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17 THE Chapter AGE OF PILGRIMAGES MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The most venerated pilgrimage shrine in the West, outside Rome or Jerusalem, was the _____________________. a. b. c. d. tomb of Lazarus at Autun tomb of Saint Foy at Conques tomb of St. Martin at Tours tomb of the Apostle James at Santiago de Compostela Register to View Answer2. Which of the following encouraged the growth of towns and cities? a. b. c. d. a sharp increase in trade the pilgrimage routes a consolidation of power within the papacy the end of the power of the Vikings Register to View Answer3. There is a diversity of regional styles in Romanesque church architecture. Which of the following is characteristic of the Northern French style found in St.-tienne at Vignory? a. b. c. d. It used small brick-like stones. It used poured cement. It used large sawn blocks of stone. It used a wooden superstructure. Register to View Answer4. St.-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a pilgrimage type church. Which of the following accounts for this designation? a. b. c. d. It added perimeter buildings to house pilgrims. It attached the ambulatory to the nave. It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory. It narrowed the main aisle to create a dignified progress for viewing the relics. Register to View Answer5. The plan of St.-Sernin is extremely regular and geometrically precise. It is based on a module seen in earlier church architecture. Which of the following churches is the prototype for this refined and rational structural approach? a. b. St. Michael, Hildesheim Monastery Church, St. Gall 186 c. Sta. Maria Maggiore, Rome d. St. Cyriakus, Gernode e. Register to View Answer 6. Which of the following churches was the largest in Europe until the new St. Peters in Rome was constructed in the 17th century? a. b. c. d. Third Church at Cluny (Cluny III) St.-Sernin, Toulouse Speyer Cathedral SantAmbrogio, Milan Register to View Answer7. Church interiors now became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics? a. b. c. d. the radiating chapels of the ambulatory the upper galleries or tribunes along the nave the radiating chapels attached to the transepts the continuous barrel-vaulted naves Register to View Answer8. The one important requirement often missing from these church interiors is light. Which of the following did not allow for interior lighting? a. b. c. d. Barrel-vaults exerted great outward thrust making a clerestory difficult to construct Light not considered an important spiritual ingredient for church services The massive walls would not support a tribune and clerestory It was considered too expensive to fund the construction of a clerestory Register to View Answer 9. How did 11th century Romanesque masons construct monumental groin vaults? a. b. c. d. By using ashlar blocks joined by mortar By using ashlar blocks By using concrete By using rubble blocks jointed by mortar Register to View Answer 10. Which church was the burial place of the Holy Roman Emperors until the 12th century? a. b. c. d. Palatine Chapel, Aachen Speyer Cathedral SantAmbrogio, Milan St.-tienne, Caen Register to View Answer11. A more complex and efficient type of vaulting was needed that would admit light and at the same time be aesthetically pleasing. Which of the following systems would allow this adoption? 187 a. b. c. d. By elevating the side walls with additional buttressing By eliminating the upper galleries or tribunes By covering the nave with groin vaults By eliminating the ambulatory from the apse Register to View Answer 12. Of the following characteristics, which is not relevant to Italian church architecture? a. b. c. d. verticality thick, massive walls continuous barrel-vaulting groin-vaulting Register to View Answer13. It is said this structures design is simple and serenely classical. It is a descendant of the Pantheon, the imperial mausoleum, such as Diocletians, and the Early Christian Sta. Costanza. Which of the following is being described? a. b. c. d. SantAmbrogio, Milan San Giovanni Baptistery, Florence San Miniato al Monte, Florence Modena Cathedral Register to View Answer14. St. Trophme at Arles has a rich Roman heritage. Which of the following most accurately describes the frieze above the freestanding columns of the portal? a. b. c. d. It recalls the medallions from the Arch of Constantine. It recalls the sculptured fronts of late antique sarcophagi. It recalls the narrative bands from the Column of Trajan. It recalls the panels from the Arch of Titus. Register to View Answer15. Saint-Savin is a hall church with paintings on the continuous vault of the nave. Which of the following allows for this? a. b. c. d. It has low aisles and tribune galleries The aisles are approximately the same height as the nave It has a series of windows in the apse It has low aisles but no tribune galleries Register to View Answer 16. How is the initial R from the Moralia in Job typically Romanesque? a. b. c. d. By the absence of a salutation By exceeding