Democracy and good governance in nigeria challenges and prospect
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Democracy and good governance in nigeria challenges and prospect

Course: ECON 6000, Spring 2011

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DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA FOURTH REPUBLIC 1999 2007 BY: COSMOS OSIZIMETE IRUMEH 06/66MF066 A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN POLITICAL SCIENCE (B.SC) IN THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN,...

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AND DEMOCRACY GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA FOURTH REPUBLIC 1999 2007 BY: COSMOS OSIZIMETE IRUMEH 06/66MF066 A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN POLITICAL SCIENCE (B.SC) IN THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA JUNE 2010 CERTIFICATION This project has been read and approved as meeting the requirement for the award of B.SC (Hons) Political Science, at the Faculty of Business and Social Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. .. DR. E. O OJO Supervisor Date .. DR. F. A. AREMU Ag. Head of Department Date .. PROF. A. A. ADEDAYO Dean of Faculty B.S.S Date .. External Examiner Date II DEDICATION To God be the Glory. This project is exclusively dedicated to God Almighty for his faithfulness, mercies, loving, kindness, favour, grace and for being my solid rock throughout my years in Ilorin. Also, my ever caring, loving and wonderful Parents Mr. and Mrs. J. A. IRUMEH. III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS That no man will make a great leader if he want to do all things by himself. To God be the glory, great things he has done. He who made a dream of many years a reality. I acknowledge my amiable supervisor Dr. E. O. Ojo, for his intellectual evaluation on my research work, for taking his time and energy to review my work, may the Almighty God bless you and your family sir, I say thank you. I am highly indebted and every grateful to the academic commune dedicated to my academic up-keeps. Those who schooled, groomed, tortured and nurtured me from primary school to date; that I may be what I am today. My highly revered H.O.D Dr. F. A. Aremu, Prof. A. E. Davies Prof H. A. Saliu, Dr Ovwasa, Dr. E. E. Lawal, Mr. Bello, Mr. Muhammed and Mr. Durojaiye. The river that forgets its source will definitely go dry. My sincere appreciation goes to my family for their financial and moral support during the course of my programme. My parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Irumeh, my loving sisters, Maria, Cordelia, Clara, Florence and Queen, my brothers Kingsley and Jude, words cannot express IV what you all mean to me, I am proud of you all and you are simply the best. Also, I am forever grateful to my true friends, Uyi Aibangbee, Austin Owanzim, Suleiman Sadua, Tunde Boro, Precious, Friday, Ayo, Segun, Peter, Fannie, David, Henry and Okpanachi Patrick. To all those who have directly or otherwise contributed to this success. I am more than appreciative of your inestimable contributions and support. The man who thinks only of himself is hopelessly uneducated no matter how instructed he may be. I say thank you all. IRUMEH, O. COSMOS V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE TITLE I CERTIFICATION III DEDICATION II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IV TABLE OF CONTENTS VI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IX ABSTRACT X CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Statement of the problem 4 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the study 5 1.4 Significance of the study 6 1.5 Scope and Limitation of the study 7 1.6 Research Methodology 8 1.7 Concept classification 8 VI 1.8 Organization of the study 10 References 11 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1 Democracy 12 2.2 General Overview 23 2.3 Theoretical Framework 25 2.4 Democracy and Good Governance 27 2.5 The challenges of Democracy and Good Governance in Nigeria The concept and challenges of leadership in Nigeria 38 Reference 2.6 31 55 CHAPTER THREE SUSTAINING DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA FOURTH REPUBLIC (PROSPECTS) 3.1 Democratic Consolidation 59 3.2 Reforming Anti Democratic Legislation 64 VII 3.3 Rebuilding the Rule of Law 3.4 65 Combating Corruption and Advancing Transparency in governance Peace methods and solution 70 Reference 3.5 67 73 CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 Summary 74 4.2 Conclusion 77 4.3 Recommendation 79 Bibliography 81 VIII LIST OF ABBREVIATION IMF International Monetary Fund WB World Bank INEC Independent National Electoral Commission HDI Human Development Index GDP Gross Domestic Product ASUU Academic Staff Union of Universities EFCC Economic and Financial Crimes Commission ICPC Independent Corrupt Practice Commission CJN Chief Justice of Nigeria N G Os Non-governmental Organization NIALS Nigerian Institute for Advance Legal Studies I H U R I L A W S Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Laws IX ABSTRACT The research which is one the challenges and prospects of democracy and governance. A case study of Nigerias fourth republic from 1999 to 2007. The study is premised upon the attention of major frequent resurgence such as ethno-religious violence, discrimination, poverty and otherwise, challenges confronting Nigeria in her Fourth Democratic Dispensation. Moreso, corruption on its three major apex institution and on how democracy could be sustained and consolidated in Nigeria. the significance and various literature have also been reviewed which was grounded on the Estonian theory for its applicability to the democratic political system. The methodology adopted for the study centered on a secondary source of data mainly within the country which will provide a suitable springboard for investigation. While the essay therefore attempts to critically examine and suggest ways to which the problems to democratic governance in Nigeria could be overcome through analysis presented. The main recommendation is that there should be a form of mobilization and orientation between the government and the citizens in promoting the logic and principles X of good governance through democratic practice in ensuring development of politically active civil society. XI CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY One may think that the biggest obstacle to African development is poverty but like (Onwudiwe E) argued the strategic danger to Africans expected rebirth is the disintegration of Nigeria, the largest political concentration of African people in our continent with a population of over 140 million people, any major conflict is a disaster to the continent, Nigeria is also another point of concern as one of the potential areas of instability. According to Peter J. Goss, the former U.S. director of Central intelligence Agency. In his address to the congress, its fear was that in the southern Nigeria, military is still struggling to contain militia-group in the oil-producing region. The continued ethnic violence that frequently erupt throughout the country and the threat of Muslim population. But as the Nigerian government struggle with the various challenges that faces her, it has been emphasized that as a political and economic giant of Africa. Its future can either be a shining example for the continent or cautionary taie of what happens when great potentials is 1 sabotaged by poor governance, lack of leadership and pervasive corruption. Since Nigeria got independence in 1960 from the British, the military had ruled for approximately 30 years, out of her 48 years of existence, making it a militarized society. Nigeria experienced her first military intervention coupdetat in January 15 1966, six years after independence, since then the country had successive military intervention before the return to the second republic in 1976, it collapsed in 1983 by another military intrusion in her political history. Judged for incompetence and corruption on politicians, this saw Nigeria into another 17 years of dark military dictatorship. Nigeria in May 29, 1999 returned to a democratic rule again that is still on going. As the Nation enthusiastically embraced this long awaited change in governance by electing president Olusegun Obasanjo, a former military leader who willingly returned power to the civilian in 1979, regarded by many as a bridge across several Nigerias major fault lines, it was believed that the new administration would usher in many democratic dividends that will guarantee peace, human security, right and development centered on the people. However, 2 the country remains handicapped by political mal-practice deep economic contradiction. Social-inequality and a considerable potentials for violence due to the politicization of identity, characterized by religious, ethnic and communal conflict, insecurity, organized crime, human right violation amongst others. It is against this background that one could appreciate the enormous challenges of building enduring democratic institution that would restore the rule of law, curtail the excess of the executive, combat corruption and promote decentralization of power and resources, the observance of the principle of separation of power that ensures for instance, the independence of the legislature from the executive in carrying out its oversight functions as well as the independence of the judiciary as the bullwork of resistance against tendency towards abuse of power by either the executive or the legislature are critical to a regime of political governance. The challenge of making governance accountable to the poor is at the root of the problem of poverty, hunger, illiteracy and lack of access to the basic means of livelihood that faces the majority of the people. Although it is recognized that the problem can be explained 3 in terms of the disconnection between the people and the process of governance, the nature-character of the state is very important. The endemic absence of weak culture of accountability for example are tied to the fact that the state has remained a predatory instrument of accumulation or as Ake (1981) (29) put it. Government and state power tend to become a means of production. Among others, the Rentier character of the state largely explains the inability entrench nations of accountability for both state officials and citizens. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS The research has provided an opportunity to evaluate, through perception survey, the performance of the Nigeria State mostly in its fourth republic that is from 1999 to 2007 on there various aspects of democracy and political governance and also with the intention of providing solutions to some problems affecting some areas in the research topic. (i) What are the challenges against democracy and good governance in Nigerias fourth-republic? 4 (ii) How to proffer amicable solution to the problems in consolidating democracy and good governance in Nigeria. (iii) What are the problems of leadership in the present Nigerian dispensation? (iv) Accountability which requires that power holders and power spenders must account for their actions, and seeks to replace the culture of impunity in the public spheres. (v) Consolidating constitutionalism which requires all persons in a given state especially holders of public offices, should adhere strictly to the spirit and letters of the law. 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY What this research work is aimed is to achieve the following objectives; (i) To identify the major characteristics and importance of democracy and good governance in Nigeria (ii) To explain the effect of democracy on the development of good governance 5 (iii) To explain the concept of good governance, democracy, democratization. (iv) To appraise the practice of democracy in Nigerias fourthrepublic. (v) To proffer solution on how good governance can be development and democracy can be consolidated in Nigeria 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research work is very important even though there are several analysis raised in relation to the problem, this study elucidate the nature of good governance and democracy. It will affirm on how democracy can be sustained in Nigeria. This will also contribute to the already existing academic literature on the phenomenon under study. However, the uniqueness on the choice of topic draws attention to one of the major issues confronting the present democratic government in Nigeria is how to promote the substance and content of democracy and not just its infrastructure or reform. As Julius Ihonvbere (1998) once noted, the tragedy of Africas 6 experience of the third-wave of democratization lies in the fact of its non-transition to democracy. This assertion is premised upon the challenge facing the current civilian dispensation which is how to put in place a democracy that is profoundly transformative in the sense of changing the perception of the ruling class about power, changing the character of the Nigerian State, the disposition of government to the people and the disposition of the political elite to democracy. 