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Course Number: BUS300 BUS300, Spring 2011

College/University: American River

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12 Student: _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Throughout most of American history, the relationship between managers and employees has been fairly smooth. True False 2. Historically, managers were less concerned about productivity and more concerned with friendly relations with coworkers. True False 3. One of the things that labor is interested in is...

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_______________________________________________________________________________________ 1. 12 Student: Throughout most of American history, the relationship between managers and employees has been fairly smooth. True False 2. Historically, managers were less concerned about productivity and more concerned with friendly relations with coworkers. True False 3. One of the things that labor is interested in is fair and competent management. True False 4. A union is an employee organization that has the main goal of representing its members in employee-management negotiation concerning job-related issues. True False 5. Even in their infancy, the main goal of most labor unions was to provide members with increased management power. True False 6. Labor unions played a major role in establishing minimum wage laws, child-labor laws, and improvements in job safety. True False 7. Today labor unions have seen a revitalization of support and union membership has increased significantly. True False 8. Most historians view the increase in union membership in the United States as an outgrowth of the transition from an industrial economy to a service economy during the middle part of the 20th century. True False 9. Some business observers contend that the previous success of labor unions is a reason for the decline of labor unions. True False 10. The presence of formal labor organizations in the United States dates back to the late 1700s. True False 11. Some contend that the main reason membership in labor unions has declined in recent years has been the passage of anti-labor legislation in the late 1980s that guaranteed all employees of a firm the same wages and benefits whether they joined a union or not. True False 12. The Knights of Labor was the first truly national labor organization in the United States. True False 13. A craft union is an organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade. True False 14. A union that consists of members who are all skilled specialists in a particular trade is called an industrial guild. True False 15. The Knights of Labor, the first national labor organization, offered membership to all working people, including employers. True False 16. The first national labor organization, the Knights of Labor sought to gain enough political power to restructure the entire U.S. economy. True False 17. Samuel Gompers was the most important leader of the American Federation of Labor during its early years. True False 18. The AFL (American Federation of Labor) was initially intended to be a single craft union. True False 19. During its early years, the AFL tried to expand as rapidly as possible by recruiting both skilled and unskilled workers. True False 20. In its early years, the AFL (American Federation of Labor) limited its membership to skilled workers. True False 21. Membership in industrial unions was strictly limited to skilled craftspeople. True False 22. John L. Lewis broke with the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 over membership issues and formed a rival group known as the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). True False 23. The initial objective of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was to provide union membership to workers in all industries. True False 24. Today, more than 55 national and international labor unions are affiliated with the AFL-CIO. True False 25. For 20 years, the CIO was a major rival of the AFL in the contest for leadership of the labor movement. True False 26. In 1955, after the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, the AFL and CIO merged to create the AFL-CIO. True False 27. Union membership is likely to rise in the coming decade, because the same economic and political conditions that gave rise to unions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are now reappearing. True False 28. A major difference between early labor organizations in the United States and today's labor unions is that the early labor groups often were temporary organizations that disbanded after achieving a short-range goal, while today's unions are permanent organizations. True False 29. The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were actually very similar in their aims, tactics, and membership. The only major difference was in the effectiveness of their leaders. True False 30. The Industrial Revolution slowed the growth of unions by creating a rapidly rising standard of living for most workers. True False 31. Outspoken critics of today's labor unions believe that these organizations have lost their focus. They contend that they no longer represent the rights of workers, as much as they are concerned with the vitality and strength of the union itself. True False 32. Abraham was an unskilled worker who toiled 10 hours a day on an assembly line during the early and mid 1930s. His hours were long, his wages were low and his working conditions were unsafe and unpleasant. Abraham would probably be more sympathetic to the views of John L. Lewis than to those of Samuel Gompers. True False 33. The Zendor Corporation operates a manufacturing plant in Bellridge. The work is arranged in an assembly line and is performed by semiskilled and unskilled workers. These workers are looking into obtaining union representation. The type of union they would belong to would be classified as an industrial union. True False 34. The growth and strength of organized labor has always depended on one thing: the state of the economy. True False 35. The Norris-LaGuardia Act made it more difficult for unions to legally recruit new members. True False 36. A yellow-dog contract required workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of their employment. True False 37. The Norris-LaGuardia Act prohibits firms from requiring workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of their employment. True False 38. Samuel Gompers believed that collective bargaining was likely to be an ineffective way for unions to achieve their objectives. True False 39. The National Labor Relations Act gave labor the legal justification to pursue collective bargaining and other key labor issues. True False 40. The process by which a union is recognized by the NLRB as the authorized bargaining agent for a group of workers is called collective bargaining. True False 41. Once a union is certified to represent a group of workers, decertification is not a consideration or future possibility. True False 42. Collective bargaining is the process whereby union and management representatives negotiate a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers. True False 43. The Wagner Act established the first minimum wage for workers. True False 44. One goal of the Landrum-Griffin Act was to clean up union corruption. True False 45. The Norris-LaGuardia Act prohibited courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent union activities. True False 46. The National Labor Relations Act gave employees the right to form and join labor organizations and the right to engage in activities such as strikes and boycotts. True False 47. The Taft-Hartley Act strengthened unions by giving them the right to engage in featherbedding and secondary boycotts. True False 48. The Taft-Hartley Act allowed states to pass laws that prohibited compulsory union membership. True False 49. The Taft-Hartley Act gave more power to management. True False 50. A card check is a method of openly soliciting signatures in favor of the organization of a union. True False 51. Under the Wagner Act, the National Labor Relations Board can establish a labor union in an organization if it finds evidence of substantial labor abuse within that organization. True False 52. The NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) has created procedures that union advocates must follow in order to organize a union at a place of business. The multi-step procedure culminates with a secret vote by the employees of the organization. True False 53. The NLRB oversees the decertification of unions. An employer (the company owners) can petition and seek the signatures of 30% of the employees in order to decertify the union - in other words, officially, the union could no longer represent the employees in any bargaining negotiations. True False 54. Union representatives currently prefer secret ballot voting because they do not want to intimidate employees into voting for a union by asking them to outwardly sign a card check in favor of unions. True False 55. Jenna is a member of a union team that is negotiating with management to obtain a labor contract for the workers represented by the union. Jenna is involved in contract arbitration. True False 56. During an interview with Zytex company representative, Hillary was told that Zytex faces intense competition and management believes that the only way the company can survive is to have a nonunion workforce. Therefore, all workers Zytex hires must sign an employment contract stating that they agree not to join a union while they work for Zytex. This requirement by Zytex is illegal in the United States. True False 57. The workers at the Kerriton Company are unhappy with the way their union has been representing them. The Wagner Act allows these workers to take away the union's right to represent them through a process known as decertification. True False 58. Jake remembers his grandfather telling him about going to work at 16 years of age in the coal mines of southern Illinois. In order to get the job, he had to agree to a yellow-dog contract. Essentially this meant he would only get the job if he agreed not to join a union. True False 59. Last week, Angie was approached by two of her coworkers during the lunch break pressuring her to sign a card check in favor of organizing a union. The card check is currently a NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) approved method of finalizing unionization. True False 60. The main objectives of organized labor, better wages and shorter hours, have remained remarkably stable over time. True False 61. During the 1970s, the primary objective of most labor unions was to gain additional pay and benefits for their members. True False 62. During the 1980s unions became increasingly concerned with the issues of job security and union recognition. True False 63. The AFL-CIO was a major supporter of the NAFTA agreement to expand trade and commerce among the nations of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. True False 64. The AFL-CIO has supported offshore outsourcing as a method of increasing work opportunities for union members. True False 65. Wage rates, hours of work, employee benefits, and job rights and seniority are issues covered in a typical negotiated labor-management agreement. True False 66. A union security clause in a labor-management agreement stipulates that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues to the union. True False 67. The negotiated labor-management agreement clarifies the terms and conditions under which labor and management agree to function over a specified period of time. True False 68. Under a closed shop agreement, workers must agree not to join a union in order to keep their jobs. True False 69. Until passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, under a closed shop agreement, a company could only hire workers who already belonged to a union. True False 70. Under a union shop agreement, workers must belong to a union before they can be hired. True False 71. The Taft-Hartley Act made the union shop agreement illegal in all states. True False 72. A union shop agreement is illegal in states that have passed right-to-work laws. True False 73. In an agency shop agreement, workers who do not belong to the union must pay a union fee or pay regular union dues. True False 74. Under an agency shop agreement, only union members are represented at the bargaining table. True False 75. Under an open shop agreement, workers have the option to join or not join a union, if one is present in the workplace. True False 76. Unions in Europe historically have held more influence in the workplace than unions have in the United States. True False 77. According to the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, global labor movements are forming to emphasize the setting of global labor standards. True False 78. A grievance is a charge by managers that the union is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement. True False 79. The sources of many grievances include overtime rules, promotions, layoffs, and job assignments. True False 80. The vast majority of grievances filed by union members are negotiated and resolved by shop stewards and supervisory managers. True False 81. A bargaining zone is the time period during which a third party is used to reach agreement on union disputes. True False 82. A mediator has the power to impose a binding settlement on labor and management. True False 83. Arbitration is an agreement to bring in an impartial third party to render a binding decision in a labor dispute. True False 84. Many of the negotiated labor-management agreements in the United States call for the use of an arbitrator to end labor disputes. True False 85. Arbitration and mediation are alike in that both involve an impartial third party to help in the negotiation process. The differences in these two approaches is that an arbitrator's decision is binding - both parties agree to this on the front end; a mediator encourages the two conflicting parties to continue to negotiate and may make suggestions in pursuit of a resolution. True False 86. In the past, a variety of professionals have served as mediators. If a labor dispute were to breakout between the management at an auto manufacturer and the local union that represents workers at the auto manufacturing plant, it would be highly unusual for a university professor who has studied labor relations to be asked to mediate. The disputing parties would save his time for something more serious like arbitration. True False 87. Mississippi has passed a right-to-work law, which means that union shops are illegal in the state. True False 88. Winona was recently hired to work at a production plant for Additup Manufacturing. When hired, she was told she must join the union at the plant within 90 days in order to keep her job. Winona is employed in an agency shop. True False 89. Marina works for a company in which a union is recognized as the bargaining agent for the workers who perform her type of job. However, under the arrangements at her company, Marina is not required to join the union, nor is she required to pay any fees or dues to the union. Marina works under an agency shop agreement. True False 90. Miko began working for a company that operates under an open shop arrangement. Under this type of arrangement, Miko must join the union at her company within 90 days or she will lose her job. True False 91. Labor and management at the Brookwood Company have reached an impasse in their efforts to negotiate an acceptable labormanagement agreement. The two sides have agreed to bring in an arbitrator. If the arbitrator issues a ruling that the union does not like, it can veto the decision. True False 92. Ashleigh has played a number of supporting roles on TV sitcoms. In her last role, she understood her contract to obligate her to perform in 22 episodes for a stipend of $500 per episode. After completion of 11 episodes, Ashleigh became ill and was unable to complete the episodes in a timely manner. The studio claimed that Ashleigh broke her contract and they are not obligated to pay her. She is confident that an impartial third party will view her circumstances as exceptional and will rule that she be reimbursed for the 11 performances. She has agreed to mediation. True False 93. Jian is a well-known professor of labor relations at a major university. She recently was asked by representatives of labor and management at a nearby corporation to help them resolve a disagreement that threatened to cause a breakdown in negotiations. If Jian agrees to help, her role will be to encourage both parties to continue negotiating and to offer constructive advice and suggestions, but she will not have the authority to render a binding decision. Jian's role is that of a mediator. True False 94. Regina teaches at a local college. As a full time employee, she belongs to an organized union that represents teachers. She recently filed a grievance against her Dean claiming that the Dean prevented her promotion due to the fact that Regina's academic credentials are from a university that the Dean does not personally feel is properly accredited. As a first step to resolving the conflict between the Dean (considered a management level position) and the instructor, the union will support Regina by bringing in the national union officer to negotiate with the University's Chancellor (similar to the CEO for a company). True False 95. Management at Enomoto Enterprises has assigned Alberto to work at two different facilities, which will require him to commute an extra 25 miles on the days he must work at both plants. Alberto believes that the negotiated labor-management agreement requires the company to reimburse him for the extra mileage he has to drive. Management disagrees. Alberto has decided to file a charge that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated agreement. Alberto's complaint is called a grievance. True False 96. A Lockout is a tactic utilized by unions when collective bargaining breaks down. True False 97. The strike historically has been the most powerful weapon unions use to achieve their objectives in labor disputes. True False 98. A boycott occurs when workers collectively refuse to go to work. True False 99. Strikes have been an effective way of settling labor disputes without violence and bitterness. True False 100. Postal workers and other employees of the federal government who provide important services are allowed to form unions, but are denied the right to strike. True False 101. The "blue flu" refers to a situation in which union members (like firefighters) who are not allowed to strike refuse to work by calling in sick. True False 102. A cooling-off period is when workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations. True False 103. In a primary boycott, a union encourages its members and the general public not to buy the goods and services produced by a firm involved in a labor dispute. True False 104. In 1996, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that primary boycotts are illegal. True False 105. Tactics used by management when collective bargaining breaks down include injunctions and lockouts. True False 106. The most potent weapon currently available to management when collective bargaining breaks down is the use of yellow-dog contracts. True False 107. The Supreme Court ruled in 1938 that employers had the right to hire strikebreakers. True False 108. A common tactic of management in labor disputes is the use of secondary boycotts. True False 109. The use of strikebreakers did not become a common management tactic used in labor disputes until the 1980s. True False 110. Workers who are hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the strike is over are called "scabs" by the union. True False 111. A court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something is called a judicial citation. True False 112. Hiring strikebreakers to replace striking workers was historically a common management tactic during labor disputes, but it is seldom used today. True False 113. The Taft-Hartley Act authorizes the U.S. president to ask for a cooling-off period to temporarily prevent a strike in a critical industry. True False 114. Courts will issue an injunction against union tactics only if management can show a "just cause" to restrict the union tactic. True False 115. The lockout is the most common tactic used by management today to deal with labor management disputes. True False 116. Unions have used givebacks as a tactic to increase membership of a culturally diverse workforce. True False 117. The largest labor organization in the U.S. is the National Education Association (NEA). True False 118. Membership in labor unions has grown steadily over the past 50 years. True False 119. A key to the future growth of unions will be their ability to adapt to a labor force that is becoming more culturally diverse. True False 120. In recent years, many unions have granted concessions on working conditions and wages in order to save jobs. True False 121. One way the Teamsters Union plans to increase membership is by reaching out to women in traditionally non-union occupations like health care. True False 122. The unions of the 21st century are likely to be quite different from those in the past. True False 123. In the future, unions are likely to leave training and recruitment of workers to management, and focus instead on encouraging those workers to join the union. True False 124. In the next few years, unions are likely to find that they must adopt a tough, confrontational approach in order to get what they want from management. True False 125. According to "Spotlight on Small Business," in Chapter 12 many private-practice physicians have embraced unionizing as a means to collective bargaining with managed health care organizations. True False 126. The Taft-Hartley Act gives the president the power to require striking workers in any industry to return to their jobs for a cooling-off period while representatives of management and the union continue to negotiate. True False 127. Bellandro Bay Brewery union representatives and the company's management have reached an impasse. Going forward, the union has planning an organized strike and other tactics to put pressure on management where it will be most effective. Union supporters are being encouraged to avoid purchasing Bellandro's products. Now union leaders have contacted a variety of stores that stock Bellandro's Beer informing them that union members and other supporters will stop shopping at any store that continues to carry the brewery's beer until the dispute is resolved in the union's favor. This tactic against stores that carry Bellandro's Beer is called a primary boycott. True False 128. Striking union workers are picketing near the entrance of the Bellandro Bay Brewery plant where they normally work. The workers are acting peacefully and have not threatened anyone entering or leaving the company or damaged any property. Bellandro's management is seeking an injunction to prevent the workers from picketing. The courts are unlikely to issue an injunction under the current circumstances. True False 129. Workers at the West Fenton plant of Malzone Industries have gone out on strike. Management believes it could continue operating the plant during the strike by hiring replacement workers. If the company hires nonunion workers to continue its operations, it will be violating a recent Supreme Court ruling that declared hiring replacement workers as a violation of the Wagner Act. True False 130. Employees were striking at the London Met University last year. Very few students were crossing the picket line. In fact, the city's postal employees refused to deliver mail there claiming that they were honoring the strike for their fellow service union members. The Postal employees were participating in a voluntary secondary boycott. True False 131. In the Making Ethical Decisions box, students are asked to consider what they would do if they had the opportunity to be employed as a strikebreaker, at a company where friends and family were currently out of work and on strike. If they choose to do so, they are immediately hired as full-time workers. True False 132. After adjusting for inflation, the average CEO compensation is actually a little lower now than it was in 1960. True False 133. The disparity in salaries is clearly reflected in the fact that in 2007, the average CEO compensation for a major company was $12.8 million, compared to a little more than $35,000 that the average worker was compensated. True False 134. CEOs only earn high salaries and bonuses when their companies earn substantial profits. True False 135. The late Peter Drucker, one of 20th century's leading management consultants was very critical of the exorbitant compensations that some CEOs were getting. True False 136. Despite their high pay, most CEOs work far fewer hours per week than the average employee in their companies. True False 137. Comparable worth is concerned with making sure that women get paid as much as men when they do the same jobs. True False 138. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required companies to provide equal pay to men and women who perform the same job. True False 139. The concept of comparable worth holds that people who do jobs that require similar levels of education, training and skills should receive equal pay. True False 140. Today, a woman usually receives a salary that is equal to approximately 79% of her male counterpart. True False 141. The law protects both women and men from sexual harassment. True False 142. The number of sexual harassment complaints filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has leveled off since 2000. True False 143. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that same sex harassment is prohibited by sexual harassment laws. True False 144. Although workers and managers often know that their firm has a policy against sexual harassment, they seldom have a clear understanding of what the policy actually says. True False 145. "Quid pro quo" sexual harassment occurs when a person's conduct creates an offensive, hostile, or intimidating work environment that adversely affects the job performance of some other employee. True False 146. If you work for a foreign company doing business in the U.S., you are subject to the same sexual harassment laws as anyone working in the U.S. True False 147. Because of the need to cut costs, fewer large U.S. companies now provide some sort of child-care for their employees than ten years ago. True False 148. Small firms often offer innovative child-care programs as a way of competing for qualified employees. True False 149. On-site child-care remains the only acceptable way for firms to meet the child care concerns of their employees. True False 150. The number of households that face the burden of caring for one or more elderly parents has increased significantly over the past decade. True False 151. In recent years federal programs such as Medicare and Medicaid have greatly reduced the financial burden on families faced with caring for elderly adults. True False 152. Over the next decade costs associated with elder care are likely to have a much smaller impact on businesses than child-care costs. True False 153. Elder care costs are likely to remain a major issue for businesses for many years. True False 154. The spread of AIDS within the U.S. has declined in recent years. True False 155. Alcohol and drug abuse are serious workplace issues but they involve far fewer workers than AIDS does. True False 156. Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the workplace. True False 157. Today, over 70% of all companies require some type of drug testing. True False 158. The high cost of illegal drug use in the workplace has resulted in a rise in the number of firms that test employees and job applicants for drugs. True False 159. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the third leading cause of job-related fatalities is homicide. True False 160. One in six violent crimes that are committed in the U.S. occur in the workplace. True False 161. Many companies do not provide any formal training for dealing with prevention of violence in the workplace. True False 162. Since violence in the workplace rarely results in severe injury, it is likely not to be much of a problem in the future. True False 163. Due to threats of violence at work, some states have passed laws permitting companies to seek temporary restraining orders on behalf of their management. True False 164. Although the general public often sees the compensation of CEOs of major U.S. corporations as being much too high, the pay and benefits these top executives receive is actually quite similar to what is earned by top executives in other countries with market economies. True False 165. According to the Legal Briefcase box associated with Chapter 12, we can cite several examples where CEOs in the U.S. received significantly large exit compensation packages even though the profit performance of their firms under their watch was rather meager to very poor. True False 166. According to the Legal Briefcase, "Paying for Incompetence", businesspersons understand that the capitalist system has no choice but to tolerate huge disparities between a CEO's salary and a regular employee. True False 167. According to the Legal Briefcase box from Chapter 12 that highlighted the exorbitant salaries of some past company CEOs: When it is all said and done, restructuring compensation packages to be more equitable is in the hands of the companies themselves. True False 168. Reece discovered that a male coworker is paid $1.50 per hour more than she is even though they have the same job title, have similar qualifications, and have been employed the same length of time. Unfortunately for Reece, it is legal for the hospital to pay different salaries to different workers who perform the same job. True False 169. Marco is the newly appointed CEO of the Sine of the Times Corporation. The board of directors approved an attractive stock option package as part of his total compensation. From this information, you would assume that one of the board's objectives is to stabilize the value of Sine of the Times' stock by preventing it from rising or falling more than a small percentage. True False 170. Although child-care concerns have become a pressing issue for many employees, most firms have been unable to find acceptable solutions to these concerns. True False 171. Brantwell, Inc. is a forward thinking company planning to implement a program to help its employees provide care for their elderly parents. According to recent trends, Brantwell's new program should result in future cost savings. True False 172. Robert and Jenny are co-workers who enjoy flirting with each other while at work. They both view their actions as harmless fun, as do the other employees in their office. Their flirtation does not offend the other workers or make them feel threatened or uncomfortable. Nevertheless, under current criteria, both Jenny and Robert could be found guilty of sexual harassment. True False 173. Rose is a human resources manager for a rapidly growing corporation. The firm recently hired one hundred new workers, ten of whom were involved in workplace accidents soon after they were hired. It was determined that alcohol usage was the cause of these accidents. Top management has asked Rose to do a better job in screening potential workers for alcohol abuse to avoid this in the future. Rose should point out that in fact the ten percent of the recent-hires with alcohol issues is actually much lower than the overall percentage of employees with alcohol issues that are involved in industrial injuries and fatalities in the U.S. True False 174. Recently a disgruntled employee walked into a large grocery chain's mid-west distribution center and opened fire on his fellow workers. He killed or injured several people before being killed by the local police. The grocery chain is very concerned about the threat of workplace violence in the future. One way to deal with this threat is for management to hold focus groups to invite employee input. Another way is to make certain that the company hires managers with good interpersonal skills. True False 175. A(n) ________ is an employee organization that represents workers in employee-management bargaining over job-related issues. A. B. C. D. trades guild union ESOP cross-functional team 176. The presence of formal labor organizations in the United States dates back to the: A. late 1700s. B. Civil War. C. late 1800s. D. depression years of the 1930s. 177. According to business observers, which of the following is a reason for labor's decline? A. B. C. D. Shifts from service to manufacturing industries Decline in part-time work Labor's success in seeing issues it championed become law Increased local competition 178. The union movement in the United States was an outgrowth of the economic transition caused by the: A. B. C. D. Revolutionary War. Great Depression. Industrial Revolution. passage of antitrust legislation by the federal government. 179. Labor unions were largely responsible for: A. B. C. D. establishing the Republican party. the basic structure of the federal income tax system. the passage of NAFTA. minimum wage laws and laws against child labor. 180. __________ are workplaces with undesirable, and often unsafe and oppressive working conditions. A. B. C. D. Treadmills Flopshops Steamshops Sweatshops 181. The purpose of the earliest recognized labor unions in the U.S. was: A. B. C. D. to achieve some short-range goal and then disband. to achieve a long-range foundation for the craft. to teach the craft to new workers. to achieve notoriety for the members. 182. The first national labor organization in the United States was the: A. B. C. D. Knights of Labor. Congress of Industrial Organizations. American Federation of Labor. United Farm Workers Union. 183. Membership in the Knights of Labor was: A. B. C. D. limited to skilled craftsmen. limited to unskilled and semiskilled workers who belonged to industrial unions. open to all working people, including employers. open to anyone willing to promote capitalism as the economic system most likely to lead to economic prosperity for the working men and women of the United States. 184. The main goal of the Knights of Labor was to: A. B. C. D. promote world peace through the creation of a brotherhood and sisterhood of workers in all nations. gain political power and restructure the U.S. economy. form an organization that would protect the benefits of retired workers. promote a better public education system. 