the boundaries of the frame By following Hiberno-Saxon carpet page patterns By the banding of the torso and the partitioning of the folds of the costumes 188 Register to View Answer 17. The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim? a. b. c. d. Answer: 18. It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred. It depicted a tale from the First Crusade. It depicted the Mission of the Apostles in full detail. It depicted the clash between the Knights Templar and the Saracens. a Which of the following describes the Stavelot reliquary of St. Alexander? a. b. c. d. It is a combination of multiple sources as well as stylistic diversity. It follows a strict adherence to the Meuse River region formula for figural representation. It illustrates the imperial workshops of Byzantium. It illustrates the impact of the Crusades in Belgium. Register to View Answer19. The Throne of Wisdom, sedes sapientiae is the western European freestanding version of which of the following? a. b. c. d. Islamic Throne Byzantine Theotokos Carolingian Throne Ottonian Throne Register to View Answer20. Which of the following supports Eadwines claim to self-importance? a. b. c. d. He likened his image to the Abbot of a monastery. He likened his image to an Evangelist writing his Gospel. He likened his image to the Master Builder. He likened his image to Bernard of Clairvaux. Register to View Answer21. Which of the architectural elements below was used for the exterior supports on Romanesque buildings? a. b. c. d. pendentives flying buttresses buttresses diaphragm buttresses Register to View Answer22. On the right face of the trumeau is a prophet, displaying his scroll containing his prophetic vision. He is placed immediately below the depiction of Christ the Judge. This is another instance of the pairing of the Old and New Testament themes. This iconographic tradition was established during which of the following periods? a. b. c. Early Christian Early Byzantine Carolingian 189 d. Hiberno-Saxon Register to View Answer23. The Norman defeat of the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 united all of England and most of France under one rule. The battle leading to this momentous occasion was the topic for the Bayeux Tapestry. Who commissioned this work? a. b. c. d. Duke William of Normandy Bishop Odo Harold, Earl of Wessex Mathilda of Normandy Register to View Answer24. Tall towers are integrated into the west front of which of the following? a. b. c. d. Pisa Cathedral St.-tienne, Caen St.-Sernin, Toulouse SantAmbrogio, Milan Register to View Answer25. The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following? a. b. c. d. groin vault pendentive buttress rib vault Register to View Answer26. An important aspect of Romanesque manuscript illumination was based on which of the following? a. b. c. d. the subordination of the figure to the frame the aggrandizement of man Polykleitos canon of proportions the techniques used in metalwork Register to View Answer27. The Romanesque church that had a wooden ceiling like those found in Early Christian basilicas was which of the following? a. b. c. d. San Miniato, Florence St.-Pierre, Moissac Durham Cathedral SantAmbrogio, Milan Register to View Answer28. One suggestion for the resurgence of stone sculpture on churches was the changing role of churches. Now due to the pilgrimage routes, the churches served an increasingly large lay public. Which of the following supports this suggestion? 190 a. b. c. d. Churches served a largely illiterate audience and needed visual Christian symbols and stories. Strong Muslim influences provided symbols and stories. A large group of Byzantine artists were now being employed creating church programs. Bernard of Clairvaux supported the use of stone sculpture to convey the Christian stories and symbols. Register to View Answer29. Which architectural device was not used by Romanesque architects? a. b. c. d. domes flying buttresses ribbed vaults clustered piers Register to View Answer30. The frieze from the faade of Modena reminded the faithful of Original Sin and that the path to salvation is through the Christian Church. Which of the following subject matter of the frieze? a. b. c. d. The frieze depicts the Crucifixion. The frieze depicts the Last Judgment. The frieze depicts the Temptation of Adam & Eve. The frieze depicts the Ascension. Register to View Answer31. The Bayeux Tapestry is the conquerors version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque art works. Which of the following supports this contention? a. b. c. d. It has often been likened to the Column of Trajan. It has often been likened to the frieze from the Arch of Constantine. It has often been likened to the panels from the Arch of Titus. It has often been likened to the Column of Marcus Aurelius. Register to View Answer32. During the Romanesque period the vision of Christs Second Coming was often depicted on which of the following? a. b. c. d. jambs the tribune the tympanum the trumeau Register to View AnswerSHORT ANSWER 33. Define the term Romanesque. How was it