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101 PKG Exam 2 Study Guide Corrugated Board Board construction forms, layers, walls Manufacturing process Flute sizes applications, stack strength, flat crush strength, cushioning, printability Corrugated blank styles and their differentiating features Cartons vs. corrugated how they are used for similar and different applications Carton styles MD vs. CD for cartons and why it matters How recycled fiber affects board performance Plastics Thermoset vs. thermoplastic Plastics vs. polymers How monomers form polymers polymerization reactions Advantages of using plastics for packaging Types of plastic packages for industrial, food, healthcare, and personal care sectors Linear vs. branched molecules and how they affect density 6 major packaging plastics - applications for each and characteristics for why they are good for that function (based on primary class examples) Plastic pkg manufacturing processes material/container forms, plastics used for each, and distinguishing characteristics of the pkg that identify the processes used. Examples: film blowing vs. film casting, coextrusion vs. lamination, injection blow molding vs. extrusion blow molding. Biaxial vs. uniaxial orientation how is it done and why does it matter? Laminated layers function of each layer, pkg forms and their advantages, filling process Advantages of injection blow molding compared to extrusion blow molding Advantages of in-mold labels and the type of containers they are used on Characteristics of crystallized finishes Food and Beverage Retails stores and how package characteristics are different for each Factors that affect how food is packaged in the US US consumer expectations and trends Package requirements for food safety and quality Food processing techniques how they are done, types of products/packages used for, advantages/disadvantages Advantages of flexible for retorting Requirements/concerns for produce packaging and examples of how rigid and flexible are applied Line extensions Why new products fail Convenience packages How to reduce packaging waste according to the EPA Product characteristics to consider when choosing the appropriate package Flexibles Advantages of using flexible Categories and types of flexible packaging and how they are used Characteristics of pouch seals (lap, fin, gussets) and products they are used for Stand up pouches characteristics and advantages Pillow vs. stand up pouches Variations of stand up pouches convenience features Styles of multi- and single-wall bags distinguishing characteristics and applications of them Uses for wraps Bag-in-box systems materials, uses, advantages Nutraceuticals Cosmetic and Personal Care How this sector compares to food/bev package functions, margins, regulation How cosmetics are defined Examples of personal care products Regulation compared healthcare Use of color, shape, for graphics consumer demographics Marriage of art and function Luxury Retailers and the need for fast launches Cosmeceuticals product types Examples of topical products Product and material compatibility Protection requirements In-use environment package features for convenience Concerns/requirements for primary packages appearance Use of colorants and defects that occur Shift towards tubes/laminations why this is happening, product types Extrusion vs. laminated tubes advantages/disadvantages for product labeling Advantages of hot stamping vs. applied labels Use of components metallic shrouds, etc. Relationship between marketing and packaging - price points (what % of price can go to the pkg?) Tubes Collapsible vs. non-collapsible tubes materials, applications, functions, advantages/disadvantages Manufacturing of tubes impact extrusion, extrusion, lamination Function of wide flat head closures Shipping tubes strongest shape Aerosols Aerosol product applications Types of propellants and their advantages/disadvantages Aerosol package systems applications, propellant/product interaction, function How pressure affects ability to dispense contents for each system Captive propellant aerosols types, applications, package features/identifiers Steel vs. aluminum aerosols advantages/disadvantages Aerosol package valve assembly components and their functions Spray patterns why they matter and how they function, product examples Why aerosols are expensive to produce compared to other package options Advantages and disadvantages of aerosols compared to other package options Healthcare Functions of US Pharmacopoeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) Monograph How pharmaceuticals are defined Traditional prescription drug pkg and current shifts materials, styles, functions OTC drug pkg functions compared to prescription Relationship of drug administration and the dependence on pkg configuration examples Parenteral drug packaging Protective drug packaging hazards for concern and pkg solutions Functions and challenges of child-resistant pkg and closure examples Functions and challenges of tamper-evident pkg and pkg examples Induction seals materials and performance Features of a complete CR TE drug package Materials and styles of drug packages and how they function Types of pharmaceutical glass why needed, advantages/disadvantages How medical devices are defined Classes of devices and product examples Major device package forms and materials Porous vs. nonporous materials types and performance Protection requirements for devices Sterilization methods Advantages of kits Considerations when choosing how to package a device Advantages of using Tyvek Aseptic presentation Costs compared to other market sectors Regulatory requirements and challenges of the release process Device testing requirements Counterfeiting ... 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