185. In a(n) ________, all of the members are skilled specialists in a particular trade. A. B. C. D. ESOP craft union industrial union trade federation 186. __________ provided dynamic leadership for the American Federation of Labor during its early years. A. B. C. D. Karl Marx Kenneth Adams George Meany Samuel Gompers 187. The AFL was concerned primarily with: A. B. C. D. fundamental labor issues. gaining political power. forming a workers' army to lead a socialist revolution. promoting a better public education system. 188. In its early years, the AFL's strategy was to: A. B. C. D. grow as rapidly as possible by allowing people from all professions and walks of life to join. limit its membership to skilled craftspeople. limit its membership to unskilled and semiskilled workers. form one big craft union which everyone could join; but it later split into several smaller organizations. 189. The CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) organized unskilled and semiskilled workers into: A. B. C. D. craft unions. a political party. industrial unions. union shops. 190. The __________ was set up as a federation of many separate craft unions. A. B. C. D. Knights of Labor Committee of Industrial Organizations League of Unions American Federation of Labor (AFL) 191. The leadership of _____________ was instrumental in bringing about the merger between the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955. A. B. C. D. Samuel Gompers Terence K. Powderly Ronald Reagan George Meany 192. In the early years, there were power struggles among the larger national unions. Leaders recognized that there was power in numbers. After the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947, A. B. C. D. the CIO defeated the AFL. the "Change to Win" campaign emerged. the AFL and CIO merged. the unions collapsed for several years. 193. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by a(n): A. increased emphasis on production, resulting in longer hours and less job security for most workers. B. migration of manufacturing jobs from the Midwest and Northeast to the South as firms began locating in areas where labor costs were lower. C. rapid improvement in the wages and working conditions of most workers, resulting in a decline in the need for labor unions. D. movement away from scientific management, and a greater acceptance of the ideas of Herzberg and Maslow. 194. Critics of labor unions argue that unions are no longer needed to protect workers from abusive and unfair treatment because: A. the widespread use of ESOPs has given most workers control over their workplace. B. supply and demand conditions in labor markets now favor labor rather than management. C. laws and modern management attitudes minimize the possibility of unsafe working conditions and unfair treatment of workers found in earlier eras. D. most of the firms that treated workers poorly have moved their operations to foreign countries. 195. A major reason John L. Lewis and his followers broke with the AFL and formed the CIO was that: A. the leaders of the AFL wanted to focus on political objectives while Lewis and his followers wanted to focus on economic objectives. B. Lewis felt that the AFL was growing too fast. C. the leaders of the AFL wanted to organize only skilled workers, while Lewis and his followers wanted to organize both unskilled and skilled workers. D. Lewis believed that the AFL would be more flexible and responsive to its members if it split into several smaller organizations, each representing workers with one specific skill. 196. The departure of the Service Employees International Union (1.8 million members strong) from the AFL-CIO: A. B. C. D. strengthened the focus of the AFL-CIO to serve those who work in manufacturing jobs. weakened the AFL-CIO, even though it still has about 10.5 million members. was the result of the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act. created room for more craft unions to join the AFL-CIO. 197. The AFL originally was a federation of craft unions that did not attempt to organize industrial unions. The main reason for this strategy was that: A. industrial unions were illegal until the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. B. the leaders of the AFL believed that the skilled workers represented by craft unions would have better bargaining power than unskilled workers. C. craft unions had more political clout than industrial unions. D. most industrial unions had supported the Knights of Labor in a dispute with the AFL during the 1880s. 198. Historically, the ______________ strengthened the labor unions, while the _____________________ supported management's efforts. A. National Labor Relations Act; Taft-Hartley Act B. Taft-Hartley Act; Fair Labor Standards Act C. Fair Labor Standards Act; National Labor Relations Act D. Norris-LaGuardia Act; National Labor Relations Act 199. Antonio received specific training to become an electrician. He belongs to a union with other skilled electricians. Antonio belongs to a (n): A. B. C. D. industrial union. craft union. open union. company union. 200. Geraldo works on the assembly line for a major automobile manufacturer. He was hired for the job without any specific training or skill. Geraldo joined a union with other assembly-line workers who perform a variety of jobs that do not require a highly specialized skill. Geraldo belongs to a(n): A. B. C. D. industrial union. craft union. assembly union. traditional union. 201. Which of the following statements is the most accurate assessment of the historical role of the AFL in the labor movement? In its early years the AFL: A. B. C. D. attracted a lot of public attention and political support because it was the first truly national labor organization in the United States. operated as one union, but soon split into two interdependent groups and became known as the AFL-CIO. was a federation of craft unions that championed basic labor issues. had limited success because it suffered from poor leadership. 202. Samuel Gompers believed that ___________ was the key to attaining a fairer share of the economic pie for American workers. A. B. C. D. collective bargaining political power obtaining free trade agreements with other nations organizing workers into industrial unions 203. The two major influences on the growth of unions in the U.S. were: A. B. C. D. population growth; the agrarian economy the agrarian economy; the Taft-Hartley Act the Taft-Hartley Act; support of management laws that supported unionizing; public opinion 204. The _________ Act established the National Labor Relations Board. A. B. C. D. Wagner Taft-Hartley Norris-LaGuardia Fair Labor Standards 205. __________ is the process by which a union becomes recognized by the National Labor Relations Board as the bargaining agent for a group of employees. A. B. C. D. Accreditation Certification Arbitration Affiliation 206. ____________ is the process by which a group of workers legally take away a union's right to represent them. A. B. C. D. Disqualification Decertification Impeachment Disenfranchisement 207. _____________ is the process by which representatives of a union meet with representatives of management to negotiate a contract for workers. A. B. C. D. Mediation Arbitration Mutual Conciliation Collective bargaining 208. The ______________ was established by the Wagner Act to oversee labor-management relations. A. B. C. D. Federal Trade Commission Commission on Labor Relations National Labor Relations Board Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 209. The first federal minimum wage was established by the: A. Fair Labor Standards Act. B. Wagner Act. C. Minimum Compensation Act. D. Pay Equity Act. 210. The _____________ outlawed the use of yellow-dog contracts and prohibited courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent union activities. A. B. C. D. Landrum-Griffin Act Fair Labor Standards Act Wagner Act Norris-LaGuardia Act 211. At one time, as a condition of employment, the employer could make the employee sign a statement prohibiting the worker from joining a union. This was called a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrary agreement. yellow-dog contract. right-to-work contract. employment at will agreement. 212. The __________ guaranteed the rights of individual union members when dealing with their union. A. B. C. D. Wagner Act Landrum-Griffin Act Norris-LaGuardia Act Taft-Hartley Act 213. Which of the following acts gave more power to management in its relations with organized labor? A. B. C. D. Norris-LaGuardia Act Landrum-Griffin Act Wagner Act Taft-Hartley Act 214. The Taft-Hartley Act: A. B. C. D. established the first minimum wage. allowed individual states to pass right-to-work laws prohibiting compulsory union membership. required management to bargain in good faith with union representatives. set up the process by which unions could be recognized as the exclusive bargaining agents for a group of workers. 215. The ___________ guaranteed union members the right to nominate candidates for union office and participate in union meetings. A. B. C. D. Taft-Hartley Act Fair Labor Standards Act Norris-LaGuardia Act Landrum-Griffin Act 216. One goal of the Landrum-Griffin Act was to: A. B. C. D. firmly establish the right of unions to engage in collective bargaining. set up the means by which unions could be certified as bargaining agents for workers. clean up the corrupt practices of unions. prevent employees engaged in providing critical services such as health care or police protection from going out on strike. 217. The NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) consists of: A. B. C. D. a five member panel appointed by the U.S. president. an eight or ten member board consisting of an equal representation of union officials and management personnel. two large unions: the AFL and the CIO. a congressional committee. 218. The Wagner Act is best described as a(n): A. B. C. D. pro-management law. pro-union law. anti-communism law. anti-collective bargaining law. 219. John belongs to a labor union. He believes a few key people run the union by meeting secretly and making decisions without informing other members or allowing them to fully participate in the meetings. If John's suspicions are correct, the union is violating provisions of the __________ Act. A. B. C. D. Landrum-Griffin Fair Labor Standards Taft-Hartley Wagner 220. The Labor-Management Relations Act (or Taft-Hartley Act) can be best described as a law which: A. gave unions much more power and led to a rapid rise in union membership. B. gave employees the right to serve on the board of directors of their company, thus encouraging a more equitable treatment of workers. C. eliminated the need for unions in many industries by providing workers with widespread rights and protection against unfair labor practices by employers. D. placed limitations on union activities and gave more power to management in dealing with unions. 221. The primary purpose of collective bargaining is to: A. B. C. D. ensure worker participation in setting the goals and objectives of the company. establish and communicate clear guidelines for performance appraisals. limit the authority of management to set job categories and direct worker activities. negotiate a labor-management agreement that both the union and management are willing to accept. 222. Two important provisions concerning the certification or decertification process administered by the NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) are: A. certification or decertification requires that the workers cast over 50 percent of the required vote to certify or decertify, and that voting be done by secret ballot. B. certification is a four-step process, and decertification is a two-step process. C. the union must win 30% of the vote for certification, and 70% of the vote for decertification. D. voting to bring in a union must be done by card check, and voting to dismiss a union must be done by secret ballot. 223. During the 1920s and early 1930s the Dallas Sheet Metal Shop was able to prevent workers from forming a union by requiring them to sign an employment contract in which they agreed not to join a union as a condition of employment. Dallas was making use of: A. B. C. D. yellow-dog contracts. blacklisting agreements. injunctions. implied consent decrees. 224. Steven is part of a team of union members that is meeting with representatives of his company's management in an effort to negotiate a labor contract for the workers his union represents. Steven is participating in a process known as: A. B. C. D. collective bargaining. management by objectives. arbitration. certification discussions. 225. Bob believes that management is treating him unfairly because of his efforts to organize a vote for union representation. Which organization should Bob contact to report his concerns? A. B. C. D. Federal Board of Labor Rights National Labor Relations Board Federal Trade Commission Federal Commission on Unfair Labor Practices 226. Which of the following statements about collective bargaining is most consistent with the views of Samuel Gompers? A. Collective bargaining is the best way for workers to attain a fairer share of the economic pie. B. Collective bargaining is a nice idea in theory, but in the real world unions must rely on weapons such as strikes and boycotts to get what they want. C. Unions should view collective bargaining as a useful, but limited, means for achieving some of their goals. In most cases the best way for unions to achieve their goals is to use their political clout to help pass favorable legislation. D. Unions should not count on collective bargaining to achieve their goals, because management can't be trusted to bargain in good faith. 227. Union leaders at the Baadfathe Corporation are furious. Although the union's certified by the NLRB, its negotiating team has had little success in getting management to meet with them to work on a new labor contract. In fact, during the last 3 months, the management team has agreed to meet only twice, once on a weekend, and the other time after 8:00 p.m. Even during those two meetings, the management team was unwilling to offer serious proposals. Baadfathe's management team should review the legal rights of union members to participate in collective bargaining, as provided under the: A. B. C. D. Taft-Harley Act. Norris LaGuardia Act. Wagner Act. Landrum-Griffin Act. 228. During the lunch break at Secure Seat Belt Corporation, Ben's friend Dan was enthusiastic about the Employee Free Choice Act. According to Dan, if congress passes this legislation, A. employees will no longer be under any pressure to join the union. B. employees will have a choice of higher pay or the assurance of good union representation with safety issues. C. union representatives will have the right to choose which members of management will participate in collective bargaining for the company. D. unions will win the right to replace secret ballot voting for union certification with a card check, an open authorization method of securing votes for union representation. 229. During the 1970s, the primary objective of most labor unions was to: A. B. C. D. restore the closed shop arrangement. improve pay and benefits for their members. obtain more job security for their members. establish employee stock ownership programs. 230. During the 1980s, unions became increasingly concerned with the issues of: A. B. C. D. pay and fringe benefits. stock option plans and profit sharing. job security and union recognition. worker training and education. 231. Over the past several decades unions have: A. B. C. D. always placed the greatest emphasis on increasing wages and benefits. frequently changed objectives as the result of shifts in social and economic conditions. frequently taken global competition into account. consistently favored policies that would move the U.S. economy toward a command system. 232. The __________ sets the tone and clarifies the terms and conditions under which labor and management agree to function over a specific period of time. A. B. C. D. negotiated labor-management agreement right-to-work agreement open shop agreement bargaining zone 233. The AFL-CIO was __________ the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). A. B. C. D. strongly in favor of cautiously neutral in its views toward opposed to split in two camps, one in favor of and the other opposed to 234. The AFL-CIO was a major __________ of the NAFTA agreement passed by Congress in 1994. A. B. C. D. contributor to the design financial backer advocate opponent 235. Under ________, workers are not required to join the union, but those who do not join are still required to pay a union fee or regular dues to the union. A. B. C. D. right-to-work laws all union security clauses agency shop agreements Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOPs) 236. According to the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, A. going global may be the strategy that rekindles the labor unions. B. there is not a strong enough base of unskilled laborers internationally to make it worthwhile to form a global union at this time. C. most domestic unions are watching the auto workers unions. If the auto workers can certify auto plants in Mexico, Turkey, and Japan, there is a chance that other unions will follow a global path. D. the increase in unions globally has far surpassed the union growth rate in the U.S. 237. Under a(n) ___________ shop agreement, workers must belong to the union before they are hired. A. B. C. D. open union agency closed 238. The justification for dues or fees paid by nonunion members to the union in a(n) _________ shop is that the union represents all workers in collective bargaining, not just those who belong to the union. A. B. C. D. closed agency fee simple union 239. In a(n) __________ shop, workers do not have to belong to a union before they are hired, but they must join a union within a specified period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their job. A. B. C. D. agency closed open union 240. If a union is present in a firm that has a(n) _________ shop arrangement, workers may join the union if they wish, but they are not required to join or pay a union fee in order to keep their jobs. A. B. C. D. open unrestricted freedom of choice agency 241. A(n) ___________ is a union official who works permanently in an organization and represents employee interests on a daily basis. A. B. C. D. arbitrator shop steward mediator president 242. Closed shops were declared illegal by the: A. B. C. D. Taft-Hartley Act. Norris-LaGuardia Act. National Labor Relations Board in 1929. U.S. Supreme Court in 1946. 243. ___________ is the use of a third party to encourage labor and management to continue negotiating in an effort to settle a labor dispute or achieve a mutually acceptable labor-management agreement. A. B. C. D. Arbitration Mediation Reconciliation Intercession 244. The process of bringing in an impartial third party to render a binding decision in a labor dispute is referred to as: A. B. C. D. resolution. mediation. arbitration. confirmation. 245. If management and union officials cannot resolve a grievance, a(n) _________ is asked to listen to the arguments of each side and to make a decision that both sides will have to comply with. A. B. C. D. confirmer counselor arbitrator mediator 246. Which of the following topics is generally covered in a negotiated labor-management agreement? A. B. C. D. Corporate pricing policy Grievance procedures Management fringe benefits Management compensation 247. Union shops are illegal in the state of North Carolina. This means that North Carolina: A. B. C. D. is violating federal law. has passed a right-to-work law. allows firms to use yellow-dog contracts. is taking advantage of a loophole in the National Labor Relations Act. 248. In a union shop: A. B. C. D. workers must join the union within a stipulated time period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their jobs. workers must belong to the union before the company can hire them. workers who do not join the union must pay a union fee. workers are required to sign yellow-dog contracts. 249. The key difference between an agency shop agreement and an open shop agreement is that in an agency shop: A. workers must join the union within a stipulated time period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their jobs, but in an open shop the workers are not required to join the union. B. the union is restricted to a limited number of employees who perform specific types of jobs, but in an open shop membership in the union is available to all workers. C. workers who do not join the union must pay a fee or regular dues, while in an open shop workers who choose not to join the union do not have to pay any union fees or dues. D. workers must agree not to join a union in order to keep their jobs while in an open shop workers are free to join a union if they wish, but they are not required to do so. 250. A key difference between a mediator and an arbitrator is that: A. a mediator is appointed by labor and management, while an arbitrator is appointed by the federal government under terms set forth in the Taft-Hartley Act. B. a mediator is an unpaid volunteer, while an arbitrator is a paid professional. C. an arbitrator can settle a labor-management dispute by rendering a binding decision, while a mediator can only make suggestions and encourage the two sides in a dispute to continue negotiating. D. a mediator is a lawyer who represents either labor or management in a labor dispute, while an arbitrator is an impartial advisor who listens to both sides of the dispute and offers suggestions that help the two parties reach a mutually acceptable agreement. 251. A grievance is: A. an implication that management has broken a management - union agreement, but it must be proven. B. an employee's perception that management has not in some way fulfilled a labor contract agreement. C. the disappointment that members of a union feel when management refuses to participate in good faith collective bargaining. D. the result of a poorly arbitrated conflict. 252. Labor unions and management hope to resolve issues through collective bargaining. Each side comes to the table with a range of options they are willing to consider - some more appealing than others. All options that each will consider fall within the _________________. A. B. C. D. the LRB list of possibilities the cases of consideration the lands of indifference bargaining zone 253. Hector is philosophically opposed to unions. "Why should I be required to join an organization I don't agree with, or pay a fee to support it financially?" he asked some of his buddies who belong to the union. "I thought this was a free country, but I don't feel very free when I'm told that I'll lose my job if I don't join the union. It just isn't fair." Hector's comments suggest he favors a(n) __________ shop arrangement. A. B. C. D. closed open regulated certified 254. Amie was recently hired at Kreigmeister Industries as a repairperson. She was informed that if she chose not join the union representing her fellow repair workers, she would still have to pay a fee to the union. Apparently, Kreigmeister operates under a(n): A. B. C. D. illegal arrangement, since nonmembers can never legally be required to pay fees to unions. closed shop agreement. union shop agreement. agency shop agreement. 255. In the late 1930s management at Bodenger Industries agreed to hire only those workers who were already members of the Steelworkers Union. Bodenger had agreed to a type of arrangement known as a(n): A. B. C. D. closed shop. open shop. union shop. restricted shop. 256. At the Grenchit Corporation the union and management have not been able to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a grievance. The two sides have agreed to bring in a(n) _________ who will examine the evidence and arguments on both sides and issue a binding decision. A. B. C. D. mediator arbitrator fact finder union steward 257. Anna believes that her manager violated the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement when he required her to report to work on a holiday. She has discussed her concerns with her shop steward and he agrees with her. It is likely the steward will encourage Anna to: A. B. C. D. start looking for another job in a right-to-work state. contact the local chapter of the ACLU. send a letter of protest to the president of the union. pursue a grievance over the interpretation of the labor contract. 258. You've been on your lunch break for less than 45 minutes when your boss orders you to return to work immediately or be docked an hour's pay. You complain that the current labor contract specifies a full hour for your lunch break and you still have over 15 minutes left. Your boss stands firm on his order for you to return to work. Under protest, you return to work, but plan to file a grievance. The first step you should take is to contact a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrator. mediator. strikebreaker. shop steward. 259. Dr. Kwan, a professor at a local university, has been working with the union leaders and management at Empire Corporation to help the two sides resolve differences over desired wage levels for a new contract. First, he met with each side privately to determine any common ground for agreement. For the past week, he has worked with representatives from each side to promote communication and compromise at the bargaining table. Dr. Kwan is a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrator. mediator. fact finder. shop steward. 260. Yogi believes that an agency shop is the most desirable union security arrangement. Which of the following statements would be most likely to represent Yogi's views? A. A union can succeed in its collective bargaining efforts only if it represents all workers. Therefore, workers should be required to join the union soon after they are hired. B. Workers should be allowed to join a union if they wish, but they should not be required to join or pay a fee to the union in order to keep their job. C. Workers should not be required to join a union to keep their jobs. However, since all workers enjoy the benefits obtained through collective bargaining, even those who do not join should pay a fee to support the union. D. Unions should be replaced by employee stock ownership plans that give workers a say in the management of their firms. 261. According to information contained in the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, U.S. unions, A. B. C. D. believe that they can bargain for better wages and benefits if they globalize. are staving off European and Asian unions from trying to grow and gain a stronghold on the market that the U.S. unions enjoyed. the lackluster numbers of participants in unions in Europe are an indication that unions will not be "going global" anytime soon. like companies, see national borders as obstacles rather than opportunities. 262. Art B.Traytor, a member of the American Arbitration Association and long-standing faculty member of the business school of a large university is heading out on the next plane for Detroit, Michigan where he will serve as an arbitrator between members of the United Auto Workers union and management of a major auto manufacturer. His responsibilities will deal with: A. certifying union representation at the Michigan manufacturing sites. B. certifying union representation and collective bargaining at all manufacturing sites that the auto manufacturer currently has in operations, including any in Mexico and Canada (in accordance with NAFTA). C. listening to both sides of an unresolved dispute between labor and management and render a binding decision on the problem. D. protecting the interests of management and staving off a strike by the auto workers. 263. As a management executive left the meeting between his team and the company's union representatives and headed straight for the CEO's office, he reviewed where things seemed to breakdown. Union reps came to the table with three different offers to resolve the insurance and vacation benefits problems laborers were experiencing. Management offered its own resolutions - two different ones, to be exact. The problem was that a bargaining zone did not emerge. Neither side was willing to consider each other's alternatives. As he reached the CEO's door, he was ready to concede that the negotiations were probably headed to ________________. A. B. C. D. collective bargaining arbitration a vote mediation 264. Historically, the most potent union tactic when collective bargaining efforts break down has been the: A. B. C. D. strike. lockout. court injunction. primary boycott. 265. When union members who have a dispute with a company walk around outside the firm's place of business carrying signs and talking to the media and public about their concerns, they are using a tactic known as: A. B. C. D. boycotting. estopment. striking. picketing. 266. A(n) __________ occurs when a union encourages its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute. A. B. C. D. injunction wildcat strike primary boycott embargo 267. A(n) ___________ is a court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something. A. B. C. D. restrictive covenant injunction judicial encyclical declaratory judgment 268. Two of the most important tactics used by unions when collective bargaining efforts break down are: A. B. C. D. strikes and boycotts. injunctions and lockouts. conciliation and yellow-dog contracts. enforcement of right-to-work clauses and cooling-off periods. 269. A(n) ________ boycott is an illegal attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that does business with a company that is the subject of a primary boycott. A. B. C. D. extended secondary tactical strategic 270. A(n) ___________ occurs when management temporarily closes a business to deny employment to workers. A. B. C. D. lockout secondary boycott involuntary strike employment injunction 271. At this time, the largest labor organization in the United States is the: A. B. C. D. Teamsters. Knights of Labor. United Automobile Workers. National Education Association. 272. Despite a 1938 Supreme Court ruling allowing their use, ___________ were seldom used by management during labor-management disputes until the 1980s. A. B. C. D. injunctions secondary boycotts strikebreakers yellow-dog contracts 273. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the president can ask for a(n) ___________ to prevent a strike in a critical industry. A. B. C. D. arbitrator cooling-off period open shop agreement temporary take over by the federal government 274. The __________ is a tactic police, firefighters, and other workers who are not legally allowed to strike sometimes use to express their frustration and displeasure with working conditions or pay. A. B. C. D. gold cold steel deal slow-mo blue flu 275. In recent years some unions have granted concessions and given up benefits secured in earlier contract negotiations in an attempt to save jobs. These concessions are called: A. B. C. D. injunctions. givebacks. buyouts. disbenefits. 276. ___________ are workers a company hires to replace workers who are out on strike. A. B. C. D. Yellow dogs Convergent workers Structural replacements Strikebreakers 277. Since 1945, the unionized share of the workforce has: A. B. C. D. remained remarkably steady. dropped steadily, and today is only 12.4%. risen steadily from 13.9% in 1945 to 32.1% in 2002. fluctuated erratically with large increases in some years and large decreases in others. 278. According to the material in the "Spotlight on Small Business" box in Chapter 12, a relatively recent trend is for many __________ to join unions. A. B. C. D. nurses and doctors minor league baseball players bank tellers teachers 279. The emergence of ______________ has changed the nature of work and affected labor-management relations. A. B. C. D. global competition yellow-dog contracts closed shop agreements scientific management 280. In recent years, many unions have begun to: A. B. C. D. focus primarily on the issue of equitable pay. assist management in redesigning work and recruiting and training workers from diverse backgrounds. take a more confrontational approach when attempting to achieve important goals. experience rapid but uneasy growth as more foreign-owned firms enter the U.S. economy, creating cultural problems for American workers. 281. Which of the following tactics would management be most likely to use during a labor-management dispute? A. B. C. D. picketing secondary boycotts lockouts primary boycotts 282. The ability of unions to achieve key goals in the future will depend on their ability to: A. B. C. D. reestablish their base of strength in the manufacturing sector. find ways to cooperate with management in training workers and redesigning jobs. repeal the Wagner Act and the Norris-LaGuardia Act in order to eliminate restrictions on union tactics. return to the confrontational tactics used successfully in the 1930s when unions grew rapidly. 283. One strategy unions must adapt in order to grow in the future is to: A. B. C. D. find ways to appeal to white-collar, female, and foreign-born workers. find ways to prevent foreign companies from entering the U.S. market. go back to the old methods of aggressive tactics and confrontation that were used successfully in the past. emphasize recruiting efforts in the manufacturing sector of the economy. 284. Which of the following statements best summarizes the extent to which unions currently rely on strikes as a tactic when collective bargaining breaks down? A. Unions have become increasingly reliant on strikes as other, less confrontational, tactics have proven unsuccessful. B. Some highly visible strikes in recent years show that the strike is not dead as a labor tactic, but very few labor disputes actually lead to a strike. C. Unions have almost completely avoided strikes since President Reagan replaced striking air traffic controllers with strikebreakers in 1981. D. Strikes organized by unions are now less common than lockouts by management, indicating a major shift in attitudes between labor and management. 285. When workers go on strike, management is often compelled to keep the business operation running. If it is unable to achieve this on its own, management may: A. B. C. D. elect to proceed with a lockout. close down the facility and permanently fire the strikers. hire strikebreakers. picket. 