applied to the period? Answer: It means Romanlike and was first applied in the early nineteenth century to describe European architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 191 34. Contrast the focus of life in the early Early Medieval period with the focus during the Romanesque period. Answer: In the early Early Medieval period the focus was on the manor or estate of the landholding lord. This lord might grant a portion of his land to his vassals, who, in turn, swore their allegiance to him. They provided military service to this lord not only for their land but also for the promise of protection. During the Romanesque period a sharp increase in trade encouraged the growth of towns and cities. This growth gradually displaced feudalism as the form of governance. The feudal lords granted these towns and communities their independence, when economic circumstances dictated such, via a charter with their rights and obligations enumerated. 35. Briefly describe the impact pilgrimage routes had on Romanesque Europe. Answer: These routes provided increased funding via the pilgrims to the monasteries and churches that held the venerated relics of saints. This increased funding also sparked an enormous investment in ecclesiastical buildings and furnishings in order to reflect glory of God. It also reflected the competition among the monasteries to provide the most magnificent settings for the displays of the relics. 36. How was a pilgrimage a conspicuous feature of public devotion? Answer: It proclaimed the pilgrims faith in the power of saints and the hope for their special favor. The pilgrim braved grim roads and conditions as well as perilous routes. Often the pilgrimage became an act of repentance. The greater the distance and the hardships endured became measures of the devotion and sincerity of the pilgrim. 37. How does this statement, other factors probably played a greater role in the decision to make the enormous investment in stone masonry relate to church architecture in the Romanesque period? Answer: They were a desire to provide a suitably majestic environment for the display of relics as well as competing for pilgrims and their donations. Stone masonry also enhanced the acoustics and created a more spiritual and magnificent atmosphere for the liturgy and the accompanying music. 38. Describe a pilgrimage church. Answer: The pilgrimage church increased the length of the nave and doubled the side aisles. The pilgrimage church added transept, ambulatory, and radiating chapels order in to accommodate the increased numbers of pilgrims following the route in order to view the relics. 39. What role did the tribune play in church architecture? Answer: The tribune buttressed the continuous semicircular cut-stone barrel vaults. 40. How did groin vaults change the weight shift in structures? Answer: Groin vaults in the tribune galleries as well as in the ground-floor aisles absorbed the pressure of the naves barrel vault along the entire length of the nave. The groin vaults served as buttresses for the barrel vault and transferred the main thrust to the thick outer walls. 41. Briefly evaluate the Cluniac Order and its contribution to architecture. Answer: The order was convinced that a magnificent setting for the Christian liturgy was a fitting tribute to the Lord. The Cluniac Order was responsible for the construction of beautiful and richly appointed churches. These projects were equated with piety. 42. Explain the significance of the pointed arches that were used in Cluny III. 192 Answer: This structural device would permit later architects (Gothic period) to increase the height of the nave dramatically. Pointed arches transfer the thrust of the vaults more directly downward to the piers and require less buttressing on the sides. 43. What were the technical problems encountered by the Romanesque masons when constructing cut stone groin vaults? How did they solve the problems? Answer: Unlike the Romans who had concrete, the Romanesque masons encountered difficulties when building groin vaults of cut stone and heavy rubble. These vaults had very little cohesive quality, and because of this they were limited to covering small areas such as individual bays of the aisles. However, the 11th century masons began using ashlar blocks joined by mortar and they were then able to build groin vaults on a monumental scale. 44. The Romanesque period has been credited with the revival of stone carving. Briefly explain the reasons for such a revival. Answer: There is no doubt that Rome itself provided the inspiration for such a revival from the abundant remains found throughout Europe itself. These Roman sculptures provided powerful inspiration and observable examples of the art of stone carving. This revival added significantly to church sculptural programs, and they also contributed as a teaching tool for the faithful by providing visible pictures for instruction. 