1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY For accuracy and effectiveness, this research is limited to the Nigerian society at large, precisely taking into cognizance the Nigeria fourth republic that is from 1999 to 2007, in carrying out this research work. This work also involves and extensive field work with resulting cost. An elaborate kind of research will be costly and will also be both time and energy constraining. However, the research will take necessary preconditions in the causes of the research in order to ensure objective outcome. 7 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study is non-statistical; this approach is descriptive and analytical for a background knowledge of the study. This study will employ a secondary source of data collection mainly on external source to which some relevance could be adjudged within the country by consulting both published and unpublished works, reports of conferences, seminars, textbooks, journals, workshops, magazines which will provide a suitable springboard for investigation and considered to have good perspective of the issues contained in setting up a more efficient, more humane and accountable state in Nigeria. 1.7 CONCEPT CLARIFICATION (i) Democracy The element of modern democracy are usually taken to have originated in ancient Greece, particularly the city state of Athens. The word Democracy is derived from two Greek words demos which means the people and kratein which means rule of or by. The term democracy therefore literally means rule by the people. Democracy may be 8 viewed as a form of government in which power flows from the citizens to the rulers, that is a government based on the consent of the electorate. In the classical word of Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. (ii) Good Governance It cane be seen as the act of exercising authority over the affairs of others or a country with justice and fairness Also, it is to control authority in a rightful manner; and which must be within the tenets of democracy which must coincide with the interest of the majority in the society. In the society what this then suggest about the notion of government is that there should be positive values in government as a discourse to be cultivated and engaged with, to ensure that effectiveness and service delivery. (iii) Democratization Although, so much have been written and said in glorification of the concept Democratization ushering in the change from one party, military or communist rule to multi- patyism in eastern Europe, the former soviet union and Africa is if that is all that is entailed in democratization as if multi9 patyism is synonymous with democracy. But democratization, the fullest sense of the term has much wider meaning and compass than multi-patyism. It must seek to democratize the state, the economy, politics and constitution of such a state, the electoral system and process, and the practice of government. Not only does the society need to be democratized, it must also be a society founded upon freedom, justice and the goal treatment of all citizens by the state, it must be an ordered and stable society, one infused with the spirit of liberty, justice and the rule of law and order. 1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY Chapter one focuses on background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study and limitation of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study. 10 REFERENCES Adigun, A. A, Larry D, Ebere O, Edited. (2004) Nigeria Struggle for Democracy and Good Governance published by Ibadan University Press. Africana, Ojigbo O. (1980) Nigeria Returns of Civil Deile, Lagos: Tokion Ake, C. (2007) The Feasibility of Dimension in Africa CODERIA Bello, L. M. (2006) Reflections on Poverty Reduction Strategies. Democracy and Development in Nigeria, Economic and Environmental Issues. Vol. 2, Faculty of Business and Social Sciences, University of Ilorin. Conger J et al (1988) Behavioural Dimension of charismatic leadership Chicago, University of Chicago press. David, O. S. (2005) Good Governance in Nigeria New Age publication 3rd April. Human Development Report (2002) Developing Democracy in a fragmented World, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). New York, Oxford University Press. 11 CHAPTER TWO 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Democracy has been given multiviseted definitions by numerous scholars, but the most acceptable definition is the one credited to Abraham Lincoln which describes democracy as the government of the people, by the people and for the people. Joseph Schumpeter (1942) gives a minimalist definition when he suggested that democracy is merely a method by which decision-making is transferred to individuals who have gained power in a competitive struggle for the votes of the citizens. According to Robert Dahl however he gives a more comprehensive definition which describes three essential conditions for democracy to function such as high level of civil liberties, political pluralism that is extensive competition by contestants including individuals, groups and the third which has to do with political participation that provides the choice for the electorate to select in free and fair elections. It is doubtful whether one can validly talk of democracy in the absence of participation, competition and the guarantee of civil liberties. Democratic governance by interference implies the art of 12 governing the people in line with the tenets of democracy. This concept has also been popularized as good governance by International Financial Institutions, the world ban and international Monetary Fund (IMF) by which they refer to the exercise of political power to promote the public good or the welfare of the people. The public good according to Ben Nwabueze (2002) embraces within its ambit, the norms or values of a free just. Ordered and law-governed society as well as those of happiness and the good life. It is evident that democracy and good governance are complimentary in nature, one infact enriches the other. The quest for good governance comes in response to the political uncertainty and arbitraries which accompanied Military authoritarianism authoritarianism in especially Nigeria military bred bad governance. governance characterized by misuse of power, lack of accountability in governance, political regression, suffocation of civil society, denial of fundamental right and arbitrariness. It also resulted in inefficient and over extended strike system whose intervention in economic affairs bred corruption, and acted to discourage or strike private initiative. In this vein, the development process was arrested and national growth 13 stunted the argument here is that the development process can only be set in motion when the legacy of authoritarianism is reversed and democracy is institutionalized as an integral component of good governance. I propose that, democracy and good governance are mutually self-reinforcing. Any democratic government that parts way with good governance is not strictosensu a democratic government. The attributes of democracy are presumed to be facilitative of good governance. The abiding parameter of good governance are accountability of governing officials, transparency in governmental procedures. Predictability in government behaviour and expectation of rational decisions, openness in government transaction, free flow of information and freedom of press, decentralization of power structure and decision making. The expectation is that when these attributes in here in a democracy system of government, that system will be conducive to development. The point was made earlier that authoritarianism during military rule led to political repression and irresponsible or bad governance which undermined development. 14 The consequence was that successive military regimes and the state they presided over became totally alienated from the people. However, the opportunity for political participation, political equality and the possibility of an alternative government these makes a state democratic in form, in order for democracy to work successfully, certain additional conditions are necessary, foremost amongst these is the widespread habit of tolerance and compromise among the members of a community, a sense of give and take This is necessary because democracy involves the conception of majority rule, and the acquiescence of the majority in the decision of the majority. It either presses its demands at the expense of the other, democracy becomes difficult to work. Such a temper can exist in a society only if there is a general agreement on fundamentals among the members, there of, it is difficult for instance, to secure compromise where a strong minority believes passionately properly is theft where as the majority believes in its sanctity. The sense of belonging together creates a readiness on the part of the members of a state to subordinate their differences to the common good. There must also be in a democratic state, the provision of adequate 15 opportunities for the individuals to develop this personality, access to knowledge, through a system of state-aided free education, searity against unemployment, a minimum which should include provision against sickness and for old age, coupled with fair condition of work, leisure and some voice in determining the condition for guard against economic slavery. This implies that vast disparities in the distribution of national wealth should be progressively reduced. The connection between such a postulate and effective democracy is clear men languishing in want and living under insecure and deleterious conditions of work can hardly be blamed for not taking that intelligent part in the government which democracy demands. A great accumulation of wealth also leads to an undue influence of money power in politics, with all its attendant evils. In contrary to this history of democracies shows that these conditions are rarely fulfilled. In practice, democracy is the rule of ignorance. It pays attention to quantity, not quality. Votes are counted, not weighted. A large number of citizens still regard government as something quite apart from the main business of life. In which they have no vital concern, they work and play; practice the 16 professions and the arts, plough, sow, harvest, and sell and forget that they are the governors. There is a real danger in democracy that the citizens may not be sufficiently educated to appreciate the meaning of the issues which comes before them at elections. They may be misled by class passions or by demagogues; Sir Henry Maine went so far as to say that democracy can never represent the rule of the many because, as a rule, the people merely accept the opinion of their leaders Further, it may be argued, modern democracy is capitalist i.e. the political state represent nothing but the rule of the purported oligarchy an opinion hold particularly by socialist, the principle and the practice of representation are also faulty. No man says coles can represent another; at best one can represent only a function. As it is, a representative knows enough of everything to do anything badly and enough of nothing to do anything well. Even granting that territorial representation is free from defects of principle in practice it rarely achieves the purpose of representation. True representation is secured only if parliament represent every elements and every