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2302 Government Study Questions Exam 6 Please insert your answers using BLUE FONT. Chapter 27: Public Policy in Texas 1. How does Texas rank compared to other states in terms of a state income tax, state sales taxes (6.25%), state and local sales taxes combined (8.25%) and overall state taxes? 2. Where is Texas compared to other states in terms of property taxes and overall state and local taxes added together? 3. What does the comptroller of public accounts do in Texas? Who is she? 4. What does it mean to meet biennially? 5. What are dedicated funds? 6. What limits are imposed on welfare spending in Texas? 7. What 4 things limit the way the budget is made in Texas? 8. What 3 spending limits are included in the Texas Constitution? 9. Who is more influential in the budget in Texas, the LBB or the governor? 10. Who serves on the LBB? 11. What does the LLB require of each state agency in the budget process? 12. What is the BRE and why is it so important and can the legislature override it and does it? 13. What does certification of a budget mean? 14. What are the 12 main tax revenues in Texas? (Tobacco tax on cigarettes is now $1.41, not $.41.) 15. What are the top 3 sources of income for Texas? 16. What percentage of revenue does Texas receive from the national government? 17. Why do people say the Texas tax system is too regressive rather than progressive? 18. What is the 2nd largest source of revenue ($) for Texas? And how much in 2006? 19. What are the other sources of revenue for the state? When was the lottery added and how much $? 20. How much did Texas get in the tobacco settlement? 21. What is the number one expense of the state and what percentage of the budget does it take? 22. What is the number two, three and fourth expenses for the state of Texas? 23. Facing nearly a 10 billion-dollar deficit, what did the Legislature cut in 2004 budget? 24. What did Gov. Perrys budget propose for 2004? 25. What happened to tuition caps at state universities and the CHIP budget? How many poor kids lost health coverage? In plain English, who ended up paying for the budget shortfall? 26. How much did tuition go up at UT? 27. What is the longer term prospect for more tuition increases? 28. Texas has a long history of abusive and cruel treatment of prisoners, what finally happened in the Ruiz v Estelle class action suit? 29. When did the special master and federal court supervision of the Texas prison system finally end? 30. What is the number of individuals in Texas prisons in 2007? 31. What has happened to the length of sentencing and in 2006, what % of sentence time was served? (See Figure 27.2.) 32. Why did crime drop so much in the mid-1990s? 33. Demographically speaking, who is in Texas prisons? 34. What attitude underlies/supports the high rate of incarceration in Texas? 35. Where does Texas rank for violent crimes among the 50 states? 36. What percentage of those in prison is there because of drug offenses? 37. What created the Permanent School Fund? 38. What were the Gilmer-Alkins Laws and what did they do? 39. What does TEA do? 40. What are the 3 issues that played a major role in shaping educational policy over the last fifty years? 41. What happened in Plessy v Ferguson and Brown v Board of Education? 42. What cities integrated their schools quickly and what cities did not and why? 43. What is de facto segregation? 44. What happened in Rodriquez v San Antonio and how does the equal protection clause of the 14 th amendment come in to play? 45. What happened in Edgewood v Kirby and what is the Robin Hood Plan? 46. What happened in Edgewood II, III, and IV and what are the options for rich school districts today? 47. In 2006, the state legislature added $1 a pack to the tobacco state tax to pay for what relief? 48. What was SCOPE (AKA Ross Perot Reforms) and what was the most controversial reform? 49. What reform did the so-called Bush reforms relax and what did they do to no pass, no play? 50. Where is Texas ranked in terms of high school completion? 51. How does Texas rank in performance on standardized academic tests? 52. What is the % and number of Texans below the poverty level? 53. Who are the poor demographically? (Table 27.4.) Where do they live? Are they young or old? 54. What New Deal Programs were implemented to stop poverty? Did AFDC work? 55. What is Medicaid? 56. Why do people believe welfare programs backfired and did not help the poor long-term? 57. What is a waiver and what did Bush institute as Texas waivers for welfare? 58. What is TANF and what was its primary purpose? 59. What did Clintons 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act do to TANF requirements? 60. What is the maximum lifetime benefits limit (how many years) for receiving TANF support? 61. Describe a TANF client profile and average benefits and how long they receive it? 62. What threatens the gains made in reducing welfare roles in recent years? Chapter 16: Government and the Economy 1. What is the night watchman theory of the state? 2. What is public policy? 3. What are the three economic goals of government? 4. What is a public good? 5. How does the government protect the welfare and property of individuals and business? 