45. Explain the relationship between the Crusades and the Mission of the Apostles from the Vezelay tympanum. Answer: Vezelay was closely associated with the Crusades. Urban II had intended to preach the launch of the First Crusade at Vezelay. Bernard of Clairvaux called for the Second Crusade from Vezelay, and the Third Crusade was started at Vezelay. The iconographic implications of the tympanum, itself could read as a mission of the apostles in the guise of the crusaders who would bring Christianity to the Infidel. 46. The Crusades achieved little in the East, other than petty, unstable kingdoms in the Holy Land. However, in Europe it could be argued that the impact was more positive. Describe the positive elements. Answer: The Crusades increased the power and prestige of the towns. Many communities were able to purchase their charters from barons who needed funds to initiate their own campaigns to the Holy Land. A middle class of merchants and artisans arose to respond to the needs of the communities and Crusaders. Commercial opportunities also came about as a result of the Crusades as well as the significant growth in trade and cities of the Romanesque period. 47. What was the essential core value of the work of Romanesque artists, whether they were anonymous or recognized? Answer: Their work existed not for its own sake but for Gods. The artists, recognized or unknown declared if their work had value, it would be an acceptable gift to offer to God. They were not yet aware of the concepts of fine art and fine artists. 48. What did the Pilgrims Guide to Santiago de Compostela detail? Answer: It was a guidebook, which provided information about saints and shrines, and also practical information regarding roads, accommodations, food, and drink. This particular guidebook described the four roads leading to the church and because of the fierce competition for relics; the guidebook also included comments on authenticity. SAMPLE ESSAY QUESTIONS 193 49. Describe the evolution of mural painting in the Romanesque period. What were the influences? How did these influences shape the evolution of mural painting? Use examples to support your essay. Answer: pages 444-445. 50. Compare and contrast the development of Romanesque manuscripts. How did regional styles affect this development? What other factors also contributed to this development? Use examples to support your essay. Answer: pages 443-448. 51. Explain the effect the pilgrimage routes had on the dissemination of regional architectural styles of church architecture. Use examples to support your essay. Answer: pages 433-443. 52. Describe the development of the portal sculptural programs for Romanesque churches. How did these programs reflect their respective regions? How were they similar and how were they different? Use examples to support your essay. Answer: pages 437-441. 53. Describe the role the Crusades played in the development of Romanesque art and architecture. Use examples to develop your essay. Answer: pages 440-443. 54. Contrast the major differences between an Early Christian basilica and a Romanesque church. Include Romanesque solutions to the basilican plan and the reasons for these solutions. Use examples to support your essay. Answer: pages 433-455. 55. Compare and contrast two regional styles of Romanesque churches and characterize the style of each. Include the reasons for these developments. Use examples to support your essay Answer: pages 434-452. SLIDE IDENTIFICATION 56. (Figure 1735) a. Battle of Hastings b. Battle of Poitiers c. Battle of Verdun d. Battle of Jerusalem Register to View Answer 57. (Figure 176) a. barrel vault b. ribbed vault c. groined vault d. oval vault Register to View Answer 194 58. (Figure 1728) a. Rainer of Huy b. Giselbertus c. Wiligelmo d. Antelami Register to View Answer 59. (Figure 1718) a. German b. French c. Italian d. English Register to View Answer 60. (Figure 1724) a. chest b. casket c. reliquary d. wedding chest Register to View Answer 61. (Figure 1716) a. St-Sernin, Toulouse b. Speyer Cathedral c. San Miniato al Monte d. St-Savin-sur-Gartempe Register to View Answer 62. (Figure 1729) a. Benedetto Antelami b. Giselbertus c. Rainer of Huy d. Wiligelmo Register to View Answer 63. (Figure 1725) a. French b. English c. German d. Italian Register to View Answer 64. (Figure 1733) a. SantAmbrogio, Milan b. Durham Cathedral c. San Miniato, Florence d. St.-tienne, Caen Register to View Answer 195 65. (Figure 177) a. Vzelay b. Autun c. Moissac d. Toulouse Register to View Answer 66. (Figure 178) a. Pisa Cathedral b. Cluny III c. Speyer Cathedral d. St.