interest in the nation in proportion to it relation to the whole. But 17 parliament is rarely a minor a minor of the nation. Moreover, democracy in practice is too slow in arriving at a decision as it has to consult a number of interest as Baldwin said; it is always two years behind dictatorship. According to Held, (1993), (Pg 16) the contending views on democracy reflect deeply rooted conflict about whether democracy should mean some kind of popular power in which citizens are directly engaged in self government and self regulation or be conceived as a means of conferring authority on those periodically voted into office. The author noted further that this disagreement has given rise to three basic variant or models of democracy, in which citizens are involved as in the ancient Athens. The second model is the liberal or representative democracy. He names these as first, the direct or participatory democracy, in which citizens are involved as in the ancient Athens. The second model is the liberal or representative democracy. This model views democracy as a system of rule of embracing elected officials who undertake to undertake to represent the interest and views of citizens within the framework of rule of law 18 The third model of democracy by identified Held is the Marxist tradition. This model is also sometimes referred to as peoples democracy. The Marxist theory of democracy seeks to extend equality of all citizens from the political to the social and economic spheres of life. At the economic level this is achieved by the allowing equality in the ownership of the means of production through the nationalization of major enterprises.Equality in the social spheres was achieved through the institution of right to education, pension, medical services, insurance, employment, mother and child care, and in the enjoyment of leisure. Whereof democracy or representative democracy has emerged as the dominant model of democracy, it is usually what people mean when they now speaks of democracy. Direct popular participation in day to day governance is impossible in modern nation state all of which consist of millions of citizens and not few thousands as was the case in the ancient Greek polis. Direct, popular democracy has therefore become an ideal which may not be feasible in modern-states. 19 Whether the Marxist model should be regarded as a valid model of democracy has always been a subject of contention among scholars. The collapse of the soviet union and the communist regimes of eastern Europe all of which were based on Marxist theology has greatly undermined the arguments of Marxist democracy as a feasible alternative to liberal democracy. It is to be noted, however, that advocates of the foremost liberal democratic model often draw from the element of direct democracy and the argument of the Marxian tradition. Held, (1993), (Pg 20 21) has provided what may be regarded as a summation of the varied definition of liberal democracy and listing of its major element. According to him, liberal democracy in its contemporary form includes a cluster of rules and institutions permitting the broader participation of the majority of citizens in the selection of representatives who alone can make political decision. In more specific terms: This cluster include elected government, free and fair elections in which every citizens vote has an equal weigh; a suffrage which embraces all citizen irrespective of distinction of race, religion, class, sex and so on, freedom of conscience, information and expression on all public matter 20 broadly defined, the right of all adults to oppose their government and stand for offices association autonomy the right to form independent association including social movement, interest groups and political parties. Consequently, the work of democratization must be viewed an ongoing process and democrats everywhere are to be involved in struggle to consolidate and extend the realization of democratic principles. Several conditions are thoughts to be conducive to the germination, growth and sustenance of the democratic system. First, it has to be desired by the people who must also be prepared to strive and sacrifice to attain it. The citizens must be willing to tolerate opposing views and show respect for the lives of other people. While the majority must act in tolerant way. The minority must learn to accept the decisions of the majority. In effect, for democracy to thrive, it is necessary that the people be broad minded and have a liberal disposition. In addition to desiring freedom, citizens of a democracy are expected to posses an educate sense of political responsibility this trait, according to heater, entails a positives interest in public affairs a sense of responsibility to use ones political right for the public 21 good, a certain minimum of education in order to be capable of making a responsible independent political judgment, and finally, the existence of political debate to stimulate thought. Democracy also requires a cultural milieu as well as a reasonable level of economic well being among the people. From all ramifications, democracy could be deduced as a set of ideals. Institutions and processes of governance that allows the broad mass of the people to choose their leaders and that guarantees them a broad range of civil right. This conception of democracy could be criticized as narrow for focusing only on formal. Political rights and processes to the exclusion of economic concerns. In actual democracies, poverty often prevent the mass of the people from actualizing and enjoying their political and civic right while the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few, gives the economically privilege minority preponderant political influence. The recognition of these paradoxes has led to call for the broadening of the notion of democracy to incorporate social and economic upliftment of the masses. 22 2.2 GENERAL OVERVIEW First we are to ask ourselves what evidence do we require as proof of the absence of democratic culture yet in contemporary Nigeria. We should not deceive ourselves thinking that the only alternative to military dictatorship is democracy and good governance, between a military government and constitutional democracy properly so called, there are several variations models and sub models of societal management some may be better than a pure military regime but clearly worse than a democratic setting that is (civilian - dictatorship). There may not be a once for all understanding itself but there is however a universal agreement that for any system to be democratic such must meet the basic criteria set by (Abraham Lincoln), centuries ago when he spoke of government of the people, by the people and for the people. We can go through the expensive rituals of elections and actually succeed only in electing someone as leader who do not necessarily understand that he is going to assume an office owned by the people and inactive would be determined by the will of the people in the best interest of the same leaders. 23 Moreover, an essential attributes of good governance is democracy which goes hand in hand with accountability and transparency. For a government cannot claim to be democratic unless its form of governance is fully accountable to its people and conducts its affairs in a transparent manner. Good governance is therefore about the greater satisfaction of the greater number of people by ensuring transparency, accountability, tolerance of opposing views, respect for human-right in general and the rule of law. On these bases, in Nigeria, the situation may not be that bad, but there have been several reported cases of police brutality and extra judicial killings. The security forces are yet to imbibe respect for human-right. The military orientation, which is characterized by brutality and gross human right abuses, still permeates the various strata of security personnel in Nigeria. The apparent lack of basic democratic tenets and respect for human right is one of the greatest problem in the Nigeria environment. Finally, democracy and good governance is considered the ideal form of government but unfortunately, what we operate in 24 Nigeria for now is merely its semblance, certainly not the same thing as Lincoln professed and also what indeed the Nigeria people and in mind. 2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK David Easton is the first major political-scientist who has developed a systematic framework on the basis of the system analysis approach for the study of politics. Instead of merely adopting it from Anthropology or Sociology. He has selected the political system as the basic unit of analysis and concentrated on the intra-system behaviour of various systems as principal area of research. His approach in using the system analysis is constructivist in the sense that he has depended more on the analytic systems approach rather than on the membership system approach. Eastons concept of political life is that of a systems behaviour embedded in an environment to the influence of which the political system itself is exposed and in turn reacts. This means that outside and beyond the political system, there are other systems or environment-physical-biological-social-psychological 25 e.t.c. What then distinguishes system? Easton defines a political system as that system of interactions in any society through which binding and authoritative allocation are made and implemented. As such it is the making of binding or authoritative which distinguishes the political system from other form of systems both within and outside the overall society that form the environment of the political system. Easton has taken note of what he calls para-political system. Internal political system of groups and organization but he concentrates his analysis on the political system dealing with political life in the most inclusive unit. The society, though the methodology would according to Easton, be as applicable to the study of para political system on the one side and the international political system on the other as to political system at the National level. According to Easton, the political system functions by getting inputs from the environment. Inputs are events in the environment which evoke response from it. The input could be demands that values be allocated in a particular way or they could be supports that is expressions of approval for particular decisions. The input from the environment undergoes a 26 conversion process which are usually authoritative decisions such as government policies, judicial decisions, acts of parliament e.t.c promulgated by the authorities. These authoritative outputs usually affect the environment as outcomes and in turn excite some form of feedback that is changes in the intensity and volume of demands and support from the environments. The Eastonian system model however can be considered helpful in the understanding of political events that we do not experience directly. 