6. What is a monopoly and what did the government do to AT&T? 7. What are public goods? 8. What is GDP and what is the trend lately? 9. What did the federal government do in 2008 to the banking system? 10. What does the SEC do? What does the SEC do that helps keep investor confidence high? 11. What does the NSF and NIH do to help economic growth in the US? 12. What was ARPANET? How was the Internet created? 13. What was the WPA? 14. How did George Bush promote job creation? 15. What is inflation? When was it a problem? What did Reagan propose to combat it? 16. What happened to the tax rates on Social Security under Presidents Carter and Reagan? 17. How, specifically, does the government promote business development? What specific area has received most attention for business development? 18. In 2005, what percentages of farms in the US get subsidies and what is the total amount? 19. What are categorical grants? 20. How much does the SBA give in assistance to small businesses today? 21. What is Sematech and was it a success? 22. How much did the CIA spend on In-Q-Tel and what is it? 23. What it is the NLRB and what does it do? 24. What did Reagan do that marked a turning downward trend weakened organized labor? 25. What law created the federal minimum wage? 26. What two agencies protect consumers? 27. Who is Ralph Nader and what was Unsafe at Any Speed about? 28. How does the increase in imported goods into the U.S. complicate the protection of consumers? 29. What are the four schools of economic thought that more or less outline the policy limits of the U.S.? 30. What is laissez-faire capitalism and what did Adam Smith believe? 31. What do Keynesian economists believe? How can you stimulate economic growth? 32. What do monetarists believe? What are they concerned about and not so concerned about? 33. How is monetarism implemented today--through the manipulation of what? 34. What happened to the first Bank of the United States? 35. What is the Federal Reserve System? How many regional banks comprise the FRS? 36. What does the Fed do? Is the Fed really a national bank? Explain. 37. Who is the Chairman of the FRS? 38. What is the major advantage of being a member bank in the FRS? 39. What is the discount rate and what does it allow the Fed to do? How does it work? 40. What is a reserve requirement and how does it work? 41. What are open market operations and how do they affect the money supply? 42. What is the federal funds rate and how does it work? 43. What is the FDIC and what does it do? (Deposits are now insured to $200k.) 44. How many are homeowners expected to loose their homes because of the credit contraction suffered in 2008? 45. What is fiscal policy? 46. What is a tariff? 47. What did the 16th Amendment do? 48. In plain English, what is the trend regarding federal tax receipts? What is up and what is down? (See Table 16.1.) 49. What is the difference between a progressive tax and a regressive tax? 50. Identify some progressive and regressive taxes. What impact did the tax reform laws of 1981 and 1986 have? 51. What is the current Social Security tax rate? What is the cap on Social Security tax currently? 52. What is redistribution and according to Table 16.1 have corporation been paying more or less in income taxes? How about individuals? 53. What is a loophole and are deductible home mortgages and deducting business expenses considered loopholes? 54. What was George Bushs strategy regarding federal taxes? What happened to income tax rates under Reagan and Bush? 55. What is a budget deficit? 56. What is the trend of budget deficits in recent years? (See Figures 16.) 57. Where Republican leaders consistent in their dealings with budget deficits? 58. What do the OMB and the CBO do? 59. What are mandatory spending and what percent of the spending budget is mandatory? (See Figure 16.3 and 16.4.) 60. What are uncontrollables and what are discretionary funds? 61. What is a monopoly? 62. What did the ICC attempt to do? 63. What happened to Microsoft during the 2000s? Did the anti-trust action help the competitors to Microsoft? 64. What is deregulation? 65. What is the Federal Register? How big is it? 66. What are subsidies and how do they work? 67. What did Hamilton suggest in his Report on Manufacturers? 68. What is the estimated cost of subsidies to corporations in 2005? 69. What is the cost of crop subsidies in 2007? 70. How can the federal government use their contracting power to encourage corporations to change or improve? 71. How has military contracting been used to promote economic growth? What did Eisenhower warn about? 72. How did military spending grow under Bush? 73. What impact did the NEPA have on economic and development growth? What do you have to file first before you start to build any new development? 74. What is Love Canal? 75. What percentage of greenhouse gas is produced by the U.S.? 76. What did Al Gore try to do with the publication of An Inconvenient Truth? 77. How did George Bush respond? 78. What did the Kyoto Protocol seek to do? Did the U.S. implement the agreement? 79. What does going green mean? 80. What is NIMBY and what industry is particularly affect by it? 81. What changed American attitudes about government involvement in the economy? 