286. The Making Ethical Decisions box titled, "When Do You Cross the Line?" discusses: A. B. C. D. the violence that occurs at picket lines, and the welfare of those who are physically hurt as a result of these occurrences. the ethics of participating as a strikebreaker in your community. how givebacks are very unethical on the part of management in large operations and an indication that management has "crossed the line". the ethics of participating in the blue flu. 287. Almost overnight, several police persons, all members of the police force of the growing suburb of Mayberry called in sick. As the dispatcher took those calls - one right after the other, she speculated that there could be more to this story than she was hearing. In fact, she thought it might be related to the emotional banter she heard the night before in the locker room as several members of the force were leaving their shifts. The group was not happy with the recent changes in scheduling, the excessive over-time hours, and, management's reluctance to begin negotiations on a new benefits package. She heard one person saying, "It's time for a mental health day!" Although it is illegal for police to strike, they may be claiming to have ________. A. B. C. D. Saturday nite fever the blue flu a lockout a shutterbug 288. The Food Source Grocery chain stocks the products of Vegi-Delite Food Company at all of their supermarkets. The Teamsters Union is currently involved in a labor dispute with Vegi-Delite. The union has already encouraged its members and the general public not to buy Vegi-Delite products. Now it is threatening Food Source with the possibility of a boycott if it continues to carry the Vegi-Delite line. The union is threatening Food Source with a(n): A. B. C. D. primary boycott. secondary boycott. jurisdictional boycott. informational boycott. 289. A large number of striking workers are currently picketing at the plant entrance to a Memphis Tire and Rubber plant. Because the pickets have threatened people entering the plant and have vandalized some company property, Memphis' management believes it has just cause to ask the courts for a(n) __________ placing limits on the number of pickets and their actions while picketing. A. B. C. D. preemptive judgment writ of contention arbitration judgment injunction 290. A labor dispute between the AFL-CIO and Gainesville Brewery is into its eighth month. The AFL-CIO has called on its membership and the general public to refuse to purchase Gainesville products. The AFL-CIO is calling for a: A. B. C. D. general boycott. secondary boycott. primary boycott. public boycott. 291. As reported in the New York Times in November, 2008, Ron Gettelfinger, President of the U.A. W. (United Auto Workers Union) testified with auto executives in front of the U.S. Congress, saying, "The U.A.W. can't be the low-hanging fruitWhile we're at the table, we're asking that others come in and sacrifice as well." Mr.Gettelfinger was referring to the several ___________ that the autoworkers' union had agree to over the past few years in order to save jobs and particularly keep retiree benefits intact. A. B. C. D. primary boycotts givebacks herding tactics legal mandates 292. The "Spotlight on Small Business" in Chapter 12 discusses the medical profession and unions. Which of the following statements about the views of doctors and nurses is most accurate? A. Although doctors have shown little interest in union representation, the last decade has seen almost all nurses join unions. B. Doctors and nurses are reluctant to join unions because they believe unions are better suited to represent the interests of unskilled and semiskilled labor than the interests of highly skilled professional health care workers. C. Although both doctors and nurses have tried to form unions, the AFL-CIO has indicated that doctors and lawyers are not eligible for membership. D. Doctors and nurses have shown strong interest in seeking union representation. 293. A few years back, west coast dockworkers were locked out of their jobs in 29 west coast ports. Because many consumer goods used in the U.S. are transported from Asia to the U.S. through these ports, the lockout could have damaged the U.S. economy and security if allowed to continue. The President ordered the dockworkers back to work and both sides were ordered back to the bargaining table. Which of the following statements is the most accurate conclusion about the outcome of the labor dispute between the dockworkers union and shipping companies on the west coast? The dispute between the dockworkers and shipping companies showed that: A. B. C. D. the only effective weapon unions now have in labor-management disputes is the threat of a strike. arbitration is the only effective way to settle labor-management disputes in industries that are critical to the nation's safety or security. the Taft-Hartley Act must be invoked when there is a risk to national security. unions have become so powerful that they can shut down the entire U.S. economy. 294. In July 2009, London Met University workers went on strike and formed picket lines to oppose management's continued restructuring and the elimination of jobs. It was reported that London postal workers who belong to the Communication Workers Union refused to deliver mail to any building on the London Met campus, in respect of the picket lines and in honor of their fellow trade union members. Essentially, the courtesy that the postal workers gave to the striking employees was a: A. B. C. D. primary boycott secondary boycott tertiary boycott service industry boycott 295. When AT&T anticipated that 20,000 mobility workers were planning to strike to show their solidarity against concerns of unfair compensation, management was already calling staffing agents to temporarily employ persons to cover for striking employees. Traditionally, these workers are called ___________. A. B. C. D. mobile temps picket busters strikebreakers boycotters 296. A comparison of compensation of CEOs in the U.S. with compensation of top executives in Canada and Europe indicates that: A. B. C. D. U.S. CEOs are working for much lower compensation. pay for CEOs at major corporations is about the same in all of these nations. executives in the U.S. are compensated at a much higher rate. U.S. executives are paid better than average when their firms are successful, but worse than average when their firms struggle. 297. According to one of the top management consultants of the past 40 years, the late Peter Drucker: A. top executives are entitled to any level of pay they can negotiate with their board of directors. B. the annual pay for top executives should include a small guaranteed salary and should include a very large bonus in years where the firm earns higher profits than competitors. C. all bonuses paid to CEOs should be tied to long-run increases in market share. D. CEOs should not earn much more than 20 times the earnings of the company's lowest-paid employee. 298. Over the past several decades, the compensation of CEOs of large U.S. corporations has: A. B. C. D. remained relatively stable once inflation is taken into account. become based more on salary and less on stock options. increased enormously, even when inflation is taken into account. consistently lagged behind the compensation of top executives in Europe and Asia. 299. In some European countries, companies practice co-determination. For example, A. B. C. D. CEOs can only earn their salaries if the company is profitable. in some cases, 50% of the board of directors is company workers. the CEO compensation is determined by the Stockholders and the government. the union representatives and management form a hiring committee to select the CEO. 300. In the past, the compensation of chief executive officers of corporations was based on: A. B. C. D. the assumption that CEOs should be major stockholders of the corporations that they managed. a generally accepted principle that CEOs should earn no more than 40 times the compensation of the company's lowest-paid employee. company profitability and increases in the value of their firm's stock. the size of the company. 301. _____________ is the demand for equal pay for jobs requiring similar levels of education, training, and skill. A. B. C. D. Affirmative action Compensation by objectives Equal opportunity pay Comparable worth 302. Women have become a __________ part of the labor force. A. B. C. D. sizeable and permanent temporary smaller less important 303. Today, women earn approximately ________ of what men earn, though the disparity varies considerably by profession and the level of education. A. B. C. D. 26% 49% 79% 97% 304. Studies conducted at the University of Michigan found that earnings of women graduating with baccalaureate degrees were: A. B. C. D. less than 60% of men's earnings in all fields. about 70% of what male graduates earned. about 96% of men's earnings. about 104% of men's earnings. 305. ____________ refers to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other unsolicited conduct of a sexual nature. A. B. C. D. Sexual harassment Gender bias Sexual opportunism Sexual coercion 306. The number of sexual harassment complaints filed annually with the Equal Opportunity Commission: A. B. C. D. decreased by almost 30% between 1992 and 1999. has leveled off since 2000. remained fairly stable in the 1990s but has recently increased dramatically. was greatly exaggerated by the media during the 1990s and early 2000s. 307. Sexual harassment laws: A. B. C. D. apply only to situations in which men make unwelcome advances to women. are enforceable only in states that have enacted right-to-work laws. apply to the conduct of women as well as men. are applied only in situations in which a person must submit to unwanted advances in order to keep his or her job. 308. _________ sexual harassment refers to situations in which an employee's submission to unwanted conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment or is used to influence employment decisions affecting the worker's job status. A. B. C. D. Quid pro quo Post hoc Ceteris paribus Reflexive 309. Harassment that creates an intimidating, or offensive work environment falls under the type of sexual harassment known as a(n): A. B. C. D. hostile work environment. quid pro quo. extroverted harassment. de jure harassment. 310. Small businesses have found that child care programs: A. B. C. D. are too expensive to offer, which puts them at a serious disadvantage when competing against larger firms to attract the best workers. can be offered in creative ways that enable the firm to offer an attractive benefit to workers with young children. are less necessary now than they were before the federal government expanded its child care programs. are not very expensive, but tend to be more trouble than they are worth. 311. As the workforce of the U.S. ages, a greater percentage of workers will have to concern themselves with: A. B. C. D. finding care for their children. caring for older relatives. the educational benefits of downsizing. transportation issues. 312. According to Sandra Timmermann, Director of Met Life's Mature Market Institute, the key job-related issue of the next decade will be: A. child care. B. continuing education. C. sexual harassment. D. elder care. 313. From a work-related perspective, elder care providers may require _____________ as part of their job. A. B. C. D. mini-van ownership medicare options flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting distance learning classes 314. It is estimated that firms lose ___________ annually in productivity, absenteeism, and employee turnover due to caring for aging parents. A. B. C. D. $42 million $10 thousand $11 billion a decreasing amount 315. Drug problems among workers is costing the U.S. economy upwards of ______ in lost work, health care costs, and even crime and accidents. A. B. C. D. $100 million $50 billion $275 billion $50 thousand 316. The U.S. Department of Labor cites ________ as the third leading cause of job-related fatalities. A. B. C. D. homicide equipment-related accidents suicide toxic chemicals 317. The national Institute of Health estimates that each drug abuser can cost an employer approximately __________ annually. A. B. C. D. $500 $1,000 $5,000 $11,000 318. Which of the following is an effective way to deal with the growing threat of workplace violence? A. B. C. D. Ignore it, as the amount of workplace violence has actually decreased substantially. Hire managers with strong interpersonal skills. Ask employees that are experiencing threats or harassment to take paid leave. Avoid disciplining employees who are not performing up to par since they will learn on the job and their performance will improve over time. 319. In 1997, the Supreme Court rendered a decision on a case stipulating that sexual harassment law: A. B. C. D. did not apply to casual jokes of a sexual nature. applied to same-sex harassment, as well. did not apply to married couples who are working together. only applied to cases where a subordinate felt harassed by an immediate supervisor. 320. The subject" "Who pays for child care when the parent(s) works?" is A. B. C. D. not a concern because the law requires companies to provide child care facilities, or to pay employees a stipend if it is not available. by law, a shared responsibility between employer and employee. not the concern of employees without children or single-income households because they always get to choose a different benefit. a controversial subject, with no legal resolution to date. 321. Which of the following is likely to remain a controversial labor-management issue in the future? A. B. C. D. The ability of employers to use yellow-dog contracts Enforcement of the Taft-Hartley Act Sexual harassment A resurgence of the Knights of Labor 322. One of the major criticisms of executive compensation in the United States is that: A. B. C. D. despite their high pay, top managers usually work fewer hours than other employees in the firm. the compensation of top executives often seems to have little or no relationship to how well their companies are performing. top executives' compensation does nothing to encourage them to improve the value of their company's stock. many U.S. executives are paid much less than their counterparts earn in Europe and Japan. 323. According to material in the "Legal Briefcase" box in Chapter 12, when chief executives of large companies retire or get fired they: A. B. C. D. are legally required to forfeit any shares of stock they received as compensation from the firm. are sometimes better off financially than if they had stayed with the company. typically continue to receive their salary for about two years, but forgo any bonuses or other forms of compensation. usually receive more income from dividends on the company stock they own than they do from their severance package or retirement pension. 324. The fact that workers sometimes serve on the board of directors of European companies helps explain why: A. B. C. D. European executives accept less responsibility for the successes and failures of the firms they lead. European CEOs earn much less than American CEOs. European firms are more likely to seek protection from foreign competition than American firms. workers in Europe are less likely to believe unions are necessary than workers in the United States. 325. Comparable worth primarily is concerned with: A. B. C. D. ensuring equal pay for men and women who work for the same firm and have the same job title. reducing the gap between pay for executives and the pay for non-managerial employees. ensuring equal pay for jobs requiring similar levels of skill, education and training. determining whether men or women are better suited to perform various jobs. 326. Which of the following statements about drug users is a claim made by the National Institute of Drug Abuse? A. B. C. D. If you drink a lot of alcohol, you also abuse drugs. Drug users typically cost their company more in health and workman's comp claims. Drug users are (overall) friendlier people because they do not take much seriously, including their jobs. There is a strong correlation between drug abuse and sexual harassment. 327. On-site daycare facilities: A. B. C. D. are now very common in large and small business. decrease employee productivity because parents are distracted by going to the daycare site too many times during the day. are costly for companies to maintain. develop smarter children. 328. An assessment of elder care needs in the United States suggests that: A. most firms have done a better job in responding to the need for elder care than they have in dealing with the need for child care. B. employees who must care for elderly parents are often in positions that are more critical to the firm's success than workers with concerns about child care. C. although an increasing number of employees must find ways to care for elderly parents, fewer firms will need to offer elder care than child care because the federal government already provides a great deal of assistance to the elderly. D. while an issue for some workers, at the present time elder care is not a high profile item for most businesses. 329. Paulo owns a few shares of stock in a large and diversified firm. He realizes that the CEO of the company is responsible for a multibillion dollar business, but is upset with what he feels is excessive compensation for the chief executive officer, particularly since the firm has reported losses for the past two years. Paulo's concerns are: A. unfounded, since laws in the United States prevent firms from paying large salaries or bonuses to executives when a firm reports a loss. B. based on an erroneous conclusion, because CEO pay is always based on a formula tied to the company's profits and losses. C. likely to be well-founded since CEO compensation at many U.S. companies has actually increased even when the company performed poorly. D. not entirely unfounded, but he needs to realize that the pay received by most chief executives must be reinvested in the company if it's unprofitable for three years in a row. 330. Exceptional Enterprises launched a program to evaluate the relative levels of skills, education, and training needed to perform various jobs. Based on the results of this evaluation, the firm intends to adjust pay scales so that jobs requiring similar levels of skills, abilities, and education will receive similar pay. Exceptional Enterprises' program is an attempt to deal with the issue of: A. B. C. D. comparable worth. affirmative action. reverse discrimination. equal employment opportunities. 331. Which of the following statements about the costs of elder care is most accurate? A. It should be much less expensive for firms to provide elder care than for them to provide child-care. B. The financial burdens of elder care on the children of aging parents are likely to become less serious in the future than they are today, because many senior citizens are now remaining employed into their 70s rather than retiring in their early 60s. C. Although elder care is expensive, the good news is that companies can receive a great deal of assistance from the federal government when they establish qualified elder care programs. D. The costs of elder care are likely to rise very rapidly in coming years as an increasing number of older and more experienced employees face the need to care for aging parents and other relatives. 332. As an employee of the human resource department of a major corporation, you are concerned about the potential costs of drug abuse. You are contemplating testing employees for substance abuse. Before adopting such tests, you should know that: A. B. C. D. this type of testing has been found to be illegal, but many firms do it anyway. medical tests of this nature are not very accurate. if you use these tests, your company will join over 70 percent of major companies that test workers and job applicants. these tests are very expensive, and should only be given to those who may belong to groups judged to be at higher risk. 333. Tom Dash works as a researcher studying the effects of alcohol and drug abuse at a large research university on the east coast. The alcohol center's mission statement reads, "Our mission is to conduct, coordinate, and promote basic and clinical research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of alcoholism and alcoholic disease." Looking forward, which of the following statements are you likely to agree with? A. Tom's work, although impressive will not have any short term or long-term effect on the cost of labor in the U.S. B. The U.S. has seen significant declines in alcohol and drug related issues in the work place. Tom would better serve the business world by working on AIDS related diseases. C. Illegal drug use is more of a problem than alcohol in terms of the number of work-related accidents that these problems cause. Tom should know, though that the baby boomers are the major drug users, and they are retiring. D. Tom Dash's work is greatly needed by business and industry. Alcohol and drug use continue to be on the rise and present serious work related costs to businesses across almost all industries. 334. SafenSwift Airlines implemented a program to curb workplace violence before it occurs. Under this program, the employees of SafenSwift can expect to: A. B. C. D. share in any profits their airline earns. get paid extended leave if they become especially and visibly angry at work. see much more use of contingent workers. take part in focus groups to share their ideas about workplace violence prevention. 335. Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is most accurate? A. Only men can be charged with sexual harassment. B. Sexual harassment cannot be proven unless the employee's submission to such conduct was made explicitly a term of employment or was used to influence the results of the employee's performance appraisal. C. One flaw with the current laws concerning sexual harassment is that they do not take into account the possibility of same-sex harassment. D. In evaluating charges of sexual harassment, the courts place a great deal of emphasis on whether the behavior was unwelcomed. 336. Last year, a retired schoolteacher moved her parents from Michigan to northern Illinois to live with her. For the past year, she was traveling two times each month to provide care for this eighty-six year old couple, including coordinating medical services and meals. In conversations with her family members, the teacher remarked, "If I were not already retired, I would have to quit my job to continue this way!" This retired teacher: A. is in an unusual situation because there are more persons entering the workforce with childcare issues than with taking care of aging Americans. B. is like a growing number of families whose households are caring for aging parents and relatives. C. will benefit by all the affordable elder care facilities that cost about $20,000 per year. D. should be advised that Medicare and Medicaid are covering all medical expenses for person 65 years and older, so she should not be experiencing such a burden. 337. Identify several laws that significantly influenced labor-management relations. Discuss the major provisions of each law. 338. Explain the difference between closed, open, union, and agency shop agreements. What impact did the Taft-Hartley Act have on the use of closed and union shop arrangements? 339. Identify and describe the major tactics used by unions and management when collective bargaining efforts break down. 340. Identify and discuss three controversial employee-management issues. 341. Union membership has declined in recent years. What has led to this decline and what can unions do to turn this trend around? Mini-Case The workers at Endrun Corporation are not affiliated with a union. Until recently, the workers felt they were well paid and treated fairly by the company, so they had little interest in seeking union representation. However, worker morale at Endrun has declined steadily since the board of directors fired the old CEO last year and replaced him with Ty Runt, a no-nonsense, autocratic manager with a reputation for cutting costs. As soon as he took over, Ty fired other members of the old top management team and replaced them with people who shared his views. Together, the new management team made a series of moves that did not sit well with Endrun's workers. First, they announced changes in work procedures designed to speed up the production line. Many workers complained that the new methods cut corners and were unsafe, but management refused to listen. A few months after changing work methods, the company told workers that it was reducing their health benefits. This led to even greater worker unrest. Finally, just a few weeks ago, workers received word that the wages of all production line employees would be cut by 6 percent. Many employees felt this was the last straw, especially since the company's board of directors recently approved big salary increases and more lucrative stock option plans for Ty and his management team. A spokesperson for the board explained that the raises were justified because of the management team's "outstanding efforts to reduce costs, increase productivity, and improve the company's profits." Several disgruntled employees, led by Ima Striker and Boyd Cotter, now believe it is time to obtain union representation. Top managers at the company have hinted that workers who actively participate in the union campaign may be among the first workers laid off if the company decides to downsize. Ima and Boyd are not intimidated by these management threats. "I wish we didn't have to do this," Ima recently told many of her fellow workers at the plant. "But someone has to stop Ty Runt and his team from ruining our jobs." 342. Ima, Boyd, and their fellow employees at Endrun work on an assembly line and do not have a specialized skill. If they are successful in their quest to set-up a union, they would probably be represented by a(n) ________ union. A. B. C. D. craft industrial freelance traditional 343. The steps Ima, Boyd and their fellow workers must take to get the union legally recognized as the authorized bargaining agent are parts of the __________ process. A. B. C. D. accreditation arbitration certification collective bargaining 344. After gaining union representation, any workers with complaints regarding promotions, layoffs, and job assignments will file a(n) ________ with their shop steward. A. B. C. D. grievance arbitration request injunction yellow-dog contract 345. The plant where Ima and Boyd work is located in Illinois, which does not have a right-to-work law. If the workers approve the union as their bargaining agent, Boyd wants to get the greatest union membership that is legally possible. Boyd is likely to push for a(n): A. B. C. D. closed shop. agency shop. union shop. sweatshop. 346. Ty Runt has always taken a hard line against unionization efforts. Two years ago, when workers at his previous company tried to obtain union representation, the company closed down the plant and refused to let employees work until they abandoned their efforts to form a union. This management tactic is called a(n): A. B. C. D. management strike. secondary boycott. injunction. lockout. 347. If management tries to threaten or punish Ima and Boyd for their efforts to gain union representation, the two workers could ask the ____________ to investigate these unfair labor practices. A. B. C. D. National Labor Relations Board Bureau of Labor-Management Relations Department of Justice Federal Trade Commission 348. If management's efforts did not disrupt everyone's work life enough the company board of directors just awarded management with increased pay while cutting the workers pay. Which of the following issues promises to be a controversial labor-management issue? A. B. C. D. Executive compensation Golden parachutes Equal employment pay requirements Comparable worthcare 12 KEY 1. (p. 318) Throughout most of American history, the relationship between managers and employees has been fairly smooth. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #1 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 2. (p. 318) Historically, managers were less concerned about productivity and more concerned with friendly relations with coworkers. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #2 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 3. (p. 318) One of the things that labor is interested in is fair and competent management. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #3 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 4. (p. 318) A union is an employee organization that has the main goal of representing its members in employee-management negotiation concerning job-related issues. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #4 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 5. (p. 318) Even in their infancy, the main goal of most labor unions was to provide members with increased management power. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #5 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 6. (p. 318) Labor unions played a major role in establishing minimum wage laws, child-labor laws, and improvements in job safety. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #6 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 7. (p. 318) Today labor unions have seen a revitalization of support and union membership has increased significantly. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #7 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 8. (p. 319) Most historians view the increase in union membership in the United States as an outgrowth of the transition from an industrial economy to a service economy during the middle part of the 20th century. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #8 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 9. (p. 319) Some business observers contend that the previous success of labor unions is a reason for the decline of labor unions. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #9 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 10. (p. 319) The presence of formal labor organizations in the United States dates back to the late 1700s. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #10 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 11. (p. 319) Some contend that the main reason membership in labor unions has declined in recent years has been the passage of anti-labor legislation in the late 1980s that guaranteed all employees of a firm the same wages and benefits whether they joined a union or not. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #11 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 12. (p. 319) The Knights of Labor was the first truly national labor organization in the United States. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #12 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 13. (p. 320) A craft union is an organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #13 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 14. (p. 320) A union that consists of members who are all skilled specialists in a particular trade is called an industrial guild. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #14 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 15. (p. 320) The Knights of Labor, the first national labor organization, offered membership to all working people, including employers. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #15 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 16. (p. 320) The first national labor organization, the Knights of Labor sought to gain enough political power to restructure the entire U.S. economy. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #16 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 17. (p. 320) Samuel Gompers was the most important leader of the American Federation of Labor during its early years. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #17 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 18. (p. 320) The AFL (American Federation of Labor) was initially intended to be a single craft union. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #18 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 19. (p. 320) During its early years, the AFL tried to expand as rapidly as possible by recruiting both skilled and unskilled workers. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #19 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 20. (p. 320) In its early years, the AFL (American Federation of Labor) limited its membership to skilled workers. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #20 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 21. (p. 320) Membership in industrial unions was strictly limited to skilled craftspeople. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #21 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 22. (p. 320) John L. Lewis broke with the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 over membership issues and formed a rival group known as the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #22 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 23. (p. 320) The initial objective of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was to provide union membership to workers in all industries. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #23 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 24. (p. 320) Today, more than 55 national and international labor unions are affiliated with the AFL-CIO. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #24 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 25. (p. 320) For 20 years, the CIO was a major rival of the AFL in the contest for leadership of the labor movement. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #25 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 26. (p. 320) In 1955, after the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, the AFL and CIO merged to create the AFL-CIO. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #26 Topic: The History of Organized Labor 27. (p. 319) Union membership is likely to rise in the coming decade, because the same economic and political conditions that gave rise to unions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are now reappearing. FALSE There is a great deal of debate concerning the future strength and viability of unions. However, it would be hard to argue that the conditions that plagued workers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are reappearing. U.S. workers now have legal protection from abuse, exploitation, and discrimination, and contemporary managers tend to take a positive and progressive approach toward dealing with employees. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #27 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 28. (p. 318) A major difference between early labor organizations in the United States and today's labor unions is that the early labor groups often were temporary organizations that disbanded after achieving a short-range goal, while today's unions are permanent organizations. TRUE Early labor organizations were often established to achieve a specific short-run goal. After the goal was achieved, the organization would disband. In contrast, today's unions are permanent organizations. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #28 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 29. (p. 320) The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were actually very similar in their aims, tactics, and membership. The only major difference was in the effectiveness of their leaders. FALSE The Knights of Labor was very broad-based, allowing all working people, including employers, to become members. It promoted social causes as well as labor goals. The AFL was a federation of craft unions. As such, membership was limited to skilled workers. Moreover, the AFL had a narrower focus, concentrating almost exclusively on fundamental labor issues. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #29 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 30. (p. 320) The Industrial Revolution slowed the growth of unions by creating a rapidly rising standard of living for most workers. FALSE The Industrial Revolution created harsh working conditions for most workers. Hours were long, pay was low, and job security was rare. Child labor was common. These conditions set the stage for the emergence of national labor organizations. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #30 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 31. (p. 319) Outspoken critics of today's labor unions believe that these organizations have lost their focus. They contend that they no longer represent the rights of workers, as much as they are concerned with the vitality and strength of the union itself. TRUE Today's critics of organized labor maintain that few of the inhumane conditions once dominant in U.S. industry exist in the modern workplace. They claim that "organized labor is an industry in itself, and protecting workers has become secondary." AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #31 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 32. (p. 319) Abraham was an unskilled worker who toiled 10 hours a day on an assembly line during the early and mid 1930s. His hours were long, his wages were low and his working conditions were unsafe and unpleasant. Abraham would probably be more sympathetic to the views of John L. Lewis than to those of Samuel Gompers. TRUE The primary reason that the AFL did not recognize the CIO in its infancy was a disagreement over whether to include industrial as well as craft unions in the AFL. The AFL was founded in 1886, and under the leadership of Samuel Gompers, it initially limited its membership to skilled workers who belonged to craft unions. In 1935, John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, proposed that the AFL also organize unskilled and semiskilled workers in industrial unions. When his proposal was rejected, Lewis and his followers broke with the AFL and formed the CIO. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #32 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 33. (p. 320) The Zendor Corporation operates a manufacturing plant in Bellridge. The work is arranged in an assembly line and is performed by semiskilled and unskilled workers. These workers are looking into obtaining union representation. The type of union they would belong to would be classified as an industrial union. TRUE An industrial union is a labor organization of unskilled and semiskilled workers in mass-production industries such as automobiles and mining. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #33 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 34. (p. 320) The growth and strength of organized labor has always depended on one thing: the state of the economy. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #34 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 35. (p. 321) The Norris-LaGuardia Act made it more difficult for unions to legally recruit new members. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #35 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 36. (p. 321) A yellow-dog contract required workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of their employment. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #36 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 37. (p. 321) The Norris-LaGuardia Act prohibits firms from requiring workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of their employment. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #37 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 38. (p. 321) Samuel Gompers believed that collective bargaining was likely to be an ineffective way for unions to achieve their objectives. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #38 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 39. (p. 321) The National Labor Relations Act gave labor the legal justification to pursue collective bargaining and other key labor issues. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #39 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 40. (p. 321) The process by which a union is recognized by the NLRB as the authorized bargaining agent for a group of workers is called collective bargaining. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #40 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 41. (p. 321) Once a union is certified to represent a group of workers, decertification is not a consideration or future possibility. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #41 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 42. (p. 321) Collective bargaining is the process whereby union and management representatives negotiate a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #42 Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining 43. (p. 321) The Wagner Act established the first minimum wage for workers. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #43 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 44. (p. 321) One goal of the Landrum-Griffin Act was to clean up union corruption. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #44 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 45. (p. 321) The Norris-LaGuardia Act prohibited courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent union activities. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #45 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 46. (p. 321) The National Labor Relations Act gave employees the right to form and join labor organizations and the right to engage in activities such as strikes and boycotts. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #46 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 47. (p. 321) The Taft-Hartley Act strengthened unions by giving them the right to engage in featherbedding and secondary boycotts. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #47 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 48. (p. 321) The Taft-Hartley Act allowed states to pass laws that prohibited compulsory union membership. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #48 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 49. (p. 321) The Taft-Hartley Act gave more power to management. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #49 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 50. (p. 322) A card check is a method of openly soliciting signatures in favor of the organization of a union. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #50 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 51. (p. 321 Under the Wagner Act, the National Labor Relations Board can establish a labor union in an organization if it finds evidence of substantial labor abuse within that organization. 322) FALSE The National Labor Relations Board does not have the right to establish a union. It does, however, oversee certification elections, and will recognize a union as the authorized bargaining agent for a group of workers if a majority of those workers vote in favor of union representation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #51 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 52. (p. 321 The NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) has created procedures that union advocates must follow in order to organize a union at a place of business. The multi-step procedure culminates with a secret vote by the employees of the organization. 322) TRUE The U.S., government, through the Wagner Act, created the NLRB, the National Labor Relations Board, a five-member committee appointed by the President of the United States. It oversees the organization of unions and certifies union groups. Only after 30% or more of the employees of an organization have signed a petition in favor of union organization, then the NLRB will proceed with a secret ballot vote. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #52 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 53. (p. 321 The NLRB oversees the decertification of unions. An employer (the company owners) can petition and seek the signatures of 30% of the employees in order to decertify the union - in other words, officially, the union could no longer represent the employees in any bargaining negotiations. 322) FALSE The NLRB can also decertify unions, however, an employee or an employee's representative must initiate a petition and seek the signatures of 30% of the current employees, before the decertification goes to a secret ballot vote of all employees. The employer does not seek the signatures. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #53 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 54. (p. 322) Union representatives currently prefer secret ballot voting because they do not want to intimidate employees into voting for a union by asking them to outwardly sign a card check in favor of unions. FALSE Union representatives would like to see the secret ballot status overturned in favor of a card check, whereby employees openly approve of union representation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #54 Topic: Figure 12.1: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 55. (p. 321) Jenna is a member of a union team that is negotiating with management to obtain a labor contract for the workers represented by the union. Jenna is involved in contract arbitration. FALSE The process by which representatives of labor and management seek to negotiate a mutually acceptable labor contract is known as collective bargaining. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #55 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 56. (p. 321) During an interview with Zytex company representative, Hillary was told that Zytex faces intense competition and management believes that the only way the company can survive is to have a nonunion workforce. Therefore, all workers Zytex hires must sign an employment contract stating that they agree not to join a union while they work for Zytex. This requirement by Zytex is illegal in the United States. TRUE A yellow-dog contract is a contract that requires workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of employment. The Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 declared that this type of arrangement was illegal. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #56 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 57. (p. 321) The workers at the Kerriton Company are unhappy with the way their union has been representing them. The Wagner Act allows these workers to take away the union's right to represent them through a process known as decertification. TRUE The Wagner Act established a process to take away the right of a union to represent a group of workers. This process is known as decertification. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #57 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 58. (p. 321) Jake remembers his grandfather telling him about going to work at 16 years of age in the coal mines of southern Illinois. In order to get the job, he had to agree to a yellow-dog contract. Essentially this meant he would only get the job if he agreed not to join a union. TRUE A yellow dog contract made employees agree, as a condition of employment, they would not attempt to unionize, or join union. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #58 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 59. (p. 322) Last week, Angie was approached by two of her coworkers during the lunch break pressuring her to sign a card check in favor of organizing a union. The card check is currently a NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) approved method of finalizing unionization. FALSE Although union officials would like for the NLRB to allow the card check method of voting for a union, it is not the currently accepted or legal method for proceeding to organize a union in any establishment. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #59 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 60. (p. 323) The main objectives of organized labor, better wages and shorter hours, have remained remarkably stable over time. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #60 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 61. (p. 323) During the 1970s, the primary objective of most labor unions was to gain additional pay and benefits for their members. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #61 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 62. (p. 323) During the 1980s unions became increasingly concerned with the issues of job security and union recognition. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #62 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 63. (p. 323) The AFL-CIO was a major supporter of the NAFTA agreement to expand trade and commerce among the nations of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #63 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 64. (p. 323) The AFL-CIO has supported offshore outsourcing as a method of increasing work opportunities for union members. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #64 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 65. (p. 323) Wage rates, hours of work, employee benefits, and job rights and seniority are issues covered in a typical negotiated labormanagement agreement. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #65 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 66. (p. 323) A union security clause in a labor-management agreement stipulates that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues to the union. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #66 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 67. (p. 323) The negotiated labor-management agreement clarifies the terms and conditions under which labor and management agree to function over a specified period of time. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #67 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 68. (p. 323) Under a closed shop agreement, workers must agree not to join a union in order to keep their jobs. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #68 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 69. (p. 323) Until passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, under a closed shop agreement, a company could only hire workers who already belonged to a union. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #69 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 70. (p. 324) Under a union shop agreement, workers must belong to a union before they can be hired. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #70 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 71. (p. 324) The Taft-Hartley Act made the union shop agreement illegal in all states. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #71 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 72. (p. 324) A union shop agreement is illegal in states that have passed right-to-work laws. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #72 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 73. (p. 324) In an agency shop agreement, workers who do not belong to the union must pay a union fee or pay regular union dues. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #73 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 74. (p. 324) Under an agency shop agreement, only union members are represented at the bargaining table. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #74 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 75. (p. 324) Under an open shop agreement, workers have the option to join or not join a union, if one is present in the workplace. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #75 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 76. (p. 324) Unions in Europe historically have held more influence in the workplace than unions have in the United States. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #76 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 77. (p. 325) According to the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, global labor movements are forming to emphasize the setting of global labor standards. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #77 Topic: Reaching Beyond Our Borders box 78. (p. 325) A grievance is a charge by managers that the union is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #78 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 79. (p. 325) The sources of many grievances include overtime rules, promotions, layoffs, and job assignments. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #79 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 80. (p. 326) The vast majority of grievances filed by union members are negotiated and resolved by shop stewards and supervisory managers. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #80 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 81. (p. 326) A bargaining zone is the time period during which a third party is used to reach agreement on union disputes. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #81 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 82. (p. 326 327) A mediator has the power to impose a binding settlement on labor and management. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #82 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 83. (p. 327) Arbitration is an agreement to bring in an impartial third party to render a binding decision in a labor dispute. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #83 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 84. (p. 327) Many of the negotiated labor-management agreements in the United States call for the use of an arbitrator to end labor disputes. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #84 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 85. (p. 326 Arbitration and mediation are alike in that both involve an impartial third party to help in the negotiation process. The differences in these two approaches is that an arbitrator's decision is binding - both parties agree to this on the front end; a mediator encourages the two conflicting parties to continue to negotiate and may make suggestions in pursuit of a resolution. 327) TRUE Mediation is a process whereby an impartial third party steps in to help bring the two parties to resolution. The mediator makes suggestions but does not bind the parties to an agreement. An arbitrator is an agreed upon third party who listens to both parties and prepares a binding decision in the labor dispute. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #85 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 86. (p. 326 In the past, a variety of professionals have served as mediators. If a labor dispute were to breakout between the management at an auto manufacturer and the local union that represents workers at the auto manufacturing plant, it would be highly unusual for a university professor who has studied labor relations to be asked to mediate. The disputing parties would save his time for something more serious like arbitration. 327) FALSE Typical professionals who serve as mediators are college professors, attorneys, and elected political officials. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #86 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 87. (p. 324) Mississippi has passed a right-to-work law, which means that union shops are illegal in the state. TRUE The Taft-Hartley Act recognized the legality of a union shop, but allowed individual states to declare them illegal through the passage of right-to-work laws. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #87 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 88. (p. 324) Winona was recently hired to work at a production plant for Additup Manufacturing. When hired, she was told she must join the union at the plant within 90 days in order to keep her job. Winona is employed in an agency shop. FALSE An arrangement that requires workers to join a union within a specified period of time in order to keep their jobs is called a union shop agreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #88 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 89. (p. 324) Marina works for a company in which a union is recognized as the bargaining agent for the workers who perform her type of job. However, under the arrangements at her company, Marina is not required to join the union, nor is she required to pay any fees or dues to the union. Marina works under an agency shop agreement. FALSE Under an agency shop agreement, workers cannot be required to join a union, but those workers who do not join must pay a union fee. The type of arrangement described in this question appears to be an open shop. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #89 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 90. (p. 324) Miko began working for a company that operates under an open shop arrangement. Under this type of arrangement, Miko must join the union at her company within 90 days or she will lose her job. FALSE Under an open shop arrangement, workers aren't required to join a union to keep their jobs. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #90 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 91. (p. 327) Labor and management at the Brookwood Company have reached an impasse in their efforts to negotiate an acceptable labormanagement agreement. The two sides have agreed to bring in an arbitrator. If the arbitrator issues a ruling that the union does not like, it can veto the decision. FALSE An arbitrator has the authority to render a binding decision. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #91 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 92. (p. 326 Ashleigh has played a number of supporting roles on TV sitcoms. In her last role, she understood her contract to obligate her to perform in 22 episodes for a stipend of $500 per episode. After completion of 11 episodes, Ashleigh became ill and was unable to complete the episodes in a timely manner. The studio claimed that Ashleigh broke her contract and they are not obligated to pay her. She is confident that an impartial third party will view her circumstances as exceptional and will rule that she be reimbursed for the 11 performances. She has agreed to mediation. 327) FALSE Ashleigh has agreed to arbitration, whereby an impartial third-party official is brought in to arbitrate a binding decision. Mediation involves a third party participant, however, this person keeps negotiations alive, by encouraging both parties to continue to negotiate and will also make suggestions to bring each side closer to resolution. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #92 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 93. (p. 326) Jian is a well-known professor of labor relations at a major university. She recently was asked by representatives of labor and management at a nearby corporation to help them resolve a disagreement that threatened to cause a breakdown in negotiations. If Jian agrees to help, her role will be to encourage both parties to continue negotiating and to offer constructive advice and suggestions, but she will not have the authority to render a binding decision. Jian's role is that of a mediator. TRUE A mediator is a third party who encourages both sides to continue negotiating to overcome a disagreement. Although mediators often offer suggestions to help resolve the disagreement, they do not have the authority to render a binding decision to the dispute. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #93 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 94. (p. 326) Regina teaches at a local college. As a full time employee, she belongs to an organized union that represents teachers. She recently filed a grievance against her Dean claiming that the Dean prevented her promotion due to the fact that Regina's academic credentials are from a university that the Dean does not personally feel is properly accredited. As a first step to resolving the conflict between the Dean (considered a management level position) and the instructor, the union will support Regina by bringing in the national union officer to negotiate with the University's Chancellor (similar to the CEO for a company). FALSE The first step in a grievance process will involve the shop steward, the local union representative that represents employee interests on a daily basis. This person will meet with the Dean to try and resolve the issue at the lowest level. If it is unresolved, the union will take it to the next level of management, which will probably be a campus president or a vice-president. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #94 Topic: Figure 12.6: The grievance resolution process 95. (p. 325 Management at Enomoto Enterprises has assigned Alberto to work at two different facilities, which will require him to commute an extra 25 miles on the days he must work at both plants. Alberto believes that the negotiated labor-management agreement requires the company to reimburse him for the extra mileage he has to drive. Management disagrees. Alberto has decided to file a charge that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated agreement. Alberto's complaint is called a grievance. 326) TRUE A grievance is a charge by an employee, or group of employees, that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labormanagement agreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #95 Topic: Figure 12.6: The grievance resolution process 96. (p. 328) A Lockout is a tactic utilized by unions when collective bargaining breaks down. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #96 Topic: Management Tactics 97. (p. 327) The strike historically has been the most powerful weapon unions use to achieve their objectives in labor disputes. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #97 Topic: Union Tactics 98. (p. 327) A boycott occurs when workers collectively refuse to go to work. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #98 Topic: Union Tactics 99. (p. 327 328) Strikes have been an effective way of settling labor disputes without violence and bitterness. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #99 Topic: Union Tactics 100. (p. 328) Postal workers and other employees of the federal government who provide important services are allowed to form unions, but are denied the right to strike. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #100 Topic: Union Tactics 101. (p. 328) The "blue flu" refers to a situation in which union members (like firefighters) who are not allowed to strike refuse to work by calling in sick. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #101 Topic: Union Tactics 102. (p. 328) A cooling-off period is when workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #102 Topic: Union Tactics 103. (p. 328) In a primary boycott, a union encourages its members and the general public not to buy the goods and services produced by a firm involved in a labor dispute. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #103 Topic: Union Tactics 104. (p. 328) In 1996, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that primary boycotts are illegal. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #104 Topic: Union Tactics 105. (p. 328) Tactics used by management when collective bargaining breaks down include injunctions and lockouts. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #105 Topic: Management Tactics 106. (p. 328) The most potent weapon currently available to management when collective bargaining breaks down is the use of yellow-dog contracts. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #106 Topic: Management Tactics 107. (p. 328) The Supreme Court ruled in 1938 that employers had the right to hire strikebreakers. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #107 Topic: Management Tactics 108. (p. 328) A common tactic of management in labor disputes is the use of secondary boycotts. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #108 Topic: Management Tactics 109. (p. 329) The use of strikebreakers did not become a common management tactic used in labor disputes until the 1980s. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #109 Topic: Management Tactics 110. (p. 329) Workers who are hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the strike is over are called "scabs" by the union. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #110 Topic: Management Tactics 111. (p. 328 329) A court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something is called a judicial citation. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #111 Topic: Management Tactics 112. (p. 329) Hiring strikebreakers to replace striking workers was historically a common management tactic during labor disputes, but it is seldom used today. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #112 Topic: Management Tactics 113. (p. 328) The Taft-Hartley Act authorizes the U.S. president to ask for a cooling-off period to temporarily prevent a strike in a critical industry. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #113 Topic: Union Tactics 114. (p. 329) Courts will issue an injunction against union tactics only if management can show a "just cause" to restrict the union tactic. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #114 Topic: Management Tactics 115. (p. 328) The lockout is the most common tactic used by management today to deal with labor management disputes. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #115 Topic: Management Tactics 116. (p. 329) Unions have used givebacks as a tactic to increase membership of a culturally diverse workforce. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #116 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 117. (p. 329) The largest labor organization in the U.S. is the National Education Association (NEA). TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #117 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 118. (p. 329) Membership in labor unions has grown steadily over the past 50 years. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #118 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 119. (p. 329) A key to the future growth of unions will be their ability to adapt to a labor force that is becoming more culturally diverse. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #119 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 120. (p. 329) In recent years, many unions have granted concessions on working conditions and wages in order to save jobs. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #120 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 121. (p. 330) One way the Teamsters Union plans to increase membership is by reaching out to women in traditionally non-union occupations like health care. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #121 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 122. (p. 329) The unions of the 21st century are likely to be quite different from those in the past. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #122 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 123. (p. 330) In the future, unions are likely to leave training and recruitment of workers to management, and focus instead on encouraging those workers to join the union. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #123 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 124. (p. 328) In the next few years, unions are likely to find that they must adopt a tough, confrontational approach in order to get what they want from management. FALSE In recent years, unions have shown a willingness to cooperate with management in order to implement programs needed to make U.S. firms more competitive in the global economy. In exchange for their cooperation, unions have received improved job security, profit-sharing programs, and sometimes, higher wages. This cooperative trend is likely to continue into the near future. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #124 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 125. (p. 331) According to "Spotlight on Small Business," in Chapter 12 many private-practice physicians have embraced unionizing as a means to collective bargaining with managed health care organizations. TRUE Many private-practice physicians have embraced unionizing as a means to collective bargaining with managed health care organizations such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The American Medical Association (AMA) launched a physicians union called Physicians for Responsible Negotiations (PRN) in late 1999, and the PRN has been affiliated with the SEIU since 2004. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #125 Topic: Spotlight on Small Business box 126. (p. 328) The Taft-Hartley Act gives the president the power to require striking workers in any industry to return to their jobs for a coolingoff period while representatives of management and the union continue to negotiate. FALSE The Taft-Hartley Act allows the president to ask for a cooling-off period to prevent a strike only in a critical industry that is vital to the nation's health or safety. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #126 Topic: Union Tactics 127. (p. 328) Bellandro Bay Brewery union representatives and the company's management have reached an impasse. Going forward, the union has planning an organized strike and other tactics to put pressure on management where it will be most effective. Union supporters are being encouraged to avoid purchasing Bellandro's products. Now union leaders have contacted a variety of stores that stock Bellandro's Beer informing them that union members and other supporters will stop shopping at any store that continues to carry the brewery's beer until the dispute is resolved in the union's favor. This tactic against stores that carry Bellandro's Beer is called a primary boycott. FALSE A primary boycott is a boycott against a firm involved in a labor dispute. Thus, the action taken directly against Bellandro Bay Brewery would be a primary boycott. However, the action against retail stores is a secondary boycott. A secondary boycott occurs when a union boycotts firms not directly involved in the labor dispute in an effort to persuade them to stop doing business with the firm that is the subject of the primary boycott. Secondary boycotts were declared illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #127 Topic: Union Tactics 128. (p. 328 Striking union workers are picketing near the entrance of the Bellandro Bay Brewery plant where they normally work. The workers are acting peacefully and have not threatened anyone entering or leaving the company or damaged any property. Bellandro's 329) management is seeking an injunction to prevent the workers from picketing. The courts are unlikely to issue injunction an under the current circumstances. TRUE Courts will issue injunctions against union activities if the company seeking the injunction can show a "just cause" such as the possibility of violence or destruction of property. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #128 Topic: Management Tactics 129. (p. 329) Workers at the West Fenton plant of Malzone Industries have gone out on strike. Management believes it could continue operating the plant during the strike by hiring replacement workers. If the company hires nonunion workers to continue its operations, it will be violating a recent Supreme Court ruling that declared hiring replacement workers as a violation of the Wagner Act. FALSE The Supreme Court ruled in 1938 that employers had the right to replace striking workers. The law has not changed. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #129 Topic: Management Tactics 130. (p. 328) Employees were striking at the London Met University last year. Very few students were crossing the picket line. In fact, the city's postal employees refused to deliver mail there claiming that they were honoring the strike for their fellow service union members. The Postal employees were participating in a voluntary secondary boycott. TRUE A Secondary boycott occurs when union members encourage others to stop doing business with the company that is the focus of the primary boycott. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #130 Topic: Union Tactics 131. (p. 329) In the Making Ethical Decisions box, students are asked to consider what they would do if they had the opportunity to be employed as a strikebreaker, at a company where friends and family were currently out of work and on strike. If they choose to do so, they are immediately hired as full-time workers. FALSE In the Making Ethical Decision box, the situation arises where a young person is offered the opportunity to work in a grocery store, as a temporary replacement (strikebreaker) for striking union members. Is it ethical to take advantage of such a situation? AACSB: Ethics Blooms: Analysis Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #131 Topic: Making Ethical Decisions box 132. (p. 332) After adjusting for inflation, the average CEO compensation is actually a little lower now than it was in 1960. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #132 Topic: Executive Compensation 133. (p. 332) The disparity in salaries is clearly reflected in the fact that in 2007, the average CEO compensation for a major company was $12.8 million, compared to a little more than $35,000 that the average worker was compensated. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #133 Topic: Executive Compensation 134. (p. 332) CEOs only earn high salaries and bonuses when their companies earn substantial profits. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #134 Topic: Executive Compensation 135. (p. 333) The late Peter Drucker, one of 20th century's leading management consultants was very critical of the exorbitant compensations that some CEOs were getting. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #135 Topic: Executive Compensation 136. (p. 334) Despite their high pay, most CEOs work far fewer hours per week than the average employee in their companies. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #136 Topic: Executive Compensation 137. (p. 334) Comparable worth is concerned with making sure that women get paid as much as men when they do the same jobs. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #137 Topic: Pay Equity 138. (p. 334) The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required companies to provide equal pay to men and women who perform the same job. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #138 Topic: Pay Equity 139. (p. 334) The concept of comparable worth holds that people who do jobs that require similar levels of education, training and skills should receive equal pay. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #139 Topic: Pay Equity 140. (p. 334) Today, a woman usually receives a salary that is equal to approximately 79% of her male counterpart. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #140 Topic: Pay Equity 141. (p. 335) The law protects both women and men from sexual harassment. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #141 Topic: Sexual Harassment 142. (p. 335) The number of sexual harassment complaints filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has leveled off since 2000. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #142 Topic: Sexual Harassment 143. (p. 335) In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that same sex harassment is prohibited by sexual harassment laws. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #143 Topic: Sexual Harassment 144. (p. 335) Although workers and managers often know that their firm has a policy against sexual harassment, they seldom have a clear understanding of what the policy actually says. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #144 Topic: Sexual Harassment 145. (p. 335) "Quid pro quo" sexual harassment occurs when a person's conduct creates an offensive, hostile, or intimidating work environment that adversely affects the job performance of some other employee. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #145 Topic: Sexual Harassment 146. (p. 336) If you work for a foreign company doing business in the U.S., you are subject to the same sexual harassment laws as anyone working in the U.S. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #146 Topic: Sexual Harassment 147. (p. 336) Because of the need to cut costs, fewer large U.S. companies now provide some sort of child-care for their employees than ten years ago. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #147 Topic: Child Care 148. (p. 336) Small firms often offer innovative child-care programs as a way of competing for qualified employees. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #148 Topic: Child Care 149. (p. 336) On-site child-care remains the only acceptable way for firms to meet the child care concerns of their employees. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #149 Topic: Child Care 150. (p. 337) The number of households that face the burden of caring for one or more elderly parents has increased significantly over the past decade. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #150 Topic: Elder Care 151. (p. 337) In recent years federal programs such as Medicare and Medicaid have greatly reduced the financial burden on families faced with caring for elderly adults. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #151 Topic: Elder Care 152. (p. 337) Over the next decade costs associated with elder care are likely to have a much smaller impact on businesses than child-care costs. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #152 Topic: Elder Care 153. (p. 337) Elder care costs are likely to remain a major issue for businesses for many years. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #153 Topic: Elder Care 154. (p. 338) The spread of AIDS within the U.S. has declined in recent years. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #154 Topic: Drug Testing 155. (p. 338) Alcohol and drug abuse are serious workplace issues but they involve far fewer workers than AIDS does. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #155 Topic: Drug Testing 156. (p. 338) Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the workplace. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #156 Topic: Drug Testing 157. (p. 338) Today, over 70% of all companies require some type of drug testing. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #157 Topic: Drug Testing 158. (p. 338) The high cost of illegal drug use in the workplace has resulted in a rise in the number of firms that test employees and job applicants for drugs. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #158 Topic: Drug Testing 159. (p. 338) According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the third leading cause of job-related fatalities is homicide. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #159 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 160. (p. 338) One in six violent crimes that are committed in the U.S. occur in the workplace. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #160 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 161. (p. 338) Many companies do not provide any formal training for dealing with prevention of violence in the workplace. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #161 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 162. (p. 338) Since violence in the workplace rarely results in severe injury, it is likely not to be much of a problem in the future. FALSE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #162 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 163. (p. 338) Due to threats of violence at work, some states have passed laws permitting companies to seek temporary restraining orders on behalf of their management. TRUE AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #163 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 164. (p. 333) Although the general public often sees the compensation of CEOs of major U.S. corporations as being much too high, the pay and benefits these top executives receive is actually quite similar to what is earned by top executives in other countries with market economies. FALSE Top executives in American corporations typically earn much more than top executives from other countries. For example, American CEOs typically earn two to three times as much as their counterparts in Europe and Canada. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #164 Topic: CEO Compensation 165. (p. 333) According to the Legal Briefcase box associated with Chapter 12, we can cite several examples where CEOs in the U.S. received significantly large exit compensation packages even though the profit performance of their firms under their watch was rather meager to very poor. TRUE Several examples can be cited where well known corporate CEOS received large stock option packages and guaranteed stipends worth several million, indicating that some Boards of Directors are willing to pay for incompetent or lackluster work. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #165 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 166. (p. 333) According to the Legal Briefcase, "Paying for Incompetence", businesspersons understand that the capitalist system has no choice but to tolerate huge disparities between a CEO's salary and a regular employee. FALSE In the past, CEO compensation was at the very least tied to the profit performance of the company, the appreciation of the stock price, or the return on investment, however, in recent times, these compensation packages do not seem to be tied to any measurable company results. Watchdog groups and others are questioning these procedures. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #166 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 167. (p. 333) According to the Legal Briefcase box from Chapter 12 that highlighted the exorbitant salaries of some past company CEOs: When it is all said and done, restructuring compensation packages to be more equitable is in the hands of the companies themselves. TRUE The Legal Briefcase box highlighted several well-known CEOs who stepped down from their positions have lackluster years of service, but managed to be rewarded with compensation packages worth several million. In the end, it is the internal management of the firms that can make changes and issue some controls on executive compensation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #167 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 168. (p. 334) Reece discovered that a male coworker is paid $1.50 per hour more than she is even though they have the same job title, have similar qualifications, and have been employed the same length of time. Unfortunately for Reece, it is legal for the hospital to pay different salaries to different workers who perform the same job. FALSE The Equal Pay Act of 1963 states that men and women who perform the same job must receive equal pay, as long as the pay additional amounts are not tied to merit increases or additional compensation tied to seniority at the job. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #168 Topic: Pay Equity 169. (p. 333) Marco is the newly appointed CEO of the Sine of the Times Corporation. The board of directors approved an attractive stock option package as part of his total compensation. From this information, you would assume that one of the board's objectives is to stabilize the value of Sine of the Times' stock by preventing it from rising or falling more than a small percentage. FALSE Stock options allow the holder to buy a firm's stock at a set price at a later date. This can be worth millions of dollars to executives who are able to exercise the option when the market price of the stock is significantly higher than the option price. Thus, rather than trying to stabilize the price of the stock, DeMarco would have a strong incentive to pursue policies that would increase the value of his company's stock. Moreover, if DeMarco exercises his options and sells off large amounts of the stock to realize his gains, his actions might cause the value of the stock to fall significantly. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #169 Topic: CEO Compensation 170. (p. 336) Although child-care concerns have become a pressing issue for many employees, most firms have been unable to find acceptable solutions to these concerns. FALSE The number of companies that offer child-care benefits is growing. Even small companies have developed innovative child-care plans. The text describes several methods companies have used to help employees with child-care, including discount arrangements, vouchers, and referral services as well as on-site child care centers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #170 Topic: Child Care 171. (p. 337) Brantwell, Inc. is a forward thinking company planning to implement a program to help its employees provide care for their elderly parents. According to recent trends, Brantwell's new program should result in future cost savings. TRUE The number of households in which at least one adult is providing elder care has tripled in the past tend years. According to some experts cited in the text, in coming years elder care will have a greater impact on the workplace than child-care. Sandra Timmerman, director of MetLife's Mature Market Institute, suggests that elder care is the key workplace issue of the next decade. Moreover, employees who are likely to need help with elderly parents are the older, more experienced workers, whose responsibilities are likely to be critical to the company's success. Thus, proactive firms will look for ways to help employees deal with these costs. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #171 Topic: Elder Care 172. (p. 335) Robert and Jenny are co-workers who enjoy flirting with each other while at work. They both view their actions as harmless fun, as do the other employees in their office. Their flirtation does not offend the other workers or make them feel threatened or uncomfortable. Nevertheless, under current criteria, both Jenny and Robert could be found guilty of sexual harassment. FALSE In evaluating a person's behavior to determine if it involves harassment, specific criteria are applied. A person's behavior is considered sexually harassing if: (1) another employee is required (either explicitly or implicitly) to submit to such conduct as a condition of employment, or if accepting or rejecting such behavior is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting the worker's status; or (2) the conduct unreasonably interferes with a worker's job performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment. Since neither Robert or Jenny feels threatened or pressured to engage in this behavior, and since the work environment is not intimidating, offensive or hostile to Robert, Jenny, or their coworkers, the criteria for sexual harassment are not present. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #172 Topic: Sexual Harassment 173. (p. 338) Rose is a human resources manager for a rapidly growing corporation. The firm recently hired one hundred new workers, ten of whom were involved in workplace accidents soon after they were hired. It was determined that alcohol usage was the cause of these accidents. Top management has asked Rose to do a better job in screening potential workers for alcohol abuse to avoid this in the future. Rose should point out that in fact the ten percent of the recent-hires with alcohol issues is actually much lower than the overall percentage of employees with alcohol issues that are involved in industrial injuries and fatalities in the U.S. TRUE Approximately 40 percent of industrial injuries and fatalities can be linked to alcohol consumption. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #173 Topic: Drug Testing 174. (p. 338) Recently a disgruntled employee walked into a large grocery chain's mid-west distribution center and opened fire on his fellow workers. He killed or injured several people before being killed by the local police. The grocery chain is very concerned about the threat of workplace violence in the future. One way to deal with this threat is for management to hold focus groups to invite employee input. Another way is to make certain that the company hires managers with good interpersonal skills. TRUE As the text points out, many executives and managers consider workplace violence a serious issue and have taken action to prevent problems before they occur. To deal with this growing threat, firms have held focus groups to invite employee input, hired managers with strong interpersonal skills, and employed skilled consultants to deal with any growing potential of workplace violence. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #174 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 175. (p. 318) A(n) ________ is an employee organization that represents workers in employee-management bargaining over job-related issues. A. B. C. D. trades guild union ESOP cross-functional team AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #175 Topic: Employee-Management Issues 176. (p. 319) The presence of formal labor organizations in the United States dates back to the: A. B. C. D. late 1700s. Civil War. late 1800s. depression years of the 1930s. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #176 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 177. (p. 319) According to business observers, which of the following is a reason for labor's decline? A. B. C. D. Shifts from service to manufacturing industries Decline in part-time work Labor's success in seeing issues it championed become law Increased local competition AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #177 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 178. (p. 319) The union movement in the United States was an outgrowth of the economic transition caused by the: A. B. C. D. Revolutionary War. Great Depression. Industrial Revolution. passage of antitrust legislation by the federal government. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #178 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 179. (p. 319) Labor unions were largely responsible for: A. B. C. D. establishing the Republican party. the basic structure of the federal income tax system. the passage of NAFTA. minimum wage laws and laws against child labor. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #179 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 180. (p. 319) __________ are workplaces with undesirable, and often unsafe and oppressive working conditions. A. B. C. D. Treadmills Flopshops Steamshops Sweatshops AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #180 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 181. (p. 319) The purpose of the earliest recognized labor unions in the U.S. was: A. B. C. D. to achieve some short-range goal and then disband. to achieve a long-range foundation for the craft. to teach the craft to new workers. to achieve notoriety for the members. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #181 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 182. (p. 320) The first national labor organization in the United States was the: A. B. C. D. Knights of Labor. Congress of Industrial Organizations. American Federation of Labor. United Farm Workers Union. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #182 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 183. (p. 320) Membership in the Knights of Labor was: A. B. C. D. limited to skilled craftsmen. limited to unskilled and semiskilled workers who belonged to industrial unions. open to all working people, including employers. open to anyone willing to promote capitalism as the economic system most likely to lead to economic prosperity for the working men and women of the United States. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #183 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 184. (p. 320) The main goal of the Knights of Labor was to: A. B. C. D. promote world peace through the creation of a brotherhood and sisterhood of workers in all nations. gain political power and restructure the U.S. economy. form an organization that would protect the benefits of retired workers. promote a better public education system. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #184 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 185. (p. 319) In a(n) ________, all of the members are skilled specialists in a particular trade. A. B. C. D. ESOP craft union industrial union trade federation AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #185 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 186. (p. 320) __________ provided dynamic leadership for the American Federation of Labor during its early years. A. B. C. D. Karl Marx Kenneth Adams George Meany Samuel Gompers AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #186 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 187. (p. 320) The AFL was concerned primarily with: A. B. C. D. fundamental labor issues. gaining political power. forming a workers' army to lead a socialist revolution. promoting a better public education system. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #187 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 188. (p. 320) In its early years, the AFL's strategy was to: A. B. C. D. grow as rapidly as possible by allowing people from all professions and walks of life to join. limit its membership to skilled craftspeople. limit its membership to unskilled and semiskilled workers. form one big craft union which everyone could join; but it later split into several smaller organizations. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #188 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 189. (p. 320) The CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) organized unskilled and semiskilled workers into: A. B. C. D. craft unions. a political party. industrial unions. union shops. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #189 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 190. (p. 320) The __________ was set up as a federation of many separate craft unions. A. B. C. D. Knights of Labor Committee of Industrial Organizations League of Unions American Federation of Labor (AFL) AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #190 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 191. (p. 320) The leadership of _____________ was instrumental in bringing about the merger between the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955. A. B. C. D. Samuel Gompers Terence K. Powderly Ronald Reagan George Meany AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #191 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 192. (p. 320) In the early years, there were power struggles among the larger national unions. Leaders recognized that there was power in numbers. After the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947, A. B. C. D. the CIO defeated the AFL. the "Change to Win" campaign emerged. the AFL and CIO merged. the unions collapsed for several years. The Taft-Hartley Act favored management. The two rival unions: AFL, the craft union, and CIO, the unskilled labor union merged in order to strengthen their position. There was power in numbers - for one thing, members would support each other in strike situations. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #192 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 193. (p. 319) The Industrial Revolution was characterized by a(n): A. increased emphasis on production, resulting in longer hours and less job security for most workers. B. migration of manufacturing jobs from the Midwest and Northeast to the South as firms began locating in areas where labor costs were lower. C. rapid improvement in the wages and working conditions of most workers, resulting in a decline in the need for labor unions. D. movement away from scientific management, and a greater acceptance of the ideas of Herzberg and Maslow. The Industrial Revolution brought enormous productivity gains through mass production and job specialization. For the workers, however, this brought a realization that production was vital. If you failed to produce, you lost your job. Firms started expanding the length of the average workweek and employing child labor. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #193 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 194. (p. 319) Critics of labor unions argue that unions are no longer needed to protect workers from abusive and unfair treatment because: A. the widespread use of ESOPs has given most workers control over their workplace. B. supply and demand conditions in labor markets now favor labor rather than management. C. laws and modern management attitudes minimize the possibility of unsafe working conditions and unfair treatment of workers found in earlier eras. D. most of the firms that treated workers poorly have moved their operations to foreign countries. The harsh and unsafe working conditions, low pay, and unfair treatment of workers that characterized the Industrial Revolution contributed greatly to the rise of the labor movement. Today, however, laws and regulations exist to protect workers from sweatshop-like working conditions and arbitrary or unfair treatment. In addition, the attitudes and behaviors of most contemporary managers toward their employees are more positive than the attitudes and behaviors of managers from earlier eras. Critics of today's unions maintain that these changes have reduced the need for unions to serve as protectors of workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #194 Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives 195. (p. 320) A major reason John L. Lewis and his followers broke with the AFL and formed the CIO was that: A. the leaders of the AFL wanted to focus on political objectives while Lewis and his followers wanted to focus on economic objectives. B. Lewis felt that the AFL was growing too fast. C. the leaders of the AFL wanted to organize only skilled workers, while Lewis and his followers wanted to organize both unskilled and skilled workers. D. Lewis believed that the AFL would be more flexible and responsive to its members if it split into several smaller organizations, each representing workers with one specific skill. The AFL originally limited its membership to skilled workers in craft unions. Over time, an unauthorized committee within the AFL began organizing unskilled and semiskilled workers into industrial unions. In 1935, John L. Lewis, the leader of this unauthorized committee, proposed that the AFL actively organize both craft unions and industrial unions. When the AFL rejected his proposal, Lewis and his followers broke from the AFL to form the CIO. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #195 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 196. (p. 320) The departure of the Service Employees International Union (1.8 million members strong) from the AFL-CIO: A. strengthened the focus of the AFL-CIO to serve those who work in manufacturing jobs. B. weakened the AFL-CIO, even though it still has about 10.5 million members. C. was the result of the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act. D. created room for more craft unions to join the AFL-CIO. The departure of the SEIU, the AFL-CIO's largest union significantly decreased the power of the AFL-CIO. Although the large union still boasts several million members, the SEIU was a sizeable organization and provided strength for the core organization. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #196 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 197. (p. 320) The AFL originally was a federation of craft unions that did not attempt to organize industrial unions. The main reason for this strategy was that: A. industrial unions were illegal until the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. B. the leaders of the AFL believed that the skilled workers represented by craft unions would have better bargaining power than unskilled workers. C. craft unions had more political clout than industrial unions. D. most industrial unions had supported the Knights of Labor in a dispute with the AFL during the 1880s. Under the leadership of Samuel Gompers, the AFL intentionally limited its membership to skilled workers belonging to craft unions. A major reason for this strategy was that Gompers believed skilled workers would have more success with collective bargaining than unskilled workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #197 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 198. (p. 321 Historically, the ______________ strengthened the labor unions, while the _____________________ supported management's efforts. 322) A. B. C. D. National Labor Relations Act; Taft-Hartley Act Taft-Hartley Act; Fair Labor Standards Act Fair Labor Standards Act; National Labor Relations Act Norris-LaGuardia Act; National Labor Relations Act The National Labor Relations Act helped the unions by providing legal protection that allowed them to unionize and participate in collective bargaining. The Taft-Hartley Act helped management by prohibiting compulsory unions. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #198 Topic: Major Legislation Effecting Labor-Management Relations; Figure 12.1 199. (p. 319) Antonio received specific training to become an electrician. He belongs to a union with other skilled electricians. Antonio belongs to a(n): A. B. C. D. industrial union. craft union. open union. company union. A union whose members are skilled specialists in a particular skill or trade is known as a craft union. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #199 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 200. (p. 320) Geraldo works on the assembly line for a major automobile manufacturer. He was hired for the job without any specific training or skill. Geraldo joined a union with other assembly-line workers who perform a variety of jobs that do not require a highly specialized skill. Geraldo belongs to a(n): A. B. C. D. industrial union. craft union. assembly union. traditional union. An industrial union is an organization of unskilled or semiskilled workers. This type of union is often found in industries characterized by mass production methods, such as the automobile industry. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #200 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 201. (p. 320) Which of the following statements is the most accurate assessment of the historical role of the AFL in the labor movement? In its early years the AFL: A. attracted a lot of public attention and political support because it was the first truly national labor organization in the United States. B. operated as one union, but soon split into two interdependent groups and became known as the AFL-CIO. C. was a federation of craft unions that championed basic labor issues. D. had limited success because it suffered from poor leadership. The AFL was never a single union. Instead, it operated as a federation of craft unions. The organization succeeded largely due to the dynamic leadership of Samuel Gompers, who championed basic labor issues. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #201 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 202. (p. 321) Samuel Gompers believed that ___________ was the key to attaining a fairer share of the economic pie for American workers. A. B. C. D. collective bargaining political power obtaining free trade agreements with other nations organizing workers into industrial unions AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #202 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 203. (p. 320) The two major influences on the growth of unions in the U.S. were: A. B. C. D. population growth; the agrarian economy the agrarian economy; the Taft-Hartley Act the Taft-Hartley Act; support of management laws that supported unionizing; public opinion AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #203 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 204. (p. 321) The _________ Act established the National Labor Relations Board. A. B. C. D. Wagner Taft-Hartley Norris-LaGuardia Fair Labor Standards AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #204 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 205. (p. 321) __________ is the process by which a union becomes recognized by the National Labor Relations Board as the bargaining agent for a group of employees. A. B. C. D. Accreditation Certification Arbitration Affiliation AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #205 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 206. (p. 321) ____________ is the process by which a group of workers legally take away a union's right to represent them. A. B. C. D. Disqualification Decertification Impeachment Disenfranchisement AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #206 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 207. (p. 321) _____________ is the process by which representatives of a union meet with representatives of management to negotiate a contract for workers. A. B. C. D. Mediation Arbitration Mutual Conciliation Collective bargaining AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #207 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 208. (p. 321) The ______________ was established by the Wagner Act to oversee labor-management relations. A. B. C. D. Federal Trade Commission Commission on Labor Relations National Labor Relations Board Equal Employment Opportunity Commission AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #208 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 209. (p. 321) The first federal minimum wage was established by the: A. B. C. D. Fair Labor Standards Act. Wagner Act. Minimum Compensation Act. Pay Equity Act. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #209 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 210. (p. 321) The _____________ outlawed the use of yellow-dog contracts and prohibited courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent union activities. A. B. C. D. Landrum-Griffin Act Fair Labor Standards Act Wagner Act Norris-LaGuardia Act AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #210 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 211. (p. 321) At one time, as a condition of employment, the employer could make the employee sign a statement prohibiting the worker from joining a union. This was called a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrary agreement. yellow-dog contract. right-to-work contract. employment at will agreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #211 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 212. (p. 321) The __________ guaranteed the rights of individual union members when dealing with their union. A. B. C. D. Wagner Act Landrum-Griffin Act Norris-LaGuardia Act Taft-Hartley Act AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #212 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 213. (p. 321) Which of the following acts gave more power to management in its relations with organized labor? A. B. C. D. Norris-LaGuardia Act Landrum-Griffin Act Wagner Act Taft-Hartley Act AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #213 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 214. (p. 321) The Taft-Hartley Act: A. B. C. D. established the first minimum wage. allowed individual states to pass right-to-work laws prohibiting compulsory union membership. required management to bargain in good faith with union representatives. set up the process by which unions could be recognized as the exclusive bargaining agents for a group of workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #214 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 215. (p. 321) The ___________ guaranteed union members the right to nominate candidates for union office and participate in union meetings. A. B. C. D. Taft-Hartley Act Fair Labor Standards Act Norris-LaGuardia Act Landrum-Griffin Act AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #215 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 216. (p. 321) One goal of the Landrum-Griffin Act was to: A. B. C. D. firmly establish the right of unions to engage in collective bargaining. set up the means by which unions could be certified as bargaining agents for workers. clean up the corrupt practices of unions. prevent employees engaged in providing critical services such as health care or police protection from going out on strike. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #216 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 217. (p. 321) The NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) consists of: A. B. C. D. a five member panel appointed by the U.S. president. an eight or ten member board consisting of an equal representation of union officials and management personnel. two large unions: the AFL and the CIO. a congressional committee. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #217 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 218. (p. 321 322) A. B. C. D. The Wagner Act is best described as a(n): pro-management law. pro-union law. anti-communism law. anti-collective bargaining law. The Wagner Act explicitly allowed for collective bargaining, a right long-sought by labor unions. The Wagner Act also established the National Labor Relations Board to offer legal protection to workers and to oversee the union certification process. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #218 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 219. (p. 321) John belongs to a labor union. He believes a few key people run the union by meeting secretly and making decisions without informing other members or allowing them to fully participate in the meetings. If John's suspicions are correct, the union is violating provisions of the __________ Act. A. B. C. D. Landrum-Griffin Fair Labor Standards Taft-Hartley Wagner The Landrum-Griffin Act guaranteed individual union members the right to attend and participate in union meetings, nominate candidates for union office, vote in union elections, and examine union records and accounts. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #219 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 220. (p. 321) The Labor-Management Relations Act (or Taft-Hartley Act) can be best described as a law which: A. gave unions much more power and led to a rapid rise in union membership. B. gave employees the right to serve on the board of directors of their company, thus encouraging a more equitable treatment of workers. C. eliminated the need for unions in many industries by providing workers with widespread rights and protection against unfair labor practices by employers. D. placed limitations on union activities and gave more power to management in dealing with unions. The Taft-Hartley Act prohibited featherbedding (requiring payment for work not performed), secondary boycotts, and closed shops. These restrictions were very unpopular with unions. This act also allowed individual states to pass right-to-work laws prohibiting union shops and established provisions for dealing with strikes that threaten the nation's health and safety. These restrictions gave more power to management in dealing with unions. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #220 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 221. (p. 321) The primary purpose of collective bargaining is to: A. B. C. D. ensure worker participation in setting the goals and objectives of the company. establish and communicate clear guidelines for performance appraisals. limit the authority of management to set job categories and direct worker activities. negotiate a labor-management agreement that both the union and management are willing to accept. Successful collective bargaining results in a labor-management agreement that is mutually acceptable. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #221 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 222. (p. 321) Two important provisions concerning the certification or decertification process administered by the NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) are: A. certification or decertification requires that the workers cast over 50 percent of the required vote to certify or decertify, and that voting be done by secret ballot. B. certification is a four-step process, and decertification is a two-step process. C. the union must win 30% of the vote for certification, and 70% of the vote for decertification. D. voting to bring in a union must be done by card check, and voting to dismiss a union must be done by secret ballot. At this time, the NLRB requires that certification (voting for a union) or decertification (voting against a union) be administered by secret ballot. Either process requires that the union received over 50% of the required vote. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #222 Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations 223. (p. 321) During the 1920s and early 1930s the Dallas Sheet Metal Shop was able to prevent workers from forming a union by requiring them to sign an employment contract in which they agreed not to join a union as a condition of employment. Dallas was making use of: A. B. C. D. yellow-dog contracts. blacklisting agreements. injunctions. implied consent decrees. A yellow-dog contract required workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of employment. This type of contract was declared illegal by the Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #223 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 224. (p. 321) Steven is part of a team of union members that is meeting with representatives of his company's management in an effort to negotiate a labor contract for the workers his union represents. Steven is participating in a process known as: A. B. C. D. collective bargaining. management by objectives. arbitration. certification discussions. Collective bargaining is the process whereby union and management representatives form a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #224 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 225. (p. 321) Bob believes that management is treating him unfairly because of his efforts to organize a vote for union representation. Which organization should Bob contact to report his concerns? A. B. C. D. Federal Board of Labor Rights National Labor Relations Board Federal Trade Commission Federal Commission on Unfair Labor Practices The National Labor Relations Board provides guidelines and offers legal protection to workers that seek to vote on "organizing" a union to represent them in the workplace. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #225 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 226. (p. 321) Which of the following statements about collective bargaining is most consistent with the views of Samuel Gompers? A. Collective bargaining is the best way for workers to attain a fairer share of the economic pie. B. Collective bargaining is a nice idea in theory, but in the real world unions must rely on weapons such as strikes and boycotts to get what they want. C. Unions should view collective bargaining as a useful, but limited, means for achieving some of their goals. In most cases the best way for unions to achieve their goals is to use their political clout to help pass favorable legislation. D. Unions should not count on collective bargaining to achieve their goals, because management can't be trusted to bargain in good faith. Samuel Gompers believed the collective bargaining process was critical to achieving the goals of organized labor. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #226 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 227. (p. 321) Union leaders at the Baadfathe Corporation are furious. Although the union's certified by the NLRB, its negotiating team has had little success in getting management to meet with them to work on a new labor contract. In fact, during the last 3 months, the management team has agreed to meet only twice, once on a weekend, and the other time after 8:00 p.m. Even during those two meetings, the management team was unwilling to offer serious proposals. Baadfathe's management team should review the legal rights of union members to participate in collective bargaining, as provided under the: A. B. C. D. Taft-Harley Act. Norris LaGuardia Act. Wagner Act. Landrum-Griffin Act. The Wagner Act established a certification process by which a union was recognized by the NLRB as the authorized bargaining agent for a group of workers. The act required that once a union was certified, management must bargain at reasonable times and in good faith with the union on issues such as wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #227 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 228. (p. 322) During the lunch break at Secure Seat Belt Corporation, Ben's friend Dan was enthusiastic about the Employee Free Choice Act. According to Dan, if congress passes this legislation, A. employees will no longer be under any pressure to join the union. B. employees will have a choice of higher pay or the assurance of good union representation with safety issues. C. union representatives will have the right to choose which members of management will participate in collective bargaining for the company. D. unions will win the right to replace secret ballot voting for union certification with a card check, an open authorization method of securing votes for union representation. The Employee Free Choice Act would allow unions to gather voter approval for union representation by having employees opening sign a check card. The act would eliminate the need for secret ballot. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #228 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 229. (p. 323) During the 1970s, the primary objective of most labor unions was to: A. B. C. D. restore the closed shop arrangement. improve pay and benefits for their members. obtain more job security for their members. establish employee stock ownership programs. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #229 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 230. (p. 323) During the 1980s, unions became increasingly concerned with the issues of: A. B. C. D. pay and fringe benefits. stock option plans and profit sharing. job security and union recognition. worker training and education. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #230 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 231. (p. 323) Over the past several decades unions have: A. B. C. D. always placed the greatest emphasis on increasing wages and benefits. frequently changed objectives as the result of shifts in social and economic conditions. frequently taken global competition into account. consistently favored policies that would move the U.S. economy toward a command system. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #231 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 232. (p. 323) The __________ sets the tone and clarifies the terms and conditions under which labor and management agree to function over a specific period of time. A. B. C. D. negotiated labor-management agreement right-to-work agreement open shop agreement bargaining zone AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #232 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 233. (p. 323) The AFL-CIO was __________ the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). A. B. C. D. strongly in favor of cautiously neutral in its views toward opposed to split in two camps, one in favor of and the other opposed to AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #233 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 234. (p. 323) The AFL-CIO was a major __________ of the NAFTA agreement passed by Congress in 1994. A. B. C. D. contributor to the design financial backer advocate opponent AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #234 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 235. (p. 324) Under ________, workers are not required to join the union, but those who do not join are still required to pay a union fee or regular dues to the union. A. B. C. D. right-to-work laws all union security clauses agency shop agreements Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOPs) AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #235 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 236. (p. 325) According to the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, A. going global may be the strategy that rekindles the labor unions. B. there is not a strong enough base of unskilled laborers internationally to make it worthwhile to form a global union at this time. C. most domestic unions are watching the auto workers unions. If the auto workers can certify auto plants in Mexico, Turkey, and Japan, there is a chance that other unions will follow a global path. D. the increase in unions globally has far surpassed the union growth rate in the U.S. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #236 Topic: Reaching Beyond Our Borders box 237. (p. 324) Under a(n) ___________ shop agreement, workers must belong to the union before they are hired. A. B. C. D. open union agency closed AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #237 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 238. (p. 324) The justification for dues or fees paid by nonunion members to the union in a(n) _________ shop is that the union represents all workers in collective bargaining, not just those who belong to the union. A. B. C. D. closed agency fee simple union AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #238 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 239. (p. 324) In a(n) __________ shop, workers do not have to belong to a union before they are hired, but they must join a union within a specified period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their job. A. B. C. D. agency closed open union AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #239 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 240. (p. 324) If a union is present in a firm that has a(n) _________ shop arrangement, workers may join the union if they wish, but they are not required to join or pay a union fee in order to keep their jobs. A. B. C. D. open unrestricted freedom of choice agency AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #240 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 241. (p. 326) A(n) ___________ is a union official who works permanently in an organization and represents employee interests on a daily basis. A. B. C. D. arbitrator shop steward mediator president AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #241 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 242. (p. 324) Closed shops were declared illegal by the: A. B. C. D. Taft-Hartley Act. Norris-LaGuardia Act. National Labor Relations Board in 1929. U.S. Supreme Court in 1946. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #242 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 243. (p. 326) ___________ is the use of a third party to encourage labor and management to continue negotiating in an effort to settle a labor dispute or achieve a mutually acceptable labor-management agreement. A. B. C. D. Arbitration Mediation Reconciliation Intercession AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #243 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 244. (p. 327) The process of bringing in an impartial third party to render a binding decision in a labor dispute is referred to as: A. B. C. D. resolution. mediation. arbitration. confirmation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #244 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 245. (p. 327) If management and union officials cannot resolve a grievance, a(n) _________ is asked to listen to the arguments of each side and to make a decision that both sides will have to comply with. A. confirmer B. counselor C. arbitrator D. mediator AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #245 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 246. (p. 323) Which of the following topics is generally covered in a negotiated labor-management agreement? A. B. C. D. Corporate pricing policy Grievance procedures Management fringe benefits Management compensation A negotiated labor-management agreement typically includes the grievance procedures such as the arbitration agreement and mediation procedures. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #246 Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor 247. (p. 324) Union shops are illegal in the state of North Carolina. This means that North Carolina: A. B. C. D. is violating federal law. has passed a right-to-work law. allows firms to use yellow-dog contracts. is taking advantage of a loophole in the National Labor Relations Act. The Taft-Hartley Act recognizes the union shop as a legal arrangement, but gives individual states the power to outlaw union shops by passing right-to-work laws. Figure 12.5 shows NC as one of the states with right-to-work laws. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #247 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 248. (p. 324) In a union shop: A. B. C. D. workers must join the union within a stipulated time period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their jobs. workers must belong to the union before the company can hire them. workers who do not join the union must pay a union fee. workers are required to sign yellow-dog contracts. Under a union shop, workers do not have to belong to a union to be hired for a job, but they do have to join the union within a prescribed period in order to keep their job. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #248 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 249. (p. 325) The key difference between an agency shop agreement and an open shop agreement is that in an agency shop: A. workers must join the union within a stipulated time period (usually 30, 60, or 90 days) in order to keep their jobs, but in an open shop the workers are not required to join the union. B. the union is restricted to a limited number of employees who perform specific types of jobs, but in an open shop membership in the union is available to all workers. C. workers who do not join the union must pay a fee or regular dues, while in an open shop workers who choose not to join the union do not have to pay any union fees or dues. D. workers must agree not to join a union in order to keep their jobs while in an open shop workers are free to join a union if they wish, but they are not required to do so. In an agency shop workers are not required to join the union, but workers who choose not to join are required to pay a fee to the union or regular union dues. In an open shop, workers are free to join a union or not join, and those that do not join are not required to pay any fees or dues. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #249 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements 250. (p. 326 327) A key difference between a mediator and an arbitrator is that: A. a mediator is appointed by labor and management, while an arbitrator is appointed by the federal government under terms set forth in the Taft-Hartley Act. B. a mediator is an unpaid volunteer, while an arbitrator is a paid professional. C. an arbitrator can settle a labor-management dispute by rendering a binding decision, while a mediator can only make suggestions and encourage the two sides in a dispute to continue negotiating. D. a mediator is a lawyer who represents either labor or management in a labor dispute, while an arbitrator is an impartial advisor who listens to both sides of the dispute and offers suggestions that help the two parties reach a mutually acceptable agreement. A mediator is an impartial third party who encourages both parties in a labor management dispute to continue negotiating. Mediators can offer suggestions to help the parties reach an agreement, but do not have the authority to end the dispute by making a binding decision. An arbitrator is an impartial third party who has the authority to settle a labor-management dispute by rendering a binding decision. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #250 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 251. (p. 325) A grievance is: A. B. C. D. an implication that management has broken a management - union agreement, but it must be proven. an employee's perception that management has not in some way fulfilled a labor contract agreement. the disappointment that members of a union feel when management refuses to participate in good faith collective bargaining. the result of a poorly arbitrated conflict. A grievance is a charge by an employee that management is not abiding by the agreed upon labor contract, as he/she perceives it. Grievances are usually filed due to problems with overtime rules, promotions, layoffs, transfers and job assignments. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #251 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 252. (p. 326) Labor unions and management hope to resolve issues through collective bargaining. Each side comes to the table with a range of options they are willing to consider - some more appealing than others. All options that each will consider fall within the _________________. A. B. C. D. the LRB list of possibilities the cases of consideration the lands of indifference bargaining zone The bargaining zone is the range of options that each side is willing to consider in the process of collective bargaining. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #252 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 253. (p. 324) Hector is philosophically opposed to unions. "Why should I be required to join an organization I don't agree with, or pay a fee to support it financially?" he asked some of his buddies who belong to the union. "I thought this was a free country, but I don't feel very free when I'm told that I'll lose my job if I don't join the union. It just isn't fair." Hector's comments suggest he favors a(n) __________ shop arrangement. A. B. C. D. closed open regulated certified Under an open shop arrangement, workers can join a union if they wish (if one is present in the workplace) but cannot be required to join a union or pay a fee to a union to keep their jobs. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #253 Topic: Figure 12.4: Forms of Union Agreements 254. (p. 324) Amie was recently hired at Kreigmeister Industries as a repairperson. She was informed that if she chose not join the union representing her fellow repair workers, she would still have to pay a fee to the union. Apparently, Kreigmeister operates under a (n): A. B. C. D. illegal arrangement, since nonmembers can never legally be required to pay fees to unions. closed shop agreement. union shop agreement. agency shop agreement. In an agency shop, workers do not have to join a union, but nonmembers are required to pay either a special union fee or regular union dues. Union supporters justify this type of arrangement because the collective bargaining efforts of the union gain benefits for all workers, not just those who belong to the union. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #254 Topic: Figure 12.4: Forms of Union Agreements 255. (p. 324) In the late 1930s management at Bodenger Industries agreed to hire only those workers who were already members of the Steelworkers Union. Bodenger had agreed to a type of arrangement known as a(n): A. B. C. D. closed shop. open shop. union shop. restricted shop. In a closed shop, workers must belong to the union before they could be hired. While this type of arrangement was legal in the 1930s, the Taft-Hartley Act declared closed shops illegal in 1947. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #255 Topic: Figure 12.4: Forms of Union Agreements 256. (p. 326) At the Grenchit Corporation the union and management have not been able to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a grievance. The two sides have agreed to bring in a(n) _________ who will examine the evidence and arguments on both sides and issue a binding decision. A. B. C. D. mediator arbitrator fact finder union steward Figure 12.6 illustrates the different steps the formal grievance procedure could follow. An arbitrator is an impartial third party who will render a binding decision in a labor dispute. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #256 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 257. (p. 325) Anna believes that her manager violated the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement when he required her to report to work on a holiday. She has discussed her concerns with her shop steward and he agrees with her. It is likely the steward will encourage Anna to: A. B. C. D. start looking for another job in a right-to-work state. contact the local chapter of the ACLU. send a letter of protest to the president of the union. pursue a grievance over the interpretation of the labor contract. A grievance is a charge by employees that management is not abiding by or fulfilling the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #257 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 258. (p. 326) You've been on your lunch break for less than 45 minutes when your boss orders you to return to work immediately or be docked an hour's pay. You complain that the current labor contract specifies a full hour for your lunch break and you still have over 15 minutes left. Your boss stands firm on his order for you to return to work. Under protest, you return to work, but plan to file a grievance. The first step you should take is to contact a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrator. mediator. strikebreaker. shop steward. Shop stewards are union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interest on a daily basis. Figure 12.6 in the text shows that the first step for an employee who wants to file a grievance is to contact the shop steward. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #258 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 259. (p. 326) Dr. Kwan, a professor at a local university, has been working with the union leaders and management at Empire Corporation to help the two sides resolve differences over desired wage levels for a new contract. First, he met with each side privately to determine any common ground for agreement. For the past week, he has worked with representatives from each side to promote communication and compromise at the bargaining table. Dr. Kwan is a(n): A. B. C. D. arbitrator. mediator. fact finder. shop steward. A mediator is an impartial third party who encourages both sides in a labor dispute to continue negotiating. Mediators will often make suggestions for resolving a disagreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #259 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 260. (p. 324) Yogi believes that an agency shop is the most desirable union security arrangement. Which of the following statements would be most likely to represent Yogi's views? A. A union can succeed in its collective bargaining efforts only if it represents all workers. Therefore, workers should be required to join the union soon after they are hired. B. Workers should be allowed to join a union if they wish, but they should not be required to join or pay a fee to the union in order to keep their job. C. Workers should not be required to join a union to keep their jobs. However, since all workers enjoy the benefits obtained through collective bargaining, even those who do not join should pay a fee to support the union. D. Unions should be replaced by employee stock ownership plans that give workers a say in the management of their firms. Under an agency shop arrangement, workers are not required to join a union, but those who do not join must pay a union fee. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #260 Topic: Figure 12.4: Forms of Union Agreements 261. (p. 325) According to information contained in the "Reaching Beyond Our Borders" box in Chapter 12, U.S. unions, A. B. C. D. believe that they can bargain for better wages and benefits if they globalize. are staving off European and Asian unions from trying to grow and gain a stronghold on the market that the U.S. unions enjoyed. the lackluster numbers of participants in unions in Europe are an indication that unions will not be "going global" anytime soon. like companies, see national borders as obstacles rather than opportunities. The U.S. unions are interested in globalizing and some have already taken steps in that direction, including the U.S. Steel Workers and the United Food and Commercial Workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #261 Topic: Reaching Beyond Our Borders box 262. (p. 326) Art B.Traytor, a member of the American Arbitration Association and long-standing faculty member of the business school of a large university is heading out on the next plane for Detroit, Michigan where he will serve as an arbitrator between members of the United Auto Workers union and management of a major auto manufacturer. His responsibilities will deal with: A. certifying union representation at the Michigan manufacturing sites. B. certifying union representation and collective bargaining at all manufacturing sites that the auto manufacturer currently has in operations, including any in Mexico and Canada (in accordance with NAFTA). C. listening to both sides of an unresolved dispute between labor and management and render a binding decision on the problem. D. protecting the interests of management and staving off a strike by the auto workers. Arbitration is a more extreme form of negotiation as compared to mediation. The arbitrator will listen to the perceptions and problems of both parties and workout a binding solution to the dispute. Both sides must preliminarily agree that they will accept the arbitrator's decision. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #262 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 263. (p. 326) As a management executive left the meeting between his team and the company's union representatives and headed straight for the CEO's office, he reviewed where things seemed to breakdown. Union reps came to the table with three different offers to resolve the insurance and vacation benefits problems laborers were experiencing. Management offered its own resolutions - two different ones, to be exact. The problem was that a bargaining zone did not emerge. Neither side was willing to consider each other's alternatives. As he reached the CEO's door, he was ready to concede that the negotiations were probably headed to ________________. A. B. C. D. collective bargaining arbitration a vote mediation Labor and management were proceeding with collective bargaining, however, they had reached an impasse because there was no bargaining zone. The next step is to enter into mediation, where an impartial third party listens to disagreements and solutions offered by both sides, encourages the talks to continue, and makes suggestions for alternative solutions leading toward resolution. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #263 Topic: Mediation and Arbitration 264. (p. 327) Historically, the most potent union tactic when collective bargaining efforts break down has been the: A. B. C. D. strike. lockout. court injunction. primary boycott. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #264 Topic: Union Tactics 265. (p. 327) When union members who have a dispute with a company walk around outside the firm's place of business carrying signs and talking to the media and public about their concerns, they are using a tactic known as: A. boycotting. B. estopment. C. striking. D. picketing. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #265 Topic: Union Tactics 266. (p. 328) A(n) __________ occurs when a union encourages its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute. A. B. C. D. injunction wildcat strike primary boycott embargo AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #266 Topic: Union Tactics 267. (p. 328) A(n) ___________ is a court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something. A. B. C. D. restrictive covenant injunction judicial encyclical declaratory judgment AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #267 Topic: Management Tactics 268. (p. 327 328) A. B. C. D. Two of the most important tactics used by unions when collective bargaining efforts break down are: strikes and boycotts. injunctions and lockouts. conciliation and yellow-dog contracts. enforcement of right-to-work clauses and cooling-off periods. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #268 Topic: Union Tactics 269. (p. 328) A(n) ________ boycott is an illegal attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that does business with a company that is the subject of a primary boycott. A. B. C. D. extended secondary tactical strategic AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #269 Topic: Union Tactics 270. (p. 328) A(n) ___________ occurs when management temporarily closes a business to deny employment to workers. A. B. C. D. lockout secondary boycott involuntary strike employment injunction AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #270 Topic: Management Tactics 271. (p. 329) At this time, the largest labor organization in the United States is the: A. B. C. D. Teamsters. Knights of Labor. United Automobile Workers. National Education Association. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #271 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 272. (p. 329) Despite a 1938 Supreme Court ruling allowing their use, ___________ were seldom used by management during labormanagement disputes until the 1980s. A. B. C. D. injunctions secondary boycotts strikebreakers yellow-dog contracts AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #272 Topic: Management Tactics 273. (p. 328) Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, the president can ask for a(n) ___________ to prevent a strike in a critical industry. A. B. C. D. arbitrator cooling-off period open shop agreement temporary take over by the federal government AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #273 Topic: Union Tactics 274. (p. 328) The __________ is a tactic police, firefighters, and other workers who are not legally allowed to strike sometimes use to express their frustration and displeasure with working conditions or pay. A. B. C. D. gold cold steel deal slow-mo blue flu AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #274 Topic: Union Tactics 275. (p. 330) In recent years some unions have granted concessions and given up benefits secured in earlier contract negotiations in an attempt to save jobs. These concessions are called: A. B. C. D. injunctions. givebacks. buyouts. disbenefits. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #275 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 276. (p. 329) ___________ are workers a company hires to replace workers who are out on strike. A. B. C. D. Yellow dogs Convergent workers Structural replacements Strikebreakers AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #276 Topic: Management Tactics 277. (p. 330) Since 1945, the unionized share of the workforce has: A. B. C. D. remained remarkably steady. dropped steadily, and today is only 12.4%. risen steadily from 13.9% in 1945 to 32.1% in 2002. fluctuated erratically with large increases in some years and large decreases in others. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #277 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 278. (p. 331) According to the material in the "Spotlight on Small Business" box in Chapter 12, a relatively recent trend is for many __________ to join unions. A. B. C. D. nurses and doctors minor league baseball players bank tellers teachers AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #278 Topic: Spotlight on Small Business box 279. (p. 330) The emergence of ______________ has changed the nature of work and affected labor-management relations. A. B. C. D. global competition yellow-dog contracts closed shop agreements scientific management AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #279 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 280. (p. 330) In recent years, many unions have begun to: A. B. C. D. focus primarily on the issue of equitable pay. assist management in redesigning work and recruiting and training workers from diverse backgrounds. take a more confrontational approach when attempting to achieve important goals. experience rapid but uneasy growth as more foreign-owned firms enter the U.S. economy, creating cultural problems for American workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #280 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 281. (p. 328) Which of the following tactics would management be most likely to use during a labor-management dispute? A. B. C. D. picketing secondary boycotts lockouts primary boycotts Picketing and boycotts are tactics that are used by labor rather than management. However, a lockout is a management tactic. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #281 Topic: Management Tactics 282. (p. 330) The ability of unions to achieve key goals in the future will depend on their ability to: A. B. C. D. reestablish their base of strength in the manufacturing sector. find ways to cooperate with management in training workers and redesigning jobs. repeal the Wagner Act and the Norris-LaGuardia Act in order to eliminate restrictions on union tactics. return to the confrontational tactics used successfully in the 1930s when unions grew rapidly. Union leaders realize that U.S. firms must remain competitive in the global economy, and that this will require unions to work with management to train workers, redesign jobs, and assimilate the 21st century workforce. The rewards unions can expect for cooperating with management include improved job security, profit sharing, and, in some cases, higher wages. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #282 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 283. (p. 330) One strategy unions must adapt in order to grow in the future is to: A. B. C. D. find ways to appeal to white-collar, female, and foreign-born workers. find ways to prevent foreign companies from entering the U.S. market. go back to the old methods of aggressive tactics and confrontation that were used successfully in the past. emphasize recruiting efforts in the manufacturing sector of the economy. The manufacturing sector has always been an area of union strength. However, future growth will require unions to find ways to appeal to workers that have not been attracted to unions in the past. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #283 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 284. (p. 327 Which of the following statements best summarizes the extent to which unions currently rely on strikes as a tactic when collective bargaining breaks down? 328) A. Unions have become increasingly reliant on strikes as other, less confrontational, tactics have proven unsuccessful. B. Some highly visible strikes in recent years show that the strike is not dead as a labor tactic, but very few labor disputes actually lead to a strike. C. Unions have almost completely avoided strikes since President Reagan replaced striking air traffic controllers with strikebreakers in 1981. D. Strikes organized by unions are now less common than lockouts by management, indicating a major shift in attitudes between labor and management. Strikes are very costly to both the firm and the workers involved, and the aftermath of a strike can be hard feelings and poor morale that plague a company for years. Thus, both management and labor seek to avoid strikes when possible. Very few labor disputes actually lead to strikes. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #284 Topic: Union Tactics 285. (p. 329) When workers go on strike, management is often compelled to keep the business operation running. If it is unable to achieve this on its own, management may: A. B. C. D. elect to proceed with a lockout. close down the facility and permanently fire the strikers. hire strikebreakers. picket. Two tactics used by management to deal with the consequences of a strike are court injunctions, asking the legal system to demand that workers return to work, or they may hire strikebreakers, temporary employees that will work in place of the striking workers. Strikebreakers must cross the picket line a choice that can often be intimidating. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #285 Topic: Management Tactics 286. (p. 329) The Making Ethical Decisions box titled, "When Do You Cross the Line?" discusses: A. B. C. D. the violence that occurs at picket lines, and the welfare of those who are physically hurt as a result of these occurrences. the ethics of participating as a strikebreaker in your community. how givebacks are very unethical on the part of management in large operations and an indication that management has "crossed the line". the ethics of participating in the blue flu. The Making Ethical Decisions box asks the student to consider how he/she would feel about taking advantage of a strike situation by seeking employment as a strikebreaker. Is it ethical to work in the place of friends and neighbors that you know are striking for reasonable concerns such as good health care benefits? AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #286 Topic: Making Ethical Decisions box 287. (p. 328) Almost overnight, several police persons, all members of the police force of the growing suburb of Mayberry called in sick. As the dispatcher took those calls - one right after the other, she speculated that there could be more to this story than she was hearing. In fact, she thought it might be related to the emotional banter she heard the night before in the locker room as several members of the force were leaving their shifts. The group was not happy with the recent changes in scheduling, the excessive over-time hours, and, management's reluctance to begin negotiations on a new benefits package. She heard one person saying, "It's time for a mental health day!" Although it is illegal for police to strike, they may be claiming to have ________. A. B. C. D. Saturday nite fever the blue flu a lockout a shutterbug Even though they can unionize, it is illegal for public safety officers such as the police and fire fighters to go on strike. When negotiations breakdown between these officers and their management, some may group together and call-in sick, as a way of boycotting work and demonstrating to management that they are not agreeing to the their work conditions. This is called the "blue flu". AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #287 Topic: Union Tactics 288. (p. 328) The Food Source Grocery chain stocks the products of Vegi-Delite Food Company at all of their supermarkets. The Teamsters Union is currently involved in a labor dispute with Vegi-Delite. The union has already encouraged its members and the general public not to buy Vegi-Delite products. Now it is threatening Food Source with the possibility of a boycott if it continues to carry the Vegi-Delite line. The union is threatening Food Source with a(n): A. B. C. D. primary boycott. secondary boycott. jurisdictional boycott. informational boycott. A secondary boycott is an attempt to discourage other organizations from doing business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott. Secondary boycotts are prohibited by the Taft-Hartley Act. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #288 Topic: Union Tactics 289. (p. 328 A large number of striking workers are currently picketing at the plant entrance to a Memphis Tire and Rubber plant. Because the pickets have threatened people entering the plant and have vandalized some company property, Memphis' management believes it 329) has just cause to ask the courts for a(n) __________ placing limits on the number of pickets and their actions while picketing. A. preemptive judgment B. writ of contention C. arbitration judgment D. injunction A court order directing someone to do something, or to refrain from doing something is called an injunction. Courts will only issue injunctions in labor disputes if the company can show just cause such as the possibility of violence or the destruction of property. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #289 Topic: Management Tactics 290. (p. 328) A labor dispute between the AFL-CIO and Gainesville Brewery is into its eighth month. The AFL-CIO has called on its membership and the general public to refuse to purchase Gainesville products. The AFL-CIO is calling for a: A. B. C. D. general boycott. secondary boycott. primary boycott. public boycott. A primary boycott occurs when organized labor encourages its membership and the general public not to buy products produced by a firm involved in a labor dispute. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #290 Topic: Union Tactics 291. (p. 329) As reported in the New York Times in November, 2008, Ron Gettelfinger, President of the U.A. W. (United Auto Workers Union) testified with auto executives in front of the U.S. Congress, saying, "The U.A.W. can't be the low-hanging fruitWhile we're at the table, we're asking that others come in and sacrifice as well." Mr.Gettelfinger was referring to the several ___________ that the autoworkers' union had agree to over the past few years in order to save jobs and particularly keep retiree benefits intact. A. B. C. D. primary boycotts givebacks herding tactics legal mandates Givebacks refer to concessions that unions grant back to management in order to save jobs or stave off worsening economic conditions. Examples of givebacks may be collective bargaining agreements for higher wages or better insurance or vacation benefits. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #291 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations 292. (p. 331) The "Spotlight on Small Business" in Chapter 12 discusses the medical profession and unions. Which of the following statements about the views of doctors and nurses is most accurate? A. Although doctors have shown little interest in union representation, the last decade has seen almost all nurses join unions. B. Doctors and nurses are reluctant to join unions because they believe unions are better suited to represent the interests of unskilled and semiskilled labor than the interests of highly skilled professional health care workers. C. Although both doctors and nurses have tried to form unions, the AFL-CIO has indicated that doctors and lawyers are not eligible for membership. D. Doctors and nurses have shown strong interest in seeking union representation. The Spotlight on Small Business cites several examples of ways doctors and nurses are seeking union representation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #292 Topic: Spotlight on Small Business box 293. (p. 328) A few years back, west coast dockworkers were locked out of their jobs in 29 west coast ports. Because many consumer goods used in the U.S. are transported from Asia to the U.S. through these ports, the lockout could have damaged the U.S. economy and security if allowed to continue. The President ordered the dockworkers back to work and both sides were ordered back to the bargaining table. Which of the following statements is the most accurate conclusion about the outcome of the labor dispute between the dockworkers union and shipping companies on the west coast? The dispute between the dockworkers and shipping companies showed that: A. B. C. D. the only effective weapon unions now have in labor-management disputes is the threat of a strike. arbitration is the only effective way to settle labor-management disputes in industries that are critical to the nation's safety or security. the Taft-Hartley Act must be invoked when there is a risk to national security. unions have become so powerful that they can shut down the entire U.S. economy. To help settle this dispute the President stepped in, using the provision of the Taft-Hartley Act that applies to critical industries such as transportation, to get both sides to the bargaining table during a "cooling off" period. (The final result was a new six-year contract that allowed both sides to achieve much of what they wanted.) AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #293 Topic: Union Tactics 294. (p. 328) In July 2009, London Met University workers went on strike and formed picket lines to oppose management's continued restructuring and the elimination of jobs. It was reported that London postal workers who belong to the Communication Workers Union refused to deliver mail to any building on the London Met campus, in respect of the picket lines and in honor of their fellow trade union members. Essentially, the courtesy that the postal workers gave to the striking employees was a: A. B. C. D. primary boycott secondary boycott tertiary boycott service industry boycott A primary boycott occurs when the striking union discourages its members and the general public from buying the products and services of the organization they are striking against. A secondary boycott occurs when other organizations are encouraged to stop doing business with the organization that is the focus of the primary boycott. In this situation, the postal workers voluntarily agreed to boycott the university by refusing to provide their service to the school. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #294 Topic: Union Tactics 295. (p. 329) When AT&T anticipated that 20,000 mobility workers were planning to strike to show their solidarity against concerns of unfair compensation, management was already calling staffing agents to temporarily employ persons to cover for striking employees. Traditionally, these workers are called ___________. A. B. C. D. mobile temps picket busters strikebreakers boycotters Strikebreakers are persons who are temporarily hired to replace striking employees. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #295 Topic: Union Tactics 296. (p. 332) A comparison of compensation of CEOs in the U.S. with compensation of top executives in Canada and Europe indicates that: A. B. C. D. U.S. CEOs are working for much lower compensation. pay for CEOs at major corporations is about the same in all of these nations. executives in the U.S. are compensated at a much higher rate. U.S. executives are paid better than average when their firms are successful, but worse than average when their firms struggle. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #296 Topic: Executive Compensation 297. (p. 333) According to one of the top management consultants of the past 40 years, the late Peter Drucker: A. top executives are entitled to any level of pay they can negotiate with their board of directors. B. the annual pay for top executives should include a small guaranteed salary and should include a very large bonus in years where the firm earns higher profits than competitors. C. all bonuses paid to CEOs should be tied to long-run increases in market share. D. CEOs should not earn much more than 20 times the earnings of the company's lowest-paid employee. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #297 Topic: Pay Equity 298. (p. 332 333) A. B. C. D. Over the past several decades, the compensation of CEOs of large U.S. corporations has: remained relatively stable once inflation is taken into account. become based more on salary and less on stock options. increased enormously, even when inflation is taken into account. consistently lagged behind the compensation of top executives in Europe and Asia. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #298 Topic: Executive Compensation 299. (p. 334) In some European countries, companies practice co-determination. For example, A. B. C. D. CEOs can only earn their salaries if the company is profitable. in some cases, 50% of the board of directors is company workers. the CEO compensation is determined by the Stockholders and the government. the union representatives and management form a hiring committee to select the CEO. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #299 Topic: Executive Compensation 300. (p. 332 333) A. B. C. D. In the past, the compensation of chief executive officers of corporations was based on: the assumption that CEOs should be major stockholders of the corporations that they managed. a generally accepted principle that CEOs should earn no more than 40 times the compensation of the company's lowest-paid employee. company profitability and increases in the value of their firm's stock. the size of the company. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #300 Topic: Executive Compensation 301. (p. 334) _____________ is the demand for equal pay for jobs requiring similar levels of education, training, and skill. A. B. C. D. Affirmative action Compensation by objectives Equal opportunity pay Comparable worth AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #301 Topic: Pay Equity 302. (p. 334) Women have become a __________ part of the labor force. A. B. C. D. sizeable and permanent temporary smaller less important AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #302 Topic: Pay Equity 303. (p. 334) Today, women earn approximately ________ of what men earn, though the disparity varies considerably by profession and the level of education. A. B. C. D. 26% 49% 79% 97% AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #303 Topic: Pay Equity 304. (p. 334) Studies conducted at the University of Michigan found that earnings of women graduating with baccalaureate degrees were: A. B. C. D. less than 60% of men's earnings in all fields. about 70% of what male graduates earned. about 96% of men's earnings. about 104% of men's earnings. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #304 Topic: Pay Equity 305. (p. 335) ____________ refers to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other unsolicited conduct of a sexual nature. A. B. C. D. Sexual harassment Gender bias Sexual opportunism Sexual coercion AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #305 Topic: Sexual Harassment 306. (p. 335) The number of sexual harassment complaints filed annually with the Equal Opportunity Commission: A. B. C. D. decreased by almost 30% between 1992 and 1999. has leveled off since 2000. remained fairly stable in the 1990s but has recently increased dramatically. was greatly exaggerated by the media during the 1990s and early 2000s. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #306 Topic: Sexual Harassment 307. (p. 335) Sexual harassment laws: A. B. C. D. apply only to situations in which men make unwelcome advances to women. are enforceable only in states that have enacted right-to-work laws. apply to the conduct of women as well as men. are applied only in situations in which a person must submit to unwanted advances in order to keep his or her job. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #307 Topic: Sexual Harassment 308. (p. 335) _________ sexual harassment refers to situations in which an employee's submission to unwanted conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment or is used to influence employment decisions affecting the worker's job status. A. B. C. D. Quid pro quo Post hoc Ceteris paribus Reflexive AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #308 Topic: Sexual Harassment 309. (p. 335) Harassment that creates an intimidating, or offensive work environment falls under the type of sexual harassment known as a(n): A. B. C. D. hostile work environment. quid pro quo. extroverted harassment. de jure harassment. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #309 Topic: Sexual Harassment 310. (p. 336) Small businesses have found that child care programs: A. B. C. D. are too expensive to offer, which puts them at a serious disadvantage when competing against larger firms to attract the best workers. can be offered in creative ways that enable the firm to offer an attractive benefit to workers with young children. are less necessary now than they were before the federal government expanded its child care programs. are not very expensive, but tend to be more trouble than they are worth. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #310 Topic: Child Care 311. (p. 337) As the workforce of the U.S. ages, a greater percentage of workers will have to concern themselves with: A. B. C. D. finding care for their children. caring for older relatives. the educational benefits of downsizing. transportation issues. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #311 Topic: Elder Care 312. (p. 337) According to Sandra Timmermann, Director of Met Life's Mature Market Institute, the key job-related issue of the next decade will be: A. B. C. D. child care. continuing education. sexual harassment. elder care. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #312 Topic: Elder Care 313. (p. 337) From a work-related perspective, elder care providers may require _____________ as part of their job. A. B. C. D. mini-van ownership medicare options flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting distance learning classes AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #313 Topic: Elder Care 314. (p. 337) It is estimated that firms lose ___________ annually in productivity, absenteeism, and employee turnover due to caring for aging parents. A. B. C. D. $42 million $10 thousand $11 billion a decreasing amount AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #314 Topic: Elder Care 315. (p. 338) Drug problems among workers is costing the U.S. economy upwards of ______ in lost work, health care costs, and even crime and accidents. A. B. C. D. $100 million $50 billion $275 billion $50 thousand AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #315 Topic: Drug Testing 316. (p. 338) The U.S. Department of Labor cites ________ as the third leading cause of job-related fatalities. A. B. C. D. homicide equipment-related accidents suicide toxic chemicals AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #316 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 317. (p. 338) The national Institute of Health estimates that each drug abuser can cost an employer approximately __________ annually. A. B. C. D. $500 $1,000 $5,000 $11,000 AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #317 Topic: Drug Testing 318. (p. 338) Which of the following is an effective way to deal with the growing threat of workplace violence? A. B. C. D. Ignore it, as the amount of workplace violence has actually decreased substantially. Hire managers with strong interpersonal skills. Ask employees that are experiencing threats or harassment to take paid leave. Avoid disciplining employees who are not performing up to par since they will learn on the job and their performance will improve over time. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Nickels - Chapter 12 #318 Topic: Drug Testing 319. (p. 335) In 1997, the Supreme Court rendered a decision on a case stipulating that sexual harassment law: A. B. C. D. did not apply to casual jokes of a sexual nature. applied to same-sex harassment, as well. did not apply to married couples who are working together. only applied to cases where a subordinate felt harassed by an immediate supervisor. The Supreme Court (in 1997) said that same-sex harassment also falls within the purview of sexual harassment law. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #319 Topic: Sexual Harassment 320. (p. 336) The subject" "Who pays for child care when the parent(s) works?" is A. B. C. D. not a concern because the law requires companies to provide child care facilities, or to pay employees a stipend if it is not available. by law, a shared responsibility between employer and employee. not the concern of employees without children or single-income households because they always get to choose a different benefit. a controversial subject, with no legal resolution to date. There is no consensus or legal resolution about child care benefits at this time. Questions about responsibilities for child care subsidies, child care programs, and parental leave have spurred much debate. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #320 Topic: Child Care 321. (p. 335) Which of the following is likely to remain a controversial labor-management issue in the future? A. B. C. D. The ability of employers to use yellow-dog contracts Enforcement of the Taft-Hartley Act Sexual harassment A resurgence of the Knights of Labor The text discusses several controversial labor-management issues including executive compensation, pay equity, sexual harassment, childcare and elder care, drug testing and violence in the workplace. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #321 Topic: Sexual Harassment 322. (p. 332 333) A. B. C. D. One of the major criticisms of executive compensation in the United States is that: despite their high pay, top managers usually work fewer hours than other employees in the firm. the compensation of top executives often seems to have little or no relationship to how well their companies are performing. top executives' compensation does nothing to encourage them to improve the value of their company's stock. many U.S. executives are paid much less than their counterparts earn in Europe and Japan. The salaries, benefits, stock options, and bonuses earned by top executives sometimes rise even when their companies perform poorly. In the Legal Briefcase box, the text cites several examples of CEOs whose compensation did not correlate with company performance measurements. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #322 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 323. (p. 333) According to material in the "Legal Briefcase" box in Chapter 12, when chief executives of large companies retire or get fired they: A. B. C. D. are legally required to forfeit any shares of stock they received as compensation from the firm. are sometimes better off financially than if they had stayed with the company. typically continue to receive their salary for about two years, but forgo any bonuses or other forms of compensation. usually receive more income from dividends on the company stock they own than they do from their severance package or retirement pension. The Legal Briefcase box documents provides examples of high profile CEO's who received performance bonuses, exorbitant severance packages and other incentives contractually due to them upon parting ways with their employers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #323 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 324. (p. 334) The fact that workers sometimes serve on the board of directors of European companies helps explain why: A. B. C. D. European executives accept less responsibility for the successes and failures of the firms they lead. European CEOs earn much less than American CEOs. European firms are more likely to seek protection from foreign competition than American firms. workers in Europe are less likely to believe unions are necessary than workers in the United States. Since boards set executive compensation, the presence of workers on boards can serve as a restraint on this compensation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #324 Topic: CEO Compensation 325. (p. 334) Comparable worth primarily is concerned with: A. B. C. D. ensuring equal pay for men and women who work for the same firm and have the same job title. reducing the gap between pay for executives and the pay for non-managerial employees. ensuring equal pay for jobs requiring similar levels of skill, education and training. determining whether men or women are better suited to perform various jobs. Comparable worth does not mean that men and women who perform the same job should receive the same pay. Rather, it focuses on comparing jobs, to ensure that people in jobs that require the same levels of skill, education and training receive equal pay. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #325 Topic: Pay Equity 326. (p. 338) Which of the following statements about drug users is a claim made by the National Institute of Drug Abuse? A. B. C. D. If you drink a lot of alcohol, you also abuse drugs. Drug users typically cost their company more in health and workman's comp claims. Drug users are (overall) friendlier people because they do not take much seriously, including their jobs. There is a strong correlation between drug abuse and sexual harassment. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, drug users cost their companies twice as much in medical claims and workman's compensation claims than do non-drug users. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #326 Topic: Drug Testing 327. (p. 336) On-site daycare facilities: A. B. C. D. are now very common in large and small business. decrease employee productivity because parents are distracted by going to the daycare site too many times during the day. are costly for companies to maintain. develop smarter children. Daycare facilities are costly to maintain but usually result in positive long-term affects with respect to better employee productivity. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #327 Topic: Child Care 328. (p. 337) An assessment of elder care needs in the United States suggests that: A. most firms have done a better job in responding to the need for elder care than they have in dealing with the need for child care. B. employees who must care for elderly parents are often in positions that are more critical to the firm's success than workers with concerns about child care. C. although an increasing number of employees must find ways to care for elderly parents, fewer firms will need to offer elder care than child care because the federal government already provides a great deal of assistance to the elderly. D. while an issue for some workers, at the present time elder care is not a high profile item for most businesses. It is usually the older, more experienced employees that must care for elderly parents. These older employees are often in positions with job responsibilities that are critical to their company's success. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Comprehension Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #328 Topic: Elder Care 329. (p. 333) Paulo owns a few shares of stock in a large and diversified firm. He realizes that the CEO of the company is responsible for a multi-billion dollar business, but is upset with what he feels is excessive compensation for the chief executive officer, particularly since the firm has reported losses for the past two years. Paulo's concerns are: A. unfounded, since laws in the United States prevent firms from paying large salaries or bonuses to executives when a firm reports a loss. B. based on an erroneous conclusion, because CEO pay is always based on a formula tied to the company's profits and losses. C. likely to be well-founded since CEO compensation at many U.S. companies has actually increased even when the company performed poorly. D. not entirely unfounded, but he needs to realize that the pay received by most chief executives must be reinvested in the company if it's unprofitable for three years in a row. CEO compensation often soars even when the firm performs poorly. In fact, some CEOs earn huge payouts even when performance is so bad that they are force to resign. The Legal Briefcase in this chapter cites several examples of this type of situation. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #329 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 330. (p. 334) Exceptional Enterprises launched a program to evaluate the relative levels of skills, education, and training needed to perform various jobs. Based on the results of this evaluation, the firm intends to adjust pay scales so that jobs requiring similar levels of skills, abilities, and education will receive similar pay. Exceptional Enterprises' program is an attempt to deal with the issue of: A. B. C. D. comparable worth. affirmative action. reverse discrimination. equal employment opportunities. Comparable worth is concerned with achieving equal pay for jobs requiring the same level of skill, training, and education. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #330 Topic: Pay Equity 331. (p. 337) Which of the following statements about the costs of elder care is most accurate? A. It should be much less expensive for firms to provide elder care than for them to provide child-care. B. The financial burdens of elder care on the children of aging parents are likely to become less serious in the future than they are today, because many senior citizens are now remaining employed into their 70s rather than retiring in their early 60s. C. Although elder care is expensive, the good news is that companies can receive a great deal of assistance from the federal government when they establish qualified elder care programs. D. The costs of elder care are likely to rise very rapidly in coming years as an increasing number of older and more experienced employees face the need to care for aging parents and other relatives. As the workforce of the United States ages, an increasing number of employees will face the need to care for aging parents or other relatives. Since the workers who have elderly parents are likely to be among the company's most experienced employees, they are likely to be in positions of greater authority and responsibility than workers who have child care needs. Thus, the cost of absenteeism, tardiness, turnover and reduced productivity of workers with elder care responsibilities could be especially high. Moreover, the federal government currently provides little assistance to providers of elder care. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #331 Topic: Elder Care 332. (p. 338) As an employee of the human resource department of a major corporation, you are concerned about the potential costs of drug abuse. You are contemplating testing employees for substance abuse. Before adopting such tests, you should know that: A. B. C. D. this type of testing has been found to be illegal, but many firms do it anyway. medical tests of this nature are not very accurate. if you use these tests, your company will join over 70 percent of major companies that test workers and job applicants. these tests are very expensive, and should only be given to those who may belong to groups judged to be at higher risk. Today over 70 percent of major companies now test workers and job applicants for substance abuse. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #332 Topic: Drug Testing 333. (p. 338) Tom Dash works as a researcher studying the effects of alcohol and drug abuse at a large research university on the east coast. The alcohol center's mission statement reads, "Our mission is to conduct, coordinate, and promote basic and clinical research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of alcoholism and alcoholic disease." Looking forward, which of the following statements are you likely to agree with? A. Tom's work, although impressive will not have any short term or long-term effect on the cost of labor in the U.S. B. The U.S. has seen significant declines in alcohol and drug related issues in the work place. Tom would better serve the business world by working on AIDS related diseases. C. Illegal drug use is more of a problem than alcohol in terms of the number of work-related accidents that these problems cause. Tom should know, though that the baby boomers are the major drug users, and they are retiring. D. Tom Dash's work is greatly needed by business and industry. Alcohol and drug use continue to be on the rise and present serious work related costs to businesses across almost all industries. Alcohol is the most widely used drug with over 6.2% of all U.S. employees believed to be heavy drinkers. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, employed drug users cost their employers about twice as much in medical and workers' compensation claims than drug-free co-workers. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #333 Topic: Drug Testing 334. (p. 338) SafenSwift Airlines implemented a program to curb workplace violence before it occurs. Under this program, the employees of SafenSwift can expect to: A. B. C. D. share in any profits their airline earns. get paid extended leave if they become especially and visibly angry at work. see much more use of contingent workers. take part in focus groups to share their ideas about workplace violence prevention. Many executives and managers consider workplace violence a serious issue and have taken action to prevent problems before they occur. To deal with this growing threat, firms have held focus groups to invite employee input, hired managers with strong interpersonal skills, and employed skilled consultants to deal with any growing potential of workplace violence. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #334 Topic: Violence in the Workplace 335. (p. 335) Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is most accurate? A. Only men can be charged with sexual harassment. B. Sexual harassment cannot be proven unless the employee's submission to such conduct was made explicitly a term of employment or was used to influence the results of the employee's performance appraisal. C. One flaw with the current laws concerning sexual harassment is that they do not take into account the possibility of same-sex harassment. D. In evaluating charges of sexual harassment, the courts place a great deal of emphasis on whether the behavior was unwelcomed. In evaluating charges of sexual harassment, a key word seems to be unwelcome, a term that refers to behavior that would offend a reasonable person. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #335 Topic: Sexual Harassment 336. (p. 337) Last year, a retired schoolteacher moved her parents from Michigan to northern Illinois to live with her. For the past year, she was traveling two times each month to provide care for this eighty-six year old couple, including coordinating medical services and meals. In conversations with her family members, the teacher remarked, "If I were not already retired, I would have to quit my job to continue this way!" This retired teacher: A. is in an unusual situation because there are more persons entering the workforce with childcare issues than with taking care of aging Americans. B. is like a growing number of families whose households are caring for aging parents and relatives. C. will benefit by all the affordable elder care facilities that cost about $20,000 per year. D. should be advised that Medicare and Medicaid are covering all medical expenses for person 65 years and older, so she should not be experiencing such a burden. Some workers may have to concern themselves with finding child care many workers will confront another problem: how to care for older parents and relatives. The number of households with at least one adult providing elder care has tripled since 1992. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #336 Topic: Elder Care 337. (p. 321) Identify several laws that significantly influenced labor-management relations. Discuss the major provisions of each law. The text lists five acts that have had a major impact on labor-management relations. Much of the information about the major provisions of each law is provided in Figure 12.1. The Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 prohibited courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent union activities, outlawed contracts forbidding union activities, and outlawed yellow-dog contracts that required workers to agree not to join a union as a condition of employment. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (popularly known as the Wagner Act) gave employees the right to form and join labor unions, the right to engage in collective bargaining with employers, and the right to engage in strikes, picketing, and boycotts. This act also established the National Labor Relations Board to oversee labor-management relations and to oversee the union certification process. Under the certification process, if a union receives more than half the votes cast in a secret ballot election, the NLRB recognizes the union as the exclusive bargaining agent for the workers. Once a union is certified, the employer is required to bargain in good faith on wages, working conditions, and other terms of employment. This act gave a significant boost to the union movement. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 established the first minimum wage (25 cents an hour) and established the maximum basic hours for workers engaged in interstate commerce. The Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947 (popularly known as the Taft-Hartley Act) prohibited closed shop arrangements (where employees had to belong to the union before they could be hired). It also allowed states to pass right-to-work laws banning the union shop (in which employees were required to join the union after they were hired in order to keep their jobs). Taft-Hartley also included provisions for handling strikes that threatened the nation's health and safety, and made featherbedding and secondary boycotts illegal. This act gave more power to management. The Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (also known as the Landrum-Griffin Act) guaranteed the rights of individual union members to participate in union meetings, nominate candidates for union office, and vote in union elections. This law also gave union members the right to examine union records and accounts and required unions to make annual financial reports to the U.S. Department of Labor. The major goals of this act were to clean up union corruption and make unions more responsive to their members. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #337 Topic: Figure 12.1 338. (p. 323 Explain the difference between closed, open, union, and agency shop agreements. What impact did the Taft-Hartley Act have on the use of closed and union shop arrangements? 324) Under a union shop agreement, the firm can hire anyone it wishes to hire, but workers must join the union within a specified period of time (usually 30, 60 or 90 days) to keep their jobs. The Taft-Hartley Act recognized the legality of this arrangement, but allowed individual states to ban union shops by passing right-to-work laws. (At the present time, 22 states have passed right-to-work laws.) In open shop agreements, union membership is voluntary even if a union operates in the work place. Workers who choose not to join the union do not have to pay union dues, yet share in the same benefits others workers receive. Needless to say, most unions oppose the open shop agreement. An agency shop agreement, like an open shop, allows workers to join a union or not join a union. In an agency shop, however, the workers who do not join must pay a fee to the union. In many instances the union fee is equivalent to the dues paid by members. A closed shop arrangement required workers to belong to the union before they could be hired. The Taft-Hartley Act outlawed this type of arrangement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #338 Topic: Figure 12.4 339. (p. 325 327) Identify and describe the major tactics used by unions and management when collective bargaining efforts break down. The primary tactics used by labor are strikes and boycotts. In addition, union members also will sometimes engage in picketing a place of work where a labor management dispute exists. Strikes: Historically, the strike has been the most powerful weapon of organized labor. In a strike workers refuse to go to work and attempt to stop the operations of the company with which they have a dispute. Strikes also focus public opinion on the labor dispute. Strikes tend to be very costly to both labor and management, and often result in hard feelings long after the labor dispute has been resolved. Thus both management and unions attempt to avoid strikes whenever possible and only a small percentage of labor disputes actually result in strikes. However, since the successful strike against UPS in 1997, unions have been more willing to strike than they were in the 1980s and early 1990s. Boycotts: Boycotts can be either primary or secondary. In a primary boycott, labor encourages its membership, as well as the general public, not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute. Secondary boycotts attempt to convince other organizations that do business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott to stop their support. Primary boycotts are legal, but the Taft-Hartley Act prohibits secondary boycotts. Although strikes and boycotts are the major weapons used by unions, some students may also note that unions may also use picketing. This refers to having workers walk around the outside of the organization where a dispute exists, carrying signs and talking to the public about their issues and concerns. The idea is to call attention to the union's position and gain public support. Picketing often is done in conjunction with a strike, but may also be a tactic used as an informational tool even before a strike occurs. The most important tactics of management are lockouts, injunctions, and hiring strikebreakers: Lockouts: Management can try to put pressure on workers by temporarily closing the business, thus denying workers employment. Lockouts are not used very often in labor disputes today. Injunctions: An injunction is a court order directing someone to do something or refrain from doing something. Management commonly uses this tactic to get striking workers back to work, to limit picketing in front of a place of business, or to prevent other union practices that could be considered detrimental to the public welfare. The Norris-LaGuardia Act states that a court can only issue such an injunction if the company can show "just cause," such as the possibility of violence or the destruction of property. Strikebreakers: When workers go out on strike, firms can hire replacement workers who are referred to as strikebreakers (or "scabs" by the striking workers). This tactic is used more frequently today than in the past. President Reagan used strikebreakers during the air traffic controllers' strike in 1981. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #339 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 340. (p. 332 339) Identify and discuss three controversial employee-management issues. The text covers a large number of controversial issues. Any three of the following issues would be acceptable: Executive compensation - how much is too much? The average CEO of a major U.S. corporation makes 160 times the pay of a typical American factory worker, and CEO compensation often rises even when the company performs poorly. Pay equity - The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires companies to give equal pay to men and women who do the same job, yet in the U.S. today, women earn approximately 80 percent of what men earn, though the disparity varies considerably by profession. As women continue to comprise a large percentage of the labor force, pay equity promises to be a challenging issue. Sexual harassment--what constitutes sexually harassing behavior? How can firms discourage such behavior? The number of sexual harassment complaints has increased significantly during the 1990s, but appears to have leveled off in recent years. Sexual harassment is still the largest category of complaints filed with the EEOC. Child-care costs continue to rise as single parent and two-income households continue to grow. Employers are concerned because absences related to child care already cost American businesses billions of dollars annually, and employee child care is controversial around the question of who should pay for child care services. Some workers argue that single workers and single-income families should not subsidize child-care for dual-income families. Elder care is rapidly becoming more important than the child-care issue as the workforce ages. Very few firms do much to help employees faced with the need to care for an aging relative. However, the costs of elder care to firms are already significant and are likely to skyrocket as the workforce ages. Reductions in Medicare and Medicaid place greater burdens on family caregivers. Proactive firms will seek to come up with creative ways to deal with this problem. The problems and dangers associated with drug and alcohol use have led many companies to test workers and job applicants for substance abuse. Workplace violence is a growing trend. OSHA reports that workplace homicides account for 16 percent of all workplace deaths. While some companies believe that reports of workplace violence are overblown by the media, others are being proactive and holding focus groups to invite employee input, hiring managers with strong interpersonal skills, and employing skilled consultants to deal with any growing potential of workplace violence. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #340 Topic: Controversial Employee-Management Issues 341. (p. 329 331) Union membership has declined in recent years. What has led to this decline and what can unions do to turn this trend around? The decline in union membership has resulted from a number of trends over the past several decades. The manufacturing sector, where unions were strongest in the past, is no longer the dominant sector of the economy. Today the U.S. economy is much more service oriented. The workforce is becoming increasingly diverse. Management styles are different, labor laws have changed, and global competition is tougher. All of these changes have caused many critics to state that traditional unions are no longer in touch with current needs and issues. For example, some critics maintain that improved legal protection and more democratic management styles have eliminated the harsh treatment and abuse that unions have cited in the past to justify their role. In order to grow and remain viable, unions must recognize and adapt to changes in the economic, legal, and social environment in which they operate. They will need to adapt to a workforce that is becoming increasingly culturally diverse, white-collar, female, and foreign-born. Another key to long-term union success is to recognize that it is vital for U.S. firms to remain competitive with foreign firms. Unions have already begun to work with management to find ways to train workers, redesign jobs, and adapt to the increasingly diverse workforce to improve U.S. competitiveness in key industries. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #341 Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations Mini-Case The workers at Endrun Corporation are not affiliated with a union. Until recently, the workers felt they were well paid and treated fairly by the company, so they had little interest in seeking union representation. However, worker morale at Endrun has declined steadily since the board of directors fired the old CEO last year and replaced him with Ty Runt, a no-nonsense, autocratic manager with a reputation for cutting costs. As soon as he took over, Ty fired other members of the old top management team and replaced them with people who shared his views. Together, the new management team made a series of moves that did not sit well with Endrun's workers. First, they announced changes in work procedures designed to speed up the production line. Many workers complained that the new methods cut corners and were unsafe, but management refused to listen. A few months after changing work methods, the company told workers that it was reducing their health benefits. This led to even greater worker unrest. Finally, just a few weeks ago, workers received word that the wages of all production line employees would be cut by 6 percent. Many employees felt this was the last straw, especially since the company's board of directors recently approved big salary increases and more lucrative stock option plans for Ty and his management team. A spokesperson for the board explained that the raises were justified because of the management team's "outstanding efforts to reduce costs, increase productivity, and improve the company's profits." Several disgruntled employees, led by Ima Striker and Boyd Cotter, now believe it is time to obtain union representation. Top managers at the company have hinted that workers who actively participate in the union campaign may be among the first workers laid off if the company decides to downsize. Ima and Boyd are not intimidated by these management threats. "I wish we didn't have to do this," Ima recently told many of her fellow workers at the plant. "But someone has to stop Ty Runt and his team from ruining our jobs." Nickels - Chapter 12 342. (p. 320) Ima, Boyd, and their fellow employees at Endrun work on an assembly line and do not have a specialized skill. If they are successful in their quest to set-up a union, they would probably be represented by a(n) ________ union. A. B. C. D. craft industrial freelance traditional An industrial union consists of unskilled and semiskilled workers in mass-production industries such as automobile manufacturing and mining. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-1 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #342 Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor 343. (p. 321) The steps Ima, Boyd and their fellow workers must take to get the union legally recognized as the authorized bargaining agent are parts of the __________ process. A. B. C. D. accreditation arbitration certification collective bargaining The process by which a union is recognized by the NLRB as the authorized bargaining agent for a group of workers is known as certification. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #343 Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining 344. (p. 325) After gaining union representation, any workers with complaints regarding promotions, layoffs, and job assignments will file a(n) ________ with their shop steward. A. B. C. D. grievance arbitration request injunction yellow-dog contract A grievance is a charge by employees that management is not abiding by or fulfilling the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #344 Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements 345. (p. 324) The plant where Ima and Boyd work is located in Illinois, which does not have a right-to-work law. If the workers approve the union as their bargaining agent, Boyd wants to get the greatest union membership that is legally possible. Boyd is likely to push for a(n): A. closed shop. B. agency shop. C. union shop. D. sweatshop. Although a closed shop used to be the strongest type of union security, the Taft-Hartley Act declared this type of arrangement illegal in 1947. The strongest union security arrangement that is permitted under the Taft-Hartley Act is a union shop. In a union shop, workers do not have to belong to a union before they are hired, but they do have to join the union within a specified time to keep their jobs. Union shops are legal in all states except those that have passed right-to-work laws. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-3 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #345 Topic: Figure 12.4 346. (p. 328) Ty Runt has always taken a hard line against unionization efforts. Two years ago, when workers at his previous company tried to obtain union representation, the company closed down the plant and refused to let employees work until they abandoned their efforts to form a union. This management tactic is called a(n): A. B. C. D. management strike. secondary boycott. injunction. lockout. The lockout is a management tactic designed to put pressure on workers by temporarily closing the business. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-4 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #346 Topic: Management Tactics 347. (p. 321) If management tries to threaten or punish Ima and Boyd for their efforts to gain union representation, the two workers could ask the ____________ to investigate these unfair labor practices. A. B. C. D. National Labor Relations Board Bureau of Labor-Management Relations Department of Justice Federal Trade Commission The National Labor Relations Board was established by the Wagner Act to oversee labor-management relations and the union certification (and decertification) process. The NLRB is empowered to investigate allegations of unfair treatment of workers who participate in union activities. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-2 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #347 Topic: Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining 348. (p. 332) If management's efforts did not disrupt everyone's work life enough the company board of directors just awarded management with increased pay while cutting the workers pay. Which of the following issues promises to be a controversial labor-management issue? A. B. C. D. Executive compensation Golden parachutes Equal employment pay requirements Comparable worthcare The Board of Directors approved a sizeable raise for Ty Runt and his executive team, while employees were forced to take a pay cut. As noted the Legal Briefcase, during the past several years, executive compensation has increased even though company performance in many situations has gone down. AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Application Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 #348 Topic: Legal Briefcase box 12 Summary Category # of Questions AACSB: Ethics AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Analysis Blooms: Application Blooms: Comprehension Blooms: Knowledge Learning Goal: 12-1 Learning Goal: 12-2 Learning Goal: 12-3 Learning Goal: 12-4 Learning Goal: 12-5 Level of Learning 1: Knowledge of key terms Level of Learning 2: Understanding of concepts and principles Level of Learning 3: Application of principles Nickels - Chapter 12 Topic: CEO Compensation Topic: Child Care Topic: Controversial Employee-Management Issues Topic: Drug Testing Topic: Elder Care Topic: Employee-Management Issues Topic: Executive Compensation Topic: Figure 12.1 Topic: Figure 12.1: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining Topic: Figure 12.1: Major Legislation Affecting Labor-Management Relations Topic: Figure 12.4 Topic: Figure 12.4: Different Forms of Union Agreements Topic: Figure 12.4: Forms of Union Agreements Topic: Figure 12.6: The grievance resolution process Topic: Labor Legislation and Collective Bargaining Topic: Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining Topic: Labor Unions from Different Perspectives Topic: Labor, Legislation and Collective Bargaining Topic: Legal Briefcase box Topic: Major Legislation Effecting Labor-Management Relations; Figure 12.1 Topic: Making Ethical Decisions box Topic: Management Tactics Topic: Mediation and Arbitration Topic: Objectives of Organized Labor Topic: Pay Equity Topic: Reaching Beyond Our Borders box Topic: Resolving Labor-Management Disagreements Topic: Sexual Harassment Topic: Spotlight on Small Business box Topic: The Early History of Organized Labor Topic: The Future of Unions and Labor-Management Relations Topic: The History of Organized Labor Topic: Union Tactics Topic: Violence in the Workplace 1 347 1 75 54 218 61 56 75 70 86 218 54 76 349 3 7 1 12 12 7 9 1 1 22 2 11 4 2 23 1 8 8 7 1 2 21 18 26 12 3 9 15 3 27 18 18 26 8

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GROWTH AND TRADE1Overview How does growth affect welfare and economicperformance? Economies grow (or shrink) everywhere Three kinds of growthBalanced factor endowment growsAll the factors grow at about the same rateUnbalanced factor endowment gro
USC - FBE - 462
TARIFFS1Overview A tariff is a tax on importstariffTariffs can be very largeSometimes they are called customs duties Tariffs are referred to as protection becausetheyraise prices of imports, andreduce competitive pressures on import-competingin
USC - FBE - 462
NON-TARIFF BARRIERS TO IMPORTSNON-1Agenda Examine various NTBs and their effects Examine the evidence on how large thedeadweight losses actually are As the GATT and the WTO helpedreduce tariffs NTBs have grown6Overview Tariffs are not the only
USC - FBE - 462
ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINSTPROTECTION1Overview Questions What is a market failure? What is the Coase Theorem? What are the consequences of tradeprotection? What are the implications for trade whenmarkets fail? What is an industrial policy?5Econo
USC - FBE - 462
PUSHING EXPORTS1Agenda Dumping and its consequencesWhat should receiving countries do? Export subsidies and their consequencesWhat should importing countries do? The special case of declining marginalcosts6Pushing ExportsDumpingExport subsidie
USC - FBE - 462
TRADE BLOCS &TRADE BLOCKS1Agenda Trade blocsFree trade areasCustoms unionsCommon marketsEconomic unions Trade creation, Trade diversion Trade blocksTrade embargoes NAFTA The E.U.4Main Types of Economic Integration Free trade areaEliminates
USC - FBE - 462
USC - FBE - 462
THE WTO AND THE GATT1Agenda How did we get here?A short background reviewWhy a new world organization? The WTOThe structure and role of the WTOGATT, GATS, TRIPS and other acronymsChallenges: the futureThe Doha round2Background (cnt)cnt) The G
USC - FBE - 462
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyProblem Set #21. If production of firm involves a fixed cost, thena. there exists internal economies of scale.b. there exists external economi
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyProblem Set #31) Canada currently imports all of its domestic consumption of decorative ceramic tiles (used inbathrooms, kitchens, and so forth
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyProblem Set #41. Consider the export subsidy shown in the figure below. Assuming that the export subsidyremains $20, what are the effects of a
USC - FBE - 462
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International TradeAnswers to Problem Set #11. Which one of the following is not implied by the Mercantilism?a. Trade is a zero-sum game.b. Export but not import contributes to nati
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyAnswers to Problem Set #21. If production of firm involves a fixed cost, thena. there exists internal economies of scale.b. there exists exter
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyAnswers to Problem Set #31.A.With imposition of tariff: domestic price rises from PWo to (1+.3)PWo; quantityproduced domestically rises from
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessFBE 462 International Trade & Commercial PolicyAnswers to Problem Set #41. If the world price declines from $100 to $90, the revenue per unit exported declines from$120 to $110, which is als
USC - FBE - 462
USC - FBE - 462
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAMarshall School of BusinessINTERNATIONAL TRADE AND COMMERCIAL POLICY/FBE 462Professor Aris ProtopapadakisTERM PROJECT INSTRUCTIONSYou have a choice between two types of projects:1. Choose a topic from the list below
Kungliga Tekniska högskolan - ICT - 2
PASSIVE & ACTIVE ATTACKS AGAINST WIRELESS LANSMohteshim Hussain, m.1.hussain@herts.ac.uk,University of Hertfordshire, England, U.K.Overview of WLAN and its vulnerabilitiesWireless LANs (WLAN) are LANs networked wirelesslyusing the air interface as th
Sunway University College - CHEMISTRY - 101
ONE-SCHOOL.NETShort Notes: Form 4 ChemistryChemicalChemical Formulae and EquationCalculationCalculationFor Solid, liquid or gasFor gas (only)number of mole =mass of subtancemolar massnumber of mole =volume of gasmolar volmeMolar mass = RAM/R
Sunway University College - CHEMISTRY - 101
ONE-SCHOOL.NETShort Notes: Form 5 ChemistryRate or ReactionCalculationRate of Reaction (Average Rate)Rates of reaction =Quantity change of reactants/productsTotal time for the reactionIf the quantity change is immeasurableRates of reaction =1To
Sunway University College - PHYCIS - 101
ONE-SCHOOL.NETPhysics Equation List :Form 5WaveOscillation1f=Tf = frequencyT = Period(Hz or s-1)(s)Displacement-Time GraphAmplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from a Displacement-Time GraphWavev= fv = velocityf = frequency = wavel
Wisconsin - COMP SCI - 367
Course Evaluations Deb Deppeler CS367 Lecture 1 Can I have a volunteer to return them to Cathy Richard?(5352 CS fifth floor mailbox) Use #2 Pencils Please comment on: Your use of: Course Web Pages, Tutorials and Related Links My use of: PowerPoint
Open Uni. - PHYS - 320
Spring 2003