in the eighteenth century had England fought by 1763? a. one b. two c. three d. four 82. The call for the meeting of a Continental Congress in 1774 came in response to the a. Quartering Act. b. Townshend Acts. c. Stamp Act. d. Intolerable Acts. 83. The struggle with England over colonial rights between 1764 and 1776 revealed that a. newer immigrants held more conservative views. b. over time people tend to grow tired of politics. c. colonial society was not unified. d. colonial merchants sided with their British counterparts. 84. The Boston Massacre, in which five townspeople were killed by British re dcoats, a. resulted in a speedy conviction and execution of the soldiers. b. demonstrated the calculated desire of the British to crush colonial rebellion. c. convinced Governor Hutchinson to order British troops out of town. d. galvanized the colonies into further resistance to English policies. 85. By 1760 the American colonies had a population of a. 3 million. b. 2 million. c. 1.75 million. d. 1 million. 86. Which of the following colonial leaders argued for defiance of Parliament's Coe rcive Acts in the Continental Congress? a. Patrick Henry b. Richard Henry Lee c. Samuel Adams d. All of the above. 87. For a poor shoemaker like Ebenezer MacIntosh of Boston, the wars of the latter eighteenth century a. destroyed his faith in democratic government. b. imposed economic hardships and deprivation. c. had little impact or significance. d. offered an opportunity for economic gain. 88. Parliament, beginning in 1699, attempted to increase revenue by requiring which of the followi ng colonial goods to be shipped to England before export abroad? a. woolen cloth b. beaver hats c. finished iron products d. molasses 11 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 89. Why did violence flare up in the Hudson River Valley during the 1750s and 1760s? a. Tenants challenged elite landlords over evictions. b. Native Americans burned settler homes over land issues. c. African American slaves confiscated white-owned plantations. d. The Spanish royal government sent troops against British colonial tax evaders. 90. Passage of the Declaratory Act by Parliament a. asserted Parliament's power to enact laws for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever." b. politicized the American resistance movement. c. demonstrated British desire to reach a compromise solution with the colonies o n matters of taxation. d. resolved the problems that had created the Stamp Act crisis. 91. The British Proclamation of 1763 a. ordered colonial governors to reserve lands west of the Appalachian Mountains for Indian nations. b. allowed western Indians the right to trade with any European merchants. c. successfully ended an attempt by Ottawa Indians to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley. d. ended reckless speculation in western lands by eastern investors. 92. The underlying cause of the Seven Years' War in America was the a. French takeover of the western fur trade. b. English colonial penetration of the Ohio Valley. c. French attack on the western forces of George Washington. d. English retaliation against western Indian attacks. 93. Who were the major social groups during the Revolution other than elites? a. the urban working class b. the rural farming class c. women and evangelicals d. All of the above. 94. England declared war on Spain in 1739 because of a desire to a. win commercial privileges from its ally France. b. avenge Spanish piracy of English merchant ships. c. end Spanish involvement in smuggling activities. d. dominate trade in the Atlantic basin. 95. As a result of the Molasses Act of 1733, a. New England rum had to be shipped to England before being exported to another country. b. New England merchants and shippers gained new respect for royal authority. c. trade between New England and the French West Indies collapsed. d. many of New England's largest merchants and distillers resorted to smuggling. 96. Which of the following provisions was NOT a part of George Grenville's program to raise colonial revenue? a. stamp duties on various colonial documents and products b. prohibition of colonial currency c. increased taxes on imported French molasses d. an expanded list of enumerated commodities 12 J. E. Libby Take-home Exam #1 (Chapters 1-5) 97. The Intolerable Acts provided for all of the following EXCEPT the a. immunity of British soldiers involved in suppressing civil disturbanc es from local court trials. b. individual punishment of participants in the Boston Tea Party. c. replacement of Hutchinson as governor by the commander -in-chief of British forces in America. d. closing of Boston's port until Massachusetts paid for tea d estroyed in the Boston Tea Party. 98. General James Wolfe overcame the French on the Plains of Abraham in 1759 to capture the city of a. Louisbourg. b. Montreal. c. New Orleans. d. Quebec. 99. The end of the Seven Years' War left the American colonies a. economically prosperous. b. reluctant to pursue western settlements. c. more dependent upon British support and leadership. d. debt-ridden and weakened in manpower. 100. The ideology of revolutionary republicanism a. originated in the struggle of American colonists against imperial despotism. b. borrowed ideas from English political thought and Enlightenment theories. c. reflected common colonial interests and experiences. d. provided a coherent doctrine to which all colonists could subscribe. 13 ... View Full Document

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