2.4 DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE It could be recalled in November 2006 during the lunching of the Heart of Africa Project in London, this is a programme designed by the Nigeria government to project her image phenomenal growth and uncommon potentials. According to Hon. Baroness Veleria Amos, the leader of the House of Lords pointed out three prominent issues confronting Nigeria in her opening remarks; the first is to ensure free fair election in 2007. The second to sustain and depend the current political and economic reforms 27 programmes and thirdly, talking the Niger Delta question. Truly, the 2007 polls in Nigeria represent important watershed for Africa, because whatever happens would reverberate across the continent, getting it right means a giant stride to consolidating democracy only in Nigeria but in Africa at large. It would be the responsibility of the present administration to utilize this opportunity to permanently put Nigeria in the map of the states that have succeeded over time in democratic transition. It is necessary that for the April polls to be declared credible and acceptable internationally, the process has to be in consonance with the rule of law and free from violence, meaning that the independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) should conduct election that could be peaceful, free and fair with assurance that the will of the people will be expressed for this great nation, resulting in a government that is representative. Fair and just this polls has been called the most important election in Africa which could mark either a solid step away from the military past into a democratic future, or a decent into national disintegration. No country can develop democratically without proper political and economic reforms Nigeria today is seriously faced with 28 challenges of development, not only human but infrastructures, no state can attain the height of industrial development without power (electricity), we lack good roads, poor health facilities, poor pipe borne water and transport system to mention but a few. With 42.98 billion dollars foreign reserve, there is no social system that could generate proper distribution of wealth and sustainable development. A former agricultural based economy is now of the early 70s, the massive oil wealth has not touched the peoples lives. More than 70.8% live below 1 dollar a day. the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Nigerians 159 out of 177 countries behind Rwanda, Eritrea, Senegal and Gambia, a failure in the part of the state to develop alternative and diversify the economy into other sector like manufacturing to empower the people and lessen competition over the struggle of black gold (oil) which is more of a curse than blessing. Hardly, is there any Nigeria leader in policy making position that has not traveled outside the shore of the African continent, in fact, some have studied, had vacation and lived abroad, even some own choice properties. They see good roads in the UK, good social 29 security system in the United States, good power supply in Canada, and quality lives in Europe; programmes for good livelihood are not in short supply in the west. Why are millions of Nigerians living the penury? Why are there want in the midst of plenty. Why have many suddenly turned to religious revivalism? The answer may not be far fetched, this is because in the states mentioned earlier unlike Nigeria, resources are meant for the common good of all, but misguided state policies. Gross abuse of office, privileges and misapplication of public funds of all tiers of government had rendered Nigerians in want in the midst of plenty. The then senate president Chief Kenechukwu Nnamani commented that the massive embezzlement, misapplication and misappropriation of public funds should be perceived as capital offences that attract severe punishment because such misbehaviours are the bane of poverty and misery in Nigeria. 30 2.5 THE CHALLENGES OF DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA INCLUDES: i. Ethnicity: The strength of Nigeria lies in her rich multi cultural diversity of about 250 ethnic nationalities but even so many ethnic minorities are crying of economic and political marginalization and social inequalities. Aside from the three major ethnic nationalities namely the Hausa-Fulani. The Igbos and Yorubas no other minority groups have attained the position of president which seems to be exclusive right of the former. Just as Gessiye Angaye argued that the accusation and allegations of neglect, oppression, domination, exploitation, victimization, discrimination, marginalization, nepotism, and bigotry are common. It is difficult to know who is marginalized, who in Nigeria because all ethnic-groups from the big Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo to the small Ogonis, Ikwerres, Igalas etc are complaining of marginalization. But the fact that many communal conflicts in the minority areas are caused partly by land, boundary and chieftaincy disputes mainly by domination and oppression, frustration, aggression, displacement, divide and rule tactics inequalities in the 31 distribution of power, wealth and status, and the domination by bigger groups and their collaborators within the smaller groups have frustrated the minorities who seem to reduce their build-up tension by fighting themselves rather than write unite and face the real oppressors. ii. The Absence of Federalism: it is a stumbling block to the nation ongoing democratic enterprises. The federal government is very over bearing as it controls about 80 percent of the resources in the country, leaving state and local governments at its mercy. Therefore true federalism would enable each region, state or geopolitical zone to control their resources and to have access the necessary funds for community development programmes. It is only true federalism that can guarantee fairness and justice in the society more importantly, it enables each locality to progress according to the aspiration of the people. A durable and enforceable peoples constitution is indispensable tool to make this feasible as the constitution protects the people and determined socio-political activity in a society. As noted in the philosophy of Aristotle We can 32 decide the identity of a state only by examining the forms and context of the constitution iii. Illiteracy and Ignorance: This is an obstacle to nations quest for true democracy and good governance as bigots and political opportunist pondering to ethnicity and the Nigeria populations are illiterate. Thus, a certain level of education would enable the citizens to differentiate right from wrong education however, is the bedrock of any society that wants to leap the future greatness: this is because, education breeds enlightened citizenry with bright ideas and initiatives to develop the country, run the future government and create self empowerment. Such empowerment could increase the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the country and create a multiplier effect in our economy. Knowledge and empowerment will save the youth from various social vices and unnecessary manipulations by the politicians for conflict and to settle political animosity as a result of joblessness. The frequent crises between Academic staff Union of University (ASUU) and federal Government can not foster the type of development we want. It is no longer a new thing, that every year, 33 we witness various industrial actions at different level of academic sectors in Nigeria over payment of salaries, lack of infrastructures and under funding of institution, the decline of the entire educational system is a representation of societal and systematic rot in Nigeria. iv. Poverty: reinforced by mass unemployment, is barrier to the Nigeria quest to true democracy and good governance. The Federal government had announced a ward in poverty, but joblessness has not lessened. Any individual deprived of the basic wherewithal, cannot participate effectively in a democratic political process. Therefore, a poor person is not a falls fledge social individuals, as he or she lacks the basic freedom to engage in lives he or she enjoys Thus Amartya observes in Development as freedom that Expanding the freedom that we have reason to value not only makes our lives better and unfettered but also allows us to be fuller, social persons, exercising our own freedom and interacting with the influencing the world we live, (Amartya 2000:19). One can safely argue that poverty constitutes a hindrance to true democracy and good governance. Since economic chaos can topple democratic institutions. Poverty and injustice are good part of Nigeria and the 34 citizen do not seem to understand what is in their culture. That prevents them from achieving a just. Prosperous dignified life and true democracy and good governance. It is essential to note that about 70 percent of the Nigeria population is estimated poor. Is there any wonder why the society is chaotic? v. Discrimination: Ethnicity, tribalism and poverty are closely related, as they affect the peoples ability to secure employment and earn a living consequently. Many people are concerned more by their daily struggle for economic survival than the empty term democracy and good governance which they believe would not feed them. The government should therefore engage in social policies to spur economic growth (expansion of basic education, health care and equitable distribution of resources) to enlarge the economic pie, so as to reduce poverty. To prosper and attain true democracy and good governance, the society must create a sound macro economic, political and legal environment which would enable business organizations and citizens to be productive. If the citizens and companies are not productive and innovative, the nation cannot compete in the global market place and therefore cannot 35 meet the peoples needs. Toward this (Yahudah, Mirsky, 1994:8) noted that economic development creates the social space that makes democracy and good governance possible and gives a newly democratic government the breathing room to deliver its promises. vi. Corruption: Speaking at a colloquium in Jan. 31 2007, at the University of Ibadan. The chairman for Economic and Financial Crimes commission (EFCC) deplored the state of corruption in Nigeria. You do not need to be smart social scientist to make the nexus between corruption and how it threatens the rule of law, the democratic principle, human rights, fairness and social justice as well as good governance Described in the academic circles as cancer militating against Nigeria development corruption is deeply threatening the fabric of Nigeria society. The independence corrupt practice commission (ICPC) and the EFCC established to fight graft (Few of the best things done by the Obasanjos administration) has been highly criticized by many politicians and academics for selective targets, tools in the hands to state officials to witch-hunt unfavoured political opponents. But criticism may not solve the problem because this cancer is real. It could be recalled that 36 following a ruling by the Swiss Federal Supreme Court on Feb, 7, 2005. The Switzerland government invited the World Bank to monitor the repatriation to Nigeria 500 million dollar looted funds deposited in the Swiss accounts. vii. Military and Subversion of Democracy: The militarys entrance into the Nigerian political scene dated as far back January 15, 1966 when Nigerians first post-independence constitutional government was over thrown in a coup detat. Ever since, the Nigerian military has refused to leave the centre stage politics. Out of the ten heads of state that Nigeria has had since its existence as an independence nation state, seven of them have been military; Nigeria has experienced ten coup detat with six being successful. There have also been several failed coup attempts and countless rumours of others. It seems that the military in Nigeria has become the most important calculus in the countrys political equation on now and when to intervene in politics. Military rule has in fact subverted the growth of democracy by its enthronement of authoritarianisms and general atmosphere of terror in the Nigerian society. So far, military rule has defected the public purpose as exemplified in the 37 absence of welfare programmes, decaying infrastructures, high level of corruption and the collapse of public safely. The nature of politics has also been subverted. Politics is no longer about compromise and negotiation. The winner wins all and the loser loses everything of which even election results are no longer sacrosanct. The military in power annulled the popular presidential election of June 12, 1993 and even imprisoned the alleged winner of that election, Chief M.K.O. Abiola. The democratization process has become so perverted that it is scandalously regimented by strangulating decrees and uninhibited manipulation. 