82. What political leader called for a more active government role? Which political party led the movement? What economic philosophy was used to guide actions? 83. Has there been a consistent approach to government involvement in the economy on the part of political leaders in the past 3 decades? 84. What percentage of the labor force was union in 1950 and what is it today? 85. What goal did the Business Roundtable, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the NAM seek during the 70s, 80s, and 90s? 86. What impact did tax cuts have on the after tax income of Americans? See Figures 16.5 and 16.6. 87. How do liberals and conservatives differ on the consequences of tax cuts in recent years? 88. Do people vote their pocketbooks and how do voters view Democrats and Republicans when it comes to economics and the economy? 89. Do people at the economic bottom understand the implications of tax cut proposals? Chapter 18: Foreign Policy and Democracy 1. Generally speaking, what is foreign policy? 2. In what three ways does foreign policy differ from domestic policy? 3. What did George Washington warn the nation of during his final address? 4. What are the three goals of U.S. foreign policy? 5. What is isolationism and when was it strongest in American politics? What ended the dominance of isolationism? 6. What is deterrence? 7. What was the Cold War and was deterrence related to it? 8. In what wars did the U.S. become involved during the Cold War? 9. What is preemption? What is preventative war? How are they different? 10. What is the trend for military spending? 11. What is most favored nation status? 12. What is the WTO? GATT? NAFTA? 13. What is the trade deficit? What is free trade and for how long has the U.S. supported the idea of free trade? 14. How many jobs have been outsourced as a result of free trade? 15. Do human rights receive a higher priority than security or economic interests? 16. When is the U.S. more likely not to voice concerns over human rights violations? 17. What is the Bush Doctrine? 18. Who are the major foreign policy players in the federal bureaucracy? Briefly describe what each does? JCOS, CIA, DHS, DOD, NSC, FBI 19. What department controls 80% of the nations intelligence capabilities? 20. Who is the Director of Intelligence? 21. Why do US ambassadors claim they have been relegated to secondary status? What did the military assign to take charge of operations in every area of the world and what do these combat commanders control? 22. How many times has Congress declared warwhen? 23. What is the major power Congress has in the foreign policy arena? 24. How does the Constitution divide foreign policy powers? See Table 18.1. 25. What are executive agreements and how can Congress reject them? 26. What four congressional committees deal with foreign policy? 27. Why are Congressional hearings important in the area of foreign policy? 28. What are the four types of interest groups that are interested in foreign policy and global policy now that the Greens have come in as number four? 29. How does embedding media in foreign policy serve to manage the media? 30. What are the six instruments of modern American foreign policy? 31. Why are Americans distrustful of diplomacy? Does the Bush Doctrine reject diplomacy? 32. When was the UN started, how many countries belong, when does it meet and is the voting requirement for important issues? 33. What does the UN Security Council do, what 5 nations have permanent positions and how are other 10 members represented? What vote count is required here and what nations have absolute veto power? 34. What are the World Bank and the IMF and what do they do? 35. How much does the IMF have to lend and what 3 nations primarily fund it? Did it lend Pakistan money after 2001 and did that help soften our request to Pakistan for help in the War in Afghanistan 36. What is unilateralism and multilateralismwhich have we been traditionally? 37. How did Bush act as a unitlateralist? What did he do as a cowboy? 38. What two nations are the greatest recipients of U.S. military aid? 39. How is economic aid a carrot? 40. What are NATO, ANZUS, SEATO? What is significance of these treaties? 41. What three nations were added to NATO over the objections of Russia? 42. What did Clausewitz mean by the statement war is politics by other means? 43. Why is the use of force in foreign policy risky? 44. When do Americans tire of war? 45. What is arbitration? 46. On September 11th what did the US do for the first time in the 55-year history of NATO? 47. What is the Napoleonic Role with at least 2 examples for the US? 48. What is the Holy Alliance role with two examples? 49. What is the balance-of-power role with two examples? 50. What is the economic expansionist role with two examples? 51. What domestic forces have risen in response to the free trade policies of the U.S.? 52. What is the hope or goal of economic globalization regarding economics and war? 53. Which is the US using in the Post Cold War Erathe Holy Alliance or the Napoleonic Role and give specific examples of each? How about in the War on Terrorism? ... View Full Document

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