-Sernin Register to View Answer 67. (Figure 1722) a. Vision of Hildegarde b. Vision of Bridget c. Vision of Margaret d. Vision of Scholastica Register to View Answer 68. (Figure 1736) a. Scivias b. Moralia in Job c. Eadwine Psalter d. Bury Bible Register to View Answer 69. (Figure 1713) a. Christ with the Elders of Apocalypse b. Moses Expounding the Law c. Ascension of Christ and the Mission of the Apostles d. The Last Judgment Register to View Answer 70. (Figure 1719) a. barrel vault b. dome on pendentives c. squinches d. groin vault Register to View Answer 71. (Figure 1717) a. Santa Maria de Mur b. Bayeux Tapestry c. Apocalypse of Saint Sever d. La Madeleine, Vzelay 196 Register to View Answer72. (Figure 1715) a. Moralia in Job b. Bury Bible c. Eadwine Psalter d. Scivias Register to View Answer Moralia in Job SLIDE QUESTIONS 73. Compare these two figures. How are alike and how are they different? Answer: Benedetto Antelami King David from Fidenza Cathedral (Figure 17-29) and Rainer of Huy Baptismal font from Notre-Dame-des-Fonts, Liege, Belgium (Figure 1723) Both works are by identified artists, indicating a slow and gradual movement towards recognizing the artist or craftsman creating the work. However the work is still of primary importance as it is a gift offered to God. Both works favor the classical, the King David figure is still confined by the frame, yet the artist has done much to free the figure. The tilted head and the arm still close to the body suggest movement. The relief from the font is strictly twodimensional. The artist has softened and rounded the figures echoing the classical past. He has also idealized the bodies and the faces. The figure of Christ is depicted naked in the water. 74. In what way do these figures embody Romanesque sculptural style? Answer: Jeremiah (Isaiah?) from trumeau of St.-Pierre, Moissac (Figure 1711) and Reliquary of St. Alexander, Stavelot Abbey, Belgium (Figure 17-24). The trumeau figure expressed the emotionalism of the period. The figure is also confined to its frame. The flowing lines of the figures drapery show its origins in manuscript illumination. The flowing, moving locks of the figures hair frame the image of a mystic. The placement of the figure beneath the Christ figure also echoes the tradition of pairing Old and New Testament themes. The prophet is foretelling salvation and salvation itself as represented by Christ. The reliquary illustrates the rich diversity of style and the multiple sources the artist had to work with and from, the head of the figure is reminiscent of youthful portraits of Roman emperors. The dragons harkened to the fantastic animals of the Early Medieval period and also show the influence of the cloister. The enamels indicate a Byzantine connection as well. This work illustrates, visually, the diversity, sources, and intercommunication that existed during this period. 75. How do these two churches prefigure Gothic architecture? Answer: Interior, St.-tienne, Caen (figure 17-31) and Interior, Durham Cathedral, England (Figure 17-33). St.- Etienne shows the alternating rhythm of compound piers with simple engaged half columns and piers with half-columns attached to pilasters and groined vaults that allowed enough room to insert a clerestory for windows. These large windows reduce the interior wall surface and create a light and airy interior, which will later be maximized by Gothic architecture. Durham Cathedral, also a Norman church, has groined vaults as well. It was conceived with this vault style at the very beginning of its construction. Included in the architecture of this church are quadrant arches, which are the ancestor of the Gothic flying buttress. 76. How do these churches reflect the regional character of Romanesque architecture? Answer: Aerial view, St.-Sernin, Toulouse (Figure 174) Aerial view, SantAmbrogio, Milan (Figure 17-20). St.-Sernin shows the long nave and apsidal area, with the double side aisles and the transept with ambulatory and radiating chapels. It shows an organized, coherent unity, which is a characteristic of the pilgrimage type church and the region. SantAmbrogio is characteristic of the Italian regional style of favoring the Early 197 Christian basilica: low and broad proportions. SantAmbrogio does not have the verticality of St.-Sernin rather the stress is on the broad and low. 77. Contrast these two buildings. How do they each recall earlier traditions? Answer: Baptistery San Giovanni, Florence (Figure 17-26) and Interior of San Miniato al Monte, Florence (Figure 1727). Both structures are echoes of earlier traditions. The Baptistery is simple and classical in design. It is reminiscent of the Roman tradition seen in the Pantheon and Mausoleum of Diocletian, as well as the Early Christian Sta. Costanza. The interior of San Miniato shows the timbered ceiling of its Early Christian antecedents. But it also has compartmentalization so favored by the Romanesque. 78. How does each of these images fail to meet the reforming spirit of the Cistercian Order and St. Bernard of Clairvaux in particular? Answer: Cloister, St.-Pierre, Moissac (Figure 17-9) and Initial R from Moralia in Job (Figure 17-15). Both images are the antithesis of the rule Bernard of Clairvaux set. He felt these decorated cloisters with images of fantastic animals, as well as biblical scenes or scenes from the lives of the saints distracted the monks from their prayers and meditations. The manuscript was completed before the rule had been set at the primary Cistercian monastery of Cteaux. Both the Cistercians and Bernard would have rejected manuscript as too luxurious and distracting. 198 ... View Full Document

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