2.6 THE CONCEPT AND CHALLENGES OF LEADERSHIP IN NIGERIA This part seeks to examine the Nigeria leadership problem, identify the origin, determine the challenges of leadership and evaluate the prospects of the search for a nationalist governing class that is dedicated national to entrepreneurship. Some what autonomous development, people based development agenda, 38 genuine economic and political governance institutions. The emergent governing class contested the political terrain within the context of ethnic based political parties and fragile federal structure. The contradictions led to the collapse of the first republic and subsequent political discontinuities. The implications are frequent leadership changes, lack of ideology, policy reversals and vulnerable institutional patterns. The perception rating of the ruling elite is jaundiced by intense power struggle to access stalest structures; flamboyance, profligacy, poor management of economic resources. Leadership comes with accountability; the greatest national challenge facing this Heart of African and the most populous black nation on earth is leadership. Nigeria lacks quality leadership that is yet to transform economic wealth of the governed. Until leadership is accepted as services to the nation and mankind and not the opportunity for personal wealth or enrichment, until Nigeria experience leadership that makes citizenry central to development and first in the affairs of the nation state. It shall remain in the same spot while the people live in penury for many generations to come. It is pertinent to note that a state is respected when it is built on the 39 rule of law and order. In a state, where power means everything in the public arena and there are unconstitutional checks of balance of power between the executives, the legislatives, and the judiciary, rule of law will be undermined and the confidence in both constitution and the judiciary which is the last hope of the common man will be eroded. The hijack of democracy and constitutional impeachment saga in Oyo state, Plateau state, Ekiti state and Anambra state by the same law makers who took the oath of office to protect the same constitution is uncalled for, this display of lack of respect on the electorate and brazen lawlessness should not be repeated. Leadership is the process through which one individual consistently exerts more influence than others in the pursuit of behaviour; political leadership is the decision on social policy and resources allocation as exerted by partisan representative. These definition suggest that leadership is hinged on the capacity to allocate scare resources, which determines the locus of power. 40 CORRUPTION, UNDER THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE Corruption in Nigeria is both systematic and endemic, as the abundance of natural resources in the country has little impact (if any) on the standard of living of the citizens despite its abundant resources. Nigeria ranks among the twenty-five (25) poorest nations in the world. Widespread corruption is a symptom of a poorly functioning state and it is capable of retarding economic growth and development. Corruption is a threat to democratic governance, political stability and sustainable development. Corruption is the antithesis of progress and development as it creates political instability social unrest and crime infested environment, breeds inefficiency, incompetence, mediocrity, unethical values and other base instinct in men such as agreed, avarice and rapacity. Corruption is so entrenched in Nigeria that it has become a household word and all facet of the economy are caught in corruption web, such that Nigeria ranked the 2nd most corrupt nation in the world as at 2003. It is estimated that African as a continent lost over $140 billion dollars to corruption. At the official rate of N120/dollar exchange rate this amount to N16.8 trillion of this 41 colossal figure, it is disheartening to note that Nigeria has the largest percentage. The major justification for military in Nigeria since 1966 has been on corruption and indiscipline. This corruption has led to political instability and policy inconsistency and gross abuse of power in Nigeria. Corruption in any country cannot be at zero level, thus every country has an element of corruption, through the degree and intensity varies from one country to another. CORRUPTION AND GOOD GOVERNANCE Good governance is often run with sets of political institutions that are characterized by the presence of three distinct arms of government that are seen to be the apex institutions that determines to promote good governance. In every state namely, the legislative, the executive and the judiciary, the executive implements or execute the laws of the land, while the legislature makes laws for the whole society. The judiciary as the third arm of government interprets the law and applies existing laws to individuals cases. These three arms of government make it possible for the political system which cut 42 across all lands, to perform its natural function of rule making, rule application and rule adjudication. The nature of democracies makes the existence of these three arms of government necessary. Afterall, democracy is simply popular power or government of the people since both the legislature and executive are composed of peoples elected to take-decision on behalf of the people. But this to reverse, can be greatly undermined due to the extent and nature of corruption, that persist in such a state, in which Nigeria as a state falls into such category due to the level of corruption seen to be a salient factor which cut across its organs of government. And this threatens the legitimacy of the state, whereby there is no strong mechanism for a functional rule of law and this can a lead to official recklessness aimed at perfecting corruption. This is a situation where the state lacks the political will to prosecute corrupt officials. Confronting the existence of corruption as a menace to the Nigerian polity could be viewed extensively from the dirty politicking and irregular, ties that cut across the three arms of government that are seen to be the apex institutions which seeks to promote good governance. Furthermore, this could largely also be 43 viewed from the seeming repot of the Auditor-General of the federation in 2001 financial year, submitted to the National Assembly, the 296 pages report details, mind-boggling instances of financial recklessness and indiscipline in all sectors of public service. It is a confirmation of what has become a clich to many Nigerians; public office in the country is still a theatre of graft. The report is a damning verdict on the whole system. It indicts the presidency, the National Assembly, the judiciary and various Ministries and Parastatals. It records violation of laid down financial procedures and document financial irregularities such as over invoicing, payment of jobs done, non retirement of cash advances, faking and alteration of receipts double debiting release of money without authorization etc the pervasiveness of the malaise, as revealed by the report, shows that the problem is endemic. It is noted in the deep seated belief that public money is nobodys money and that public office is no mans territory where everyone with access can help himself with no cost to anyone. But corruption has taken a huge tell on Nigeria and has rendered her prostrate. It is for this reason that public office has to be seen as less of an avenue for 44 looting and more of an opportunity for service. Also, those who run tow of laid procedures and laws should be made to face the music. The culture of impunity has to stop. We hope to auditor-generals report will capture the glimpse that our legislators, who are also indicted will treat this with the urgency, sincerity and selflessness that it deserves. This level of gross mis-appropriations can now be viewed from the following scenes. ON THE LEGISLATIVE SCENE i. At the National Assembly Abuja, a payment of N200,000.00 was made to a lawyer on payment voucher number 3305 of 6th September 2001 for consultancy services to office of the senate president. A memo to the senate president dated 20th July, 2001 signed by chief of staff to the senate president sought approval for N200,000.00 being quarterly retainership at the rate of N50,000 per month for June to September, 2001. Due to the lawyer for consultancy services to the office of the senate president. Attached to the memo was a letter of appointment, of the lawyer as a political consultant to the senate president dated 18th may 2001 and duly 45 signed with consultancy fee fixed at N600,000.00 payable in three equal installment with effect from 1st June 2001. There was no agreement and other document required by extent regulations guiding consultancy services the permanent secretary and the clerk of the National Assembly has been advised to please forward the agreement and other necessary documents for audit examination whose response is been awaited. ii. Another Honourable member got N1 million as refund out-of- pocket expenses on payment voucher number 485 of 2nd December, 2001 for consultancy services rendered to a committee for the House of Representatives by a firm of consultants in respect of a bill passed in the year 2001. Only a receipt was attached to the voucher. Neither a letter of appointment of the consultant nor an agreement duly signed by he parties concerned was attached as required by government regulations. The permanent secretary and clerk of the National Assembly has been questioned to produce these documents for verification. 46 iii. Similarly, another distinguished senator was paid a sum of N1,070.000.00 on payment voucher number NASS/ADV/465/01 of 11th April 2001 to enable him undertake an extensive tour of his constituency. Details of the expenses, which totaled N1,952,500.00 include cost of hiring 2 cars at N10,000.00 per day x 21 days N420, 000.00. Donation to development projects at N100,000.00 per LGA x 6 LGAs N600.000.00 hiring of vehicle with N420, 000.00 on local tour cannot be said to be judiciously spending. And also using public funds to make private donation for personal/party purposes cannot be accepted as a legitimate charge on public funds. The permanent secretary and clerk to the national-Assembly has been advised to recover the misapplied funds. Forwarding the recovery details for further verifications. ON THE EXECUTIVE SCENE (a) Power and Steel: An audit examination of the amount and other related records maintained at the ministry of power and steel headquarters Abuja revealed that:- 47 i. A sum of N22,400,000.00 was transferred from the capital account to salary cashbook. In October 2001, a clear case of unauthorized virement and misappropriation of funds as well as flagrant violation of the financial regulations. The practice also prevent the attainment of the objective for releasing the capital funds and points to the fact that monthly transcript being prepared by the ministry for submission to the office of the Accountant, General of the Federation would never give a true and fair view of the ministrys account. ii. Further, it was observed that amounts totaling N339,391.00 were paid to a corporate body in cash for services it rendered to the ministry. It should be noted that the practice of making cash payment to corporate bodies should strictly be made by cheque. These issues have been taken up with the permanent secretary and his reaction is being awaited. (b) Works and Housing At the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing Headquarters, Abuja, audit examination of the accounts and other records 48 maintained for the account and other records maintained for the period under review revealed that The ministry was in arrears of rendering monthly transcripts from 1999 to date. However, detailed scrutiny of the few monthly transcripts received revealed that figures could not be substantiated as the underlying records analysis buses, statement of expenditure by sub-heads and schedules were not made available. All effort to get these documents proved abortive in spite of repeated demands. This singular anomaly is not only worrisome but also undermines the concept of accountability and should be checked. The permanent secretary has therefore been urged to confirm within the shortest possible time that: i. All the underlying records, for the preparation of the monthly transcripts are now available. ii. Similarly, detailed examination of the Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31st December 2001 showed that Debit in the Bank Statement were not in the cash book there represented payment totaling, N960,63 4380.76 made directly by the bank or cheque issued and paid without due entry in the cash book or supported 49 by payment voucher as required by the financial regulations. These payments, which could be fraud prone, should be thoroughly investigated and cleared. (c) Transport Audit examination of the payment vouchers in the ministry of Transport revealed that there were irregularities and abuses in the manner of out-of-pocket expenses were claimed. The supporting documents attached to the various payment vouchers revealed the following irregularities. i. Air tickets attached were full of alteration of the routes and fares. Figures were erased and altered and handwritings were superimposed on one another. ii. The receipt of the fuel purported to have been purchased were observed to have been written by the same person even though the fuel was purchased from different petrol station in different locations various contracts worth N1,126,457,881.23 awarded by the ministrys tenders board at different periods showed that the ministry had total disregard for standard operational guidelines on tendering and contract processes. 50 ON THE JUDICIAL SCENE i. At the senior magistrate court 1, Wuse court fines and fees, collected between June, and October 2001, totaling N29, 713.00 were neither remitted to the central pay office nor proved for physical audit survey in December 2001. Similarly, at the Upper Area Court, Garki court fines and fees collected in October 2001 totaling N32,825.00 were not paid to the central pay office. Rather claimed in December 2001 that the money was lodged in his private accent,, as that was no safe to him to keep it. He did not however present any bank teller in support of his claim. The total amount of N62, 538 should be accounted for. ii. The chief Registrar has been urged to comment on all the lapses reported and his response is being awaited. On transport officer of the court were paid the sum of N42, 000.00 on payment voucher No. (HCJ/EC/6128)085 of 7th May, 2001 as refund of out of pocket expense. Amazingly, audit scrutiny revealed that items claim to have been purchased for the maintenance of an official vehicle registration No. FJ6CT and 51 on which the refund was based were in actual fact procured on 29th January, 1999, taken on stores ledger charge on stores receipt voucher No. 8057 and verified by the internal Audit on 18th July 2006 (18 months after the purported procurement) worse still, the courts chief Registrar did not approve the refund. The sum of N42, 000.00 should therefore be recovered from the transport officer, as it cannot be accepted as a legitimate and proper charge against public funds. Just recently, the house of representatives committee on judiciary acknowledged the receipt of petitions alleging how N2.3 billion was spent to bride judges at election tribunals across the country in which a retired chief justice of Nigeria, CJN was accused of being the conduit through which various amount got to members of the tribunals, particularly published was that of the unethical acts involving a counsel and a judge at the Osun election petition tribunals. Mr. Mike Igini, a lawyer, researcher, and socio political analyst, went down memory lane on the miscarriages in the judiciary system, when he spoke to the- News magazine that confidence in the judiciary has ebbed considerably. What we have in Nigeria is 52 that the judiciary is no longer the last hope of the common man or the weak in society. The New magazine must be commended for exposing misconduct in the judiciary. Judges are seen to be like gods in the midst of human beings and that is why they are seen like people walking on holy ground. They are not expected to descend to the level to which they have. Quite frankly, I must say that I am disappointed; Nigerians are disappointed that judges have descended into the arena of conflict now they reck of the stench. This is unfortunate and regrettable. We should have it at the back of our minds that those who are not parading damaged mandates that do not have the legitimacy of the Nigerian people were the first to enjoin those they termed as losers to go to the tribunals, as a result of the collapse of the second and third republic respectively. What we saw in 2003 was a different dimension altogether because of what happened in 1999. Again you will recall that in the history of Nigeria, since her independence, only in the 2003 election was the judiciary able to stand up to redress just one case of electoral 53 disputes. Now the entire elections petition is stuck out across the federation one after the other. All along some of us have expressed undue optimism about the judiciary in this country. The judiciary is a macro part of the larger society. It is part of the large corrupt Nigerian society. So why do we expect that judges would be so different from the other forms of institutions of state? Judge themselves are part of the society. They are part of the corruption. And therefore so many judges are not supposed to be on the bench but are still there till today. So the judiciary is equally a corrupt institution in this country. That is why you find out that all the electoral injustices that been foisted on the Nigerian people, the judges, because they are part of the corrupt larger Nigerian society, they have not been able to resolve them. So the consequence is that the entire 2003 election disputes were not resolved on the side of the Nigerian people, therefore it is not surprising that in the 2007 edition of electoral rigging, with no form of commitment in defence of democracy and the rule of law in the runup to the election has again failed Nigerians. 54 REFERENCES Africana, Ojigbo O. (1980) Nigeria Returns of Civil Deile, Lagos: Tokion Aka, C (1995) Democracy and Development in African Washington D.C Brooking institution Andreas Scheduler, (2002) Election without Democracy: The Menu of Manipulation Journal of Democracy vol. 13 Awolowo, (1982) The Travails of Democracy and the Rule of law, Ibadan Evans. Baker, B. (2000) Can Democracy in African be sustained? Commonwealth and comparative politics vol. 38. Dudey, B. J. (1973) Instability and political order politics and crisis Nigeria, Ibadan: Pg.14 Human development Report (2002) Developing Democracy in a fragmented world United Nation Development Programmes (UNDP) New York, Oxford University press. John Dara (2004) Democratic Excellence Hope and Direction for the Youth at a Public lecture organized bby the Association of Business 55 and social science students of the faculty of Business and social sciences, University of Ilorin. Luckham, R. Goertz, A., Keldor (2000) Democratic Institution and Policies in the context of inequality Poverty and conflict A conceptual framework. Osaghae, E. E. (2001) Ethnic Mapping Project: A Brief Concept in Osaghae, E. E. et al (eds) Ethnic Groups and Conflicts in Nigeria Vol. I, Ibadan. Remi Anifowoshe and Francis Enemuo (1999) Element of Politics University of Lagos: Matthouse Press. San, A. (1998) Democracy as a Universal value Journals of Democracy 10.3, 13 -16. Terrance, E., Patrick, M. Morgan, (1971) Participatory Democracy San Francisco: canfield press. The News Magazine (2008) Monday July 28: Pg 20 29 Thisday Newspaper (2003) Sunday January 19; page 29 34 Welch, C. [Jnr.] (1995) Civil Military Agonies in Nigeria: Pains of an unaccomplished Transition. Armed Forces and Society. Vol 21 No 4. 56 World Bank President on Corruption in Nigeria, Daily Sun 27th, October, 2006. 57 CHAPTER THREE SUSTAINING DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIAS FOURTH REPUBLIC (1999-2007): PROSPECT The approaches to meeting these challenges are most promising and important if all the stakeholders can embrace peace by looking at the issues that constitutes the challenges as against our co-existence. The first step to peace process would be a good democratic system that would attain the goal of peace and security focused on the citizens. Building reliable democratic process to accommodate all political affiliations would be a welcome development for Nigeria because of the diverse ethnic, religious and multi-cultural interest. For such process to be acceptable and for the people to have confidence in the political system, the system must give room for election to be transparent, open fair play, encourage equal participation and accountability to the citizens. Participation by women should be encouraged avenue should be created to allow women more access to position and political power and equal participation, because they are wifes smoothers and their vital contribution to the family income and national development have 58 roles to play in peace building, in this wise, leadership should not be all much affairs. I will at this point, attempt to outline IHURILAWS works to meet some of the challenges and also describe our current thinking on these subjects. 3.1 DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION The first challenge in advancing human right and good governance in Nigeria, which we are forecasting on, is democraticconsolidation. With the transition from authoritarian rule in Nigeria to a democratically elected civilian government, thought must not turn to question of the nature and quality of the Democracy that has been established under the current transition process and indeed, the future of democratic governance in Nigeria. A noted scholar of democratic development has pointed out that once transition from authoritarian rule in a given country have reached a point where (more or less) free, fair and competitive elections are held, democratic actors usually cannot afford to relax and enjoy the bounded uncertainty of democratic rule more often than not, regime threatening unbounded uncertainties persist and 59 democrats fundamental concern shift from establishing democracys core institutions to securing what they have achieved. Many new democracies deface the threat of illegal or pseudo-democratic overthrow by anti-democratic forces. This is not an unrealistic scenario considering the historical cycle of Nigerian petition and military intervention. The anti-democratic forces that could attempt to realize this scenario could include elected presidents-turned autocrats, disaffected military officers as well as disenchanted civil populace tired of a democracy which has not delivered in material terms much more than economic hardship and social inequality, low price of crude oil export on the world market, on which Nigeria is almost totally dependent and the kleptomania of previous civilian regimes makes this very real prospect, state violence which weakens the rule of law, the use of hegemonic parties, the decay of electoral institutions, exploration of political incumbency to gain disproportionate access to the media during election campaigns, all contribute to democracy erosion. Some essential conditions for installing sustainable democracy in Nigeria have been fulfilled. However, a relatively free 60 and fair election of local, state and National government is a necessary condition for democratic governance but not in itself, a sufficient one; Africa in the past decades has produced several ballot box tyrannies Nigerias political history is that of an authoritarian unaccountable colonial government followed by a cycle of corrupt, incompetent military dictatorship interrupted by brief hills of corrupt, incompetent civilian government. With this historical background, the roots of democracy in Nigeria are shallow and easily removed. The threat to the survival of this democratic transition can be described as being of two (2) principal kinds: 1. Democratic values and practices are yet to be fully internalized and this process seems unlikely to take happen in the near term. Democracy consolidation is vital; by democratic consolidation is meant the process of inter alia, popular legitimation of democratic governance in the public mind, the diffusion of democratic values amongst the Nigerian people, supremacy over the military, the elimination of authoritarian enclaves, party and political rules and procedures, the reutilization of politics, the 61 alleviation of poverty and economic stabilization, constitutional and law reform to eliminate anti-democratic legislation and reform of the civil justice, system to support constitutionalism and the rule of law. 2. Nigeria political and social culture is deeply authoritarian. There is probability that such a democratically elected government could initiate an authoritarian regression. This may or may not take the form of a military instigated coup detat while the risk of authoritarian regression through a classical military coup detat remains a real danger in Nigeria, fixing attention on this specific risk possess the danger of ignoring real threat that are concealed in less traditional and less obvious sites. In these categories lies democracy erosion in the near imperceptible regression from democracy to semi democratic rule which takes the form of progressive diminution of existing spaces for the exercise of civilian power and liberal constitutionalism, a slow and opaque process of successive authoritarian 62 advances which in the end leads to a repressive faade democracy. Democracy consolidation in Nigeria will require forward thinking, solidarity and cohesive action by civil society and political actors. However, civil society organization in Nigeria in relation to advancing sustainable democracy and to initiate consensus and cohesion and solidarity that is desirable to advance democratic consolidation HURLAWS, convened a retreat from March 26 28, 1999, in Lagos which brought together civil society organization to examine the rule of civil society in post transition Nigeria in relation to advancing sustainable democracy and to initiate consensus and cohesion building. The origins of the human right movement in Nigeria today can be said to lie in the founding of the civil liberties organization. Nigerias pioneer human rights NGO by myself and Clement Nwankwo in 1987, hitherto, some individuals actors had made valiant effort to defend the rule of law and human right in and hoe approach but the birth of CLO gave rise to planned, sustained and coordinated activity to promote and protect human rights. By the early 1990s, the human rights NGOs had established a role in the 63 society as a defender of popular liberties and as the Nigerian people of military dictatorship and longed for democracy, human rights NGOs had to assume the additional role of democracy advocates and leading the resistance to military rule. Human right and democracy were seen as essentially complementary role for human right activists and conducted by the human right NGOs. The human right organization will have a critical role to play in advancing sustainable democracy in Nigeria. 3.2 REFORMING ANTI-DEMOCRATIC LEGISLATION The long years of military dictatorship have decimated the institutions of civil society and virtually erased the rule of law though many politicians glibly vocalize democratic jargon, evidence abounds that democratic values and attitudes are not yet commonplace in the political class. Also, among ordinary Nigerians, popular motives to change; the people have become accustomed to not expecting anything but the worst their leaders in terms of political leadership, economic management and respect for their civil liberties and human dignity. A major legacy of 28 years of military rule is the 64 plethora of anti-democratic legislation, which remains on our statue books. Examples include the Public Order Act 1979 which requires police permits for public meetings and processions and newspapers registration 1993. These laws have been extensively abused by previous military regimes to repress democratic thought and opinion. There is a clear and present danger that these laws could also be abused by intolerant civilian politicians to repress political oppressions. These laws are in clear breach of Nigerias obligations under international human right legal instruments. There are also several insidious anti-democratic clauses in seemingly innocuous legislation which effectively restrict civil liberties. A comprehensive effort has to be made to repel these anti-democratic laws from our status books. 3.3 REBUILDING THE RULE OF LAW The judicial system is the critical underpinning of democracy. Simply put, without a functioning judiciary, the democracy is doomed to collapse because the rule of law is primarily secured through the courts. The long years of military rule have considerably eroded the 65 rule of law the judiciary has suffered pernicious by successive military regimes leading to near collapse extreme delay in litigation in the courts are not uncommon. On the average, hearings in a case at first instance in Nigerian superior court can take as long as 5 6 years with another 3 4 years consumed in appellate proceedings. IHURILAWS has since 1997 been working on a civil justice reform initiative in collaboration with the Nigeria Institute of Advance Legal Studies (NIALS). Under the first phase of the Nigerian court procedures project (NCPP), pilot studies, were conducted in the superior court of Lagos, Anambra and Plateau States to identify the causes of delay and make recommendations for reform. A technical workshop was held in Lagos in November 1997 of which stakeholders developed an outline of action for reforms. Amendments to the rules of civil procedures are presently being drafted for implementation by the Lagos state government. The (NPP) report identified outdated rules of civil procedure and deficiencies in the infrastructure and resources available to the Nigeria Judicial system. The study outlined recommendation for reform including legal, administrative and infrastructural. A major 66 problem of the judicial is inadequate resources and decaying infrastructure. Basic facilities such as computers, telephones, fax, email, libraries, office equipment, vehicles and even stationery e.t.c are lacking. Training for judges and court personnel is inadequate and under-resourced. These infrastructure and resources problems can be addressed by a combination of (legal and administrative reforms). New rule of civil procedures, a major intervention and the progressive increase in resource allocations are essential. IHURILAWS proposes as a first step major technical conferences on access to justice to be held in January 2000. This would bring leading National and International stakeholders together to develop a definite framework of action to reform, the civil procedure laws and rebuild the judicial infrastructure which would contribute to restoring the rule of law. 3.4 COMBATING CORRUPTION AND ADVANCING TRANSPARENCY IN GOVENANCE Corruption has been a bane of governance in Nigeria, although we have experienced corruption life since independence in 67 1960, the scale of monumental fraud witnessed under Babangida and Abacha regimes appears to finally prompt the usually stoic Nigerian populace to demand comprehensive reform. Corruption became virtually pervasive in public life in Nigeria during the 38 years of military rule and civilian interregna since independence. Transparency, paramount accountability consideration and good governance in the Nigerian peoples will be effort to consolidate our fragile democracy and create a sustainable democracy in the fourth republic. Democratic regression remains a real prospect, considering the historical life cycle of Nigerian politics and military intervention. Disaffected military officers could exploit the anger and frustration of civil populace disenchanted with a democracy and structural adjustment which they perceived or not delivery in material forms much more than economic hardship and worsening facial inequality while observing public office holders loot to the public treasury and acquire wealth from bribery and corruption. It must be constantly borne in mind that the 1983 coup detat which brought down the second republic was widely acclaimed by most Nigerians who were fed up with the 68 incompetence and kleptomania of the ruling politicians which has impoverished them. President Olusegun Obasanjo has made a public commitment to transparency and good governance and has introduced anti-corruption bills in the National Assembly. We believe that the civil society organization should support these commitments to ensure that the public demand for reform is progressively translated into concrete legislative action. IHURILAWS has presented to the National Assembly under President Olusegun Obasanjos era a legislative agenda for good governance. The IHURILAWS legislative agenda will take the governments commitment to transparency forward. IHURILAWS work to data has generally centered around test case litigation, legal assistance and civil justice reform. However, we are re-focusing their work to include initiatives to promote reform through legislative advocacy. We are motivated to develop and implement this initiative to promote good governance by the realization that a strong, effective legal and regulatory framework to promote good government is critical to restoring the rule of law in Nigeria and preventing a progressive disenchantment with democracy among 69 Nigeria people leading to democratic regression. The legislative agenda for legislative action include: I. To promote transparency in governance. II. To establish effective, practical and enforceable mechanics for detecting and punishing breachers of law outlawing bribery and corrupt practices by public officials and III. To specifically criminalize bribery and corrupt practices. IV. To create for the first time in Nigeria, legal immunity for persons who provide information which leads to the detection and punishment of corrupt public officials. 3.5 PEACE METHODS AND SOLUTION This centers majority on the resolution of conflicts be it political, religions resources, ethnic and communal which are becoming increasingly violent. (Osagbe 2002) attributed escalation of violent conflicts to many factors which are not limited to violent strategies of conflict regulation, especially the use of military by the state to guell conflict which he regarded as the by products of the prolonged military rule in Nigeria, of the subsequent weakening or 70 collapse of legal constitutional means of conflict rogation. Things have to change, this paper strongly discourage the usually government fire brigade approach as conflict handling style by quickly packaging machinery to quench existing conflict. Adopting conflict prevention (preventive diplomacy) methods will show a great sense of care concern and higher responsibility on the part of the Nigerian government in the sense that it is a social detection and early intervention in crisis management, because it focuses on the root cause of conflict and promote early involvement which can de-escalate conflict and hasten the restoration of peace. No wonder (Boutros-Ghali, 2000) analyzed that concerning peace and security, as in medicine, prevention is self evidently better than cure. He emphasized that it saves lives and money, untold hardship and human suffering. Therefore it primarily lies within the purview of the Nigerian state to create systematic and institutionalized method that will detect only warnings, sings for pre-emptive actions and design effective conflict prevention and peace building strategies through operational structures and personnel for monitoring conflict and 71 transform the existing conflicts. It is the authors opinion that in the search for lasting peace in Nigeria, academics, religious leaders, traditional rulers, women groups head and international governmental organization (NGOs), social critics and activities, trade association, civil societies, various youth leaders, students, bodies and multinationals companies of particular interests in corporate social responsibility e.t.c should be involved in conflict prevention and peace building. This will ensure enduring and sustainable peace. Every Nigerian owes the allegiance in discharging their duties and responsibilities while the state should reciprocate with the government of all rights and priviledges. Recognizing the differences in identities and exploiting the dynamics rich multi-cultural nature of the various ethno-religious groups, will no doubt enhance coexistence and encourage unity in diversity in Nigeria. It is not enough for state to make pronunciations, but mechanisms mentioned earlier should be in place for facilitation and proper national dialogue through peace by peaceful means. 72 REFERENCE Adejunobi, S. (1999) Reconstructing the Future Africa and the Challenges of Democracy and Good Governance in 21st Century. Development and Socio-Economic Progress Issues No. 75 1 and 2. Adejunobi, S. (2000) Election in Africa, A Fading Shadow of Democracy. International Political Science Review Vol.21 No 23. Baker, B. (200) Can Democracy in Africa be sustained? Commonwealth and Comparative Politics. Joseph, R. (1998) Africa, 1990 1997, From Abertura to Closure Journal of Democracy Vol. 9(2) Ojo, E. O. (2003) The sustainable Mass Democratic media values in and the Nigeria: challenges Possibilities of and Limitations in Media and Culture Society, London: Thousand Oaks and New Del San, A. (1999) Democracy as a Universal Value Journals of Democracy 10, 3. Wit, D. (1953) Comparative Political Institution: A Study of Modern Democratic and Dictatorial Systems. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston Inc. 73 CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1 SUMMARY The work centers on the challenges and prospects of democracy and good governance. A case study of Nigerias fourth republic. Almost every modern states claims to be a democratic government from the advance to the most primitive state. Democratic participation may take many forms, from voting and standing for political office, also representation is the most widely accepted variant of democratic government but has diverse interpretations. Nigeria constitutes a state in third world that are seen to be underdeveloped in nature due to lack of capital accumulation and not been ideologically rooted in its socio-economic and political system, which has created a form of obstacles to her development. Nigeria has a serious crisis in terms of leadership, and if this crisis is not solved our future will be bleak. The notion that virtually anyone without no form of adequate training and exposure can become a leader in Nigeria must be drastically called to 74 question. To survive and forge ahead, we must find some ways of identifying and designating the viable individual in our country. Anything short of this fact will find the future of Nigerian serving other races. A leader must not rule in an ideological vacuum that the mistake of the past should not repeat itself. Nigeria remains one of the most embattled and backward nations on earth. Its present and future in the game of politics, this has led to the political deteriorating nature of the country. It should be noted that a military regime can never be said to be a good substitute for a democratic regime, in the sense that the military is only desirable for providing political change against abuses in the absence of constitutional means. However, the military will continue to intervene in the body of politics if cautions are not taken into cognizance in areas such as nepotism, tribalism, agreed and unnecessary quest for power. Yet, the hope for reconfiguring Nigerian state lies in promoting the logic and principles of good governance through democratic practice and virtues may be engineered and good governance evolves. Democracy and good governance may not necessarily guarantee speedy economic development or lead to the emergence 75 of good leadership though what it would do is to ensure predictable ways of life, orderly process of leadership selection and change, laid down organizations and procedure on public interactions. A reform of the state and its institutions and the protection of civil liberties and political rights. If all these were achieved through democracy and good governance, then Nigeria would certainly be on the right trade to promoting good governance and a new culture of democracy in the country which are pre-requisites for sustainable democratic state. Evident from the foregoing in the democracy and good governance are concerned with the quest of attaining equilibrium in the power relations between the ruler and the ruled. This equilibrium is not only determined by the power balance between the ruler and the ruled but also by the level of reciprocity and interdependence between them. Since independence, the power balance between the ruler and the ruled in Nigeria is disproportionately in favour of the rulers. This is particularly under the military, who either elected by the people nor accountable to the people, the civilian regime did not force any better, once in power, they engaged in all kinds of legal 76 and illegal political excesses, including the looting of the state treasury and resources, moreso, the extreme personalization of state power to assure their continued stay in power. 4.2 CONCLUSION For Nigerians to achieve good governance, distributive justice, transparency, accountability and the rule of law they deserve, they must address the critical problem surrounding the unfinished business of democracy in Nigeria the problems includes the following: Ethnic nationality in Nigeria has its own faith, interest, culture, language and level of aspiration and these forces seems to affect the economic fate of each group because most leaders rules along their background. Illiteracy: this is an obstacle to the Nations quest for true democracy. It is appropriate to note that more than half of the Nigerian population is illiterate, thus, a certain level of orientation would enable the citizen to differentiate right from wrong and 77 evaluate the principles of political leaders and political office holders or seekers. Continued poverty, reinforced by mass unemployment, is a barrier to the Nigerias quest to true democracy, any individual deprived of the basic wherewithal cannot participate effectively in a democratic political process. Therefore, a poor person is not full-fledged social individual. Discrimination, ethnicity tribalism and poverty are closely related as they affect the peoples ability to secure employment and earn a living consequently, many people are concerned more by their daily struggle for economic survival that the empty farm democracy which they believe would not feed them. Corruption is a known fact which is seen to be the major bane of the Nigerian state. And this has affected every facet of the society. Nigeria is a place where political leaders with access to National Treasury convert public funds to private or personal use. No doubt, the quest of the attainment of democracy and good governance in Nigerian is an on going process. While there are bounds to be (upsand-down) along the path forwards the establishment of democratic governance. What is important is that the country must learn from its 78 mistakes and fashion out appropriate policy measure that augurs well for sustaining and consolidating democracy. As rightly observed by (Grete Faremo, 1992:137). Democracy must grow from lined roots it cannot be imported, sold or paid for it therefore boils down on the Nigerians to take their fate in their own hands and shape the forms of government must suited for their National aspirations. Finally, it calls for a cultural renaissance an economic plan, political re-orientation and a re-federation of Nigeria as the strategies for coping with the challenges of governance which is still on-going. 4.3 RECOMMENDATION 1. It was to be desired by the people who must be prepared to strive and sacrifice to attain it. 2. The citizens must be willing to tolerate opposing views and show respect for the lives of other people. 3. The majority must act in a tolerant way and the minority must learn to accept the decision of the majority. 79 4. For democracy and good governance to thrive, it is necessary that the people be broad minded and have a liberal disposition. 5. Citizens are expected to possess an educated sense of political responsibility. This traits entails a positive interest in public affairs, a sense of responsibility to use ones political right for the public good, certain minimum of education in order to be capable making a responsible independent political judgement. 6. The existence of political debate to stimulate thought. 7. Democracy and good governance also requires a cultural milieu that permits freedom of thought, association and expression as well as a reasonable level of economic well being among the people. 8. Increased development of politically active civil society. 9. More transparent and accountable governance. 10. Promoting more genuine and competitive election and political process. 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Nigerias Struggle for Agbaje, A. A, Diamond, L. Owudiwe, E. (2004) Democracy and Good Governance published in Ibadan University Press. Ake, C. (2007) The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa CODERIA Conger, J. et al (1988) Behavioural Dimension of Charismatic Leadership Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Luckham, R, Goertz, A, and Keidor. (2000) Democratic institutions and policies in the Context of inequality, poverty and conflict. A conceptual framework. Mohideen, A. (1997) Assessment of Democracy and Good Governance proceedings of the development policy Management Forum (DPMF), Conferences, Democracy Civil Society and Governance in Africa December 1 4 Addis Ababa. Okadigbo, C. (1987) Power and Leadership in Nigeria Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Company Limited. 81 Olisa, A. (1999) Challenges to democracy in the New Era, Report of a national conference organized by the Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Laws, sustaining Democracy in the Fourth Republic Port Harcourt on August 27 29. Pierre, J.G.B (2000) Governance politics and the state London: Macmillan Press. Remi Anifowoshe and Francis Enemuo (1999) Element of Politics University of Lagos: Matthouse Press. Tunde, B. (2006) Nigeria in crises of governance and development Published by political and administrative resources centre (PARC) Vol. 1 and 2. Welch, C. [Jnr.] (1995) Civil Military Agonies in Nigeria: Pains of an unaccomplished Transition. Armed Forces and Society. Vol 21 No 4. JOURNALS Adejunobi, S. (2000) Election in Africa, A Fading Shadow of Democracy International Political Science Review Vol. 21 No. 23. 82 Adejumobi, S. (1999) Reconstructing the Future Africa and the challenges of Democracy and Good Governance in 21st Century. Development and Socio-Economic Progress Issue No. 75, 1 and 2. Joseph, R. (1998) Africa, 1990 1997, From Abertura to Closure Journal of Democracy Vol 9(2) San, A. (1999) Democracy as a Universal Value Journals of Democracy 10. 3, 13 16. Andreas Scheduler, (2002) Election without Democracy: The Menu of Manipulation Journal of Democracy vol. 13 NEWSPAPERS / MAGAZINES Daily Sun (2006) October 27 The News (2008) July 28, Page 20 29. This day (2003) January 19, Page 29 34. CONFERENCE / SEMINAR / WORKSHOP Adejumobi, S. (2000) Engendering Accountable Governance in Africa Report of That DPMF / IDEA Workshop on Democracy 83 Akanbi, M. A. (2002) Implication of corruption on the Nigerian Policy A paper presented at the Annual Public Lecture of the P.G. Student Association, Unilorin. John Dara (2004) Democratic Excellence Hope and Dureettan for the Youth at a Public lecture organized by the Association of Business and social science students of the faculty of Business and social sciences, University of Ilorin. 84

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University of Ottawa - ADM - 2350
ADM 2350MFebruary 1, 2011Quiz #1 ExaminationVersion #1 SolutionsName: _Student ID #: _Statement of Academic IntegrityThe Telfer School of Management does not condone academic fraud, an act by a student thatmay result in a false academic evaluation
University of Ottawa - ADM - 2350
ADM 2350MFebruary 1, 2011Quiz #1 ExaminationVersion #2 SolutionsName: _Student ID #: _Statement of Academic IntegrityThe Telfer School of Management does not condone academic fraud, an act by a student thatmay result in a false academic evaluation
University of Ottawa - ADM - 2350
ADM 2350MMarch 29, 2011Quiz #2 ExaminationRevised Version #1 SolutionsName: _Student ID #: _Statement of Academic IntegrityThe Telfer School of Management does not condone academic fraud, an act by a student thatmay result in a false academic eval
University of Ottawa - ADM - 2350
ADM 2350MMarch 29, 2011Quiz #2 ExaminationRevised Version #2 SolutionsName: _Student ID #: _Statement of Academic IntegrityThe Telfer School of Management does not condone academic fraud, an act by a student thatmay result in a false academic eval
Emmanuel College - ECON - 101
Sumeer1. El maestro sugiro que el abogado necesito tener fuerza.2. Nosotros habremos cocinado con el cocinero unas veces.3. Tu comers con el hombre de negocios porque tu quieras recibir noticias.4. Ellos hablarin con el cientfico desde muy joven.5. E